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INTERNATIONAL

HIGHER
EDUCATION

East China Normal University

IADIS INTERNATIONAL CONFERENCE on INTERNATIONAL HIGHER EDUCATION (IHE 2011) .

ii .

recitation. whether the whole or part of the material is concerned. re-use of illustrations. Permission for use must always be obtained from IADIS Press. Please contact secretariat@iadis. reprinting. Ji-ping Zhang and Pedro Isaías Associate Editor: Luís Rodrigues ISBN: 978-972-8939-56-4 iv .org Edited by Heling Huai. All rights are reserved. specifically the rights of translation. Piet Kommers. broadcasting.Copyright 2011 IADIS Press All rights reserved This work is subject to copyright. and storage in data banks. reproduction on microfilms or in any other way.

Hsieh EVALUATING COLLEGE STUDENTS’ PERCEPTIONS OF STUDY ABROAD USING FUZZY LOGIC 19 Dian-Fu Chang and Wen-Ching Chou SOCIAL MEDIA AFFORDANCES IN NET-BASED HIGHER EDUCATION 27 Montathar Faraon. Björn Cronquist and Mauri Kaipainen SHORT PAPERS TRENDS AND ISSUES IN CHINA’S APPROACH TO INTERNATIONAL STUDENTS: A CONTEXTUALISING PRELIMINARY ANALYSIS OF JOINT-VENTURES IN HIGHER EDUCATION Andrys Onsman v 41 .TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORD ix PROGRAM COMMITTEE xi KEYNOTE LECTURES xiii CONFERENCE TUTORIAL xv PANEL SESSION xvii FULL PAPERS DIFFERENCE IN UNIVERSITY STRATEGIC PLANNING BETWEEN UKRAINIAN AND AMERICAN UNIVERSITY 3 Yaroslav Prytula PERCEIVED QUALITY AND OVERSEAS STUDENT SATISFACTION IN HIGHER EDUCATION: A CASE STUDY 11 Yaolung J.

Toki and Aspasia Lekka CHALLENGES OF USING AUDIO PODCAST FOR TEACHING AND LEARNER SUPPORT IN HIGHER EDUCATION IN OPEN AND DISTANCE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT: A CASE OF UNIVERSITY OF SOUTH AFRICA 85 J. Madiope ELITISM AND CORPORATISM IN HIGHER EDUCATION 91 Joseph Progler and Azra Kianinejad REFLECTION PAPERS INTERNATIONALIZATION OF HIGHER EDUCATION IN CHINA AND JAPAN 99 Wenchao Li PLAGIARIZING OR SCRAPBOOKING: WHAT ARE STUDENTS DOING? 102 Martine Peters and Mary Frankoff THE INTERNATIONAL TEACHER EDUCATION PROGRAM (ITEP) – A PAN-PACIFIC SCHOOLS ‘DISTRICT INSERVICE PROGRAM’ BASED ON A FILIAL PARTNERSHIP John L. M. M. Smith INTERPRETIVE STRATEGIES FOR ANALYZING DIGITAL CULTURAL OBJECTS 61 Sheila Petty and Luigi Benedicenti LEARNING AND TEACHING OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE FOR NATIVE AMERICAN STUDENTS AND BARRIERS FOR THEM TO STUDY ABROAD 65 Ke Wu and Meredith Berthelson WEB 2. Bailey vi 105 . Boncella and Russell E. Ranko-Ramaili and M.0 VISION AND STUDENTS’ LEARNING SPACE 70 Anna Nedyalkova and Teodora Bakardjieva FREE AND OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE FOR GEOSCIENCE TEACHING AND LEARNING 75 Muhammad Nawaz and Greg Shaw DISTANCE LEARNING: A MYTH OR A NECESSITY FOR EDUCATORS? 80 Jenny Pange. CHALLENGES AND MOTIVATIONS 51 Thierry Karsenti and Simon Collin A REPORT ON THE DEVELOPMENT OF AN ARTICULATION AGREEMENT ON THE TRANSFER OF STUDENTS FROM THE WUHAN UNIVERSITY OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY TO THE BACHELOR OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (BBA) DEGREE PROGRAM AT WASHBURN UNIVERSITY 55 Robert J. Eugenia I.ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION FOR EUROPEAN STUDENTS: A WAY TO EXCHANGE STUDENTS AND TEACHING STAFF 46 José Adriano and Paula Odete Fernandes DISTANCE LEARNING IN AFRICA: BENEFITS.

