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Past and Present Members
Mr EAdcock
Mr N Apsey
MrE Bacon
Mr A J C Badger
Mr R Barnett
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Mr A Smalley
Mr PTyson
MrVWaters
Mr D Wilson

Old British Beers
and

How To Make Them

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Second Edition

Dr John Harrison
and Members of
The Durden Park Beer Circle

GREAT FERMENTATIONS
OF SANTA ROSA
840 Piner Road #14
Santa Rosa, CA 95403
{707) 544-2520

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Preface
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This booklet is an expanded edition of our publication entitled
Old British Beers and How to Make Them, published in 1976. It
contains instructions for brewing sixty British Beers ranging
from pre-1400 unhopped ales to early 1900s oatmeal stouts.
It is not intended to be a definitive history of the brewing
industry, brewing materials or brewing practices. These topics
are mentioned only where they have a significant impact on
ale formulations, e.g. the British Patent by D. Wheeler in 1817
for the drum-roasting of black malt and roast barley. This led
within a few years to the wholesale re-formulation of porters
and stouts.

Copyright© 1991, The Durden Park Beer Circle

All rights reserved

Acknowledgements
First published 1976
Revised 1991

The Durden Park Beer Circle would like to thank the Trustees
of the Scottish Brewing Archive for permission to use material
held in the archive at Herriot-Watt University, Edinburgh.
Also gratefully acknowledged is the considerable assistance
given by Archivist, Charles McMaster BA, in extracting useful
information.
The circle would also like to thank Whitbread plc for
information on their Victorian porter, double stout and triple
stout; and Courage plc for permission to publish the recipe for
Simond's 1880 Bitter extracted from their Brewing Archive at
Bristol.

British Library Cataloguing in Publication Data
Harrison, John
Old British beers and how to make them.
I. Title
641.23
ISBN

0 9517752 0 0

Typeset at The University of London Computer Centre

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Contents

Introduction ................................................................................... vii
Part 1. Historical Notes ................................................................ 1
General ..................................................................................... 1
Nomenclature .......................................................................... 1
Weights and Measures ........................................................... 2
Brewing Methods (Old versus Present-Day) ...................... 4
Brewing Materials ................................................................... 5
Researching Old Beers ......................................................... 10

Oasthou.es in Kent

Part 2. Making Old British Beers ............................................. 15
Brewing methods for formulations in this book .............. 15
Recipes .................................................................................... 19
Medieval Beers ............................................................... 21
Pale Amber and Amber Beers .. .................................... 25
Light Brown, Brown and Dark Brown Beers ............. 31
Stouts and Porters .......................................................... 39

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A typical si7Uill English Brewery

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Appendix 1. Home Roasting Pale Malt to Coloured Malts ... 45
Appendix 2. Colour Ratings of Roast Malt and Barley .......... 46
References ..................................................................................... 47

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making and evaluating OLD BEERS should be one of the Circle's core activities. and suggested to the newly formed Circle that researching. it consisted of an annual programme of OLD BEERS to be made (decided in January).2. On Christmas Eve I left a few pints of draught Whitbread's 1850 porter with a brewing friend.) 1(10 oz. MonktonO >. modern yeasts and possibly untypical water is a fair copy of the beer as originally made. the production ·and eva luation of the ales and beers has been a complete Circle effort and the names of all brewers who ha ve contributed to this booklet are shown on the inside front cover. However.J Method No. The only honest answer is that for the majority of beers described there is no way we can ever know~ The exceptions are those beers that remained virtually unchanged up to 1914. Such people might remember drinking pre-1914 beer. As ultimately refined. we now know that beers ranging from the merely interesting to the superb can be obtained by researching and making old formula tions. The author took this as a challenge. but acfd the late Geldings hops for the last 10 minutes of the boil. but also indicated how other wellknown beers such as India Pale Ale had changed since the early 1800s.A. it fell on the author to carry out most of the research on beer formulations. modern malts. The problem. This book not only showed the large part that Porter played in 18th and 19th century· brewing. Don Hebbs. As a result of the·Circle's efforts since 1973. modern hops. The Circle's interest in old beers originated in 1972 when the author read a book A History of English Ale and Beer by H.) ) ) Introduction Truman's XXK March Keeping Beer (1832) OG90 A quality st rong pale ale with a fine hop charucter. there were about some people aged 79 and over who were in their 20s in 1914. however. and dry hop with Geldings. In 1973 when we started the programme. The evaluation of the beers was to be made at a Christmas function where the beers would be accompanied by OLD BRITISH FOOD. This proposal was enthusiastically adopted by the Circle. Mature for 8 to 10 months. Coldi11gs Hops (dn. is how certain can we be that the product we have made with modified recipes. 2 oz Coldi11gs Hops (/at.6 lb Pal' Malt 13! 4 oz Fuggles Hops (boil) I. W~ encountered one such person by accident. As the only Material Scientist in the Circle. An unwritten assumption pervading the book was that those beers were history and no-one would drink their like again. On vii . 3. I heard the rest of the story two weeks later.

if she would like a glass of Guinness. when looking back over a period of 700-800 years one must be aware that words sometimes change . Another is Young's (London) Strong Export Bitter. and there is but a small. roast malts. The struggle between unhopped ales and hopped beers lasted from AD 1400-1700. They recognised it as Ale No. fast-dwindling population of old drinkers to call upon. As was the custom then. This has led to a continuous reduction in the original gravity of standard beers such as bitter and the elimination of many high gravity beers by the smaller brewers. One would expect this to be descended from the IPAs of yore and again. An exYounger maltster-cum-brewer aged 78 took it around to the Younger's home for elderly ex-employees and shared it with a few friends aged 83 and 85. It is too much to hope that we will see many more of such encouraging confirmations of our work. In addition the tax system in the UK has been biased against high gravity beers. The post -1914 period is characterised by the takeover and closure of many thousands of breweries. They were very impressed. whereas in 1923-24 it would have been ~5. that's London porter! Where on-earth did you get that?" Don was totally flabbergasted. That incident was the best unsolicited testimonial we are likely to get. the word 'mash' in brewing does not mean to crush or to macerate. When porter disappeared ~he switched to Guinness. The next best occasion occurred in 1988 when I took some 1871 Younger's Ale No. the resemblance is there. at original gravities ranging from 40 to 140. The essential difference between the 1871 and the early 1920 versions was that the OG in 1871 was 102. There are a number of beers ·available commercially which bear a close resemblance to our 'Original India Pale Ale'. is worth mentioning. she took another long pull. Nomenclature l All trades and crafts have their own private vocabulary in which special meaning is attached to a word that is in general use. at an OG of 62. 1 and thought it was better than· the earliest samples they could remember from the early 1920s. I came across one such. The full flowering of British brewing took place between AD 1700-1914. an American east coast beer called Ballentine's India Pale Ale in 1966 before we started our programme. thus drastically reducing the choice available. Our third example. The old lady took a swig and turned a beady eye on Don. The carton's description of the beer was: "As made for the India trade. virtually every combination of malts. matured in wood for one year.) Ole. never mind able to recognise it. It transpired that she. During this period. Many of our beers vanished long before 1914. __Aish Beers Christmas morning he asked his daughter's fiance's grandmothera spry old lady of 86. their 1 viii . other grains and hops was to be found somewhere. as many girls did at the time." The OG was probably nearer 55 than 68-70 but the family resemblance was good. On getting her approval. It took only a third of a pint of porter to set those memories flooding back. Part 1 Historical Notes General The history of British Ales and Beers can be conveniently divided into four main periods. she was given so many pints of porter as part of her board. looked him straight in the eye and said "That's not Guinness. but it refers to the process of steeping crushed malt with hot water to convert the starch into fermentable sugars. he went and fetched a pint of my Whitbread's porter. He did not know that the old lady knew what porter was. It is assumed that anyone wanting to use this book · will be familiar with present-day brewing terms. The period where the main beverages were Anglo-Saxon unhopped ales lasted until about AD 1400. entered domestic service when she was 14. though less definitive than the first two. For example. However. 1 back to the Scottish Brewing Archive.

