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Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management


Off-premise catering is serving food at a location away
from the caterer's food production facility. One example of
a food production facility is a freestanding commissary, which
is a kitchen facility used exclusively for the preparation of
foods to be served at other locations.
Other examples of production facilities include, but are
not limited to, hotel, restaurant, and club kitchens. In most
cases there is no existing kitchen facility at the location
where the food is served.
Caterers provide single-event foodservice, but not all
caterers are created equal. They generally fall into one of
three categories:
Party food caterers supply only the food for an event.
They drop off cold foods and leave any last-minute
preparation, plus service and cleanup, to others.
Hot buffet caterers provide hot foods that are
delivered from their commissaries in insulated containers.
They sometimes provide serving personnel at an additional
Full-service caterers not only provide food, but frequently
cook it to order on-site.


Basics of Catering Management

They also provide service personnel at the event, plus
all the necessary food-related equipment-china, glassware,
flatware, tables and chairs, tents, and so forth. They can
arrange for other services, like décor and music, as well. In
short, a full-service caterer can plan an entire event, not just
the food for it.
Off-premise catering can mean serving thousands of box
lunches to a group of conventioneers; barbecuing chicken
and ribs for fans before a big college game, serving an
elegant dinner for two aboard a luxury yacht, or providing
food, staff, and equipment for an upscale fundraiser with
hundreds of guests. On a "degree of difficulty" scale from
one to ten-one meaning "easy" and ten meaning "most
challenging"-on-premise catering is a two, and off-premise
would rank a ten!
Off-premise caterers meet the needs of all market
segments, from the low-budget customer who looks for the
greatest quantity and quality for the least amount of money,
to the upscale client with an unlimited budget who wants
the highest level of service, the ultimate in food quality, and
the finest in appointments-crystal stemware, silver-plated
flatware, and luxurious linens. Between these two extremes
is the midscale market segment, which requires more quality
than the low-budget sector, but less than the upscale.
Off-premise catering is an art and a science. The art is
creating foods and moods, as the caterer and client together
turn a vision into reality. The science is the business of
measuring money, manpower, and material. Successful offpremise caterers recognize the importance of both aspectsart and science-and are able to work at both the creative
and the financial levels.
In off-premise catering, there is only one chance to get
it right. Many events, such as wedding receptions, occur
only once in a lifetime. Other events are scheduled annually,

Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management


quarterly, or on a regular basis, and the caterer who fails
to execute all details of such an event to the satisfaction of
the client will seldom have another chance.
Unfortunately for some, off-premise catering can be like
living on the brink of disaster unless they are experienced.
Uninitiated amateurs may not recognize a volatile situation
until it becomes a problem, later realizing they should have
recognized it earlier.
Catering off-premise is very similar to a sports team
playing all of its games away from home, in unfamiliar
surroundings, with none of the comforts of home to ease the
way. There is no home field advantage, but there is a
minefield disadvantage! As caterers plod their way toward
the completion of a catered event, there are thousands of
potential "land mines" that can ruin an otherwise successful
affair. Some examples follow:
Already running late for a catering delivery, the catering
van driver discovers that all vehicle traffic around the party
site is in gridlock. The traffic has been at a standstill for more
than an hour, the police say it will be hours before the
congestion can be eliminated, and the clients and their
guests are anxiously awaiting dinner.
The only freight elevator in a high-rise office building
has been commandeered for the evening by moving and
cleaning people, thus preventing access to the floor where
a caterer is to stage an event scheduled to start in two hours.
The wrong hot food truck is dispatched to a wedding
reception. The error is not discovered until the truck has
reached the reception and the bride and groom are ready
for their guests to be served. It will take more than an hour
to send the correct truck with the food that was ordered.
A cook wheels a container filled with cooked prime ribs
down a pier toward a yacht where the meat will be served


Basics of Catering Management

to a group of 80 conventioneers in half an hour. Suddenly,
the cook is distracted, and the prime rib container tumbles
over the edge of the pier into 40 feet of water.
The table numbers have vanished, and the guests are
ready to be seated for dinner.
The fire marshal arrives at a party site 20 minutes
before a catered event and refuses to allow guests access to
the party site because the space had not been authorized
for party use.
The catering crew arrives at the party site with a van
full of food, cooked to order-exactly one week early.
A new customer places an order and asks that the caterer
deliver to a home where family members and guests will
have gathered prior to a funeral service. The caterer sends
the food and, upon arrival, is told that the person with the
check-book is at the funeral home and is asked to please stop
back in an hour for the money. The delivery person leaves
without obtaining a signature. Upon returning, there is no
one home and no one from whom to collect payment.
While using a garbage disposal in a client's home, the
caterer suddenly hears a terrible noise and watches in horror
as water and garbage spew from the disposal all over the
floor. The irate customer refuses to pay the caterer and
threatens to sue for the cost of replacing the garbage disposal
that was ruined because of (in the customer's words) the
caterer's "negligence."

Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management


that the $600 rented chafing dish is missing. It was there
the night before, when the caterer left the client's home.
Get the picture? We could tell horror stories all day!
Seasoned off-premise caterers agree, these are only a few
of the thousands of obstacles that stand in the way of
completing a catered event. This book addresses the various
ways to professionally and successfully deal with difficult
With all of these very real potential problems, why are
there more than 50,000 off-premise caterers in the United
States? Why are more young people studying catering at
two-year and four-year colleges and universities? Why are
thousands of people starting their own catering companies,
risking their savings on their dreams of future success? The
reasons are numerous. They may love the adventure of
working in new and exciting places. They look forward to
the peaks and valleys of the business cycle. They love the
intense feeling of satisfaction that comes after successfully
catering a spectacular party. They love the myriad challenges
of this very difficult profession. Many are their own bosses,
with no one to answer to but the client. Many pick and
choose the parties they wish to cater. Many make six-figure
incomes each year, and others cater occasionally, just for the
fun of it.
What are the differences between off-premise catering
and on-premise catering? Let's examine these differences,
from both the client's and the caterer's viewpoints.

After catering a flawless party at a client's home and
loading the catering truck to capacity, the caterer is shocked
to learn from the client that all 15 bags of trash must be
removed from the client's property because of the
neighborhood's zoning ordinances.


The caterer's rental company representative calls the
caterer the morning after an event and advises the caterer

Most clients fail to consider the cost of the rental
equipment such as tables, chairs, linens, china, glassware,

Backup supplies. but also other costs such as transportation of food and supplies to the site. off-premise catering may be the answer. resulting in less boredom and more excitement. most off-premise caterers require some form of advance deposit prior to an event. aboard a yacht miles from shore. This deposit provides the caterer with some security if the event is canceled and also can be used to purchase some or all of the food and supplies for the party.6 Basics of Catering Management and flatware when they consider engaging an off-premise caterer. like small kitchens in high-rise office buildings. and equipment can be miles away or even inaccessible when catering. and they are generally supported by built-in equipment that can support a wider variety of menus. On-premise caterers are not as limited in this regard. The work is more likely to be different each day. state-of-the-art aquarium. antique car dealership. and other expenses. since most offpremise catering operations begin by . off-premise catering offers the opportunity to work in a greater variety of interesting locations. First. or at unique off-premise sites. FROM THE CATERER'S VIEWPOINT Off-premise caterers must plan menus that can be prepared successfully at the client's location. the need for tenting. air-conditioning and/or heating. who is constantly recruiting and training staff. considering not only the cost of the rental equipment. In spite of the uncertainties. There is no need for large amounts of capital to get started. Off-premise catering generally has greater seasonal and day-to-day swings in personnel needs. On-premise party personnel are more familiar with the party facilities than those who work at a variety of unfamiliar locations. foods to be fried should not be cooked in unventilated spaces. the additional costs are far outweighed by the benefits of entertaining in the privacy of their own homes or the uniqueness of a special off-premise location such as a museum." There is definitely a greater potential for oversights in off-premise catering. In fact. For those looking for unlimited challenges and rewards. Manfred Ketterer mentions the numerous advantages of catering: Advance deposits Limited start-up investment Limited inventories Controllable costs Additional revenues Business by contract Direct payment Advance forecasting Free word-of-mouth advertising Selectivity Let's discuss a few of these items in more detail. They think it will be less expensive to entertain in their homes. for Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 7 instance. or historical site. the costs of special labor and décor. but this can be insignificant as compared with the added costs. For example. Clients may save some money by buying their own liquor. it can be more expensive. than in hotels. food. For many clients. turnover is usually high because such work is on an "as-needed basis. which can create a greater challenge for the off-premise caterer. ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES OF OFFPREMISE CATERING In his book How to Manage a Successful Catering Business.

Food and supply inventories. Both the client and the caterer have expectations regarding the outcome of the party. flatware. one party can create future parties. Payment for an event is normally made directly to a manager or owner. For most off-premise caterers. There are no excuses for missing a catering deadline. are much more easily controlled. months. but it is imperative to state that this is in direct violation of most local zoning ordinances. owners. They can generate even more profit by providing other servicesrental equipment. décor. (It is common knowledge that many start their catering businesses in their home kitchens. Moreover. Off-premise catering does have some disadvantages too: Catering managers. which make revenue forecasting somewhat Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 9 easier. the client is not heeding your advice and you can't even decide who's really in charge-you can walk away. each part of the country has seasonal swings. Off-premise catering generates additional revenues for existing operations like hotels. hotel. There are no laws that require you to accept every request to cater. because parties are generally booked weeks. as long as you do so within the terms of your written agreement. or one of the caterer's own staff members. as sometimes happens with weddings. If the job doesn't Advantages and Disadvantages of Off-Premise Catering meet your standards. tables. This form of direct payment provides for better cash control and fewer folks to share the profit. caterers must maintain general business hours too! Many have left the catering field.8 Basics of Catering Management using the existing kitchen facilities of a restaurant. thus avoiding having to invest in expensive equipment inventories. glassware. clubs. burned out by the constant stress and high energy demands. Many offpremise caterers feel that satisfied guests at one party will either directly or indirectly book another party by speaking favorably to friends and co-workers about the event and the caterer. Of course. whether it's a wedding planner. Caterers also have the advantage of being somewhat selective about their clients. and restaurants. and linens can usually be rented. Deadlines must be met. These expectations should be clearly spelled out in a written contract. which can produce future business without the necessity of advertising. Certain seasons. In sticky situations where you've already begun to work with a client but find that your communication styles just don't mesh-or. and other accessory services. church. Off-premise events generate tremendous amounts of free word-of-mouth advertising. including Christmas. entertainment. in the South the summer months are generally less busy. music. are normally busier than others. on-site food and beverage director. For example. In other words. Advance forecasting is more accurate for off-premise caterers. all of the necessary catering foodservice equipment such as china. and staff undergo periods of high stress during very busy periods. eliminating a middleman. For most. politely decline. because clients must advise the caterer in advance as to the number of guests that are expected. weekends are generally busier than weekdays.) In addition. but in the North these are the busy months. unlike a restaurant where there is a large variation from day to day regarding the number of patrons and their menu selections. 80 percent of the events are scheduled in 20 percent of the time. Stress is compounded because the workload is not evenly spread throughout the year. or years in advance. club. chairs. The seasonality . as well as operating costs. or other licensed foodservice business. Off-premise caterers need buy only the amounts necessary to serve the event. flowers.

