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KEY ELEMENTS IN RESEARCH

(1) INTRODUCTION


Statement of the problem: The general problem area is stated clearly and
unambiguously. The importance and significance of the problem area is discussed.
Statement of causal relationship: The cause-effect relationship to be studied is stated
clearly and is sensibly related to the problem area.
Statement of constructs: Each key construct in the research/evaluation project is
explained (minimally, both the cause and effect). The explanations are readily
understandable (i.e., jargon-free) to an intelligent reader. In the context of
survey research, a construct is the abstract idea, underlying theme, or subject matter
that one wishes to measure using survey questions.
Statement of hypothesis: The hypothesis (or hypotheses) is clearly stated and is specific
about what is predicted. The relationship of the hypothesis to both the problem statement
and literature review is readily understood from reading the text.

(2) REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND CASE STUDY

Literature citations and review: The literature cited is from reputable and appropriate
sources (e.g., professional journals, books and not Time, Newsweek, etc.) and you have
a minimum of five references. The literature is condensed in an intelligent fashion with
only the most relevant information included. Citations are in the correct format (refer APA
format guides).
Case study: It is a form of qualitative descriptive research that is used to look at
individuals, a small group of participants, or a group as a whole, and samples of existing
projects relevant to the study of research. Researchers collect data about participants
using participant and direct observations, interviews, protocols, tests, examinations of
records, and collections of writing samples. A descriptive narrative about the sample study
should consist of the following: description of the scenario, background of the place,
previous and existing conditions, implications, impact, outstanding qualities and
conclusion. In architecture, the most important things to analyze in any Case Study consist
of the following:
o Environment and micro-climate: Analyzing the surrounding environment and the
micro-climate of that place will help understand the reason of the orientation of the
structure, the kind of roof chosen and the materials used in its construction.
o User behavior and requirements: Studying the functioning of a particular place,
say a Hospital, is very important; without which you will not be able to figure out
the requirements and the area that should be allotted for each of the requirements.
Talking to people working at that place (Hospital), will help you figure out if the
requirements that are provided are adequate and he area that is allotted is
sufficient for its efficient working.
o Utility and space enhancement: Study of Utilitarian facilities of a particular case
is also important. Various measures taken to enhance a particular space should
be analyzed.

RESEARCH METHODS FOR ARCHITECTURE 1
Module 01: Key Elements in Research

JGPL2014

HVAC. an institutional building should not end up looking like a museum or a disco. the program participants are frequently self-selected (i. They say. In an evaluation. o Structural details such as Column and Beam Design. Vertical circulation includes elevators. should be described as such.. The form of the building should be able to convey the function of the building. records) for the study is described and is appropriate. RESEARCH METHODS FOR ARCHITECTURE 2 Module 01: Key Elements in Research JGPL2014 . o Building Services such as Fire Alarm system. o Parking details and standards: Measure the allotted parking area on site.. RCC construction is used. The population and sampling frame are described. For example. o Design detailing considering the Barrier-free environment: Implementation of the Barrier-free architecture for comfortable access to disabled people. large span structures such as Auditoriums use trusses or heavy Isection steel beams and sometimes shell-roofing that involves construction of Ring beams whereas in small span structures. Relevance of the study/synthesis: A synthesis that describes the relevance of the reviewed scholarly works/literature and case study scenarios is presented clearly and is sensibly related to the problem area. o  (3) METHODS Sample section:  Sampling procedure specifications: The procedure for selecting units (e. staircases.  Sample description: The sample is described accurately and is appropriate. volunteers) and. Some other Architects might disagree with that philosophy.g. Problems in contacting and measuring the sample are anticipated. then calculate the average area for each car and compare it with the areas specified in TSS (Time Savers Standards). Adopt a “Universal Design Scheme”. They’d say that the function of a structure keeps changing but changing the form of the building every time their function change is not possible. o Site Planning and Landscape detailing: Deals with different aspects considered in site planning. Form and Function go hand in hand. if so. Most public buildings have mandatory accessibility systems for the disabled. The author state which sampling method is used and why. Check out BP344. As an example. The efficiency of the placement of these services should be analyzed.Form and Function: Analyzing the reason behind the form of that particular building and how it merges with the surrounding environment. ramps etc. HVAC and Water supply systems should be examined and their space requirements are to be analyzed. A lot of Architects say “Form follows Function”. o Horizontal and vertical circulation: Horizontal circulation consists of elements such as the corridors and lobbies. subjects. say for ten cars. Steel and Composite structures: Understanding and analyzing the structural details is also important. o Socio-economic profile of user group: It might also be important to find out the socio-economic profile of the people using the services so as to determine their requirements and available resources.e. Water supply systems: The working of Fire Alarm system.

