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LIQUEFACTION

OF GASES
By :Thakur Ranveer singh
Great Chayran
Shiv kumar

CONTENT FLOW
Introduction
History
Principle of liquefaction
Processes for liquefaction
Materials for storage of Liquefied gases
Applications of Liquefied gases.

INTRODUCTION
What is liquefaction?

It is a process by which the transformation of gases phase


into liquid phase is done.
Why do we need Liquefaction?

It is done because liquids are much denser than gas . Hence


easy to store and transport.

HISTORY
First work on liquefaction started in 1823 by

faraday to convert gasses into liquids by application


of high pressure alone.
Joule Thomson effect discovered in 1852.
Discovery of Critical Temperature phenomenon in
1863 by Andrew.
In 1877, Pictet liquefied the oxygen first time.

DEFINITIONS
Critical Point :- Temperature above which gasses cannot be liquefied by

application of Pressure.
Critical Pressure :- Pressure applied at critical Temperature to liquefy a

gas.
Critical Volume :- Specific volume of gas at critical Temperature and

Pressure.
Inversion Temperature :- Temperature at which Joule Thomson

Coefficient changes sign from positive to negative or vice versa


depending upon the approach side.

PRINCIPLE OF LIQUEFACTION
Separated by Boiling Point

Critical Point
(Water, CO2,N2O above

Room Temp )
for H2,O2 and He.
33 K ,154 K and 5.19 K
respectively.
Inversion Temperature
He,H2 51K and 193 K at 1atm

OXYGEN LIQUEFACTION
(CASCADE PROCESS)
INTRODUCTION
WORKING PROCESS

INTRODUCTION:
CASCADE PROCESS :The cascade process can be used to produce

very low temperatures. The basic principle is that when a liquid


evaporates at reduced pressure, it cools.

WORKING PROCESS:
P1 :Methyl chloride gas

of critical temp- 418 K


P2 :Ethylene gas of

critical Temp- 283 K


P3:Oxygen Gas of

critical temp- 154 K

HYDROGEN LIQUEFACTION
(MAGENTIC REFRIGERATION)
INTRODUCTION
WORKING PROCESS

INTRODUCTION:
A liquefaction principle of magnetic refrigerator is based on a thermo-

siphon method, in which liquid hydrogen is condensed directly onto the

surface of magnetic refrigerants and drops downward.

WORKING PROCESS:
Magnetic refrigeration is a method which makes use of the magnetocaloric

effect. This effect causes magnetic materials to become warm by magnetizing


and to cool by demagnetizing the applied magnetic field.
Magnetic refrigerator consisting of a magnetic refrigerant, superconducting

magnet and a heat switch.

WORKING PROCESS:

APPLICATIONS

Rockets & space


Use of liquid fuel in space rockets
Earth-observation satellites and telecom
applications
Cryogenics liquids are used to test, pre cool and
flush the piping in typical rocket test stands.
The pressure in space station is produced by cryo
pumps cooled by liquid helium.

MATERIALS AT LOW TEMPERATURE

With decrease in temperature the hardness, yield strength,

tensile strength, modulus of elasticity, fatigue resistance of


almost all metal increases.
Some of the metals to be used at low temperature

low alloy steel at about 123 K to 173 K

low carbon steel for large land based storage tanks.

aluminium alloy to be used at about 20 K

CRAYOGENIC SHRINK FITTING


Cryogenic shrink fitting consists of cooling
the smaller parts so far that these shrink to
the size required for force-free insertion

SUPER CONDUCTIVE TRANSFORMER


ST uses cryogenic containers and circulation cooling
system of liquid nitrogen for cooling of
superconducting windings the superconducting wire
can pass 100 times more current than copper wire of
the same unit area.

SUPERCONDUCTIVE MAGNETS
For SM operation, the magnet windings must be cooled below

their critical temperature in which liquid helium is used as a coolant


Magnetic Levitation

It can produces a magnetic field up to 16 tesla.

INDUSTRIAL APPLICATIONS

welding
manufacture of steel
Liquid oxygen in artificial breathing in hospitals & aircrafts.
For the preservation of blood, dead bodies and medicines.
For freezing the food for preservation - By spray of liquid nitrogen.

For refrigeration process.

RESEARCH APPLICATIONS

For the manufacture of cryogenic magnets

Superconductivity makes computers compact

Spectrum lines are more sharpened at low temperatures.


Bolometers are used at low temperatures to measure very small

quantity of radiant heat.

QUESTIONS ?