and even arranging for kitchen and service staff. The food is prepared Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 11 and served in the client's home or facility. eliminating the need for a catering commissary. You'll be amazed at how much you can accomplish by using e-mail. Many successful off-premise caterers began by working as accommodators. The ability to prepare and interpret financial statements is essential. particularly during the slower periods when expenses continue yet revenues do not. They love what they do! Clients and staff members will quickly detect a lack of passion. and frontof-house personnel should learn the kitchen routine. Those with a strong kitchen background. They feel that the financial benefits are insufficient compared with the effort required to cater off-premise events. Experience in food preparation and foodservice (both back-of-the-house and front-of-the-house) helps caterers understand the procedures and problems in both areas and how the two areas interface. have the ability to view all aspects of the business at once rather than focusing only on one or two parts. would be wise to gain some front-of-house experience. incessant desire to be his or her own boss and become financially independent. for example. An entrepreneur must be willing to spend extraordinary amounts of time and energy to make the off-premise catering business successful.10 Basics of Catering Management of the business makes it difficult to find staff at certain times. making cash management very difficult. clubs. and it will cost you business and good workers. and what personality traits are desirable? Work Experience Prior experience in the catering profession or the foodservice industry is important. and demonstrate a strong. It is difficult for even the most wellorganized person to be in two places at the same time. Revenues are inconsistent. possess an inherent sense of what is right for the business. BASIC BUSINESS KNOWLEDGE Accounting and bookkeeping skills are necessary to understand the financial aspects of operating a catering business. and other businesses. restaurants. purchasing the food. ELEMENTS OF SUCCESSFUL OFF-PREMISE CATERING What does it take to become a successful off-premise caterer? What experience is necessary. It's also important to understand the legal aspects of catering. Many assist the client with planning the menu. Accommodators receive a fee for their services. For those caterers who operate hotels. and caterers are no exception. having a website. The party staff is paid directly by the client. Some quit after realizing the difficulty of catering away from their operations. Learn as much about computers as you can. and using specialized programs for everything from budgeting to menu planning. move on and try something else. If you don't love what you do. Laws that affect caterers include regulation of . Passion Successful professionals are passionate about their work. Many hoteliers and restaurateurs find the rigors of offpremise catering too great. An Entrepreneurial Nature The desire to be an entrepreneur is a trait that is highly desirable for off-premise caterers. Accommodators are private chefs who are hired to prepare food for parties. the time away from the main business-spent on the off-premise business-can hurt.

Communicating with staff is a complex issue. intense pressure as deadlines near. motivate. Organize. have a high energy level. Execution is the implementation of the organized plans by the party staff.12 Basics of Catering Management licensing. To plan. whereas the second caller is Elements of Successful Off-Premise Catering shopping. All well-organized and well-executed plans require control and supervision. In simple terms. it can be reduced to the ability to tell staff what is expected so that they understand. Ability to Plan. A caterer. Off-premise caterers should be knowledgeable about how to develop and implement a marketing plan. . A client who calls and asks. train. and be able to mentally deal with seasonal business cycles that range from nonstop activity to slow periods with little or no business. The adage is. and manage personnel is critical. lifting and moving heavy objects. Sound Body and Mind Off-premise catering requires working long hours without rest or sleep. "It is not what you expect. but at the same time realize that they must always find ways to improve the quality of their food and services. In this particular example. contracts. Ability to Communicate with Clients and Staff Listening is the key to good communication with clients and prospective clients. Off-premise caterers must be self-confident. and alcoholic beverage service. Execute. both actual and potential. "Are you able to cater a party next Friday?" should be dealt with differently from one who calls and asks. The event could be ruined. In this profession a fondness for people and feeling comfortable in crowds is important. a caterer must visualize in advance all of the aspects of a catered event and document the plans so they are readily understood by the client and easily executed by the staff. liability. Off-premise caterers must know when the risk outweighs the gain. It is not for the fainthearted who are afraid of the unknown. "How much will it cost for a wedding reception?" The first caller is ready to buy your services. which can cause concern. but what you inspect. Willingness to Take Calculated Risks Off-premise catering is a very risky business. catering the event at the zoo without adequate cover in case of rain would probably be too risky. like any other businessperson. The tent makes the risk of rain a calculated one. must have some human resource skills. Off-premise caterers must listen carefully and attentively to determine what the client needs." The premier off-premise catering firms in the United States insist on excellent supervision at each event. Controlling is the supervisory aspect of the event. A "cool head" when under pressure will keep both staff and client calm while potential problems are resolved professionally and efficiently. and even long periods of little or no business. labor. For example. and Control These are the four basic functions of management. Organizing is simply breaking down the party plans into groups of functions that can be executed in an efficient manner. The result of effective communication is an off-premise catering staff that professionally executes a well-planned party that meets or exceeds the client's expectations. Knowing how to recruit. and the ability to receive their feedback regarding problems. Successful caterers should be in good physical shape. it is more risky catering a corporate fund-raiser at the local zoo under a tent than serving the same group in a hotel ballroom. Astute caterers must be able to respond to client requests in such a manner that the client will immediately gain Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 13 confidence in the caterer.

putting a renewed sense of fun into the work at hand. When a caterer fails to deliver what was promised. or they can employ those who are creative. and greater self-esteem. the caterer's needs for revenues. For example. and positive feedback will automatically be met. menu. Successful caterers understand their projected images and target their marketing efforts at those clients who desire that image. They discover and try new dishes. Prospective clients hire caterers based on their perceived image of the caterer and what the caterer will provide. Open-Mindedness Open-minded caterers read up on catering trends and try new recipes and menus. it is easy to get carried away with the magnitude of the undertakings and become so tense and uptight that work ceases to be fun. a caterer whose image is sophisticated and upscale will be hard-pressed to sell a Little League banquet with a low budget. In some sense. Dependability Dependability is a major cornerstone of success in offpremise catering. When a client's needs are met. They forget that the primary goal is to serve the needs of the client. and stressful business. while conducting business in a professional manner. They must be able to lead staff and clients alike. profits. Those who are not very creative can learn to be. Sense of Humor In this pressure-packed. Laughter at the right time can relieve that tension and stress. equipment. one that is in accord with the client's expectations. after thoroughly testing and understanding the recipes. How do caterers serve shrimps? They bend down! MANAGING AN OFF-PREMISE Catering Operation Even those who possess the qualities that indicate offpremise catering success must know how to put these talents to use effectively. ethical decisions. . Even in those situations where circumstances change. while understanding what makes for a successful event. feel. Off-premise caterers should be hands-on managers who are constantly customer focused. Off-premise caterers must be able to project a favorable image to the client. the outstanding caterer will find a way to deliver rather than use the changed circumstances as an excuse not to deliver. and ambiance. They are willing to prepare unfamiliar dishes requested by clients. They are always learning better ways to run their businesses. making it more difficult to perform as promised. deadline-oriented. Creative caterers are able to turn a client's vision into reality by creating the appropriate look. service. caterers are selling themselves more than their food. They must be able to make timely. then. Unsuccessful off-premise caterers are those who get lost in trying to satisfy their own needs for money. the negative word of mouth travels fast among clients and potential clients. They must also avoid those situations that cause a business to fail. Ability to Meet the Needs of Clients The needs of the client must always come first.14 Basics of Catering Management Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 15 Creativity Ability to Project a Favorable Image This is the benchmark of all outstanding caterers. Success in this business comes from identifying these needs and satisfying them.

The staff and other professionals employed by the company-tax preparer. staff satisfaction." It's not enough to brainstorm about these statements. with a time line to keep the company on track. which may include things like client satisfaction. your objectives. The major goals can be broken into smaller. and plan the ways in which you will give back to the community. Attainable: The goals may be just out of reach." That's the reason you need a strategic plan-a roadmap to help you determine the direction in which you wish to go. Time-bound: There must be a specific deadline for completion of each goal. hiring more staff to be able to cater more events. If it's practically impossible. and the specific goals you'll need to accomplish to get there. a caterer can develop a Mission Statement-a succinct sentence that sums up the company's mission. and you want them on your side. A strategic plan starts with a statement of core values. Here's an example: "To meet the catering needs of the corporate community. concise. You'll need their help to achieve them. training. To increase sales. with continuing sales and profit growth. community service. you will wind up somewhere else. as soon as a goal is set. while giving back to our community. but they're not out of sight! The best goal challenges and motivates you and your team. Your Mission and Vision Statements lead naturally to the next step-to establish goals for the operation. Once a caterer has set goals. or time. Measurable: There should be no question about whether one attains. "Nobody goes there anymore-it's too crowded. From these core values." After the Mission Statement comes the Vision Statement-a concise summary of where you want to be in the future. They fail to ask for or accept advice from outside consultants and colleagues. ethical business practices. You may Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 17 have heard time management experts use the term "SMART" when describing goals. may require raising prices. an example: "Within five years. goals are not just for the owner of a company. and the results you expect. the zany former New York Yankee catcher. It may be measured in terms of quality. providing high levels of service and food quality that result in repeat business and vital growth. and motivation. Finally. or spending money on advertising. Writing them down is the first step to making a commitment-to make them a reality. Too often. quantity. The acronym stands for: Specific: The goals to be accomplished must be easily understood. measure customer satisfaction. and operating an environmentally conscious business. intermediate steps. such as. An example of a SMART goal might be to increase sales and profits by 20 percent each year for the next five years. and unambiguous. it may be too frustrating.16 Basics of Catering Management Developing a Strategic Plan Yogi Berra. is famous for his many witticisms. for instance. Someone familiar with your plans and your passion for them is far more likely to be helpful." But his best quote may be this one: "If you don't know where you're going. Relevant: The goals must fit well with your long-term mission and vision. And remember. our company will be the top-ranked catering firm in our area. Again. It is far more intelligent to ask for assistance when you need it. or falls short of. caterers believe they can do everything themselves. . a goal. cost. banker. take some action on it. there must be certain tradeoffs. size up your competitors. attorney-should also be well aware of the goals. committed to your goals. Only after they are put in writing can you develop more specific objectives to increase sales and profits.