Nowadays it means old to the point of not being drinkable. Weights and Measures When interpreting old sources of brewing information. This was also known as blown malt due to the popping of the malt during production. It was only after 1850 that the term came to have its current meaning of a dark full-flavoured beer made using black malt or roast barley<2>. the word became to mean a beer made in the British style. made using top fermenting yeast at room temperature. ales and barley wines are all types of beer. In the nineteenth century. The author has only come across one set of ledgers where malt quarters less than 336 lbs have been specifically mentioned. the description porter malt meant brown malt. In the Reid (London) ledger for 1837. With the eclipse of unhopped Ale the word beer became a general term covering all hopped malt drinks. Coloured Malt and Roast Barley i !. With the eclipse of unhopped drinks.r. Lagers. This meaning also applied in brewing. This sort of familiar information which did not change was sometimes omitted from ledgers as being unnecessary! Gravity Prior to 1760 there was no easy. The boll is 140 lbs and is divided into 4 firlots. and stale ale or porter cost more than ordinary ale or porter. it meant pale amber malt. In Scotland before 1840 a unit normally used for meal was sometimes used for malt. in England and Scotland. Brewers' pounds can be changed 3 . however. A bushel was the volume of 10 gallons of water. and a quarter was equal to 8 bushels. i. tough. attention has to be paid to changes in weights and measures that have occurred over the past five centuries. Up to the late nineteenth century the word meant 'old and mature'. The absence of a specific reference to quarter weights less than 336 lbs does not guarantee that a 336 lbs value was in use. The standardisation of the weights of a quarter of barley and malt at 448 lbs and 336 lbs respectively. does not upset extracted data as these weights were set at the average · weights of the original volume measure.Richardson< 25l in 1784 led to the system of recording gravities as brewers' pounds per barrel which is still in use. The most important of these are as follows:Ale Beer Stale Stout Porter Malt Brown Malt Before about AD 1700 this referred specifically to a malt beverage made without hops. hearty. 1:5-21 °C (60700F). and up to about 1840-1850 a stout beer meant a strong beer. particularly by J. Pre -1700 it meant a hopped malt beverage distinct ·from Ale. In ireland. brown malt and roast barley were bought in at 244 lbs per quarter. with 6 or 8 bushels to the quarter. The old English meaning of the word meant strong. Thus coloured malts and roast barley were sold by the malt quarter of 336 lbs. The gravity of a wort or beer in brewers' pounds is defined as the weight of 36 gallons of the wort minus the weight of 36 gallons of distilled water. The application of the hydrometer (saccharometer) to brewing. 2 ) al Notes Barley and Malt These were originally specified in units of volume.e. In Malting and Brewing Science<3> there occurs the comment: "Transactions involving coloured malts have in the past been complicated by the range of units of weight used" . ( J ritish Beers ) Hh meaning with time. and in 1877 at both 228 lbs and 244 lbs per quarter. 280 lbs and 252 lbs. practical method of measuring wort and beer gravities.

a Barrel is 36 gallons. Our experiences of making the same ale by simple mash and sparge and by double mashing suggests that the differences in the resulting ales are marginal. the Ale barrel fell into disuse.g. a Hogshead is 54 gallons. Farnham Pale was regarded as the best quality hop but with the introduction of Golding in 1795 it became just another hop that was eventually superseded by Fuggles<4 >.. or Goldings alone as aroma hop. Brewing Methods (Old versus Present-Day) Grinding and Mashing Malt Apart from better control of these processes. the use of conversion tables. a Puncheon is 72 gallons. Brewing Materials As with all agricultural crops.2 gallons. With the above history there see_med to be little point in using any hops other than Fuggles or Fuggles plus Geldings as copper hops. In this way. and Flemish. in our programme. In 1750 there were about six well established varieties: Farnham Pale. Oval. Further hot water was added to the grain and a second mash performed for 45 minutes or so.5% others< 3>. e. taps were opened and as much wort as would separate freely was collected. After an initial mash of about one hour. a Butt is 108 gallons. Some brewers blended the four resulting worts to control the OGs of the hopped worts or to reduce the number of ales.reference to some of the less common cask sizes and they are as follows: a Pin is 41. Hops In 1950 the UK hop crop consisted of 20% Goldings and Golding type. These were usually boiled separately with hops. l tish Beers into SG by multiplying by 2. Long White. a Firkin is 9 gallons. 5 .77. a Six is 6 gallons. Canterbury Brown. Prior to this development. i. the spent hops from the first mash being re-used as part or whole of the hops for successive mashes.Ole. and the Beer barrel at 36 gallons where it has remained since. With the demise of the unhopped ale around 1700 AD. there has been no important changes in these processes Separating the Wort The process of sparging. Fuggles. a Tierce is 42 gallons. the use of thermometers for accurate temperature control and hydrometers to control specific gravity. Cask Sizes The Ale barrel was first standardised at 30 gallons. or by. brewing materials have been under continuous change and development during their recorded history. and 2.5% Fuggles. a Kilderkin is 18 gallons. sprinkling the mashed grain with hot water at the same time as wort was run off from the bottom of the mash tun. generally availaole from 1875. in 1420 AD. In 1850 there was Golding plus at least eleven other varieties. removal of the whole of the fermentable material from a batch of grain was accomplished by a system of multiple mashing. Some of these were of local significance only. 77.e. Long Square Garlic. and a Tun is 216 gallons. seems to have originated in Scotland in the late eighteenth century and was in widespread use in the UK by the early nineteenth century. and many were coarse hops grown for high yield and resistance to disease rather than any intrinsic merit. In old sources of brewing information one finds . Some brewers continued double mashing into the late nineteenth century. eventually superseded them all. one batch of grain yielded ales ranging from an OG over 100 down to table ale of OG 30-35. The draining and remashing was repeated up to four times to produce a 4 ) Hi~ ) al Notes series of worts of decreasing gravity.

Wheeler invented the cylindrical drum roaster incorporating water sprays which could be used to quench the roasting grain instantly< 6>. France. These show that in any one year. (It is interesting to note that Youngers in 18501870 made their pale and export ales largely with foreign malt which was probably lager malt style!) Coloured Malts While variations in beer produced by using pale malts made from different stra_ins of barley seem to be minimal. J. Since then there have been several waves of improved malting barleys. and the brewer wants a high diastaticactivity to cope with un~alted adjuncts such as flaked barley. Ales made with such malt would have been nut-brown in colour. Ireland. caused by this wide variety of raw material. we believe that using malt made from currently grown barleys instead of the old original varieties.~ ~j :j In translating old recipes where the hop variety is not given. Between the two world wars Spratt-Archer and Plumage Archer were favourites giving way to Proctor post-1950. a special malt was produced that was even paler than pale malt. The farmer needs high yield. will have made only marginal changes in flavour and quality of the beers we have made and enjoyed. The first nationally grown barley was produced from selections made in about 1820 by the Rev. however. An additional piece of evidence for thinking that differing barley varieties have only minimal effect on beer flavour is contained in the ledgers of Younger's Brewery (EdiJ:lburgh) for the 1870s. Pale malt only became available from about 1680 when coke began to be freely available for the direct. and Chevalier became the premium malting barley for most of the rest of the nineteenth century. known as East India Malt (sometimes white malt).J 0" ) itish Beers ) His' ) 1Notes ~~ ~ )S.5%) and assume a bitter resin content of 4%. The product. the Baltic area. There are no 6 records in the ledgers of complaints about beer variation. it is safer to assume that these were coarse hops with a l()wer bittering potential than Goldings (5. changes in beers as a result of changes in coloured malts were highly significant. ~ ~ ~~ '! . On balance. In 1817 D. Similarly raw barley could be roasted to colour comparable to black malt<2l. The salient fact is that we cannot obtain malt made with pre1914 barleys and the crucial question is does it matter. A great de~l of ·t he effort put into improving barleys has no direct effect on the flavour of the resulting beer. or burning straw.5%) or Fuggles (4. With the rise in popularity of India Pale Ales in the early nineteenth century. were obtained from Scotland.~ . The lack of control over the previous methods using fierce hardwood fires. Pale Malt. 7 . Proctor is currently under competition from ne~ varieties such as Zephyr and Maris Badger<3 >. Before 1820. was probably Closer to present day lager malts than current pale ale malts. or preferably. the indirect curing of malt(2). the maltster needs a thin husk. barleys for malting or malted barleys. Chevalier. This enabled controlled production of roast malts ranging from amber. the Black Sea area. even and ·reliable germination and even modification.B. England. Any attempt to take the malt to a darker colour led to a runaway reaction which turned the malt into charcoal. improvements in barleys for malting were ·made on a very local scale and improved strains were usually named after the districts in which they were grown. brown and chocolate through to black. disease resistance and a short stiff straw. The maximum cure temperature was 150° F compared with 170 -180°F for pale ale malt<Sl. Up to 1817 the darkest malt available was brown malt dried over a fierce hardwood fire. meant that the outer part of the malt was caramelised. The ledgers also suggest that the nineteenth century brewers were a great deal less hag-ridden about making absolutely identical brews than the present-day commercial brewers. North Africa and occasionally North America.

