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Lab report for Bernoulli's

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3

Sl

Distance

into duct

x (m)

Area of the

2

duct A (m )

Static

head

h (m)

Velocity

V (m/s)

h1

0.00

490.9 10

h2

0.0603

151.7 10

h3

0.0687

109.4 10

h4

0.0726

89.9 10

h5

0.0811

78.5 10

h6

0.1415

490.9 10

-6

0.147

6.571 10

2.201 10

147.002 10

-6

0.146

21.266 103

23.050 106

146.023 103

-6

0.145

29.488 103

44.320 106

145.044 103

-6

0.141

35.884 10

65.631 10

141.066 10

-6

0.137

41.096 103

86.078 106

137.086 103

0.140

6.571 10

-6

Dynamic

head (m)

Total head

H (m)

2

h V / 2g

V / 2g

3

2.201 10

140.002 10

3

Sl

Distance

into duct

x (m)

Static

head

h (m)

Velocity

V (m/s)

-6

0.195

14.551 10

10.791 10

-6

0.195

90.994 103

-6

0.194

79.455 103

-6

0.194

65.292 10

217.284 10

-6

0.194

47.086 103

-6

0.194

14.551 10

Area of the

2

duct A (m )

h1

0.00

490.9 10

h2

0.0605

78.5 10

h3

0.0690

89.9 10

h4

0.0729

109.4 10

h5

0.0813

151.7 10

h6

0.1415

490.9 10

Dynamic

head (m)

Total head

H (m)

2

h V / 2g

V / 2g

3

10.791 10

195.011 10

194.217 10

194.011 10

Graph

148

146

144

142

Total Head H (m) (x10-3)

140

138

136

134

132

0

Distance (m)

196

195.5

195

Total Head H (m) (x10-3)

194.5

194

193.5

193

0

Distance (m)

Discussion

The main objective of this experiment is to investigate the validity of the Bernoulli

equation when applied to the steady flow of water in a tapered duct and also to measure flow

rates and both static and total pressure head in a rigid convergent/divergent tube of known

geometry for a range of steady flow rates. As the liquid flow from a wider pipe to a smaller one,

the velocity of the liquid increases, this is shown with the formula

V=

Q

A

where Q is constant

and as the area (A) gets smaller the V will get bigger. The results that we collected prove that the

theory is correct.

The results from the experiment also show that the water slightly rises in some of the

tubes when pressure difference increases, in theory when the pressure difference increases the

static head should also increase. This proves that there are some errors during the experiment

such as reading error, timing error, and the pipe is not 100% filled with water (still has water

bubble trapped inside).

There are 4 assumptions made in Bernoullis equation:

a) The liquid is incompressible

b) The liquid is non-viscous

c) The flow is steady and the velocity of liquid is less than the critical velocity for the

liquid

d) The is no loss of energy due to friction

With water bubbles that trapped inside the pipe it can cause friction and loss of energy

will occurs which will change the reading of the experiment.

In convergent flow, water flows from the wider tube to the narrow tube and the total head

calculation shows that as the water flow to the narrower tube the total head decreases. In

divergent flow which water flows from the narrower tube to the wider tube, the total head

calculation shows that total head decreases as it flow from narrower tube to the wider tube.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the velocity of fluid will increase if the fluid is flowing from a wider to narrower

tube and will decrease in opposite case despite of the type of flow (divergent or convergent). The

dynamic head values for all case also increase as the velocity increases. The total head for

divergent flow has the lowest value at h5 and highest value at h1, while in convergent flow h1 has

the highest value and h5 has the lowest value. There are also some errors occurred during the

experiment which make the result less accurate.

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