Valery Stolyar. Oleg Atkov and Elena Selkova POSTERS CLOUD-BASED COLLABORATIVE LEARNING TOOLS INCORPORATING SOCIAL MEDIA SERVICES 115 Takuro Fukamizu and Ryoji Matsuno BIG HANDS HOLDING SMALL HANDS — A COLLABORATIVE ACTION RESEARCH ON CO-BUILDING COMMUNITY LEARNING NETWORKS BY UNIVERSITY ART CENTERS AND COMMUNITY ELEMENTARY SCHOOLS 117 Liao Tun-Ju DOCTORAL CONSORTIA THE ACCULTURATION OF ADULT AFRICAN REFUGEE LANGUAGE LEARNERS IN ISRAEL: DESIGNING AN ETHNOGRAPHIC STUDY 123 Charles Blake A CRITICAL UNDERSTANDING OF CULTURE IN CROSS-CULTURAL EDUCATION: DRAWING ON A CRITICAL REVIEW OF LITERATURE AND BOURDIEU’S CULTURAL CAPITAL Seung-Wan (Winnie) Lo AUTHOR INDEX vii 127 .EXPERIENCE IN PROFESSIONAL TRAINING FOR USERS OF INNOVATIVE EQUIPMENT 109 Andrey Selkov.

Dennen. the perceptions of ‘Formal. So. 2009). 2005. p. ‘scholars will soon been instructed by the eye’ and human knowledge will be taught by motion pictures. 2010). 80 . Collaborative learning is playing a main role in blended and online learning. Most European Universities offer online courses and a large number of students successfully attend the e-courses provided by their schools. Toki2 and Aspasia Lekka3 1 Dean of School of Education. Distance Learning today is almost totally bonded with ICT and the internet. Thurmond et al. continuing education and DL) but every aspect of our lives in social and economic level. Greece ABSTRACT The current study investigates the effects of distance learning over the internet in Higher Education in Greece. 2010. Non-Formal Learning. 17-18. University of Ioannina. Life Long Learning. School of Education. This study is a pilot study exploring. Ramanau et al. 2008. 17-18.ISBN: 978-972-8939-56-4 © 2011 IADIS DISTANCE LEARNING: A MYTH OR A NECESSITY FOR EDUCATORS? Jenny Pange1. 2000. when DL courses were being offered via mail. a lot of universities replace part of classroom learning with individual learning. today Information Communication Technology (ICT) has transformed not only the education (e-learning. 2010). Toki and Pange. Interactions between students and teachers are transformed by ICTs into a new more concrete and cognitive sense (Kirkwood and Price. Eugenia I. Is really the Internet that is teaching by ‘motion pictures’ in formal and informal way? The social internet makes the major impact in an informal learning approach. Department of Early Childhood Education. Distance learning Technologies provide an effective way of communication in a dynamic learning environment (Pange 2008. Godwin et al. Pange. INTRODUCTION Distance learning (DL) is widely spread in our time (Anastasiades et al. Formal Learning. 2009. Informal Learning. informal and Non-formal learning’ of a group of undergraduate students in Educational Departments. Greece 3 Undergraduate Student. Ioannina. It is worth remembering what Edison said in 1913. Although it started at the beginning of the last century. KEYWORDS Distance Learning. the virtual communication between students and teachers in the online e-courses is augmented and well organized. 2008. Department of Mathematics University of Ioannina. Director of Laboratory of New Technologies and Distance Learning. 2002. Although it is well documented that in distance learning courses the class interaction is minimized between the students (Maki et al. Greece 2 Lecturer. According to Gandel et al (2004): “The history of Western higher education since the French Revolution has been dominated by at least seven epochal influences” and one these is “The (partially) successful integration of online (synchronous and asynchronous) instructional techniques with the proliferation (controlled and uncontrolled) of online resources…” Nowadays. p. suggesting the potential of implementing distance learning techniques at all levels of Greek educational system. Department of Speech and Language Therapy. The results of the study indicated the overall positive perceptions of the participants towards formal distance learning in Higher Education and also a shortage of use of Distance learning techniques at Universities and Technological Educational Institutes. 2005). Toki and Pange. Ioannina. 1. policy makers consider that knowledge has a great value in our economy. 2008). Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Epirus. Toki and Pange. lifelong learning. Ioannina. in order to provide better communication between students (Lionarakis 2005. Yukselturk and Yildirim.