mos t brewers would agree that the next most important factor determining beer character is the strain of yeas t. However the technology of yeast is a comparatively recent d evelopment. in freshly broken grains. Further dry roasting caramelised these sugars w ith the production. For example. Pale amber. These examp les are. of a dark brown glass-like appearance. Another coloured malt favoured in Scotland. It is no longer readily a vailable. however. It was fully diastatic.Oh. The metabolism of the yeast during fermentation results in a nu mber of products such as diacetyl. AD 1800 Dorchester Ale was originally made with two parts amber and 1 part brown malts· (rapidly cured over a hot wood fire). This importance arises in two ways. very special cases. The process for producing crystal malt seems to have been patented in the 1840-1850 period . Provided allowance is made for its poor diastatic performance carapils (or caramalt) can be used as a substitute for pale amber. and its ability to ferment the maltotriose component of wort determines the resid ual specific gravity (and hence residual sweetness and pala te fullness) of high OG beers. Our approach has been to use the most app'r opriate modern yeast but look to see whether the final gravity reached is the best for tha t beer. with its very hard 9 . crystal malt is pre-mashed and does not have that limitation. It was only in 1876 that the function of yeast d uring fermentation was elucidated by Pasteur<9l . to make small quantities of these sp ecial malts at home. Its colouring power was about half that of ordinary amber malt<7>. and Ireland (where it was known as porter malt) in the nineteenth century was pale amber. The flavour of crystal malt is similar though not identical to that of brown malt and we have found it useful to replace part of the brown malt in some old beer grists with crystal malt to enable a satisfactory extract to be obtained. Yeast After malt (and its roasted products) and hops. It is not difficult. for example the Guinness Stout brewery.. A late introduction to the range of coloured products was Crystal Malt. Secondly the alcoholic tolerance of the yeast. The freshly m alted barley was heated under high humidity to mash the starch to fermentable sugars inside the ba rley grain. aliphatic alcohols and esters that a re important in beer flavour. Whereas m odern brown malts have no residual diastatic properties and therefore cann~t be made the major part of a grist. The recipe given in this book is thus one which is designed to make a close approximation to the original beer w ith materials currently available. At this SG the flavour balance is not right and raising the SG to 30 (comparable to mod ern Russian Stout) produces a m arked improvement in balance. The middle range of crystal malt has a colouring power similar to that of brown malt. Little actual use seems to have been made of crystal m alt before 1880 however<B>. and instructions for d oing this are given as an appendix. Dorchester Ale can be fermented with modern yeast to below an SG of 20. Both of these effects vary with the strain of yeast. The exceptions are those brewers that have never replaced the yeast used in the br ewery for very long periods of time. Such a grist obviously mashed satisfactorily in a way that modern amber and brown malts do not. It seems entirely plausible that the yeasts used in 1800 w ould have left such a gravity na turally in Dorchester Ale. For example. amber and brown malts may not be readily available to individuals wishing to make some of the recipes 8 ) His• )al Notes in this book. ) itish Beers This development w as rapidly exploited by porter brewers and w ithin five years most London porter had b een reformulated to replace most of the brown malt by pale malt plus a little black malt. however. Water The importance of water used to brew beer has been known for hund reds of years. With few exceptions we know nothing about the yeasts used to make the beers we have stu died. Burton-on-Trent.

A book is now available containing a comple te list of all brewing archive data known within the UK0 1>. presumably because only one quantity (the full capacity of the plant) was ever brewed. Also. which should be high in calcium and sulphate. T hese often omitted essential details such as the quantity of beer brewed . Pre-1840 hand-written ledgers are obviously more difficult to read and sometimes degenerated into little more than an aide-memoire for the brewer. Even in the late nineteenth century the only water treatment recommended to brewers was that oversoft waters could be hardened by boiling with gypsum (calcium sulphate) plus a little table salt<S>. There are quite a few beers that exist only in name and by reputa.than spending a lot of time extracting· information abou t an OLD BEER. only the bare minimum of information was kept.g. making it and evaluating it.well. only to find that one could have bou ght a similar beer in a local off-licence. breaking the formulation down to home brew proportions. The best approach is to obtain. Is it worth making? There is nothing more annoying . e. robust British beers pescribed in this book only two types of water are needed. For dark beers such as mild ales. These are a mixed bag. The second most useful sources are old books o n brewing. Other sources include record s and accounts of medieval Abbeys and large estates owned by the landed gentry. Some are obviously written first-hand by experienced brewers. a brewery at the time the beer was brewed form the most reliable sources. brewing iedgers compiled by. stouts and porters the water (B) should have a salt content of 250-450 ppm and contain more sodium than calcium and more chloride than sulphate. For making the high gravity. no factual information having survived.h ritish Beers water has a reputation for producing good ale that goes back to the eighteenth century. strong ales and barley wines the water (A) should have a total salt content of 800-1200 parts per million (ppm). The range of beers made in medieval times was smaller than that made by a large nineteenth-century brewery.from your local water supplier an analysis of the water and use the instructions in any of the better home-brew booksOO) to adjust the water into the desired area. In the absence of cheap methods of information recording and storage. export ales. third or fourth hand. so there was no point in mentioning it.tion. Ledgers with pre-printed headings are not common before 1840. There a re a number of reasons for this. There are only two primary sources' of information about OLD BEERS. brown ales. What is needed is a simple method of classifying beers so that one can see if an OLD BEER has no 11 . Researching Old Beers Reliable information on the formulation and processing of an old beer is essential if that beer (or a close copy) is to be reproduced. Up to the start of the nineteenth century brewers could only select the most suitable of the locally availabl~ sources of water. errors of interpretation can occur because the ledgers were never intended to be read by someone with no first hand knowledge of the brewery and its 10 ) h ) ical Notes method s. the further back in time one goes the less information is available. and contain small amounts of sodium and chloride.~------------------------------------------------------------- L-. river or stream . If they can be accessed. These were often self-su fficient in home brewed beer. typewriters and printing presses. Even with these.and make the best of it. all malt. For pale ales. when brewing was a craft activity controlled by Guilds the dissemination of information outside the Guild was discouraged . but others are only compilations of information at second. As with all historical information. for some original material n~ longer accessible. This is so even if it is subsequently decided to use an alt~rnative item readily available now.

100 35 36 24 • 21 t 20 > c<S 90 59 58 19 ..Old . Contemporary beers are plotted with the numbers given below.• ')"')1 • 27 • 60 . <a ·~ 60 ~~n l? · ~:: 47 46 . . Original Gravity vs. Colour lW~ 25 48 130 120 ~ .. It is better to keep the OG/Colour p lot and simply rem ember that any one spot on the graph covers a range of hop rates..10 30 26 50 ~ ~ . the interpretation of such graphs is less im mediately obvious to the average ho me brewer. J •• . a nd is a measure of roast grain flavour in the beer. The ori ginal gravity controls alcoholic strength. the shaded L-shaped area represents the regions well covered by present-day commercial brewing. The me thod used by Durden Park is a simple two-d imensional plot of original gravity versus colour (Fig 1). and Export Pale Ales.n g 3 or 4 variables to a 2-dimensional graph.23 22 110~ . maltiness and residual sweetness. H op rates expressed as lbs Hops per Quarter of Malt range from zero for unhopped ale to 23 for some India Pale. Differing hop ra tes are more of a problem. • 34 37 40 80 0 2 32 28 4l. 101 Gale's Prize Old Ale 106 Marston'sOwd Roger 107 Young's Old Nick Barley Wine 102 Eldridge Pope'sHardy Ale 103 Young's Winter Warmer 108 GuinnessStrong Export 104 Theakston's01d Peculiar 109 Courage's Russian Stout 105 Greene King' s Suffolk Ale 13 . 57 56 sse 54 53 • 29 51 52 30 12 Amber Light Brown Brown Dark Brown ) 1Notes existing equivalent. . 44 70 -13T 6 •• • • . A bar chart of hop rates found in old beers is shown in Figure 2. The other two factors w ith a significant effect on beer character a re the hop rate and sweetness (where this is greater than that left in a fully fermented beer).ber Hisl Black Key to figure 1 Historic beers have been plotted with the same numbers given in the section on beer formulations.. Further comparison of these rates w ill enable one to decide w hether an OLD BEER is too similar to an existing commercial beer to be worth making. The colour retlects the type and amount of roast grain in the grist.. While there are fancy methods for red uci. Looking a t figure 1 in detail. ) J sh Beers Figure 1. Only oddball b eers in this area are worth 50 40 Pale Am.. .. . Sweetness above that of a fully fermented beer is fo u nd only in some brow n ales and stouts and is relatively rare in old beers. .e.