" In one sense that is true. One thing forgotten. This is a difficult concept for many of us to grasp. puts it this way: Companies that are 100% customer focused make the customer's satisfaction their only goal. Have you ever heard that old saying? Another way to put it: We've all been bitten by a mosquito or stung by a bee. and even help scrape. profits will follow.. editor of Restaurant Hospitality magazine. CUSTOMER-FOCUSED MANAGEMENT HANDS-ON ATTENTION TO DETAIL MANAGEMENT The devil is in the details. Off-premise catering companies must be managed from the center of the action. raising a profit margin. and you should never be totally satisfied with the way things are. So it's important to check and recheck and to be prepared for last-minute emergencies. and for better and more efficient ways to do things. Help in the kitchen during An off-premise caterer's full-time mission must be to satisfy the needs of clients.18 Basics of Catering Management The last part of a strategic management process is to reevaluate your mission... That can work. Mike DeLuca.. that if you strive to sell only the highest quality product and strive to please every customer. Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 19 critical times such as hot food dish-up. when he or she had set a 20 percent annual goal. Let's say a caterer's sales year showed a 50 percent increase. but wouldn't you rather make the quality of your food. reading computer printouts and delegating all tasks. It means letting go of a financial accounting structure passed down from generation to generation of Harvard MBAs who've instilled in us that the only way to build your bottom line is to raise your top line and squeeze the middle. trends change.. sales. They believe. In this case. misheard. MANAGING AN OFF-PREMISE CATERING OPERATION Managerial Decision Making Off-premise catering managers must make decisions that keep their operations running smoothly. the next year's goal might be more realistically revised to a 30 percent increase. Always look for new ways to present food and make it more flavorful. the details are virtually endless.. or misplaced can ruin an event. Help out when a table needs to be cleared or when the bar suddenly becomes very busy. They realize that some decisions will be better than others. Times change. Oversee the catering staff to ensure they are performing as directed and as expected. and that the best decision- . profit and success will follow. Some call this management style "management by walking around. It is simply not possible to run this kind of business from behind a desk. and goals periodically. and wash dirty dishes if that's what is necessary. vision.. stack. It comes from checking and rechecking every detail to ensure that it meets the highest of standards. and you become aware of new information. a stream of tiny elements that might go wrong and result in a catastrophe. It's a roll-up-your-sleeves kind of profession. whether that is with the guests or preparing foods in the kitchen. Astute offpremise caterers must: Obtain feedback from clients and guests regarding the food and service. They do not have as goals. that there is no perfect solution to every problem. increasing sales by a certain percentage. or reducing debt. but there is more to it than walking around. but how many of us have been bitten by an elephant? It's always the little things that get us! In catering. It comes from inspecting for the best and expecting the best. the dining experience and your customer's satisfaction your primary concern? The moral is simple: If you satisfy your customers while charging a fair price and controlling costs.

Sitterly should be helpful. The following guidelines are adapted from an article by Carol McKibben in Special Events magazine: Become known for doing what you say you are going to do. and resources you have. For peace of mind accept that you are doing the best job you Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 21 can with the time.. Even if you must make an unpopular decision. Be on time.. There are times when you just have to do something.. the appointed authority.. and some who can do both. you can minimize repercussions.. Every executive feels overwhelmed at times by either the enormity or the number of decisions made during a business day. the following tips from Ms. Make time for making decisions. for appointments. Few decisions meet with unanimous approval.20 Basics of Catering Management making goal is to find the best possible solution with the least number of drawbacks. Realize that you'll never please everyone. You need to consider feelings whenever people are involved." Although hundreds of books have been written about decision making. states that to be a good decision maker you should "plan ahead so when problems crop up. but they do them and even enjoy them. instead of allowing them to control you. but they are still upto-the-minute when it comes to making tough decisions successfully. or a bit early. Do not look at them as accounts or projects. in business.. Leaders are able to get people to do things they don't necessarily like to do.. a management consultant and author. If a catering company is earning sevenand eight-figure annual revenues. pick a time when you are energetic and your mind is fresh. talent. Be prepared for an appointment. not react. you're prepared to act.. . Remember that there's seldom only one acceptable solution to the problem. Leadership There are major differences between those who lead and those who manage. Catering companies need both types of executives. Allow quality time for planning and decision making. don't play games.. rules. Treat clients and staff members with respect. Build relationships with clients. Rallying your colleagues around your decision before you take action or waiting for their vote of confidence before deciding anything may cost too much in time. Choose the best alternative. Connie Sitterly. it is most definitely being led by people with leadership skills. Put decision making in perspective.. Control circumstances. delaying a decision can cost thousands of dollars. Take the initiative by anticipating and solving business problems. Give price quotes and commitments only when you know everything about the event.. Before we address the technical aspects of catering in the succeeding chapters. if workers know you have taken their feelings into account. Make decisions that help achieve the company objectives. Don't wait for a popular vote. You might say: Professionalism and Common Business Courtesy Off-premise caterers who are not professional in their business practices will never reach the pinnacle of success in the field. Be honest. They're paraphrased from an article she wrote back in 1990 in The Meeting Manager. not the majority. it is of utmost importance that we define professionalism.

or even if the kitchen staff will not be able to prepare the caterer's usual high-quality food because of lack of time and personnel. In the face of abuse from others. do not use your position of power to abuse others. Ethics in Management The Roman philosopher Publilius Syrus said. and honesty on a daily basis. Enjoy your work as an off-premise caterer. In fact." This is as true today as it was in ancient times. Some caterers who are licensed to sell liquor by the drink or by the bottle are tempted to . or that no one will know if they happen to charge personal expenses now and then to the business. Unethical caterers will rationalize that they can handle all the events. We read and hear of illegalities. A host who wishes to serve alcohol to underage guests or barbecued ribs to a group of elderly people (tough to eat with dentures) is out of line and needs to be advised that this will not work. You know what we like!" The ethical caterer will not take advantage of this situation by either providing too much food or overcharging the client. the caterer who turned down the business will be blamed for the recommendation. Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 23 There are times when a caterer is given a free hand in planning a menu. misleading advertising. saying. Some caterers refuse to recommend another catering firm because they feel that if the client is not pleased with the other firm. When work ceases to be enjoyable. It can be very tempting for self-employed caterers to underreport income or overstate expenses. In the foregoing situation the caterer should decline the work and perhaps recommend another caterer.Basics of Catering Management 22 Stand behind your work. Try to detach yourself from it emotionally and handle it logically. If it is wrong. Another temptation arises when the caterer is pressed to cater more events on a certain day or evening than he or she can reasonably accommodate. and other forms of questionable behavior bringing down some of the nation's largest corporations. Of course. And yet. Caterers who take on more work than they can reasonably accommodate are greedy and are considered by many observers to be unethical. make it right. even if an inexperienced supervisor or staff must oversee these events. legal requirements. Examples include truth in menu. it is time to quit and find a new career. Dress professionally. They rationalize that no one will know if they accept cash for a party. then fail to report it as income and pay the associated tax. "Please send over food for 50 guests tomorrow night. Even the smallest caterers deal in issues of fairness. lack of ethics is perhaps the most widely discussed topic in today's business world. scandals. "A good reputation is more valuable than money. Off-premise caterers are in no way exempt from ethical concerns. There are times when it is very hard not to bad-mouth a competitor. Those who are ethical would rather point out their own strengths than downgrade the competition. Other caterers freely recommend one or more companies when unable to cater events. unexpected and unjustified last-minute add-ons to the party price. The truly ethical caterer will assume responsibility for the host to ensure that the host plans an event in the best interest of the guests. The extra money looks good. don't respond by becoming abusive. but this is considered unethical as well as rude. Perhaps a grieving client calls for food after the funeral of a loved one. and even underbidding a competitor when the client has disclosed your competitor's price. an ethical caterer will refuse to cater an event that is clearly not being planned in the best interest of the host or guests.

are not worth the headaches they cause. They may build and improve on someone else's concept. or ask some other special favor "just this once. and standing firm on your own invoice prices are just a few ways ethical problems can be avoided. Insisting on security deposits. The Jefferson Center of Character Education has set forth a list of ten "universal values": honesty. they imprint their own signature on their menus. responsible citizenship. Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 25 You will also be put in some sticky situations as-during tough times. or bid on party plans or ideas stolen from other caterers. looks at food trends differently in his book Lessons in Excellence. or perhaps a unique location. fidelity. pursuit of excellence. like destination management firms or production companies. Charlie Trotter. as agreed. Says . They've often been good. thus cutting out the middleman who recommended you! As a catering professional. will ask you to stay "a couple hours of overtime. a unique service. Caterers also soon learn that some clients are unethical. then demanding a "discount" based on whatever flaw they feel they have uncovered. Other ethical violations occur when caterers receive under-the-table cash "kickbacks" from suppliers. respect for others. but they strive to take the idea to the next level. Rather than mimicking another's success. These practices are not only unethical-they are illegal. and you're right to be squeamish about them. And rather than cut out a legitimate middleman-type of vendor. caring for others. Some will refuse to pay for linens that were damaged by candles they lit on them! You'll find people who. or who are not willing to pay a fair price for catering services. A few are masterful at finding fault with a wedding or other important event. Why not have fun with it? One of America's top chefs. may find that a client of one of these companies will come back later to try to deal directly with you. refusing to look at other caterers' written bids. Offpremise caterers should be extremely wary when approached in this fashion. Caterers who deal with "middleman" organizations.24 Basics of Catering Management bill clients for beverages that were not consumed. just to wrap things up"then not show up to pay you for the extra time the next day. having a valid and authorized credit card number on file for unforeseen charges. clients who do not pay their bills in a professional manner. you can either refuse to deal directly with a client who tries such a maneuver or suggest a commission be paid to the middleman. and even good times-certain clients will make unrealistic requests. you need to expect a certain amount of this behavior and must protect yourself if you suspect an ethical question may arise." or defer payment for them. There are distinct advantages for those who offer a unique menu. and perhaps they'll be served in martini glasses. The "Unique" bar may include all the traditional accompaniments too-but what a difference a little imagination makes! There might even be a bit of caviar to top the mashers at the Unique bar. These values should provide some solid guidance for any businessperson who considers himor herself a true professional. promise keeping. and accountability. fairness. Separating Yourself from the Competition Great caterers do more than imitate-they innovate. regular clients too! But they'll promise you future business if you'll cater their party "at cost. integrity. Others will haggle over the tiniest details on an invoice or try to engage more than one caterer in a bidding war to lower prices. As a general rule. midparty. misrepresent their services to potential clients." These requests are unfair.