150 undergraduate students from the Department of Early Childhood Education of the University of Ioannina and 100 undergraduate students from Department of Speech and Language Therapy. where students work on their own at home or at the office and communicate with the faculty and other students via e-mail. types of learning.europa. was composed of 14 questions. in Greece. informal and non-formal learning in Greece? Is Social internet a recognized form of informal learning? According to European Commission Glossary on these terms: “Formal learning usually takes place in schools. typically college-level. MATERIALS AND METHODS During the last academic year. Most distance learning programs include a computer-based training system and communications tools to produce a virtual classroom. chat rooms. bulletin boards. So. 2. consisted of 250 students in total. in theatre groups. As our economy is shifted from industrial to an e-learning one. under this law. to their students. from which 212 were females and 38 males. like reading a book”.html Open Distance Learning is: “A type of education.g. videoconferencing. in NGOs. information retrieval from social internet. Do distance learning courses. There is a great demand for educators to be able to evaluate new educational outcomes. in the workplace. e. The mean age of the students was 21+2 years. and to provide new educational materials. learner-instructor interaction. electronic for a. learner-learner interaction. in this pilot study. Informal learning can be found everywhere. the majority of students are females. In Educational Departments in Greece. in families. education is a main factor in the reshaping of the marketplace.eu/education/programmes/llp/guide/glossary_en. The data gathered from the questionnaire analyzed using SPSS statistical package. was composed of 6 questions. In particular. who are the main conveyors of knowledge to our society. non formal and informal learning and lifelong learning and how it is recognized. and they asked to present their views on distance learning courses offering formal. Section two. students were asked about: course structure. of the Technological Educational Institute (TEI) of Ioannina-Epirus. Some Universities offer blended learning but the majority of them use the traditional way of teaching. instant messaging and other forms of computer-based communication. aiming to collect general information regarding the participants’ age. universities or training institutions and leads to a diploma or certificate. informal and Non-formal learning’ offered by distance learning courses via Internet. with no examination at the end. Because the Internet and World Wide Web are accessible from virtually all computer platforms. attended a subject involving blended learning. sex. 81 . use and identify ‘Formal learning. it is very important to show the current situation of distance learning appreciation of educators.IADIS International Conference on International Higher Education 2011 According to http://ec. The aim of this pilot study is to investigate whether Greek undergraduate students in University Educational Departments. they serve as the foundation for many distance learning systems”. classification and evaluation of distance learning courses. It is worth mentioning here that information and free courses from the internet are considered as informal learning. offered via Internet. or can also refer to individual activities at home. In Greece recently the legislation (law 3879/Sept. institutional support and flexibility. The research instrument was a questionnaire designed for the purpose of this study and it consisted of two sections. occupation.2010) sets out in detail formal. aiming to gather information on students’ attitudes and activities towards distance learning. provide recognized formal. but not currently validated in our educational system. The sample. non-formal and informal learning. e-course use. The Greek Open University provides online courses which are recognized as formal learning in Greece. projects or discussion groups advancing at their own pace. Section one. recognition of informal and non-formal learning. Non-formal learning includes free adult education within study circles. computer ownership and Internet access. to acknowledge new indicators of educational achievements.

