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iSociety ~ Mae Hong Son Model, Thailand

Uneducated and disadvantaged children are neglected problems in which systematic preventions and
solutions are still lacking in Thailand. The Office of National Economic and Social Development Board have
reported that about 1.4 million or 10 percent of children under 18 years old in Thailand are uneducated.
Also, the Office of The Basic Education Commission claimed that there are about 4.7 million students are
disadvantaged children, which is about 33 percent of all students in Thai educational system. Altogether,
uneducated and disadvantaged children are about 6.1 million or 43.57 percent of all Thai children. These
children are frequently limited their chances in good careers and futures, which unfortunately
disadvantage the country’s opportunities in human resource development.
Improving access equity to public services and welfares is the primary method to solve uneducated
and disadvantaged children problem. But nowadays, Thai governmental policies and strategies can’t satisfy
basic needs of underprivileged children properly. This is because the policy makers lack of information
and systematic methods for determining and allocating governmental resources efficiently.
Figure 1 shows a sample case of underprivileged children care, in particular disable children, in
Thailand. We can see that disabled children cares are complicated and involve multiple stakeholders such
as (i) special education center, (ii) hospitals, (iii) departments under the Ministry of Social Development
and Human Security (SDSH), and (iv) local administration office (SAO).

Figure 1: Multi-stakeholders relevant in Disabled Children Cares

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iSociety ~ Mae Hong Son Model, Thailand

iSociety System
In this research, we focus on the disabled children as a case study for developing a systematic
method and tool to support policy makers in their resource allocation tasks as well as empower service
providers to efficiently and suitably providing cares to underprivileged children in their local communities.
The developed iSociety system has the following objectives.
1. To enable the need assessment of disabled children and improve access equity.
2. To promote Child’s Health, Education and Community Care quality and continuity by enabling
multi-stakeholders collaboration.
3. To promote the sustainability of using the developed iSociety system as a tool for enabling
policy makers to decide policies and strategies for solving underprivileged children problems
appropriately.
Figure 2 shows the information collected within the iSociety system, which consists of the
following data items:

Personal Data includes personal profile, health and social right, and family information

International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) is used to assess
current health and social status, as well as identify needs of disabled children. Needs are
classified into home improvement needs, health needs (based on Activity of Daily Living:
ADL), education needs, and social participation requirements.

Care plan includes health and social benefits corresponding to the identified needs.

Information exchanged among multi-stakeholders through iSociety system are in the reporting
forms as follows:

Care Agreement: shows health/social status and needs of each individual disabled child and
care plan altogether as care agreement. Case managers use this report to communicate
status and plan with disabled children and their family.

Area-based Report: shows the overview of health, social, and education status of disabled
children in the responsible area of a case manager. Case managers use this report to monitor
needs and cares within their responsible area.

Need Report: shows health/social/education status and needs of disabled children within an
area. Case managers use these report to communicate with hospitals/SAO or SDSH/School
respectively.

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iSociety ~ Mae Hong Son Model, Thailand

Figure 2: Data Collection and Exchanged within iSociety

Case Management Model
To make disabled child care collaboration goes properly, a case management model has been
proposed. As shown in Figure 3, Case manager is the key of the proposed model who coordinate multistakeholders, i.e., special education center, hospitals, SDSH, and SAO. A case manager is responsible for
the following tasks:
1. Identify needs of disabled children and recommend relevant benefits.
2. Create care plan and communicate plan with relevant stakeholders.
3. Monitor disabled child care provisions among relevant stakeholders in the local community

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iSociety ~ Mae Hong Son Model, Thailand

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Figure 3: Case Management Model for Disabled Child Care

Mae Hong Son (MHS) Model
Case management model and iSociety system have been used as a tool for managing disabled child
cares and resource allocation in Mae Hong Son province (MHS), Northern Thailand, since 2012. In
particular, we participated with multiple organizations relevant to disabled child cares in 3 districts in
Mae Hong Son province, i.e., Muang Mae Hong Son, Mae Sariang, and Pai. The participants are as follows:

3 Special education centers: (i) Mae Hong Son special education center (ii) Mae Sariang special
education center (iii) Pai special education center

4 Sub-district administrative organizations: (i) Mok Jum Pae Subdistrict administrative
organization (ii) Pang Moo Subdistrict administrative organization (iii) Mae Ho Subdistrict
administrative organization (iv) Baan Kad Subdistrict administrative organization

Mae Sariang Hospital

2 departments under the Ministry of Social Development and Human Security: (i) Mae Hong
Son Provincial department of Social Development and human security, (ii) 43rd department of
social development and human security, Mae Sariang, Mae Hong Son

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iSociety ~ Mae Hong Son Model, Thailand

Area-based Report
In the MHS model, we asked teachers at the special education centers to act as case managers in
the iSociety system. Case managers in MHS can see area-based reports that show the overall situation of
disabled children in their areas as in Table 1-3. Table 1 shows an overview of disabled children’s need in
each city of Mae Hong Son province.
Table 1: The needs of disabled children in each city of Mae Hong Son province
Area-based Disabled Child Needs
City

Population(person)

Insufficient
Income
(person)

Disability
Registration
(person)

Health
Complication
(person)