" Trotter says he and his staff use input from their travels. space and money. Identify those issues in your life that can be controlled. hostility. television. They ricochet from one recipe to the other. blending the successful ideas of the past with new twists.26 Basics of Catering Management Trotter. Capitalize on the audience you havethey're (almost) already yours! Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 27 Personal Management Off-premise caterers must learn how to deal with principles of stress management. or they can be new ways of saving time. Some folks purposefully take their minds off work when they exercise. . Great caterers also separate themselves from competitors by using the resources around them to build their businesses. An arrow would not be propelled from a bow if the bow was not stressed. Catering managers who are overstressed are unable to perform at maximum capability. and to waste it because of being overstressed or disorganized will inevitably result in less-than-desirable results. Relaxation techniques. the daily walk or run is a time to get their day mentally organized. one caterer specializes in event planning for doctors. "It's important that you foster a company culture that spurs you and your employees to search for innovative opportunities. Stress Management Stress comes from interaction with others. However. potentially highgrowth markets. Innovations can satisfy needs that are unmet or offer solutions to time-worn problems. irritability. for others. as with any career. List ways to deal with the controllable stress factors. They keep up on the latest changes in public opinion and demographics to search for interesting. which resulted in off-premise jobs for the club members. they feel they have to serve it! But most caterers lie somewhere between these two extremes. Other caterers blindly copy everybody else. including meditation and yoga. Currently. never bothering to see if it meets their clients' needs. In South Florida. Stress can often be controlled through: Daily exercise such as brisk walking. Time is our most precious commodity. It is important to remember that some stress in catering is good. time management. readings. cynicism. Reading articles and books on stress reduction. through his hospital foodservice management job. Writing down the issues that cause stress. too much stress can break the bow. If they read about it in Food Arts magazine. running. and even hobbies to hit upon trends. for example. a third was the on-premise caterer for a city club. and personal organization if they are to manage at peak efficiency. The bottom line is that they create their own trends. Similarly. A certain amount of stress and tension is necessary to achieve the best results-those who are too laid back generally do not maximize their potentialbut too much stress causes chronic fatigue. Another has an exclusive off-premise contract for a sports facility. Their clients love them and get exactly what they expect. or other aerobic pursuits that increase the pulse rate. and from having to meet deadlines. they've identified ethnic cuisines such as Pan-Asian and Nuevo Latino as hot areas for menu innovation. and never vary their formulas. are well known for it. and difficulty in thinking clearly. catering professionals need to reexamine their business strategies from time to time. radio. inflexibility. Some caterers do what they do best. as well as ruin catered events. and simply decide to make the best of those that cannot.

You are guarding against burnout when you insist on some personal time. Use cellular phones to stay in touch while away from the office. and the greatest rewards come to those who accomplish the most meaningful things during this fixed amount of time. or the proposed location is already booked for another event. Whoever answers the phone at your business should always qualify the incoming call by asking: The date of the event The location of the event The number of guests The budget for the event Why? First of all. Off-premise caterers can choose from an array of timesaving techniques and technical advances to help them in the quest to efficiently manage time: Make those daily. Always focus on results by asking yourself. You can Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 29 take classes to learn how to use it or hire someone to teach you individually. delegate it. such as fax machines and computers with word processing. hobbies. Here's the rule: Do it. (Use some of the tips for putting SMART goals in writing-not just for "big picture" goals. but as part of your daily business. and for each year. month. (Better yet. discard it. hire someone else to file it!) Do your most important work at times when you happen to be most alert. not harder. The key to effective time management is to set goals for a lifetime. the budget is insufficient. off-premise caterers cannot effectively manage their time. He will cruise aimlessly at sea. it is impossible to make proper choices without knowing your desired goals. and interests other than work. a cellular phone can make it easy for you to use this time to return phone calls." Take advantage of your peak energy periods to handle your most challenging tasks. if you don't have a computer. Sign up for a seminar or course in time management to learn more tips. but can be controlled. friends. and if you have downtime. time can be wasted talking about an event before you ask the date and discover you're not able to do it in the first place because of a scheduling conflict. These are lifesavers at off-premise catering locations when emergency and other calls are necessary. Perhaps the number of guests is too small or too large for your particular company. they will have more time for things other than work.28 Basics of Catering Management Time Management There are only 168 hours in each week. or file it. "Will this activity help me achieve any of my goals?" Prioritize tasks . through the effective use of time will produce greater results. for five years. They also realize that working smarter. Handle incoming papers only once. detailed lists of goals and objectives. One of the biggest time wasters for a caterer is also the source of much business-the prospective client who calls to ask questions-so it's an interruption that cannot be ignored. For heaven's sake. and day. Most of us know whether we are "morning people" or "night owls. The captain of a ship without a destination cannot choose the proper course. It is equally important to schedule "downtime" for yourselffor family. get one! You can purchase one nowadays for a monthly payment of less than $40. never reaching his port of call. Use technical advances to speed up paper handling. Offpremise caterers realize that if they can accomplish more meaningful production in less time. week. accounting. Because time management involves choosing how to spend time.) Without written goals. and menu-planning software.

who properly manage their time. Whenever possible. try to schedule time to return phone calls and/or e-mail messages. The time spent looking for things and jumping from job to Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 31 job is wasted time that could be put to much better use. weeks. and involve at least some risk. Pay other people to do them. with no guarantee that the event will even take place. low-payoff tasks and turn their attention to those things that will bring the greatest rewards. for greater accessibility. They become the leading caterers in their communities. This can be easily accomplished by blocking out some time during the day to work on major projects and arranging for no interruptions. Most people waste countless hours. Keep those items that are used frequently close by. you can handle them all at once. Into this three-ring binder go all notes. and offices are organized. rather than jumping from one thing to another. Summary of Personal Management Those off-premise caterers who can effectively deal with stress. Take a tip from event planners who start a separate notebook for each event they are working on. Both this and the aforementioned task require large chunks of time and involve some risk. in their states. things run much more smoothly and efficiently. Either at the end of each day or first thing in the morning. Files should be stored vertically. Consider hiring a professional organizer to come to your office and set up a filing and record-keeping system that works for your business. Focus on one project at a time. rather than stacked atop one another. but more than likely will produce major rewards in increased revenues and profits. The true achievers-in catering and in other fields-minimize their time on lowpriority. and in the country. a caterer could spend the entire day showing prospective clients numerous suitable locations for a major event. off-premise caterers who best manage their time in the long run will be the most successful. prepare a list of things to do for the day. For example. These tasks are often difficult to accomplish. That way. In summary. take a great deal of time. sketches. The caterer would then spend the next three days preparing a written proposal for an event at each of the locations. shuffling papers. and years chitchatting on the phone.30 Basics of Catering Management in order of their importance and know when to delegate them to others. However. . and don't tell yourself you can't afford it-you can always make more money. who learn to delegate and keep things organized will lead their peers into the future. Categories can include upcoming events. instead of scattering them (and your thoughts) in five-minute intervals throughout the day. Worth the risk? Certainly! Another high-payoff task might be to write a new catering menu. Many off-premise caterers have found various methods that work for them: Establish a filing system using hanging folders and manila folders. contracts. Getting Organized When projects. projects to do. but you have only so much time. if the caterer is hired. They will set the standards for others to follow. They will accomplish more and will be in a position to receive the greatest rewards as a result. tasks. color samplesanything for that particular job. days. running errands. catering kitchens. Learn to delegate these types of tasks whenever possible. there's a five-figure profit to be made. and projects pending. and doing other things that are easy enough but offer little or no payoff.

boat shows. some caterers still don't accept credit cards. air shows. and more. More women are entering the off-premise catering field. in molecular theory or medical technology. A company can grow to the point where quality slips. Astute caterers will use preemployment aptitude and personality testing. They're creating improved computergenerated proposals. beef tenderloin. More caterers were hurt financially by the recession at the beginning of this century than by the September 11 terrorist attacks. staffing schedules. Most catering companies will continue to build their reputations on elegant. in a toptier catering operation. training. Having a large volume of business is admirable-but only when the quality of your work rises to the same level. Why? The customers demand. This certainly doesn't mean things stay stagnant in our industry. watch margins and profits grow-and overall stress levels diminishas they become more selective about the clientele they service. they expose the caterer to a wider range of potential clients. we know that catering is neither rocket science nor brain surgery. Foodservice has always been a somewhat transient industry. the savvy businessperson is learning to embrace new technology. but not without some dips. Staffing woes will continue to be monumental. Then again. An increased use of security cameras at highprofile events (and in some cases. rental orders. overhead costs expand. gross profit margins lag. that they must treat their employees at least as well as they treat their clients. Mega-event catering is acknowledged as an excellent way to grow business-at golf and tennis tournaments. and develop their own training programs. In addition to being profitable events. In an industry where. In fact.32 Basics of Catering Management Looking Ahead-Catering in the Future What does the future hold for caterers in this new century? First of all. and instant financial statements. rediscovering foods of the previous century is trendy! Many caterers still feature the signature dishes-honey coconut shrimp. NASCAR races. and enjoy. launching interactive websites and e-mail marketing campaigns. Other caterers prize research. in catering. to thwart theft) is one result of the heightened awareness. or "high touch"-but without high tech. Abigail Kirsch in New York. Along the same lines. master online staff scheduling systems. And they're realizing that computer-savvy business owners have more time to do what they love-which is run their business! Competition will continue to increase. them. the employees treat each other as well as they treat their clients. Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 33 Caterers of the future will come to realize that bigger is not necessarily better. Katherine Farrell in Ann Arbor. Caesar salad-that they've served for decades. developing cutting-edge menu items to set them apart from the pack. and retraining get tougher. terrorist attacks. Caterers are realizing that "high tech" will never replace personalized service. but both left their marks on the industry. and the resulting fears cannot help but impact the catering profession. and the healthy competition shows no signs of abating. a caterer from Augusta. more equipment is needed. . if they haven't already. as hiring. Paula LeDuc in the San Francisco Bay area. "over-the-top" food presentations. Mary Micucci in Los Angeles. amazingly. Sales will grow. packing lists. Change is inevitable in this business. say. they'll limit their potential for high touch. because economic woes. They will also realize. and the bottom line shrinks proportionately. The intelligent caterer will downsize. Innovative buffet and food station décor will continue to evolve. and Joy Wallace in Miami are but a handful of enterprising women who have grown their companies into catering's elite. but not at the same rate as.