x Two thirds of the students who used properly information from the internet and from the ecourses passed successfully the final exam in an ICT undergraduate course. not recognized by some Universities and employers. On the subject of the recognition of informal and non-formal learning. they had. the outcomes of the study showed that x Very few students (3%) knew about the new Greek law concerning the recognition of informal and on-formal leaning in our country. x As work load was different from course to course in DL. as it was easy and quick to communicate for any matter. examples and videos with case studies. On the subject of the. 2010 and there was no good dissemination of the Ministry of Education On the subject of the recognition of the information used from social internet none of the students knew that it was a way of non-formal learning. the outcomes of the study revealed that: x The majority of the students (92%) were satisfied with the university support and flexibility and finally as stated their views and requests were taken into consideration. This was due to the fact that this law came out in Sept. a good level in ICT use was appropriate.g. x 70% of the participants in the study said that the degrees offered online are underestimated nowadays in Greece. Relating to the classification and evaluation of distance learning courses the results of the study revealed that: x Almost all students (95%) were learning and communicating via social internet.ISBN: 978-972-8939-56-4 © 2011 IADIS 3. According to their comments they found very helpful the opportunity they had to exchange information and discuss educational matters online. exercises. Also. x No statistically significant differences found in their answers concerning their sex (p<. there is room for improvements on training procedure for online teaching and learning.0001). Students spent one to three hours per week in an online course offered as part of the undergraduate course (for formal learning). all students said that they did not attend many e-courses during their undergraduate studies. the results of the study revealed that: x Most of the students (80%) were satisfied with their interaction with their instructors. assignments and reference books) and found it very helpful in terms of practicing and learning the topics. As for the types of learning: x Participants stated their general satisfaction on interaction with instructor and their peers. As they commented. over the internet. On the topic of the learner-instructor interaction. the opportunity to interact using computer communication tools. x Students believed that some blended courses helped a lot in learning a subject. . but more than three hours per day in informal learning in courses and information accessible on the Internet. the weekly plan and assignments forced them to study regularly and they were well prepared for the final exams. Additionally the weekly structure of the educational material helped them to organize and set their personal learning tasks. e-course use. so there is no interest of students to attend them. especially in the future for life-long learning (lll) programs. such as skype. the instructors could easily provide guidelines during any face-to-face or additional information in case of need through the computer mediated communication tools. 82 . Concerning the course structure. This is very common in Greece as cost of computers is low. the results of the study showed that: x Almost all the students were satisfied (99%) with their interaction with their peers. emails and chats. almost all students (99%) owned a computer at home. Additionally. x The majority of students (97%) thought that they can benefit from distance learning. Furthermore. On the issue of the learner-learner interaction. most participants (82%) were satisfied with the structure and the content of the e-courses that included various materials (e. On the subject of the institutional support and flexibility. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION According to students’ answers. but they were not compulsory courses in these Educational Departments.