Sufficient information is included so that the essential features of the study could be replicated by a reader. multiple measures of the same construct are used. Wherever possible. and follow in a logical fashion. Spatial Relationship and Space Requirements): Computation of spatial qualities is an attempt to put the representation RESEARCH METHODS FOR ARCHITECTURE 3 Module 01: Key Elements in Research JGPL2014 . you must explain how you assessed construct validity. Site Analysis: Site analysis is a vital step in the design process. You describe briefly the measure you constructed and provide the entire measure in an Appendix. combinations of individual measures) are constructed correctly. A 'Snapshot' of the Project. The standards for good questions are followed. Design and Procedures section:  Design: The design is clearly presented in both notational and text form. (4) RESULTS (Analysis and interpretation of Data)    Project Profile and Analysis: A project profile is a simplified description of an eventual project. impacts on the community and adjacent properties. For qualitative measures. External validity considerations: Generalizability from the sample to the sampling frame and population is considered.. For scales. The procedures which are used to examine reliability and validity are appropriate for the measures. Wherever possible. you must describe briefly which scaling procedure you used and how you implemented it. For archival data: original data collection procedures are adequately described and indices (i. appropriate for the population.  Internal validity: Threats to internal validity and how they are addressed by the design are discussed.  Description of procedures: An overview of how the study will be conducted is included. environmental impact. Any threats to internal validity which are not well controlled are also considered.  Construction of measures: For questionnaires. The design is appropriate for the problem and addresses the hypothesis. the measure or measures are described briefly and an appropriate citation and reference is included (unless you created the measure). The sequence of events is described and is appropriate to the design. For validity. Measurement section:  Measures: Each outcome measurement construct is described briefly (a minimum of two outcome constructs is required). For each construct. you should minimally address both convergent and discriminant validity.  Reliability and validity: You must address both the reliability and validity of all of your measures. specific. the procedures for collecting the measures are described in detail. Spatial Analysis (Functional Components. It involves the evaluation of an existing or potential site in relation to the development program. For reliability. The measures which are used are relevant to the hypotheses of the study and are included in those hypotheses. tests and interviews: questions are clearly worded. you must specify what estimation procedure(s) you used.e. A proper project analysis considers the changes to the project over time.

Inspirations are drawn from. Incomplete and run-on sentences are avoided. the processes of analysis of existing structures and design of new structures are closely linked.  All sections of the paper should be typed. theories. RESEARCH METHODS FOR ARCHITECTURE 4 Module 01: Key Elements in Research JGPL2014 . Major constructs and hypotheses are included. 4th Edition). ABSTRACT and REFERENCE SECTIONS     Implications of the study: Assuming the expected results are obtained. organic forms. Statement of Results: The results are stated concisely and are plausible for the research described. Material is presented in an unbiased and unemotional (e.. Analytical drawings use existing structures as their subjects but. concepts. no "feelings" about things). fashion. helping them predict the consequences of a design.g. existing built environment and such to help the creative process in designing new buildings. See the format sheet for more details. as an architect synthesizes experience.    of the spatial environment on a quantitative base. knowledge of built work. Tables: The table(s) is correctly formatted and accurately and concisely presents part of the analysis. the point of analytical drawings is to understand a building. and other source material in order to imagine new buildings. The Abstract is the first section of the paper. The author mentions briefly any remaining problems which are anticipated in the study. FORMATTING THE PAPER  The instructions provided here are for a research article or a research report (generally these guidelines follow the formatting guidelines of the American Psychological Association documented in Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association. Figures: The figure(s) is clearly designed and accurately describes a relevant aspect of the results. Analyses of spatial qualities can support architects in reasoning about the form of a configuration. the implications of these results are discussed. References: All citations are included in the correct format and are appropriate for the study described. Please consult the specific guidelines that are required by the publisher for the type of document you are producing. The sketches prepared in this type of analysis are often a starting point for new designs. Abstract: The Abstract is 125 words or less and presents a concise picture of the proposed research. unlike documentary photographs or representative sketches. (5) CONCLUSIONS. Conceptual Analysis: In architectural design. but not necessarily uninteresting. double-spaced on white 8 1/2 x 11 inch paper with 12 pitch typeface with all margins set to 1 inch. o Parallel Construction: Tense is kept parallel within and between sentences (as appropriate). Stylistic Elements: o Professional Writing: First person and sex-stereotyped forms are avoided. o Sentence Structure: Sentence structure and punctuation are correct.

