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Introduction to Dynamics

Dynamics is that branch of mechanics
which deals with the motion of bodies
under the action of forces. Dynamics
has two distinct parts: kinematics and
kinetics. Kinematics is the study of
motion without reference to the forces
which cause motion. Kinetics relates the
action of forces on bodies to their
resulting motions.

.When machines and structures started to operate with high speeds it became necessary to make calculations based on the principles of dynamics rather than on the principles of statics.

. rockets and machinery of all types.The rapid technological developments of the present day require increasing application of the principles of mechanics. fixed structures subjected to shock loads. automatic control systems. These principles are basic to the analysis and design of moving structures. robotic devices.

on the other hand. mass are absolute quantities. .BASIC CONCEPTS The basic concepts in mechanics are space. time. Among these. is a derived quantity. space. mass and force. Force. time. which mean that they are independent of each other and cannot be expressed in terms of other quantities or in simpler terms.

Space (uzay) is the geometric region occupied by bodies. . Position in space is specified by linear or angular measurements with respect to a geometric reference system. In Newtonian Mechanics the basic reference system is named as the “primary inertal system” (birincil mutlak sistem) and it is a virtual system assumed as neither rotating or translating in space.

For the examination of motion occurring on or near Earth. . it is suitable to use a reference system attached to Earth as the primary inertial system.

.Time (zaman) is a measure of the succession of events and is considered an absolute quantity in Newtonian mechanics.

Mass can also be considered as the amount of matter within a body. Although the mass of a body is an absolute quantity. .Mass (kütle) is the quantitative measure of the inertia or resistance to change in motion of a body. its weight can change depending on the gravitational force (W=mg).

A force possesses both magnitude and direction. therefore it is a vector quantity. .Force (kuvvet) is the action of one body on another.

. a large body may also be treated as a particle. But when the dimensions of a body are irrelevant to the description of its motion or the action of forces on it.A particle (parçacık veya maddesel nokta) is a body of negligible dimensions. Generally a particle is thought to be an infinitesimally small element which possesses all properties of a body.

All the forces acting on the body will have to pass from this point.e. the forces will be concurrent.A particle has mass but no shape and dimensions. . i. The body is considered to be concentrated at a single point which usually will be its mass center.

a ball.Some examples to particles are shown here. a block. even an airplane can be considered as particles. .

.A rigid body (rijit veya katı cisim) is a body whose changes in shape are negligible compared with the overall dimensions of the body or with the changes in position of the body as a whole. The shape and dimensions of a rigid body will remain the same under all conditions of loading and at all times.

.Some examples of rigid bodies are shown here.

Displacement (Yer Değiştirme) Time rate of change of position coordinates. The selected coordinate system can either be an absolute (fixed) or a moving system. . Displacement is a vector quantity. Examination of displacement is carried out by means of a suitable coordinate system.

Trajectory / Path (Yörünge) It is a line or a curve obtained when all the points a body occupies within a specific time period are joined. .

velocity. In other words. it deals with the geometry of motion.Kinematics (Kinematik) Observes motion without considering the forces that cause the motion. It constitutes relationships between path. . acceleration and time.

forces and / or moments. . together with mass also take part in relationships.Kinetics (Kinetik) Observes motion by considering the forces that cause the motion. In this field. in addition to the quantities in kinematics.

(Equation of Equilibrium) A particle remains at rest or continues to move with uniform velocity (along a straight line with a constant speed) if there is no unbalanced force acting on it. r ∑F = 0 .NEWTON’S LAWS Law I.

NEWTON’S LAWS Law II. r r ∑ F = ma m F = ma = kg ⋅ 2 = Newton (N) s . (Equation of Motion)The acceleration of a particle is proportional to the resultant force acting on it and is in the direction of this force.

.NEWTON’S LAWS Law III. and collinear. opposite in direction. (Principle of Action and Reaction) The forces of action and reaction between interacting bodies are equal in magnitude.

which governs the mutual attraction between bodies.673 × 10 −11 m3 kg ⋅ s 2 F⋅ r2 N ⋅ m2 kg ⋅ m ⋅ m 2 m3 G= = = 2 = m1m 2 kg ⋅ kg s ⋅ kg ⋅ kg kg ⋅ s 2 . is stated as F1 = F2 = G m1m2 r2 Gm m= a universial constant called the constant of gravitation F =G 1 2 r2 G = 6.F =G m1m2 r2 GRAVITATION Newton’s law of gravitation.

Units Quantity Mass Time Length Force r r Symbol ∑ F = ma m t L F Unit kg s m N (kilogram) (second) (meter) (Newton) .UNITS The International System of metric units (SI) is defined and used in this lecture.