and the only way to do this is to leave our comfort zones-and stick our necks out! If you're right-handed. here are seven key traits. service. multiday events is as big as the events themselves. Planet Hollywood. and other themed eateries that combine food. you'll find you can actually write with either hand. But after a while. with elaborate themes. a primer about the "new rules of engagement" for businesses. Empathy and genuine concern for your clients and staff are paramount to long-term success. whether it is trying new menu items. and we get what we want. Caterers who refuse to take risks fail to grow and learn are left behind. which has been a bestseller for years-you should read it if you haven't already. where successful vendors literally create an "experience" for clients by using props and services to engage them in an "inherently personal way. staff members who double as costumed performers. and imaginative menu items presented in wild new ways to delight and entertain the crowd as well as feed them! For those who love to have fun." In order to succeed. What are their needs. Stephen R. Pine asserts that a new economic model is taking shape as we move from a service-based economy into an experience-based economy. generates enough revenue from serving sandwiches and beverages at the Masters' Golf Tournament that he need not cater at all the rest of the year! The pressure experienced in servicing huge." Pine claims that Walt Disney was the founding father of the "Experience Economy. or accepting a job in a new and challenging off-premise location. Successful caterers make things happen by taking calculated risks. We hardly think about them. and who are as adventurous as they are practical. Habits are things we do automatically." and in today's restaurant industry there are plenty of examples-Rainforest Café. Try writing with your left hand. When we do this. not coincidentally. we must be continually growing and improving. At the end of the 1900s. B. wishes. loyalty. combing our hair. Willingness to Take Calculated Risks One of our favorite sayings is. This kind of trend is adaptable for off-premise caterers too. Sincere Concern for Others Nobody cares how much you know until they know how much you care. it's a great time to be an off-premise caterer. and real-life ways to be successful in the challenging field of off-premise catering. and atmosphere to create a more "complete" dining experience.34 Basics of Catering Management Georgia. The Seven Habits of Highly Successful Caterers Let's examine some additional techniques. But what are some habits that mark successful caterers? What separates star performers from the rest of the crowd? With a nod to Mr. you feel quite comfortable writing with your right hand. we just do them. . Covey wrote The Seven Habits of Highly Effective People. like brushing our teeth. Covey. We give them what they want. but the rewards can be significant. philosophies. Hard Rock Cafes. Joseph Pine II wrote The Experience Economy. new buffet display concepts. we can begin to show concern for others and understand them. You're definitely out of your comfort zone. or straightening a tablecloth that's Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 35 uneven. team-building events. we develop meaningful relationships and. and desires? What are their concerns and their "hot buttons"? By putting ourselves in their positions. "A turtle goes nowhere until it sticks its neck out.

None of us ever go home at night thinking that all the work is done-it never is. If our sales are $1 million. because they are easy to copy-and-paste into their own proposals. You must understand the difference. you should already be using this technique to accomplish as much as you can in school. and we need a letter of introduction when we stumble home at 3:00 A then something's very wrong. on a deathbed. and occasionally overseas. Hawaii. If we can grow our businesses with no adverse effects on the quality of our lives or our products. And doctors will tell you they've never met a man or woman who. and 80 percent of your sales and profits from 20 percent of your clients.. let's go for $2 million. More business means more hours at work. Still. many of us get caught up in that way of thinking. you could spend a day catering three small parties for 25 guests each. as well as providing e-mailed proposals to those clients who prefer to do business via their computers. For example. Excellent Priorities and Time Management You get 20 percent of your sales and profits from 80 percent of your clients. expressed a wish that he or she had spent more time at work.36 Basics of Catering Management Keeping Up with Current Trends It's not just a matter of food and presentation and theme trends. Caterers who are not wired to do business online through the Internet and e-mail are missing out on huge opportunities. when the quality of our products and services suffers so does the quality of our lifestyle. Leading Caterers of America (founded by the book's co-author Bill Hansen). as well as what's most urgent. However. There's nothing wrong with building sales if quality does not suffer. Quality before Quantity Bigger is not necessarily better. it will get done. At the start of each day they prepare an agenda that details both short-term objectives and long-term goals. receives 5 to 20 inquiries per day from clients looking for catering services coast to coast. in Alaska. Successful caterers spend their time in those areas that generate the biggest paybacks in terms of money. for 500 guests- Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 37 and lose it to a competitor whose proposal was simply submitted on time. but fall behind on preparing a proposal for another job. leaving time for the most important. We need to continually examine the quality of our work to ensure that it's not slipping because we've allowed ourselves to take on too much. in three months. Urgent things are never really an issue. There's no question that if you have a catered event today. People do shop for catering online. Caterers need to get in the habit of responding to e-mail correspondence as soon as possible. If you're a student. you're behind the times. as well as the most urgent. But what's most urgent is not necessarily what's most important. They make a habit of planning their days. The online catering referral service. If they're $2 million.. Event planners who book caterers for their clients love receiving e-mailed proposals. what's wrong with $4 million? And if $4 million is good. then we should go for it! But if we find profits slipping and clients complaining. We need to make of habit of continually asking ourselves whether we might be better off with less business and more time for ourselves and for our families. If you're not in the habit of working online. and other rewards. It's simply a question of what's most important. and the companies that lead the way have highquality websites and diligently reply to e-mailed requests in a timely manner. . quality.

looks. They're forever reading. The catering firm enjoys good working relationships with both clients and suppliers. Excessive credit is not extended to clients.333 gets four hits for every 12 times at bat.38 Basics of Catering Management Being Detail Oriented A baseball player who bats. or event better than the last. Proper controls are in place for costs. check the spelling. redone. They debrief after an event. Time and attention are given to food safety in storage. they're leaving the door open for their competitors to capture a good customer or a larger share of the market. Those that are unhealthy. Setting High Standards If you refuse to accept anything but the very best. and tidiness separates the average caterers from the superstars. Healthy companies rate highly in all of these areas. Employees know the local health codes and follow them. and display. or even on the brink of failure. but is forever finding something that needs to be tweaked. One who bats . the late NFL coach. adjusted. Remember? The devil is in the details. The firm can make loan payments as they become due. from brochures to contracts-or hire someone to do it. asking staff for input and improvements. They challenge and reward their staff members for having the same attitude. and licenses are kept up to date. The difference-one more hit for every 12 times at bat-means the difference between an average major league ball player and a Hall of Fame inductee. and controls each catered event. Again. Food and service quality is well-controlled and meets or exceeds clients' approval. Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 39 attending trade shows. They're never happy with the status quo. who during his career coached the first team to ever win the Super Bowl. accounts receivable and payable. always striving to make each party.250 gets three hits for every 12 times at bat. regardless of their chosen field of endeavor. grammar. you very often get the best. by all means. Successful caterers set their standards high and expect excellence from themselves and their staff members. Being aware of the details in flavors. Do you make it a habit to continually look for the little things? A good caterer isn't nitpicky. or improved-little things that most customers won't notice. insurance coverage. The information derived from these records is used to provide data to help manage the business. Theft prevention is also a priority. Business records. They know that if they fail to improve. Management thoroughly plans. Budgets are prepared and followed. but that greatly impact the overall professionalism of an event. There is a spirit of healthy competition. and punctuation in all your written materials. Vince Lombardi. Pricing for food and services is fair and competitive with other firms in the marketplace. organizes. wedding. There is sufficient working capital to operate the business. preparation. And. will not rate nearly as well. executes. the goal is to present a professional image." HOW DOES AN OFF-PREMISE CATERER Gauge Success? There are a number of signs to look for when evaluating an existing off-premise catering business. and exploring areas that will help them improve their own businesses with new ideas. and liquid assets such as cash and inventories. aromas. . put it this way: "The quality of a person's life is in direct proportion to their commitment to excellence. Successful caterers also make a habit of lifelong learning.

expenses. for use of the site. as an entrepreneurial and motivated student. Management and staff have a good working knowledge of the off-premise catering field. and cash Accounting records By reading and studying this text. Preparing a "pull sheet" that details all items supplied by the commissary to produce the party. There are sufficient financial and personnel resources to operate as business steadily grows. Staff members are well trained and feel truly appreciated-because they are. which include: Positive and/or negative word of mouth about the event Revenues. as needed. societal trends. THE OFF-PREMISE CATERING MODEL Once the planning is complete. Normally. equipment. such as: Hiring and scheduling staff Purchasing and pre-preparation of menu items Ordering equipment as needed from party rental companies Obtaining licenses and permits. There are solid. But it is an extremely rewarding and interesting field that combines interpersonal and organizational skills. management is willing to seek qualified professional assistance if problems arise. you should be well on the way to a thorough understanding of the catering field. and. serving alcohol. which include all the aforementioned plans along with pricing. trusting relationships between management and staff. your clients won't be the only ones celebrating at your events! . etc. and financial acumen. proposals are modified somewhat. food. there are certain outcomes. a contract is prepared that contains all the conditions outlined in the proposal. Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 41 After the event. All the preplanning elements culminate on the day or night of "The Show. certain operational elements are addressed. profits. it is possible to provide clients with written proposals. Coordinating all beverage and accessory services with the client and the vendors. As the party date approaches. And." That's when staff. Management works closely with a qualified accountant to plan for payment of taxes.40 Basics of Catering Management Sales growth is controlled. and other services arrive at the party site. Once modification is complete and all provisions meet with the approval of both caterer and client. you will gain a thorough understanding of how all these elements combine to produce a successful off-premise event at the hands of a professional caterer. CONCLUSION This book should provide all the necessary information to those who are motivated to start their own companies or to develop an off-premise catering division of an existing foodservice operation. and the event is executed. finally. Market trends are anticipated. If you do it well. Study hard. We must warn you-catering is not an especially easy way to make a living.