Dry hop with 11to oz Geldings. Ferment with good quality ale yeast.g.. Outside the shaded area commercial coverage is thin or in some places. and leaf hops. Suitable for OGs up to 80 0 0 2 Figure 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 Hop Rate (lbs per barrel) 16 18 20 Add hot water to the ground grain to produce a stiff mash a t 66°C (150°F). dish Beers considering. Boil with hops for 11h hours.' . . It is a worthwhile exercise to plot existing commercial beers falling outside this areas so that these slots can be avoided. non-existent. f! Part 2 Making Old British Beers Brewing methods for formulations in this book . Strain and rinse the hops. Cool. e. ) 10 I India Pale Ales 5 & Export Pale Ales 1. <' ~! "~ ) Old u. Suitable for OGs over 80 a) Traditionally these were made by · using the first wort drained from a large batch of malt. It is possible to duplicate this procedure on the small scale by: i) using a very stiff mash ii) sparging very slowly 14 15 . Adjust to the required OG by the addition of cold boiled water or dried pale malt extract as needed. the rest of which went into lower gravity beers. if J i'.. However. Maintain 66±1° C (150±2° F) for three hours then raise the temperature to 77° C (170°F) for 30 minutes. Sparge slowly with water at 82-85° C (180 -185° F) to obtain the required volume. 2.t 20 The old recipes in this book were all made with malted barley. Such beers are unlikely to have the body and palate fullness of the same item produced directly from malted barley. We do not think it is practical to try and duplicate this wide range of beers using the limited types of malt extract available. for those beers made only from pale malt and hops a reasonable copy can be made using the palest available liquid or powder malt extracts and fresh hops. some 7. very high or very low hop rates. ~ 15 ·' l I l I j.8 grades of roasted and caramelised malt and barley.'f J 1 ")l ~ il i.. ·r-.

The wort remaining in the grain can be sparged out to make a second beer with an OG in the range 40-60. beers intended for serving draught. About ·half a teaspoon of sodium metabisulphite crystals plus a few crystals of citric acid are placed in the boat. Bottling high gravity old ales has to be done with care.see diagram. When the initial fermentation is complete (say 3 weeks) the beer is siphoned into a suitably sized glass container with a narrow neck. The carboy or demijohn neck is then covered by several layers of polyethylene film held in place by a heavy elastic band. •1 b) Proceed as in method 2 a) until the wort collected has fallen in SG to 15 below the beer OG. Maturing The great majority of beers in this book would have been matured in wooden barrels for serving draught. A loose-fitting glass or plastic tube. limits contact with the air. The beer should overlap the base of the neck. fined if necessary. by using method 2 b. Add the hops and . Add the first wort and raise to the boil. PVC Adhesive Tape to Secure Boat to Carboy Heavy Polyethylene Film / The following method has been found suitable for maturing. The safest type of bottles to use are those which can be checked for development of excessive pressure by rapidly opening and resealing. Neither method is particularly convenient for home brewers. dritish Beers ) Brew )Methods I# ~~ ti.e. the priming sugar should be restricted to a quarter or a third of normal. ~~ iii) cease collecting wort when the gravity has dropped to a critical value. The old-fashioned internal screw-stopper bottles are ideal but virtually unobtainable. if only the main beer is wanted./' 17 . The size of the plastic boat should be as large as is practicable to minimise the exposed beer surface. This seal allows carbon dioxide from any secondary fermentation of residual wort carbohydrates to escape. for up to a year. Because some secondary fermentation will usually take place in bottle. Boil the second. is inserted into the neck and prevented from slipping too far into the beer by PVC adhesive tape . the making of a second beer can be avoided.~ . Subsequent boiling with the hops for 11I 2 hours raises the gravity to that specified. The next best are the swingtop bottles similar to those used for some continental lagers. closed at the lower end.~. Strong Elastic Bands ~ Cut-off Plastic Bottle or Sealed Plastic Tube 16 Bisulphite and Acid Crystals / . about 1/ 4 oz per gallon. However. Continue and complete the fermentation as in method 1.boil for 11/z hours. When needed the beer may b e siphoned into a fresh container. Change the vessel receiving the wort and continue sparging slowly until the SG of the second wort drops to 50 below the beer OG. weaker wort until the SG (adjusted to room temperature) has risen to 15 below the beer OG.e II' 6. i. and provides enough sulphur dioxide in the airspace to inhibit ye~st or bacterial growth on the small exposed beer surface. and then conditioned in a plastic pressure barrel for draught dispense.about 15 below the beer QG. or bottled in corked bottles for 'home sales' or export.

ca.Mild Ale (1909) Mild Ale (London.3 (Pale. 1824) Ushe r's 68/ . 1300) Medieval Household Beer (1512) Medieval Household Beer (1577) Medieval Household Beer (1587) Welsh Ale (unhopped.Pale Ale (1885) Simond's (Reading) Bitter (1880) Original India Pale Ale (1837) William Black's X Ale (1849) Younger's Ale No. 1744) 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 Pale Amber and Amber Beers 9 10 11 '• 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 Younger's Export Ale (1848) Usher's India Pale Ale (1885) Usher's 60/. 1896) Younger's Imperial Ale (1835) London Ale (1820) William Black's XXX Ale (1849) Alexander Berwick's Imperial Ale (1849) Litchfield October Beer (1744) William Black's Best Ale (1849) Keeping Beer (1824) Younger's XXXS Ale (1872) Wicklow Ale (Ireland.Mild Ale (1885) 31 31 31 19 . 1805) Burton Ale (1824) 25 25 25 26 26 26 27 27 27 28 28 28 29 29 29 30 30 Light Brown. ca.) ) ) Recipes Medieval Beers 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Gruit Ale (unhopped. 1300) Gruit Ale (unhopped. Late 17th Century) Ebulum (Unhopped Elderberry Ale. ca. 1400) MUM (unhopped. Brown and Dark Brown Beers 26 27 28 Maclay's 56/ .

1 (1872) Younger's Ale No. 1% lb Pale Malt 1112 lb Carapils 1112 gram each of Myrica Gale (Sweet Gale). l ']! ~ .~ 11: l~ 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 ~.Ale (1872) Younger's 120/.: il .Ale (1871) Younger's 80/.!i· r ij'.Ale (1910) Younger's Ale No.3 (1872) Younger's Ale No.Ale (1872) Younger's 140/. 1300) Ref (15) OG80 Plain ales ·from fermented barley wort were undoubtedly made in the pre-hop era.4 (1871) Belhaven XXX (1871) Younger's XXXX Ale (1896) Younger's XXXX Stock Ale (1896) Dorchester Ale (ca.4 (1866) Belhaven Ale No.U Kingston Amber Ale (ca. Stouts and Porters 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 '[ It I . ' I~ J L-.r-. % lb carapils and only 1 gram each of the herbs. ca.3 (London.1800) Whitbread's London Porter (1850) Younger's Export Stout (1897) Younger's Double Brown Stout (1872) Younger's Porter (1848) William Black's Brown Stout (1849) Whitbread's Double Stout (1880) Original Porter (1750) Whitbread's Triple Stout (1880) Younger's XXXP Export Porter (1841) 39 39 40 40 40 41 41 41 42 42 43 43 2 Gruit Ale (unhopped.Oatmeal Stout (1909) Usher's Stout (1885) London Porter (ca. Mature for 4 months. However.t~ritish Beers . 1300) Ref (15) OG 50 Repeat the procedure for the OG 80 Gruit Ale but use 11. where possible herb flavou rings would have been added to offset the bland flavour of plain ale.Ale (1872) Younger's 200/..~I ~ ' .l i [~j l.2 (London. ca.2 (1872) Younger's Ale No. ~~ ~~ !l :' ~- ii: li· !i. 1800) Younger's Majority Ale (1937) Medieval Beers 32 32 32 33 33 33' 34 34 34 35 35 35 36 36 36 37 37 37 38 38 Recipes per 1 gallon 1 Gruit Ale (unhopped. Ledum Palustre (Marsh Rosemary) and Achillea Millefolium (Mil/foil or Yarrow) Method No. u 21 . 1872) Younger's Ale No. ~~ 20 Maclay's 63/. 1830) Younger's 60/. but in place of hops.Ale (1872) Younger's 100/. Mature for 3 months.. 4 lbs pale malt.Ale (1872) Younger's 160/. boil the herb m ixture with the wort for 20 minutes. 1872) Younger's Ale No.1..~ ~.

. but mix the wheat and oats with boiling water and simmer for 10 minutes before adding to the malt mash.) Beers 3 Medieval Household Beer (1512) Ref (2) ) ieval Beers· 5 Medieval Household Beer (1587) Ref (14) OG65 OG70 The hop rate is beginning to approach modern p ractice. Mature for 6 months.. The beer character is similar to modern high gravity light mild ale. the anti-hop lobby blamed hops for all manner of human problems from gout to flatulence.. Mature for 3-4 months. 6 g Ginger. The malt mixture given above should be a reasonable substitute.. producing a pale brown beer. OG55 A malty beer superior to American malt liquors.oaB~ .. adding sugar if necessary to produce a final gravity of 15-20. Mature for 3-4 months..... When first grown in the UK. .. Medieval beers were thus made with (by current standards) tiny amounts of hops. 23 22 . 3 g Cloves. hops were an expensive commodity.... In addition. ca. Referment. 12 g cinnamon.. All malt in 1512 would have been at least pale amber in colour. 1112 lb Pale Malt 12 oz Amber Malt 2112 oz Wheatmeal 2112 oz Oatmeal 114 oz Hops Welsh Ale (unhopped . Strain.. Method No. Settle and bottle. Ferment with ale yeast.~s.1. 1% lb Pale Malt 12 oz Amber Malt 2112 oz Wheatmeal 2112 oz Oatmeal 112 oz Fuggles or Go/dings Hops 21!4 lb Pale Malt 11!4 /b Amber Malt 1/s oz Hops Method No. · Ref(l) OG70 An appealing spiced Ale for drinking on a cold night.1...aa. 1400) '·· 3 lb Pale Malt 5 oz Light Malt Extract Powder . ~ I ( 6 4 Medieval Household Beer (1577) Ref (13).~aB. When nearly finished.. Mature for 4 months. 12 g White pepper 1!2 pint Honey Method No.beer.. This is a pleasant malty beer superior to American malt liquors. The amber malt is needed to reproduce the nut-brown character of medieval .. but boil hops for 2 hours.1. but simmer the wheatmeal and oatmeal in boiling water for 10 minutes before adding to the malt mash. add the malt extract powder dissolved in a pint of water. Process the pale malt to produce 1 gallon of wort u sing method 1... plus the other ingredients.

