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INTRODUCTION

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CHAPTER-1

1.1 What is Composite material?
It is a truism that technological of development depends on advances in the field of
materials. A composite material (Composition material) is material made from two or
more constituent material with significantly different physical and chemical properties
that when combined produce a material with characteristics different from the
individual components. There are two main categories of constituent materials are
matrix and reinforcement. The matrix material surrounds and supports the
reinforcement materials by maintain their relative positions. The reinforcement imparts
their special mechanical and physical properties to enhance the matrix properties. So,
the composite material can be defined as a combination of a matrix and a reinforcement
which when combined gives properties superior to the properties of the individual
components.

The composite materials work together to give the composite unique properties may be
preferred for many reasons like stronger, lighter and less expensive when compared
with traditional material. The biggest advantage of modern composite material is that
they are light weight as well as strong. By choosing an appropriate combination of
matrix and reinforcement material, a new material can be made that exactly meets the
requirement of particular application. Composite also provide design flexibility because
many of them can be molded into complex shapes. The downside is often the cost.
Although the resulting product is more efficient. Strong, stiff and light composites are
also very attractive materials for aerospace, automobile, marine applications. The
strength and lightness of composites has made particularly attractive for transportation.
They are also be safer more economical and more environmentally friendly.

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INTRODUCTION

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1.1.1 Types of Composite material
Followings are types of composites:
1. Composite building materials such as cement, concrete.
2. Fiber reinforced composite (Fibrous composite)
A. Single-layer composite including composite having continuous or discontinues
fiber reinforced in same orientation and properties in each layer.
B. Multi-layer composite including laminates and hybrids composites with multi
layers.
3. Metal reinforced composite (Particle composite) including ceramic and metal
matrices.
4. Natural and man-made composite materials
5. Carbon fiber and glass fiber reinforced composite materials

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1.2 Metal Matrix Composite (MMC)
A metal matrix composite (MMC) is a composite material which consists of combining
two or more constituents in order to obtain a combination of properties that can’t be
achieved with any of the constituents acting alone. The main difference between
composite and an alloy is, in composite constituent materials are insoluble in each other,
where as in alloys constituents materials are soluble in each other and form a new
material which has different properties from their constituents. The ceramic particles
reinforced with metallic matrix are termed as new generation material and these can be
tailored and engineered with specific required properties for specific requirements in
engineering purpose.

Metal matrix composite are composed of one being a metal matrix necessarily such as
aluminum, manganese, iron, cobalt, copper and the other materials may be ceramics
like oxides, carbides or other different metal phase such as lead, tungsten, molybdenum.
Among the various matrix materials aluminum alloys are well suited because of light
weight, environmental resistance and useful mechanical properties such as hardness,
strength, toughness and impact resistance. Also the melting point of the aluminum is
high enough to assure many application requirement. Silicon carbide is one of the
widely used reinforcement because of its high modulus, strength, excellent thermal
resistance, high melting point, good corrosion resistance, and good compatibility with
the aluminum matrix, low cost and ready availability.

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INTRODUCTION

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1.3 Advantages of MMC
The advantages of metal matrix composite are:

Excellent strength to weight ratio

Better wear resistance

High performance

Lower creep rate

Better fatigue resistance

1.4 Limitations of MMCs
The limitations of metal matrix composites are:

Difficult for machining

Consistency of material properties

1.5 Application of composites

Aircrafts- Elevators, Doors, Panels and flooring of air planes.

Space- Remote manipulator arms, high gain antenna, and struts.

Marine- Propeller vanes, fans, blowers, gear cases, valves, strainers, and condenser
shells.

Automotive- Clutch plates, engine blocks, frames, push & piston rods, valve guides,
automotive racing brakes, rocker arm cover and suspension brakes.

Chemical industries- composite vessels for liquid natural gases, raked bottles for
fire service and storage tanks.

Construction- tunnel support, roads and bridge structures.

Thus, Considerable research in the field of material science has been directed towards
the development of new light weight, high performance, and its useful mechanical
properties such as specific modulus, strength, toughness, impact resistance, high
melting point, etc. Also the melting point and required properties of aluminum and
silicon carbide are high enough to assure many application requirement.

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INTRODUCTION

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1.6 Valves and valve seats used in I.C. Engine
Automobile consists of number of vital components which perform various functions
and they are subjected to different forces, thermal loading and stresses. The automobile
can be considered to consist of four basic classification of components:

The engine of power plant - It is source of power.

The frame and chassis - It support the engines, wheels, body, braking systems,
steering, etc.