and customer relationship management.Basics of Catering Management 42 Food and Beverage Distribution 43 obstacles-or opportunities. integrating accurate catch weights directly to accounting for billing may also help boost profi tability and customer satisfaction through more effi cient operations. whether from the FDA. you can improve your customer service by delivering real-time. EFFECTIVE SALES ORDERING 2 FOOD AND SUSTAINING INDUSTRY BEVERAGE DISTRIBUTION SUCCESS IN A COMPETITIVE Strict compliance standards. You also need fl exibility-the kind that can help you respond to customer demands and market trends as soon as they're identifi ed. the EU. This in turn ensures that accurate data fl ows throughout the organization. how effectively you meet the challenges determines whether or not your company is successful. you can be assured that orders are handled promptly and without error. customerfocused information directly to your customers at any time-the kind of service that will keep the orders rolling in. high customer-service expectations-when you're in the food and beverage distribution industry. Put together. you can create customer-driven forecasts based on repeat buying patterns to effectively plan warehousing and purchasing processes. but excel. And with effi cient sales ordering in place. For example. intense competition. and closely monitor compliance with a range of regulations. low profit margins. Integrated solutions can also support Automatic Data Collection (ADC) processes to ensure that distribution systems are integrated with fi nancial and reporting applications. you need fast and effective sales ordering processes to ensure customer needs are fully understood and addressed quickly. You have to be able to see information across all facets of your operations. inventory. by tightly integrating your data. You also have to react quickly to issues such as food safety and recalls before they can damage reputations. or the International Food Standard. and boosting your forecasting capabilities. these conditions can present Getting your customer orders processed quickly and effi ciently is at the core of your business. Responsiveness Well-integrated business solutions give you the kind of agility and fl exibility your business needs to serve your customers and compete effectively. Having the right business solution in place can help you not only succeed in the industry. increasing the accuracy of inventory and orders shipped. and possess effi cient delivery mechanisms that will get product where it needs to be. when it needs to be there. First. With a robust business solution in place that tightly integrates your fi nancials. As a player in the industry. There are tough issues on many fronts. As orders are shipped. these conditions defi ne your business. .

You can also tighten delivery times and schedules by using your business software to create automated processes for specific customer requests. Microsoft DynamicsTM offers a set of strong applications that deliver a compelling suite of technologies for organizations in the food and beverage distribution industry. fl exible systems can give you the ability to make reports and data available to customers over secure Internet connections. and comply with changing customer demand. o Real-time reports and alerts to management and retailers. Robust. Our technology platform will enable your organization to assemble a complete. o Marketing promotion management.44 Basics of Catering Management A fl exible business solution can. departments. Or implement a fl exible pricing strategy that uses unlimited price lists. o Customized business reports. Efficient Deliveries and Food Safety Getting the right product to the customer when they need it is the bottom line for food and beverage distributors. . The integrated tools in Microsoft Dynamics can help you succeed by speeding products from supplier to the store shelf. and facilitate traceability from supplier to customer in markets where it's required. lower inventory required to service customers. Help keep the food supply safer by coordinating tracking of product from suppliers. If your business fi nds itself responding to many customer requests for automated reports. These integrated applications can be deployed quickly and inexpensively without complicated customizations and drawn-out implementation projects. and processes. pull Food and Beverage Distribution 45 customer orders in a fraction of the time typically required. or for frequently requested information. Effi cient delivery also means cost-effective delivery. Well-connected systems also will help you coordinate all aspects of communications when multiple personnel are communicating with the customer. Microsoft Dynamics solutions and Microsoft partners support: o Automated product tracking and tracing from the supplier to the retailer. o Integrated ADC solutions and catch weight capabilities. You can also improve accountability by implementing metric setting and tracking for individual warehouses. having quick access to the broadest set of data is critical. and meeting the demands of your retailing customers and consumers. o Responsiveness to customer demands. removing waste from operations. cost uplift pricing. Your business solution should be able to effectively blend with technologies such as bar code and radio frequency identifi cation (RFID) to provide real-time information that can help you plan product delivery schedules more effi ciently. for instance. integrated set of leading-edge business applications. This integration can help you nearly eliminate comprehensive inventory counts. or allow customers to see deeper into the supply chain. connected solutions can help make that job easierand can be critical tools when you are managing product shelf life or responding to quality and food safety issues. or quantity break pricing. price banding. enable you to integrate customer relationship management (CRM) and accounting systems to support individual customer requirements. When it comes to food safety or quality issues. Your IT systems should help drive down the cost of business with ADC sales systems that are tightly integrated to all other business systems in the organization.

a balance between theory and practice through lectures. Outlook®. efficient and transparent to the organization. and reporting data across your company's systems. plan production and lead times. differentiating against competition (delivering relevant. Word. strategically aligned. planned over time and in resources. Plan for Growth Organizations need systems that can deliver a strong return on investment (ROI) in meeting current needs. Microsoft SQL ServerTM delivers a solid foundation for collecting. to customization. resulting in innovation efforts that are. That means you get world-class business solutions from professionals who understand your business and will be there as your business conditions change. i. to ongoing support and education. changes in business focus. can help you better understand inventory. o Low-cost. The program relies on action learning.e. along with Microsoft server technologies and productivity solutions. assisting in the implementation of learning in ones daily work and in the organization. Built on the Microsoft® Windows ServerTM platform. Microsoft Dynamics helps you take advantage of technologies such as Microsoft Windows® SharePoint® Services for knowledge management and collaboration. Web-based customer support systems. MANAGING FOOD AND BEVERAGE INNOVATION Driving Growth through Product/Service Development Driving profitable growth through development of consumer and customer relevant products and services is on the agenda in all food and beverage companies. The Managing Food and Beverage Innovation (MFBI) program focus on developing capabilities in both participants and their organizations on how to build and implement an innovation strategy. Participants develop and deliver actual plans for a business unit at the home company including a strategic . AInnovative Integration Microsoft Dynamics provides a fl exible set of solutions that can be easily adapted to your operational needs. Partners with Industry Expertise Microsoft Dynamics solutions are delivered by a network of partners with expertise in food and beverage distribution. design reports. analyzing. and Visio®. personalized service-from planning and implementation.Basics of Catering Management 46 o Accurate demand forecasting. while providing for the opportunity to scale dramatically to account for organic growth. The program provides managers from food and beverage companies with the skills and tools required to design and implement an innovation strategy and product/service pipeline to fill the strategy with content. acquisitions. Microsoft Dynamics. And deep integration with Microsoft Offi ce System applications. and use data required to make accurate and cost-effective decisions. Internet Explorer. effective. SharePoint. Food and Beverage Distribution 47 and other foreseeable future changes to the business. home company assignments and multi company assignment. and Web services that can enable visibility into your customers' and suppliers' systems. Particularly since the industry is being challenged by price pressures and reduced differentiation (on the verge of commoditisation) between manufacturers. such as Microsoft Excel®. offers tremendous flexibility and scalability to implement the solution to meet today's requirements and to allow for substantial future growth and change. Windows Terminal Services for extending access to data and processes. They can provide local. new consumer benefits supporting brand value). workshops.

Participant develops a growth plan including an innovation strategy. o Extend professional networks within the industry to benefit both participants and their sponsoring companies. the sponsoring company the participants identify a business unit in the organization which will be the target for the HCA. The MFBI program consists of four modules: Module I: Developing an Innovative Strategy Objective: Understand the concept and task of developing an innovation strategy for a business unit and how it directs innovation efforts throughout the organisation. Senior. remuneration systems. operational recommendations and an implementation plan. service and product development based on an understanding of the company/business unit strategy and business environment. class lectures. etc) and what best practices could be applied to approach change management o Learn to design initiatives that are innovative and improve innovativeness by applying theoretical and managerial tools to real life situations. . The objective is to deliver tangible value to the home company. group exercises and industry-specific case discussions. product/service pipeline and implementation plan. o Through Multi Company Assignments (MCA) develop an understanding of major issues related to Innovation in the Food industry and build a capability to analyse and react on issues of strategic importance. while executives from the sponsoring companies ensure that the work is relevant and supported by top management. Food and Beverage Distribution 49 o Complete a Home Company Assignment (HCA) targeting business development at a specific business unit. and increases the professional value and loyalty of the individual. This skill is developed through a balance of readings. in theory and practice. In collaboration with SIMI. What capabilities are required and does the organisation have them or need to acquire them o Entrepreneurship-understand what drives innovation in entrepreneurial organisations and companies. More specifically. and how can this understanding support the home company efforts o Innovation pipeline-apply tools and practices on how to build an innovation pipeline to deliver against the strategy o Commercializing Innovations-understand how to successfully implement and commercialize an innovation in parallel to an existing product portfolio o Change management-assess how well the home company is prepared to drive innovation (organisation. culture.48 Basics of Catering Management outlook. The faculty uses executive MBA criteria to determine whether participants have successfully completed the assignments. MFBI will help participating companies and/or managers to: Understand and apply the concepts of: o Innovation strategy-define what should be the focus of the company's innovation efforts in terms of business. experienced faculty helps participants develop actionable and justified recommendations. The HCA is conducted under protection of confidentiality agreements with SIMI and faculty and are not shared with other participants. capabilities. o Earn a diploma that is recognized by the industry.