Infuse for 10 days. ift. Pennyroyal 1112 gram Crushed Cardamom seeds 112 gram Bruised Bayberries ~I ll Il. Ref (12) OG85 Attractive in its own way. ~~~I Recipes per 1 gallon 3 lb Wheat malt 1 lb Pale Malt 112 lb rolled Oats 112 lb ground beans. 2112 lb Pale Malt 2113 oz Go/dings Hops Method No. Marjoram. Add the elderberries. but simmer oats and beans for 20 minutes before adding to malt mash. Thyme. 1 Mature for 8 months. Boil for 20 minutes. 1. bitter. Betony. 1744) Ref (16) OG60 A medium gravity India type pale ale. After 3-4 d ays rack from the yeast deposit and add the other ingredients. Dried Elderflower.1 Mature for 8 . 1 Mature for at least 8 months. Ferment with ale yeast.j One of the best unhopped ales. Mature for at least 6 months. 10 Usher's India Pale Ale (1885) Ref (16) OG60 A clean. then bottle.9 months. I ll. Ferment with ale yeast. Burnet. i I' I I I. I I r l l Pale Amber and Amber Beers OG80 8 Ebulum (Unhopped Elderberry Ale.1 Mature for at least 3 months.~ I 7 MUM (unhopped. 4 lb Pale Malt 1112 lb Ripe Fresh Elderberries Use method 2(b) to produce one gallon of wort at OG 100 (or dissolve light :r:nalt powder in water to give the same). Late 17th Century) Ref (1) . I 24 25 . Strain and allow to clear.Pale Ale (1885) Ref (16) OG60 A typical pale ale of the period. cool and strain.ij Hlr Ok ) \ J tish Beers ru. ! Method No. 11 Usher's 60/. 1 gram each of Cardus Benedictus. Resembles some Belgian Fruit Beers. refreshing p ale ale.! l .6 lb Lager Malt 1112 oz Go/dings Hops Method No.. 9 Younger's Export Ale (1848) 2. 2112 fb Pale Malt %ozHops Method No.

Method No.1. 2112 lb Pale Malt I :. A stron~ ale heavily hopped.3 (Pale. 27 . OG75 3 lb Pale Malt 1213 oz Go/dings Hops 17 London Ale (1820) Method No.1 14 William Black's X Ale (1849) A high quality strong pale ale.A shipped from Burton in the 1830's according to the reference.. 26 .1 Method No. slightly sweet bitter with real character. The strongest of Younger's Export Pale Ales. Mature for at least 8 months. 31!4 /b Pale Malt 1. Ref (18) 3112 lb Pale Malt 3 oz Goldings Hops Method No.. 1896) OG62 Method No. Ref (16) 1/b Pale Malt 2 lb Lager Malt 1112 oz Go/dings Hops · 7 oz Carapils or 3 oz Carapils + 2 oz Amber Malt 1 oz Fuggles or Go/dings Hops 0.1 Mature for at least 6 months.15 oz Geldings hops for the last 5 minutes of the boil.15 oz Goldings Hops 'late' . 2(a) or 2 (b). ! 12 Simond's (Reading) Bitter (1880) Ref (24) OG76 A robust.P. 3 lb Pale Malt 2112 oz Go/dings Hops Excellent Strong Ale.9 lb pale malt plus 21/ 4 oz hops) in 1880.il j -! 15 Younger's Ale No. Ref (20) OG85 Mature for at least 8 months. but add the 0. Mature for at least 1 year.1 Mature for at least 8 months. 16 Younger's Imperial Ale (1835) Ref (16) OG80 13 Original India Pale Ale (1837) Ref (21) OG70 The recipe corresponds to the heaviest I. Mature for at l~ast 3 months. Simonds of Reading were shipping an almost identical formulation (2.1 oz Go/dings Hops Method No.'I I I i ~I 01~ ) J tish Beers Pale and / ) er Beers 11 I I .

~: 21 William Black's Best Ale (1849) OG90 OG 110 An excellent strong ale/barley wine 33{4 lb Pale Malt 1. l ritish Beers 18 William Black's XXX Ale (1849) l l / Ref (18) .2 (a) The second beer makes a good bitter. 3% lb Pale Malt 1. Ref (18) 41/z lb Pale Malt 1. Mature for at least 10 months. They could be used as made.. or watered down to lighter beers.9 oz Go/dings Hops Method No. provided stable beers for use the following summer. Ground Peas. I Pale and Aufber Beers 19 Alexander Berwick's Imperial Ale (1849) Ref (1 6) OG 90-92 22 Keeping Beer (1824) A high quality strong pale ale. 28 29 . 6 lb Pale Malt 21!4 oz Go/dings Hops Method No. Method No..1 Mature for at least a year. 4/b Pale Malt 1% oz Go/dings Hops 4 oz each of Oatmeal. Method No.2 Mature for at least 10 months.1 or No 2. 20 Litchfield October Beer (1744) Ref (19) OG 116 Method No.1 oz Go/dings Hops Very good Barley Wine 6 lb Pale Malt 13/4 oz Go/dings Hops Method No.7 oz Go/dings Hops A superb barley wine. Mature for at least a year. Strong beers. t'. OG 110 :l Before temperature control became common after 1820. Ground Beans and Ground Wheat 23 Younger's XXXS Ale (1872) Ref (1 6) OG 120 A very strong pale ale possibly exported to Russia. Ref (12) Mature for at least 1 year. made in October with fresh malt and hops and matured over winter.)- "\ 01u. A very good Barley Wine with an individual flavour. 2(b) but first cook the adjuncts at the boil for 10 minutes before adding to the stiff mash made with the pale malt. ale brewers stopped brewing during the summer months.2 Mature for 1 year.

27 Mild Ale (London. J 1j 4 lb Pale Malt lib Carapils 1 4 oz Amber Malt 2. Mature for at least 1 year. 7 lb or 5112 lb Pale Malt (see method) 0. sweet ale for which Burton-on-Trent was noted before it concentrated on Pale Ales. also makes 11/2..1 Mature for 3 months. 28 Usher's 68/. 10 lb or 6 lb Pale Malt 2 oz Hops + extra for the 2nd beer Method No.2 gallons of lighter beer. 30 '-- . 31 . or 2 (b) using 6lb. 2 lb Pale Malt.9 oz Go/dings Hops i 1113 lb Carapils Method No.Mild Ale (1909) Method No. Brown and Dark Brown Beers Ref (17) OG 125 r Recipes per 1 gallon A very strong. 1 or No. Mature for at least Ref (16) OG60 11/z years.~ · .-. Mature for 3 months. 2(a) with 10 lb malt. 1805) Light Brown. An excellent middle gravity mild ale. l. heavy. . India Pale Ales and Bitters.") 01.Mild Ale Ref (16) (1885) OG80 i:: A high gravity mild ale virtually unique to Scotland. 0. 10 oz Wheat Malt or 6 oz Wholewheat flour \0. 2(a) use 7lb Pale malt. 8 oz Go/dings Hops ----~ Method No. 2(b) use 51h lb Pale malt.3 oz Go/dings Hops ----- Method No.2 i:n il Mature for 4 months .9 oz Go/dings Hops 26 Maclay's 56/. A very strong. malty ale. J itish Beers ) ~ i 24 Wicklow Ale (Ireland. 1824) Ref (19) OG66 Very good full flavoured strong mild ale. j 25 Burton Ale (1824) Ref (19) OG 140 ]3/4 /b Pale Malt 314 oz Black Malt 3 oz Amber Malt.