The Transmission method which are transmits power from the engine to the car
wheels.

The body and accessories

Fig-1 Structure of overhead cam shaft design [2]

Fig-1 describe the cylinder head which is one the components for using engine power
plant to produce energy. Cylinder head support the valves and valve train components
including cam shaft, rocker arm, followers, intake and exhaust valves as well as its
guides. Cylinder head also contain passages for the flow of intake and exhaust gases,
coolant, and sometimes engine oil. In cylinder head, valve and valve seat are very
important components to improve engine performance by controlling fuels.

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1.6.1 Valves
Valve is a device which is used for regulating
the flow of fluids (Gases, liquids, fluidizes
solids and slurries) by opening, closing or
partially obstructing various passageways.
These are used in industrial, military,
automobiles, and residential establishment.
Valve is important component of engine
which is control fluids flowing into and out
the engine cylinder. There are two types of
Valves, inlet valves and exhaust valves. Fig2 illustrates the Exhaust valve which is
commonly used poppet valves is mushroomShaped. And Fig-3 illustrates different parts
of inlet and exhaust valve.
Fig-2 Exhaust valve same as Inlet valve [1]

Fig-3 Identification of the parts of a valve [2]

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Fig-4 Size relationship between Inlet and Exhaust valve [2]
Above Figure describes the valve size relationship exists between different dimensions
of valve. The intake valves is larger than the exhaust valve because the intake charge is
being drawn into the combustion chamber at low speed due to difference in pressure
between atmospheric pressure and the pressure (Vacuum) inside the cylinder. The
exhaust is actually pushed out the piston and therefor the size of the valve does not need
to be as large.

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Fig-5 Functions of valves [1]

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Fig-6 Position and relative motion of each part of the valves mechanism [1]

Above figure shows the position and relative motion of each part of the valves
mechanism. The motion of the cam lobe drives the valve through the valve lifter. The
valve spring pulls the valve back to its original position. During the compression stroke,
the valve spring and combustion pressure help to ensure an air-tight seal between the
valve and the valve seat. Valves must be of light weight to allow the rapid reciprocating
motion.

1.6.2 Valve seats
The valve seat insert has a cone shaped surface as shown in Fig-6. The seat is pressed
into the engine cylinder head and seals in combustion fuel, so needs to have well wear
resistance to ensure an accurate and air-tight seal. The operating temperature for the
seat will be lower than that of the valve. Generally, valve seat materials are iron-based
sintered alloys containing increased Ni, Co, Cr, and W. the high Cr. And W.
compositions increase carbide desperation. The exhaust valve seat contains the highest
levels because it is expressed to more serve wear at higher temperature.

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Fig-7 Valve seat inserts [1]
There are manly two types of valve seats, Integral valve seats and inserts valve seats.
Integral seats generally formed as part of the cylinder head which is made by cast-iron
of automotive engines. An insert seat fits into a machined recess in the steel or
aluminium cylinder head Insert seats are used in all aluminium head engines and in
application for which corrosion and wear resistance are critical. Aluminium heads are
also include insert valve guides.

Fig-8 Integral valve seats and insert valve seats [2]

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1.7 Material used in valve and valve seats
Followings are mainly used material for making valves and valve seats:

1.7.1 Stainless steel
It is a steel alloy with a minimum of 10.5% chromium. They are classified by their
crystalline structure are austenitic, Martensitic, and ferrite. Among in various types of
stainless steels, SAE 316 (Austenite) and SAE 410 (Martensitic) are mostly used in
engineering sector.

SAE 316 :

SAE 316 (S31600)
SAE 316L (S31603)
SAE 316N (S31620)
SAE 316F (S31651)

Cr

16-18

Ni

10-14

C

0.03-0.08

Mn

2

Si

0.75-1

P

0.2-0.045

S

0.03-0.1

N

0.1-0.16

Mo

1.75-2.5

Table-1 Composition of SAE 316

SAE 410 :
Cr

11.513.5

Ni

0.75

C

0.15

SAE 410

Mn

1

(S41000)

Si

1

P

0.04

S

0.03

Table-2 Composition of SAE 410

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INTRODUCTION

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1.7.2 Cast iron
It is an alloy containing of Iron and Carbon steel is considered to be carbon steel which
has carbon in range of 0.12 to 2.0%. Following are different types of carbon steel with
different carbon content:
Types

Carbon %

Low carbon steel

0.05-0.25

Medium carbon steel

0.3-0.6

High carbon steel

0.7-2.5

Ultra-high carbon steel

2.5-3.0

Table-3 Composition of Cast Iron

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