sustainability and leadership .e. Consumer needs and consumer behaviour. This module teaches how to implement the capacity for innovation and market product innovation inside and outside an organisation. The post-module home company assignment will build on the first assignment by revising the o Workshop on Commercialization of Innovations in the F&B industry: o Presentations from Industry Executives on best practice from implementation and commercialization of innovations in the European F&B industry. The teams will test and use these on model issues in preparation of the analyses of a live issue agree with the steering board for the program and chosen by each individual Food and Beverage Distribution 51 initial innovation strategy and building a market/product/ service pipeline to realize the strategy in the marketplace.g. Company capabilities and shortcomings o HCA I: apply the concepts & frameworks for developing an innovation strategy during the 3 weeks following the module. Key Sessions Module II: Building an Innovation Pipeline o Written feedback on HCA II from Faculty Objective: To provide participants with concepts and management approaches for improving innovativeness: leadership role. The post-module home company assignment will build on the first two by focusing on the "how of change". assigned by the home company. i. a business unit. how the different initiatives identified in previous assignments can be introduced in the own company. Generating demand through blue ocean strategy concepts o Understanding and analysing business environment data driving innovation. at customers and into the market. Quartz Management Consultants will introduce tools and methodology. are invited to an optional discussion of home-company assignments on the 2nd evening of the module o MCA I: Introduction of a process for analyses of industry issues that have strategic impact on a business. Key Sessions o Written feedback on HCA I from Faculty o How to develop entrepreneurial behaviour and understanding best practises of innovative companies o Learning and applying tools for identifying growth drivers and building a pipeline of innovation o MCA II: The teams will meet experts on the respective industry issue to discuss the topic in more depth as a guide for their live analyses o Executive guest speaker on Retailization-the power of the shopper and the retailer in European food and beverage markets Module III: Managing and Implementing Change Objective: Innovation is often connected to change. Market discontinuities driving change. culture shaping. idea creation. idea clustering-conceptualisation. Executive advisors.Basics of Catering Management 50 A balance of theory tools and marketplace date are used in teaching. Learning's are applied and analysed through the start of HCA and MCA. strategic aspiration. benefit pipeline and initial business plans. Key Sessions o Innovation Strategy: concepts and frameworks for developing an innovation strategy for e.

recommendations for how to build an innovation pipeline and a change program to support the effort. home-company executive advisors. individual and group assignments. This includes prereading. and 25 to 30 hours for a post-module home company team assignment. examination Food and Beverage Distribution 53 and discussion of industry issue reports with participants. and application of learning to home company assignments. o Industry Issue Workshop: a workshop for MultiCompany Groups to prepare a final presentation on their conclusions and recommendations on their respective industry issue o Industry Issue Seminar: presentation. Key Sessions o HCA IV Examination: one-hour presentation. Modules I. o Graduation: a ceremony and dinner on the evening of 26 June to which home-company executive advisors and steering board members are invited Learning Methods The key factors in SIMI's learning processes are: o Top international faculty sharing cutting edge research and best practices o Intensive participant involvement o Preparation and discussion of cases that are relevant to the industry o Real home company assignments addressing opportunities defined with the sponsoring company o Multi-company group projects on industry issues relevant to driving and managing innovation o And advice from faculty and industry executives The program requires intensive preparation and commitment on part of the participants.Basics of Catering Management 52 o Managing Change o Barriers to change-the dilemma of the need for stability and the need to change o How to manage human resources in change o How to build and support an innovative culture o MCA III: With facilitation from Quartz Management Consultants the teams start the process of analysing and building a hypothesis on their respective industry issue. class lectures and discussions. case studies. Industry experts will return to challenge the teams conclusions Module IV: Preparing for Home-Company Impact Objective: Having developed a strategy for innovation. To anchor the learning and contribute directly to improvements at the sponsoring company. MFBI steering board members and MFBI alumni. II and III each requires about 10 to 15 hours of preparation. for discussion in a concluding seminar. the final module will facilitate successful application of learning at the home company in two ways: (1) Home-Company Teams will prepare an improved version of the previous home company assignments. for discussion with faculty and the homecompany executive advisor (2) Multi-Company Groups will prepare and present their final point of view on the industry issues researched. participating companies are expected to appoint one executive advisor to . dialogue and feedback on key recommendations to prepare for a later successful presentation to home company top management. faculty.

Since 1997. European and North American business schools supplemented with experienced business executives and advisors to industry. The high academic level combined with specific industry knowledge enriches the learning environment. Full attendance is required to qualify for a diploma. Hansen A/S Jesper Allentoft Danisco A/S Torben Svejgård . Ann-Kristin Kongstad Majvi Wulff-Christensen Chr. Lantmännen Faculty Morten Hellesen SIMI recruits top. The home-company executive advisor's role is to challenge and guide the team in their home company assignments. The Steering Board for MFBI consists of the following companies and executives: Arla Foods amba Anne Lindholm Behnk Carsten Hallund Slot Carlsberg A/S Thomas Tuxen Due to the international composition of the faculty and the participants. and is reviewed with a faculty member to ensure successful implementation at the home company after the program. packaging and equipment suppliers with identification of opportunities for long-term sustainable growth. 150 high potential. Grades A. SIMI acts as a resource to the food and beverage industries in supporting food and beverage producers. Both the home company and the multi-company assignment examinations must be successfully completed to earn a diploma. Participating Companies Before the start of module IV. internationally known faculty from Asian. This presentation refines the key home company recommendations from module I-III assignments.54 Basics of Catering Management Food and Beverage Distribution 55 help the participating team. An additional 15 to 25 hours may be used on this final report and discussion in the two weeks before module IV starts. participants are required to prepare a final HCA presentation in collaboration with their home-company executive advisor. experienced managers from 44 leading food and beverage companies in Europe and the US have attended the program. These groups are facilitated throughout the program by advisors. Constructive input from leading players within these industries assures the program continuous improvement. During the entire program and concluding in module IV. SIMI governs the program on behalf of a steering board of executives. ensure the relevance of the recommendations and help implement the team's improvement plan during and after the program. These players also help create a balance between SIMI's academic ambitions and the demands of the industry. B and C are pass grades and F is fail. the English language is used exclusively throughout the program. participants work in 4-6 multi-company groups to deliver reports on industry issues relevant to the food and beverage industry to expand industry-specific learning and networking. and ingredient.

Mars/Masterfood. Danish Crown. representing 13 company teams. Raisio. To obtain maximum benefit from the program." Participant Profile The Managing Food & Beverage Innovation program is designed for experienced. product management. high-potential functional or project managers in the entire macro food chain. Færch Plast. In particular the fact that we were able to send a cross-functional group of students from our company has helped to create a very tangible and useful outcome. The learning methods used at SIMI have proven efficient in balancing theory and Food and Beverage Distribution 57 practice preparing the teams for action leading to profitable commercial initiatives. advice and feedback. Our employees have been very pleased with the quality of what was offered by SIMI. R&D. supply chain and business development. . participants are admitted in teams of two to four. Enrolment will be limited to 32 managers. and V & S have participated in the program. This ensures cross-functional cooperation required to implement home company assignments and is often the start of a stronger cooperation between these functions." Mikael Aru. preferably from multiple functions in the same strategic business unit. R. Managing DirectorProcordia Food AB: "The MFBI program at SIMI has proven a valuable contribution to our understanding of how to drive innovation in our business. Nestlé. This limitation facilitates a high level of class discussions. marketing. who need to develop an understanding of the future strategic options in the industry and the importance of innovation as a lever for profitable growth.Basics of Catering Management 56 Findus Tina Bengtsson Novozymes A/S Peder Holk Nielsen Orkla Foods AS Håkon Mageli Procordia Food AB Christer Grönberg Pågen AB Peter Bruun Skånemejerier AB Sophia Palebo Danish Food Federation Ole Linnet Juul Swedish Food Federation Agneta Dreber Federation of Norwegian Food Industries Roald Gulbrandsen In addition. companies such as Coca Cola. Unilever. EAC/Plumrose. The MFBI program has been conducted successfully Seven times since 1997. Participants represent a diversity of functional areas such as general management. TINE. sales. We continue to work with SIMI through the Program Steering Board developing and supporting the program. Said about the program by sponsoring companies: "We have sent several teams to the Managing Food and Beverage Innovation program at SIMI with the objective to build team and business unit capabilities driving innovation. GEA/Niro. Toms.

The analysis of individual.58 Basics of Catering Management The recent average participant has been 40 yrs old with six years of management experience and 12 years of industrial experience. the tools and the learning from case stories given by excellent teachers. MFBI is a great program!! Why? o It has gives us the opportunity to work in projects from a more strategic perspective. company specific innovation topics and challenges and the development of a dedicated business case for launching a new innovation are just some of the many valuable take-aways of the course. and home company assignment-have all given me inspiration for my daily work in the company. All tied up by a very skilled faculty and experienced and highly professional teachers. It has provided professional insight at a high level due to the quality of the faculty.-also attending the program-has been very fruitful. The tools and models have helped reveal unprofitable activities within the company and have been of great help in the development of assessment of alternative solutions. For our company the program has proven to be of high value. We aim at recruiting an international class representation from mainly Nordic and European nationalities. opening the gates to new markets and growth possibilities. High class lecturers providing insight on latest innovation topics in a well balanced mix of practical experiences and theory. The different tools used in the home company assignment Food and Beverage Distribution 59 have inspired our company to think in new ways of doing business. Theory does not make it alone-the SIMI frames and spirit together with a very motivated and open minded participant team made it a total success experience to me". Said about the program by alumni: MFBI is a great program. Jakob Neimann. On a personal level I have experienced a field of opportunities and strategic insight that has inspired me in my daily work with product development and innovation. o MFBI has broaden our competencies in strategic innovation and gives us deeper understanding in the power of implementation. multi company assignment. which are in the implementation phase in the company. For our company the program has been of high value. It's something that we use in our daily business after the SIMI graduation. focusing on creating value for our customers. Especially the home company assignment (an actual business case). SIMI's MFBI program 2007 was a very stimulating experience to me and it has considerably increased my understanding how to manage innovation strategy and innovation processes. In addition it has given the opportunity to meet and network with competent and exiting persons within the industry. It gives a professional insight in the strategic world of doing business. our consumers and our company. o SIMI has forced us to challenge internal and external orthodoxies and put more focus on how to be and act different. teamwork. The MFBI program is a great program due to the combination of lessons. o During the course professionals from international . because we could apply directly the theory. Once accomplished our company will have a new innovation strategy built on a clear and coherent business model with focus on value creating activities. which was done together with a younger colleague. home company assignment and networking. The three "legs" of the programClassroom theory. and inspires to new ways of thinking.