Assistive
Devices
(person)

Home
Improvement
(person)

Muang Maehongsorn

46

40

17

2

35

16

Khun Yuam

21

20

14

1

16

8

Pai

18

12

8

0

12

12

Mae Sareung

29

18

11

2

25

10

Mae La Noi

22

18

8

0

17

13

Sobmey

20

17

13

1

16

8

Pangmapha

36

34

5

1

24

15

Case managers can also create reports comparing services and needs across the years as shown in
Table 2 or generating graph as shown in Figure 4.
Table 2: Basic Disable Child Needs and Received Benefits across the years
Overall Disabled Child Status
2014
Benefits

2015

Received

Need

Received

Need

(person)

(person)

(person)

(person)

Disability Registration

171

29

180

36

Allowance

135

65

152

64

Healthcare Insurance

28

172

21

195

Devices

6

194

5

211

Job Training

0

200

0

216

50

150

45

171

Employment

1

199

0

216

Scholarships

19

181

20

196

1

199

1

215

Education

Etc.

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iSociety ~ Mae Hong Son Model, Thailand

Figure 4: Comparing Basic Needs across between 2014 and 2015

Need Report
Case managers can create specific need reports to communicate with multi-stakeholders relevant
to disabled child care in the area. The social need report, shown in Figure 5, is used to communicate with
staff in SDSH and SAO about social needs of disabled children in the area. By selecting a data item, social
worker can see list of disabled children and their details.
SAO Report
Benefits

Need
(person)

%

1.Home Improvement
1.1 Bedding

12

6

1.2 Toilet

32

16

1.3 Ramp for wheelchair

19

9.5

1.4 Roost

12

6

1.5 Surrounding area

63

31.5

1.6 Entrance to the house

6

3

1.7 The height of the door handle

2

1

1.8 Staircase

4

2

1.9 Others

6

3

2. Assistive Devices
2.1 Catheter or diaper

Home Improvement Obstacle
Rental house

person
4

24

12

Don't know how to improve

36

2.2 Implanted Arm/Leg

1

0.5

No money

71

2.3 Adapted shoes

5

2.5

2.4 Seeing Aid

9

4.5

2.5 Hearing aid

2

1

2.6 Movement Assistive Devices

52

26

2.7 Equipment to develop large muscles

51

25.5

2.8 Others

2

1

23

11.5

3. Personal Assistance

Figure 5: Social Need Report

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iSociety ~ Mae Hong Son Model, Thailand
Table 3 shows health status of disabled children in Mae Hong Son province. We use the Activity
of Daily Living (ADL) to assess dependent status of disabled children in our study.
Table 3: ADL status of disabled children in Mae Hong Son
Dependent

Need Help

Independent

(person)

(person)

(person)

Toileting

65

49

81

Bathing

50

45

101

Dressing

51

44

99

Eating

75

33

85

Transferring

67

49

80

Activity of Daily Living

Figure 6 shows an education need report which compares needs between year 2014 and 2015 in the
following items: (i) education assistive devices/technology, (ii) school environment improvement, (iii)
personal travel assistance, (iv) transportation, and (v) others.

Figure 6: Education Need Report

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iSociety ~ Mae Hong Son Model, Thailand

Care Agreement
Case managers can also create a care agreement which contains health/social/education status and
needs of each individual disabled child. Care agreement also contains care plan, i.e., a list of benefits
suitable for each individual. This care agreement can be used to communicate with disabled child and
his/her family as well as can be used in care conference among multi-stakeholder providing care to such
individual. Figure 7 shows ICF progress of each individual child in Mae Hong Son model.

Figure 7: ICF Progress

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iSociety ~ Mae Hong Son Model, Thailand
Care agreement also includes a care plan which identifies benefits that each relevant stakeholder
should provide to each individual child as shown in Table 4.
Table 4: Individual Care Plan
Stakeholder

Benefit/Activity
• Hearing aids

Healthcare

• Conduct daily routine care (ADL Help)
• Walking stick
• Transfer service to hospital
• Toilet

SAO

• Ramp for wheelchair
• House (Domestic Help), such as cleaning, cooking
• Attended special education

Education

• Transfer service to school.
• Products and technology for use in the study

iSociety on the Web
iSociety has been developed as a web-based application that supports daily tasks of care providers.
Figure 8 shows an example of the iSociety interface, called Timeline, in which every event happened to
each disabled child. This enables care managers and relevant stakeholders to monitor all assessments and
service provisions each disabled child has been received from past to present.

Figure 8: Individual’s Timeline

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iSociety ~ Mae Hong Son Model, Thailand
Figure 9 shows the graphical user interface of iSociety for creating care plan for each disabled child. In
this interface, case manager can see (i) health assessment result, (ii) social need assessment result, (iii)
setting short-term and long-term goals of child cares, and (iv) selecting health/social/education
benefits suitable for disabled child.
Health
Assessment Result

Social Need
Assessment Result

Goal Setting

Benefit Planning

Figure 9: Care Planning

About iSociety
For more information about the iSociety system, you can visit our Facebook page at
https://www.facebook.com/ThailandChildWelfare/. You can also visit our YouTube channel at
https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCROvx9x6fYplRMYHUUpfd2Q/playlists.

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