Imelda P. Every page must have a header in the upper right corner with the running header rightjustified on the top line and the page number right-justified and double-spaced on the line below it. Key Elements of Research  How to conduct a Case Study?. The paper must have all the sections in the order given below. RESEARCH METHODS FOR ARCHITECTURE 5 Module 01: Key Elements in Research JGPL2014 . Content used for the module are copyright to its respected owners.com for any issues. following the specifications outlined for each section (all pages numbers are approximate minimum): • Title Page • Abstract (on a separate single page) • The Body (no page breaks between sections in the body) • Introduction (2-3 pages) • Review of Related Literature and Case Study (7-10 pages) • Methods (7-10 pages) • Sample (1 page) • Measures (2-3 pages) • Design (2-3 pages) • Procedures (2-3 pages) • Results (2-3 pages) • Conclusions (1-2 pages) • References • Tables (one to a page) • Figures (one to a page) • Appendices Sources:  Dr. comments and suggestions.architecture-student. You may E-mail streetsofmanila2013survey@gmail.com/case-studies/how-to-conduct-a-casestudy/ Disclaimer: This Module claims no credit for any part unless otherwise noted. De Castro. retrieved from: http://www.

RMA RESEARCH OUTLINE: TABLE OF CONTENTS  List of Tables  List of Figures  List of Graphs CHAPTER I: THE INTRODUCTION (PROBLEM RATIONALE)  Introduction  Background of the Study  Objectives of the Study  Statement of the Problem  Significance of the Study  Conceptual Framework / Theoretical Framework  Scope and Delimitation  Definition of Terms CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW AND CASE STUDIES  Related Literature  Case Studies  Research Paradigm (Simulacrum or Hypothesized Model…if applicable)  Synthesis CHAPTER III: THE RESEARCH METHOD  Research Design (Used Methodology: The Sample. Measure and Design Procedures)  Data Gathering Procedure (Tools/Instruments of Research. Data Analysis or Mode of Analysis) REFERENCES APPENDIXES (Examples only remove those not applicable)  Prototype Sketches/Creative Influences  Timetable for Research  Budget Proposal  About the Author RESEARCH METHODS FOR ARCHITECTURE 6 Module 01: Key Elements in Research JGPL2014 . Sources)  Subjects and Study Site  Design Methodology (Planning Methods Applied in the Design Output)  Data Processing (Synthesis.