11/4 lb Pale Malt 11/4 lb Amber Malt Ref (16) Strong nut-brown ale. oz Goldings Hops Method No. Amber Ales are similar in style to Theakston's Old Peculiar. 32 33 . 1 or No.9 oz Go/dings Hops 1113 lb Carapils 3 lb Pale Malt. and hop rates from 3. 30 Younger's 60/. Method No. 11/2 lb Pale Malt 314 1 lb Carapils 2314 lb Pale Malt 2114 lb Carapils 1112 oz Go/dings Hops Method No. Almost in the strong ale category by current standards.Ale (1872) Ref (16) OG70 See 100/. s to 3. 1213 lb Pale Malt. 0. OGs from 50 to 70. 1830) Ref (17) OG60 32 Younger's 100/. 21f2[b Carapils 1. 1 34 Younger's 140/. OG 104 Ref (16) Barley wine strength nut-brown ale. Method No. 31 Younger's 80/. 2(a) Mature for at least a year. 2 2 oz Chocolate Malt 314 oz Fuggles or Goldings Hops Mature for 6 months.Ale (1872) OG80 Amber ales were popular in London.Ale (1871) Ref (16) OG 60-62 The weakest of the Younger's Shillings Ale range.Ale 0872) Mature for 3-4 months. Brown and Dark Brown Beers 29 Kingston Amber Ale (ca. 2 lb Pale Malt.1 Mature for 6 months. OG 92-94 Ref (16) Strong nut-brown ale.Ale (1872) Mature for 3-4 months.6 oz Go/dings Hops Method No.I f 01{ ) ) tish Beers Light Brown.1 33 Younger's 120/. Less hopped than the Scotch Ale range. 4 oz per gallon. Ratios of amber malt to pale malt varied from 3:1 to 1:1.2 Mature for 1 year.ale. 13/4 lb Carapils 1 oz Go/dings Hops Method No.

3 (1872) Ref (16) OG80 37 Younger's Ale No. Mature for at least 2 years. The strongest in the Shillings Ale range. in 1937. 2 hours.Carapils 2. 2112 lb Pale Malt 2 lb Carapils 1.<.. 1. 34 Mature for at least 8 months. 2 lb Pale Malt. 43/4/b Pale Malt 4 lb . and King George VI.Ale (1872) Ref (16) Light Brown.2 Method No. 40 Younger's Ale No. Brown and Dar· ) wn· Beers 38 Younger's Ale No.5 oz Go/dings Hops A Scotch Ale with a slightly lower gravity than No.7 oz Go/dings Hops Method No. A nut-brown dark barley wine. 21/4 lb Pale Malt l3/4lb Carapils 1.2 Method No. 11h lb Carapils 1114 az Goldings Hops Method No. If below 100. 2(a) Mature for at least 10 months. ) J ritish Beers 35 Younger's 160/.9 oz Go/dings Hops Method No. 1 (1872) Ref (1 6) OG 102 The strongest of the Scotch Ales. pre-boil to this value (measured cold) before adding hops and boiling for 21.2 Mature for at least a year.2 (1872) OG 126 OG94 A very strong nut-brown ale.2 Mature for at least 10 months. in 1911.. The most widely drunk of Younger's Scotch Ales. 23!4/b Pale Malt 2 oz Goldings Hops 21t4 lb Carapils Pale nut-brown ale similar to a strong mild ale. 1 or No. 35 . 2 (London.Ale (1910) Ref (1 6) OG 126 This seems to have been a Coronation Ale made to celebrate the coronations of both King George V. Extract 11/ 4 gallons of wort at the highest possible SG. 1872) Ref (16) OG 82 Scotch Ales for London sale were made slightly lower in OG and somewhat higher in hop than those for sale in Scotland. 41 !2 lb Pale Malt 3 1!2 oz Goldings Hops Ref (16) 3 1/2 lb Carapils Method 2(a). 36 Younger's 200/. Mature for at least a year. 39 Younger's Ale No.

6 oz Go/dings Hops Method No.1 Method No. 36 Ref (16) Ref (16) OG98 A 'stock' version of an ale was of higher gravity and hop rate than the ordinary version.4 (1866) Mature for 6 months.n 44 Belhaven XXX (1871) B~ers Ref (16) OG76 OG70 See Ale No.) Olu 2 itish Beers 41 Younger's Ale No. 1 Mature for 6 months. 2114 lb Pale Malt.1 Method No. 12 . 42 Younger's Ale No. 1 Mature for at least 6 months. 13/4 /b Pale Malt J1 tz lb Carapils 2 oz Go/dings Hops Ref (16) OG 75-76 Excellent strong mild ale. w hen needed it could be diluted down to strength with light beer or water.3 lb Pale Malt 1113 lb Carapils 1. Mature for 6 months.3 (London. 1872) Ref (16) Light Brown. Ref (16) 45 Younger's XXXX Ale (1896) OG74 This beer was only made for a limited period. It does not fit neatly into the Scotch Ale series and looks like an export version (higher hop rate) of Ale No.4 oz Go/dings Hops Method No.4 (1871) OG68 Light nut-brown ale. 3 (London). 37 . ). A nut-brown ale with a hop rate between that of the same OG Shillings Ale and Scotch Ale.1 Mature for at least 8 months. Brown and Dark . ]3/4 lb Pale Malt 11!4/b Carapils 1.2 (London). 2(b) Mature for at least 10 months. 1213 /b Pale Malt 1113 lb Carapils 1314 oz Go/dings Hops 12/3 /b Pale Malt l 1!3lb Carapils 1114 oz Go/dings Hops Method No. J3/4 lb Carapils 2 oz Go/dings Hops Method No. 46 Younger's XXXX Stock Ale (1896) 43 Belhaven Ale No.

. such would not mash satisfactorily today. Mature for 4 months. The 1949 ale was similar but had a hop rate of 11I 2 oz hops. If the SG is below 120. 1 lb Pale Malt 49 Maclay's 63/. OG 136 A blockbuster of an ale made at the birth of an heir to the family for drinking at the 21st birthday party! The second wort makes an excellent old-ale with OG 50-SS.Oatmeal Stout (1909) Ref (16) OG46 A chewy. 1800) ) ) J itish Beers Stouts and Porters Ref (17) OG 100 The original recipe used only amber and brown malts.01L 47 Dorchester Ale (ca. 5 lb Carapils 2 oz Go/dings H_ops Method No. 2 oz Brown Malt Method No. satisfying stout.4 oz Fuggles or Go/dings Hops Method No. but add the malt syrup to the wort before boiling with the hops to break up any residual starch. 1114 lb Pale Malt 2 oz Amber Malt 4 oz Black Malt 3!4 lb Breakfast Oats 1 oz Go/dings Hops Method No. 2 lb Cn. 48 Younger's Majority Ale (1937) Recipes per 1 gallon Ref (16) Mature for 3 months. i I.} 39 38 . 2(a). but mix the oats with 2 pints boiling water and stand for 10 minutes before mixing with the malts. The grist has been chosen to reproduce the character required in a form that is easier to process. Mature for at least 10 months. 18 oz Pale Malt. This is a dark brown barley wine. Mash at 155°F for 3 hours then 170°F for 1 hour. Mature for at least 2 years.. 1. pre-boil the wort up to this value (measured cold) before adding hops and boiling for a further 11/ 2 hours: 50 Usher's Sto:ut (1885) Ref (16) OG56 A typical full-bodied Victorian stout. 2(b). 4 oz Black Malt 2 oz Crystal Malt 2 oz Brown sugar 1. 1. Extract 1114 gallons of the strongest wort possible.stal Malt 1 lb Brown Malt · 8 oz Diastatic Malt Syrup 11. t. 7/b Pale Malt.3 oz Fuggles Hops 61!2 oz Carapils 2 oz Amber Malt.

21!4 /b Pale Malt. 1112 oz Black Malt 1112 oz Go/dings Hops 2112 oz Black Malt 1 oz Fuggles or Go/dings Hops Method No. Method·No.) ) Olu 2 itish Beers Ref (19) 51 London Porter (ca. 56 William Black's Brown Stout (1849) 53 Younger's Export Stout (1897) Ref (16) Ref (18) OG 76-78 OG 66-68 A mouth-filling strong Scottish porter. Method No. 1. Ref (16) OG72 A full-bodied porter with an attractive soft roast grain background.1.1.8 oz Fuggles or Go/dings Hops J1h lb Pale Malt. 1112 lb Pale Malt 7 oz Brown Malt 1112 lb Brown Malt.1/b Amber Malt 1. 31/2 oz Black Malt 1112 oz Go/dings Hops lb Amber Malt 1. This formulation has the merit that it can be made unchanged with modem brewing materials. 1114 lb Pale Malt %lb Brown Malt 112 Double stout and d ouble brown stout were late nineteenth ce!. Smooth. 40 41 ~ .1800) ' ' Stoms and Porters 54 Younger's Double Brown Stout (1872) OG60 Ref (16) OG68 Porter recipes vary quite widely between different regions and breweries.1 oz Brown Malt ] 1/4 oz Black Malt 1. 1. with a soft roast grain flavour. Mature for at least 6 months.1lb Pale Malt. 1 lb Carapils 1 '2 12 oz Crystal Malt 2 oz Black Malt 1113 oz Fuggles or Go/dings Hops Method No. Mature for at least 6 months. Mature for at least 4 months.1 oz Fuggles or Go/dings Hops 1% lb Amber Malt Method No. 1% lb Pale Malt. Mature for 6 months. 1. Full-bodied and luscious. 1."ltury labels for strong porter. 1. Method No. good balance of roast grain and hop flavours. A full-bodied succulent stout. Mature for at least 6 months. 55 Younger's Porter (1848) 52 Whitbread's London Porter (1850) Ref (22) OG60 One of the circle's favourite old beers. Mature for at least 6 months. 1.