70. Katz. (2008). fully online programs were compared with programs of blended learning. we have to declare here that there were some limitations with respect to the data collected that affect the accuracy of the results. Up to now no recognition is applied from our university and TEI to other types of learning offered via distance. This study showed also that “Instruction combining online and face-to-face elements had a larger advantage relative to purely face-to-face instruction than did purely online instruction. (2000). Durrant. pp.N. pp. (ed. The meta-analysis established that “on average. ǹ. Interactive Videoconferencing for collaborative learning at a distance in the school of 21st century: A case study in elementary schools in Greece. T. 2009.com/2011/04/27/the-necessity-promise-of-online-learning/ Lionarakis. EULLEARN. students in online learning conditions performed better than those receiving face-to-face instruction” (US DOE. 52. Evaluation of a Web-based introductory psychology course: I.. Athens: Propombos. Vol. Hawkins. In order to generalize the results of this pilot study. Pange J. No.. V. Learners and learning in the 21st century: What do we know about students' attitudes and experiences of ICT that will help us design courses? Studies in Higher Education. 1. The data for this study came from two Educational departments (University and TEI) in one city in Greece. Gandel.. Maki. pp. 2. & Green. R. Educational Technology [in Greek: ǼțʌĮȚįİȣIJȚțȒ IJİȤȞȠȜȠȖȓĮ].IADIS International Conference on International Higher Education 2011 In conclusion. 54. 83 . pp. H. The “Weariness of the Flesh”: Reflections on the Life of the Mind in an Era of Abundance.) (2005). pp. Vol. in order to provide a more general view of this matter. S. 321-339. Distance Education. Filippousis.. ix).25. 2010. B. J. Dennen. 30. G. (2005). From message posting to learning dialogues: Factors affecting learner participation in asynchronous discussion. pp. 2. Vol..148. & Whittaker. Vol. J. & Price. and Mastoraki H. Giza P. S. (2000).39. 89-108. L. No. (2004). J. from http://plpnetwork. Applications of Pedagogy and Technology. No. These e-courses were few and they were part of blended learning in undergraduate courses. 230-239.B. The Necessity & Promise of Online Learning. PBS Theothorides.. 2..1. Computers & Education.. S. The impact of computer-mediated interaction on distance learning.23. Maki. this pilot study reveals the limited use and recognition of online learning programs in Greece in informal and non-formal learning.32. 40–51. (2011). Vol. 39. and Computers. Instruments... (2006). Vol. According to Hawkins (2011) regarding the Necessity & Promise of Online Learning. pp. This way of teaching must also be applied to primary and secondary schools. According to Hawkins (2011) “Singapore has 100% of all secondary schools offering a blended (virtual plus face-to-face) and online learning curriculum – and all teachers are trained to teach in this manner. W. Siakas. L.. But are teachers well prepared from their undergraduate studies (university or Institute) to create online material for their students when they go to work at schools?. Behavior Research Methods. No. S. R. E. ǿs elearning offering a new learning model? The case study of a Greek University. Kirkwood.. Future work may expand the research in other university departments in Greece. Godwin. Thorpe M. P. D. (2010). except of the e-courses provided by the legal departments. A. p. British Journal of Educational Technology. e-presentation. M.E. Literacy and the new technologies in school education: meeting the I (IT) eracy challenge? The Australian Journal of Language and Literacy. 3. No. & Richardson. (especially via internet). (2008).2. Patterson. R. Vol. & Metros.”. P.. Tomazinakis. Retrieved 30th Dec. No. may a yearly distance learning week during their undergraduate studies prove that distance learning is not a myth but a necessity in our life long learning society which has mediate supply and demand for knowledge and learning? REFERENCES Anastasiades. (2005). As our students who participated in this study admitted that more training in online teaching and learning is appropriate. C. Learning and satisfaction in on-line versus lecture course. Pange. S. A. Singapore schedules a yearly e-learning week where they close buildings and school is taught online”.S. EDUCAUSE Review. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Open and Distance Learning. 127. P. Karvunis. P. and the appreciation of University online courses.. No. 257-274.

B.. Greece.ISBN: 978-972-8939-56-4 © 2011 IADIS Ramanau. Evaluation of student satisfaction: Determining the impact of a web-based environment by controlling for student characteristics. Vol.. In: 7th International Conference on Networked Learning. A. R.I. Thurmond. Investigation of Interaction. A. (2009). Hosein.26th June. The American journal of distance education. In Lionarakis. (2008). J. Denmark. Toki. 2010. 169-189. V. Toki. B.. (Eds.I. (2010). Aalborg. 51-65. & Yildirim. D. & Jones. 3-4 May 2010. No. K. Course Structure and Flexibility as the Contributing Factors to Students’ Satisfaction in an Online Certificate Program. 4. Online Support. (2010). H. E.). & Frey. J. & Pange. pp. pp. R. C. Connors. Greece. Yukselturk. pp. 84 . Educational Technology & Society..11. Proceedings of 5th International Conference in Open & Distance Learning 27-29 November. Exploiting the possibility of online courses for speech and language therapy and learning. Wambach. Learning and living technologies: a longitudinal study of first-year students' expectations and experiences in the use of ICT. (2002). 270275. E. No. Vol..3. Mitilini. No. A. Self-evaluation and nearest neighbour learning as tools for learning in an ICT educational system. B. Z. & Pange. A Publication of the Hellenic Network of Open & Distance Education.16.Athens. E-Proceedings of the 6th National & International HSSS Conference "Systemic Approaches in Social Structures" 23rd . 2009. E. Vol.