environmental issues. technological issues. design trends.)  Legal Considerations  National Codes/Laws  Specific Code Requirement for the Project RESEARCH METHODS FOR ARCHITECTURE 7 Module 01: Key Elements in Research JGPL2014 . etc.ARCHITECTURAL DESIGN 09 RESEARCH OUTLINE: ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT TABLE OF CONTENTS  List of Tables  List of Figures  List of Graphs CHAPTER I: THE INTRODUCTION (PROBLEM RATIONALE)  Introduction  Background of the Study  Objectives of the Study  Statement of the Problem  Significance of the Study  Conceptual Framework / Theoretical Framework  Scope and Delimitation  Definition of Terms CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW AND CASE STUDIES  Related Literature  Case Studies  Research Paradigm (Simulacrum or Hypothesized Model…if applicable)  Synthesis CHAPTER III: THE RESEARCH METHOD  Research Design (Used Methodology: The Sample.g. financing regulations. taxation. etc. Measure and Design Procedures)  Data Gathering Procedure (Tools/Instruments of Research.) o Legal Framework (e. Sources)  Subjects and Study Site  Design Methodology (Planning Methods Applied in the Design Output)  Data Processing (Synthesis. environmental trends. legal documents.g.)  Current Issues (e.g. environmental laws. etc. Data Analysis or Mode of Analysis) CHAPTER IV: RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS (Examples only remove those not applicable)  Project Profile and Analysis o Overview o Project Issues  Trends (e.

  Local Code and Ordinances  Zoning Requirements  Height Limitation Site Analysis o Site Selection and Justification  Criteria for Site Selection  Site Selection and Justification o Regional Profile  Location and Area  Historical Background o Site Profile  Physical Profile  Geology and Soil o Geothechnical Problems  Earthquake Hazard/Seismic Shaking  Faulting  Soil Liquefaction  Slope Stability  Groundwater Problems/Flood  Environmental Hazard  Water  Topography  Climate o Solar Orientation o Temperature o Prevailing Wind o Precipitation & Hydrology  Ecology o Vegetation & natural features  Man Made Structures/Geographical Distance of Related Areas  Availability of Utilities  Land Use and Zoning  Site Analysis o Vicinity Map o Location Plan o Site Photo and Analysis  Prominent Vision lines / Visual linkages  Sensuous Qualities o Air Quality o Land Quality o Water Quality o Landmarks  Traffic Factors o Restriction due to traffic congestion RESEARCH METHODS FOR ARCHITECTURE 8 Module 01: Key Elements in Research JGPL2014 .

  o Mass transit accesibility Cultural Profile  Residents and User Population  Demography  Social Structure  Economic Structure  Political Structure  On Adjacent Site Behavior Setting  Site Values. Spatial Relationship and Space Requirements) o User Analysis  Organizational Profile of Users  Functional Charts  User Behavior Analysis o Definition of Space  Summary of Spaces  Activity Flow  Space Program  Accessibility Matrices o Building Technology and Utilities  Type of Construction  Method of Construction • Architectural Solution • Structural Solution  Utilities • Electrical Requirements • Sanitary Requirements • Mechanical Requirements • Acoustics and Lighting Requirements o Survey Data Analysis o Economics of Construction  Building Construction Cost  Land Development Cost  Cost of Property/Lot RESEARCH METHODS FOR ARCHITECTURE 9 Module 01: Key Elements in Research JGPL2014 . Rights and Restraints Data Correlation  Classification of Site  Analysis of Current and Future Change and The Dynamic Aspect of the Site   Identification of Significant Problems and Possibilities  Technical Description  Synthesis  SWOT Analysis Spatial Analysis (Functional Components.

Design Objectives and Design Considerations o Preliminary Study (Prototype Sketches/Creative Influences CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION  Summary of Findings  Conclusion  Recommendation (descriptive and presentation of solution) o Final Drawing and Recommendation REFERENCES APPENDIXES (Examples only remove those not applicable)  Permit to Conduct the Interviews  Request for Pertinent Data  Informed Consent for Research Participants  Informed Consent for Research Participation  Recruited Concept Mapping Participants  Survey Questionnaires  The Interview Protocol  Concept Mapping Instrument  Documentary Analysis  Prototype Sketches/Creative Influences  Photos of Study Model  Site Photos and Documentaries with Reference Map  About the Author RESEARCH METHODS FOR ARCHITECTURE 10 Module 01: Key Elements in Research JGPL2014 .  Amortization Schemes/ Financial Schemes/Activity Schemes o Environmental Condition and Environmental Impact Conceptual Analysis o Architectural Theories and Principles Applied in the Design o Design Philosophy o Design Concept o Site Description Goals and Objectives o Correlation of Project Objectives.