Similar to Russian Stout but with a lower hop rate. strong. The above recipe is constructed to meet the contemporary descriptions of 1750 porter. 2(b). 42 43 . Method No. 23. 14 oz Brown Malt. Method No. These cannot be made satisfactorily from present-day brown malts. 2% lb Pale Malt 3 lb Pale Malt. i.2 oz Fuggles or Go/dings Hops 3 oz Black Malt 1113 oz Fuggles or Go/dings Hops 1 lb Brown Malt. A full-bodied porter similar to Russian Stout. Method No. Mature for at least 8 months. A softer and quicker maturing version of this beer. can be made by using Carapils in place of the Brown Malt. A heavy satisfying drink f6racold evening. 2(b). that proved popular with the Circle. The strongest of the London stouts. but it is good! The Dorchester ale recipe is probably as close to 1750 porter as can be made at present. Mature for 1 year. but boil hops for 3 hours. _ ) ritish Beers 57 Whitbread's Double Stout (1880) Ref (22) Stou 59 Whitbread's Triple Stout (1880) ) Por ters Ref (22) OG80 OG95 Double stouts were strong porters. It might not be authentic. 2(b) Mature for 6 months.4 oz Black Malt or 31/z oz Roast Barley 3 oz Fuggles or Go/dings Hops Method No. 31/2 lb Pale Malt 8 oz Brown Malt 8 oz Crystal Malt. 4 oz Black Malt 11/z oz Fuggles or Go/dings Hops 3 lb Pale Malt J3/4 lb Brown Malt.) (. 3 oz Black Malt 1. It is one of the circle's favourite old beers..1. black. 58 Original Porter (1750) Ref (22) 60 Younger's XXXP Export Porter (1841) Ref (16) OG90 OG 100 1750 porters would have contained mostly brown malt. bitter and nutritious.e. Mature for at least 10 months.

After a further 20 minutes remove 6 or 7 corns from the tray.. about the colour of the paler types of brown wrapping paper..! ~'" .fc~ 1~ . allow to cool and store the roast grain in an air-tight screw-top jar (large kilner jars are ideal). Home Roasting Pale Malt to Pale Amber. '3 oo cl ~~'R S' 3oo J J . For amber malt... just noticeably different from the pale malt. ~~\J d ~J~ OS J. 0 W\ . The pale malt is almost pure white.(eQ. 2 inch).~ qs. Crystal malt. slice across the centre with a sharp knife and compare the colour of the starchy centre with that of a few pale malt corns. r- po. amber and brown malts. usually 45 to 50 minutes. continue heating until the cut section is distinctly light buff.$ . If brown malt is needed. Even carapils.. however.A)~ Line a large baking tin with aluminium foil. p~vi r. might only b~ available by bulk purchase direct from maltsters. Continue heating until this colour is obtained.) } ) Appendix 1. and pour in pale malt to a depth of 12 mm (1. Roasting Method J 'Q't) de .. -~ . If used soon after production. Place in the oven (preferably fan-stirred) at 100°C (230°F) for _!!5 minutes to dry out the malt. When the correct colour has been reached.. the flavour imparted by home-roasted grain is superior to bought grain. remove the tray from the oven.\(' 0.\'-'( 4. i. for pale amber the colour should be the palest buff.. then raise the tem~ralure to''fsooc (300°F). Amber and Brown Malt Some ingredients needed to make OLD BEERS might not be readily available. which is usually available. 45 . raise the temperature at this point to 175°C (350°F) and wait until the cut cross-section is a full buff.e. has about the same colour potential as brown malt but a more caramel-like flavour. " . usually about 30 minutes. ~~'t..V"' """It . in particular pale amber. Carapils with a colour number of about 25 can be used in place of pale amber up to 45% of the pale malt in any grist. The roasting times given above are intended only as a guide to producing the wanted roast grain Practical tests on the oven available will enable home-brewers to adjus t the time and temperature to produce the colour needed.. < ~ ~ o.. All three can be produced by roasting pale malt in an ordinary domestic oven as described below.

Longman. 1913. Tizzard. A History of English Ale and Beer. Chap. 1885. Brewing Ledgers held at the Scottish Brewing Archive. P. Line. Parker. London. Manchester University Press. London. D. Malt and Sweet Wort. Town and Country Brewer. Roast Barley 1000-1500 1200 Gives a drier. Wheeler.) } ) Appendix 2. et al. London. Black 1200-1500 1350 Gives a sweet.S. The Young Brewers Monitor. & Hall. Additives in Beer. London. The Scottish Ale Brewer. Courage's Brewing Archive . Mild Ale 6-7 Munich 16. Description of England. 1876. Pasteur. London. Ninth Edition.L. 1886.obtainable by special order only. 1981. 1959. British Patent 4112 1817. and Martin. ---- t :f: European Brewing Co~wention colour numbers Estimated from contemporary descriptions I 16 17 22 23 24 25 Monkton. Practical Brewing.. 1770. Swimbridge. Roberts. Stapes. D. J. L. W. F. HeriotWatt University.S. Black. The Big Book of Brewing.H. and Turton. 25-40 Carapils 2 Comments Most Used · Colour 11 A pale crystal malt that can be used to replace Pale Amber Malt. 1784. Andover. Accum. Crystal 50-300 150 Being partly mashed inside the grains it can be used to replace Brown Malt in difficult recipes. UK. 1857. Corran. P. Vol1. Harrison.T. A History of Bmllittg. Vol 2.H. Briggs. UK. H. sharper flavour than Black Malt. Whitbread's Brewery Records. Patton.. 1990. The Amateur Winemaker. Richardson. D. Richmond.E. Anon. Pale 5 Standard Pale Ale Malt. Treatise on The Art of Brewing. 1974. David and Charles. H. H. 47 46 j ·1 . 12 13 14 15 Pale Amber (Scotch Malt) 30-40 t Amber 50-100 70 Brown 100-200 150 The main flavouring ingredient in English and Scottish Porters. Mathias. H. References Colour Ratings of Roast Malts and Barley 1 EBC t Colour Range Type Lager 3 1:1 mix with Pale Malt can substitute for East India Malt 2. Etudes sur Ia Biere. W. Edinburgh and London.A.. Bickerdyke. Barnstaple. 1989. First Edition. 1849. Malting and Brewing Science. UK. 1982. 1824. Paris. Cambridge. H. Patton Publications. 1934. Curiosities of Ale and Beer. Forth Edition. Edinburgh. London 1966. 'Brewing' EncyClopaedia Britannica. Bodley Head. Statistical Estimates. A. A.5-3 East India Malt 4 Obsolete. The Brewing Industry (A Guide to Historical Records). acrid flavour to Stouts and Porters. London. William A Practical Treatise on Brewing. Chocolate 900-1100 1000 Used in Stouts and Dark Brown Ales. Theory and Practise of Brewing. Malt and Malting. W.18 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Used for mild ales and dark bitters. The Hop IndustnJ. King and Son Ltd. 1876. used at double quantities can replace Pale Amber Malt. The Brewing Industry in England 1700-1830. Anon. 1837. W. J. 18 19 20 21 Obsolete . J. 1820. L. 1975. Scotland. 1577. Hopped Wort and Beer. Nithsdale.

you can probably get by with less than a 1 hour mash for OGs under 1. Bow many of you can wait that long? . There is a section on home-toasting malts in the oven. These brews were made mostly with a 2 hour (or more) boil. You will notice that hop utilization is greatly affected by wort gravity. I have used these recipes and made some very nice ales. However. so ifyou are going to use modem varieties with more AAs adjust accordingly. I would like to mention that all recipes are given per 1 gallon of-finished product so you will need to do some basic math to determine amounts needed for your batch size. Hop AAs were about 4 to 5o/o in the days these beers were made. This was probably necessary with the malts available in the 18tb century.120 brew. I'm just saying. hop utilization increases only about 10% between the first and second hour of the boil. I would go with the specified hops.050 and up to a 2 hour mash for the very high-gravity recipes. Iodine test is the easiest way to verify aU starches have been ~onverted.040 brew is about double that of a 1. Some brewers have found that low-gravity beers are fully saccharified in a 30 minute mash.Old British Beers and How to Make Them-Preamble Most of these recipes are from the 18th century although there are a few gruit and unhopped ale recipes that date back to the middle ages as well as a few 20th century recipes. if you want to get a real idea of what these been were like. I've included a hop-utilization table. most of these recipes are for high-gravity beers so you may want to use up to a 2 hour mash. You may note that for all gravities. the other was to reduce volume in order to increase gravity. Using modern (better-modified) malts. You will also note that a lot of these high-gravity brews were aged 8 months or more. But you may also note that the hop utilization for a 1. One reason was to get maximum hop utilization. Many have noted that the Fuggles and Goldings used almost exclusively in these beers provide a more earthy/woody taste profile than other varieties. I have used this process and it makes some unique flavors. All recipes call for a 3 hour mash. Make sure you use a yeast that is NOT overly-attenuative. These ales used a relatively low-attenuating yeast strain that left a good amount of body and sweetness. You can mow the lawn and take out the trash while the mash is working.

211 0.127 I I 80 o.134 I I I I 90 I I I I l I -=- 1 o.Utilization as a function of Boil Gravity and Time Iv~~a~~ .291 1o.1o3 0 .122 10.050 .252 1o.176 o.ooo 1o.o8o o.117 1o.155 o.159 0.o45 15 1o.100 .222 0 .o7o 1 o.139 10.145 10.o87 o.146 1o.218 0.161 o.27o 1o.3o1 1o.1o5 l o.175 10.176 1 0.110 .2~4 1o.23o 0.o55 1o.157 1o.13o I 100 1 110 1o.137 1o.14o 0.191 1o.o49 1o.16o 1o.070 .210 0.094 35 1o.o29 1o.112 1o .188 0.135 0.226 0 .o61 20 1o .175 o.161 1 o .135 1o.203 0.272 1o.190 0.191 0.128 0.120 60 o. 1. 1.133 1o.142 1o.114 l o.232 0. 1.o46 1o.133 .177 1o.266 1o.o25 10 1o.1oo 1o.1.247 1o.124.085 30 10 .194 o .ooo 1o.132 0.251 1o.129 0 .o81 0.162 10.102 40 1o.ooo 1o.o89 1o .209 0 .17o 1o.1 28_ 1o.16o 1o.1.o73 o.o5o 1o .o67 o.113 50 o.125 o.I I Table 7.192 1o.186 o.175 1o.o76 1 o.147 o.157 0.153 1 o.261 1o.295 1o.141 o.199 0.o84 1o.1o.147 1o.147 1o. 1.123 70 o.ooo 1o .108 45 o.o42 1o .132 o.148 1o.152 0.172 10.188 0.228 0.o91 o.o38 1 o.3oo 1o.285 1o .2oo 1o.o27 1 o.o64 1o.135 1o.146 1 o.2o2 l 0.160 o.118 0.120 I I I I I I 0 1o.ooo 1o.252 1o.o96 1o.153 o.ooo 1o.229 0.231 10.177 10.219 l o.14o 1o .298 1o .185 10.122 0.o35 1o.o94 0.162 ! o.155 10. 1 .212 10 .074 25 1o.113 1o.o58 1o.24o 1 o.030 .183 1o .27o 1 o .ooo 5 1 o.060 .1o2 l o .194 10.148 10.117 55 o.253 1 o .ooo 1o.212 ! o.o53 1 o.275 1o.166 10. 1. l.221 o.225 l o.247 1o.ooo 1~.123 0 .229 o.134 120 1o.208 0.276 1o.263 1 o.192 ~.2o6 1o.ooo 1o.144 10.206 0.243 10.167 1o.174 10.o98 1o.168 1o.182 0.172 o.090 .o32 1o.238 1o.080 . 249 1 o.134 10 .193 0. 1.242 1 0.144 0.2o9 o.040 .169 10.111 0.1o7 1o.

Nottingham D Danstar High High 57-70°Neutral for an ale yeast. L=Liquid. L White LabsMed/Higb70-75% 68-73°Very clear with some residual sweetness. L Siebellnst. Key: Type=Typc of yeast. Thames Valley Ale ll 1882 L Wyeast High 68-72%64-74°Mildly malty and slightly fruity . L White LabsMed/High71-76% 66-70°Drier finish than many British ale yeasts Essex Ale Yeast WLP022 D Fementis Medium TI% 59-75°Clean with mild flavor for a wide range of styles. D=Dry. soft. Atten=Attenuation. Temp=ldeal Fermentation Temperature ::J !stout Name & Number TypeLab Floc. British Ale WLP005 L Wyeast Med/High75-78% 60-75°Produces nice malt profile with a hint of fruit.s. Fermentis US 56 L Wyeast High 73-77% 60-72°Slight residual diacetyl and fru itiness. bitters and stouts. Temp.. very versatile.Yeast Strains Chart Page 3 of6 suppliers. Just select a beer style from the menu below to view a chart with appropriate yeast strains to ·· · · · · ·· consider for your recipe. English Ale WLP002 English Special Bitter 1768 L Wyeast High 68-72% 64-72°Produces light fruit ethanol aroma with soft finish. London Ale IT! 1318 L Whrte LabsMedium 67-75%66-71 °Dry malty ale yeast for pales. California Ale WLPOOI Coooers Homebrew Yeast D Coopers High High 68-80°Clean. High 57-77°Ciean well balanced ale yeast. Safale S-04 D Fennentis High Soutbwold Ale WLP025 L White LabsMedium 72-78% 65-69°Complex fruits and citrus flavors.. American Ale BRY 96 L Wyeast High 72-76% 6(). fairly dry. L White LabsHigb 75-800/o 68-75°English strain that produces malty beers. clean. malty character with balanced fruitiness. balanced palate.be II OW fru b-UlL is.72°Siightly nutty. crisp finish. WLP004 & WLP81 0.bseri. with a soft. American Ale TI 1272 American Ale Yeast Blend WLP060L White LabsMedium 72-80% 68-73°Biend celebrates the strengths of California ale strains. Irish Ale WLP004 London Ale I028 L Wyeast Low/Med 73-77% 60-72°Bold and crisp with a rich mineral profile. London ESB Ale 1968 Muntons Premium Gold D Muntons High High 57-77°Clean balanced ale yeast for I 000/o malt recipies. slightly fruity with a hint of sulfur. L Wyeast High 67-71%64-74°A malty. L Wyeast High 7 1-75% 64-74°Very light and fruity. L White LabsLow/Med 70-75% 68-73°Very clean and low esters.com/resources/yeast 5/17/2013 . London Ale WLP013 L Wyeast High 67-71%64-72°Ricb. American Ale 1056 L Wyeast Low/Med 73-77%60-72°Well balanced. finishes soft. Medium High 64-72°Very clean ale flavor. slightly tart and fruity. L Wyeast Medium 72-76% 62-72°Clean. complex profile that clears well. Bedford British Ale WLP006 L White Labs High 72-80% 65-70°Good choice for most English style ales.e http:/lbyo. clean and tart finish. round flavor profile. Pacific Ale WLP041 L White LabsMedium 65-70% 65-68°A popular ale yeast from the Pacific Northwest. Thames Valley Ale 1275 L Wyeast High 73-77%62-72°Slightly fruitier and maltier than 1275. East Coast Ale WLP008 English Ale BRY 264 L Siebel lnst. Description lOth Anniversary Blend WLPOl 0 L White LabsMedium 75-80% 65-70°Blend of WLPOOJ. Wyeast Ale Blend 1087 L Wyeast High Latest Issue May/June 2013 Most Read Most Recent Build A Heated Mash Tun: Projects • Hop Stands • Take Your Medicine: Last Call sw. British Cask Ale I 026 L White LabsMediwn 65-75% 68-73°Subtle fruity flavors: apple. Ferments dry. mildly fruity. WLP002. Whitbread Ale 1099 L Whie LabsMedium 67-73% 66-70°Brittish style. full-bodied beer. fruity estery aromas. who provided all of the information for this chart. British Ale 1098 British Ale II 1335 L Wyeast High 73-75% 63-75°Malty flavor. L White LabsMedium 67-74% 65-70°Ciean flavors accentuate hops. Windsor D Danstar 71-75%64-72°A blend of the best strains to provide quick starts. clover honey and pear. S=Siant. fruity English ale. L Wyeast Medium 73-75% 64-72°Ferments dry and crisp. Irish Ale 1084 L White LabsMedium 73-80% 65-70°Light fruitiness and slight dry crispness. D Muntons High Muntons Standard Yeast Northwest Ale 1332 L Wyeast High 67-71% 65-75°Malty. Whit bread Ale WLPO 17 Low Medium64-70°Full-bodied. Burton Ale WLP023 California Ale V WLP051 L White LabsMed/High70-75% 66-70°Produces a fruity. Atten. Floc=Flocculation. Medium High 59-68°Clean ale with slightly nutty and estery character. light malt character with low esters. good depth and complexity. Ringwood Ale 1187 79% 59-75°Englisb ale yeast that forms very compact sediment.

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