Wheatfield achieved its goal within 12 months and the Irish Prison Service set up a committee to review and upgrade the catering function at each of its prisons. At Abba we have really appreciated all tools helping us with implementation and to create more structure in the strategic process.230 persons were sent to prison. 8. Prerequisites include a minimum of five years of industry and three years of management experience. and that program procedures are clear. The fee covers all learning materials and food during the program. Early application is recommended to ensure availability of space and to allow time to appoint a home company team sponsor before the program starts. The IPS is committed to managing custodial sentences in a way which encourages and supports prisoners in their endeavouring to live law abiding and purposeful lives as valued members of society. our flagship prison failed on all counts. teamwork. and a bachelor degree or equivalent. Each applicant will be interviewed by telephone to ensure that program prerequisites are met. We are a key component in our country's criminal justice system ensuring safer community Food and Beverage Distribution 61 life. The governor convened the Irish Prison's first hygiene committee and we set our first two objectives: 1) To become compliant with current and pending legislation and 2) to achieve Hygiene Award Status. QUALITY MANAGEMENT OF PRISON FOOD AND TRAINING General Description of the Organisation and/or Project The Irish Prison Service (IPS) is responsible for the provision of safe. and potential of the individual. The IPS has a staff complement of approximately 3. final evaluation of the applicant will be based on the overall balance of key factors such as management experience. To our surprise and horror. industry experience.200 operating in its Head Office.60 Basics of Catering Management business schools and companies have provided us with useful tools. Training Centre and 14 prison institutions. secure custody for those people committed to prison by the Courts. improved services and developed opportunities. This document is the story of how the Irish Prison Service achieved Excellence in all aspects of Food Safety. academic background. It is a story of the Irish Prison Service's 14 year journey on the road to independently recognised catering excellence. It is a story of good management. The daily average number of persons in custody in 2004 was 3. In certain circumstances SIMI accepts. a decrease of 10% on the previous year. international experience. Travelling and lodging expenses are not included. . Please submit your application before 28 April for early admission. relevance to current job position. It is a story of a service provider that changed its status from a provider of unacceptable practices and poor standards to a benchmark of best practices and business efficiency. Tuition and Admission SIMI recommends that customers send teams of 2-4 participants to the program for maximum learning and HCA efficiency. The main Content of the Case In 1992 the Irish Quality Association (today called Excellence Ireland) were invited in to audit Wheatfield Prison's new kitchens and food storage areas. an increase of almost 1% on 2003. or latest by 15 June 2008. However. Food Management and Hygiene. The audit was carried out under 5 separate categories-Structural HygieneOperational Hygiene-Food Storage and Protection-Staff Facilities & Personal Hygiene and Hygiene Management Systems. During 2004.199.

000 persons are held in custody on a daily basis in this jurisdiction with a throughput of in excess of 8. all 14 institutions under the control of the Irish Prison Service and the Prison Service Staff Training Centre. Considerable benefits are achievable where prison catering. on a daily basis. An indication of the scale of our operation can be gleaned from the fact that over 3. education. It is essential in the management of prisons to be assured that the highest possible standards are maintained where food safety is concerned.200 inmates incarcerated in our prisons. Food is immensely important in prison. The Department of Justice. The end result is a Quality Customer Service that is comprised of a completely transformed. not a destination and although our journey did have a beginning (Wheatfield Prison) it now involves. health care and relevant outside agencies work in a complementary manner to promote a healthy lifestyle and healthy eating. In particular. 2.62 Basics of Catering Management Food and Beverage Distribution 63 The Reasons behind the Case 1. recognised throughout Europe and designed to meet the needs of employers. Food safety has become a matter of major public interest in Ireland and throughout Europe in recent years. food has a major bearing on the quality of prison regime. As well as providing in excess of 13. wholesome. The Process Leading to Success Excellence is a journey. We offer real life skills that are transferable to both the home and work situation and help increase feelings of self worth and self esteem. hygienically produced and a proper. The quality of the food on a prisoner's plate is at the heart of effective prisoner management. In prison. We visited a wide range of hospitals and a number of large catering outlets in the private sector. Within prisons.S. the Food Safety Authority of Ireland and the N. and strong leadership and teamwork were the main catalysts for change. In the context of large-scale institutions like prisons. As a consequence of drug misuse many people may be unwell or be more at risk of succumbing to illness. nutritious diet contributes to the morale of our prisoners and supports them in partaking to the full in the rehabilitative regimes we provide in a custodial setting. gave effect to European law on the matter. Equality and Law Reform. cost effective catering function with added value. The General Public. we formally wrote to the Department of Justice asking for detailed instructions regarding their specific needs and requirements. As Wheatfield prison was the launching platform for our hygiene programme we carried out a survey of its 320 inmates. The 3.I.000 persons per annum. We consulted with Failte Ireland. for 365 days a year. An efficiently sourced. which were enacted in Ireland in 1998 and 2000. As part of our needs analysis. Excellence Ireland. it contributes to health and relates to health education. Our road to success was paved with challenges and opportunities. The Actors behind the Case The customers of the Irish Prison Service are identified under one of the following three categories: 3. particular risks arise because large numbers of people are in close confinement together. The Hygiene of Foodstuffs regulations. A major challenge to the success of this initiative was securing the necessary financial resources to support the essential changes required to achieve . we offer inmates training that is validated and accredited by the National Training Authority.000 quality meals per day. food safety is immensely important.A.

They now carry out most of the operational tasks in our kitchens under the supervision of our trained staff. In some respects. Industrial Supervisors. Internal Auditors etc). Our management change project was action/research based and it allowed us to engage in the practice of continuous improvement. Our 28-day menu caters for medical. Failte Ireland. Catering Managers. designed to prepare them for employment on release. very little has changed since then and we overcame the attitudinal hurdles by adopting a multi-disciplinary approach to problem solving. the Irish Prison Service. Goal setting. . the professional training of the teams concerned. Training has been a main focus of our change management programme over recent years. It was also a springboard for many more initiatives.64 Basics of Catering Management the appropriate standards. Cleaners. "Innovators of change make enemies of all who prosper from the old regime and receive only lukewarm reception from those who will prosper from the new". however. The allocation of a sufficient staff complement to the catering function. access to advice from specialist advisors and the structural and equipment changes required in many of our kitchens all required resourcing. The participation of our customers-our prisoners-has also been fundamental to the success of our catering initiative. A comprehensive training prospectus has been developed and introduced for all workers involved in the food chain (Victualling clerks. It is complemented with an optional vegetarian cycle and the dietary needs of ethnic minority groups can also be met. The most important consideration was. Our initial multi-disciplinary hygiene programme (the forerunner of all our catering management systems) was an Food and Beverage Distribution 65 exercise in Teamwork. the benefits in terms'of prisoners' health and contentment of providing them with good food properly prepared and well presented. cultural and religious needs. They are subject to ongoing review and improvement. They have taken up opportunities to take a certified training programme. Preventative maintenance and Pro-active intervention. Results Indicating the Success Success on a Plate-Our Credentials and Improvements A set of fully documented standards for prison catering has been developed and introduced. These were developed by a multi-agency team of professionals.. some of our biggest problems involved changing attitudes. They have also contributed through inmate surveys on menu content and variety. Although resources were a primary consideration. Kitchen workers.. In 1520 Machiavelli wrote. Cooks. who bring training expertise of the highest standard and the Food Safety Authority of Ireland who have regulatory as well as hygiene promotion responsibilities. validated and accredited by Failte Ireland. Our catering strategy continues to be subject to review and our clearly stated goals and objectives help provide clarity of direction and ensure individual responsibility and accountability. A key characteristic of prison catering is the inter-agency partnership that operates between three public service bodies. and in consultation with Failte Ireland and the catering teams at local prisons. Small successes became the building blocks for bigger efforts and goals scored were acknowledged at every level. The drivers for securing the resources included the developing statutory requirements in this field and the cost savings which could be generated through central purchasing and waste management and through the avoidance of potentially costly claims arising from inmates as a consequence of unsatisfactory food quality and hygiene standards.

Awards Today. the Irish Prison Service proudly boasts the successful achievement of a wide range of prestigious and independently accredited National and International standards and awards. that their premises will be audited by prison personnel). Safety Standards Our Safety Standards provide standard safe operating procedures for the various hazards present in kitchens and a safety induction training manual for use in the prison kitchens is available in each location. Monitoring and External Audits A key aspect of the development programme for prison catering is the establishment of an independent external audit so as to provide comprehensive reports of the quality standards being achieved and to highlight areas in need of greater attention. These records are then archived. It is conducted annually by Failte Ireland and/or Excellence Ireland. which is awarded by Excellence Ireland. Food Hygiene regulations and good management practice require that catering operations are subject to ongoing monitoring with records being retained on an ongoing basis for inspection. It deals with all aspects of catering including the operation of the local monitoring procedures (HACCP). Our credentials are clear and our . The Hygiene Mark.66 Basics of Catering Management Our recipe manual has colour photographs showing how each meal is to be presented on the plate for the guidance of servery workers. this material is under constant review and revised as appropriate to ensure it reflects current best practice. and is the standard required to achieve compliance with SI 165 of 2000. This monitoring and record keeping is carried out at local prison level and is the responsibility of the person in charge of the kitchen along with local management. Safety standards for catering are reviewed on an ongoing basis to ensure they reflect current best practice. Foodstuffs are purchased in accordance with standard Public Service practices for procurement and only from approved suppliers who operate in accordance with relevant food hygiene regulations (potential suppliers are advised. The menu cycles and the standard recipes together provide a basis for preparing standard costs at each prison and of controlling catering expenditure. IS 340 This standard has been prepared by the National Standards Authority of Ireland in consultation with the catering industry. They also deal with all issues of hygiene arising in relation to the food being supplied. It is envisaged that the Hygiene Mark will be introduced in all prisons as a quality assurance procedure over the next few years. A process of conducting external audits of each prison catering operation has been established in the prisons. assesses caterers by reference to this standard. Each audit is comprehensive. As with the safety standards. Food Specifications Incoming foodstuffs have a critical impact on the quality of catering and its cost. as part of the tendering process. Food and Beverage Distribution 67 Our food specification procedures set out detailed requirements for all foodstuffs being purchased for the prison kitchens. Dealings with the suppliers of foodstuffs are managed by reference to detailed foodstuff specifications and incoming product is subject to scrutiny. The main procedure involved is HACCP (hazard analysis and critical control point). Hygiene Foodstuffs Regulations. which has been a mandatory requirement under the statutory regulations of 1998 and 2000 regarding food safety.

The catering improvement programme is in operation for in excess of 14 years and it gets stronger each year. We support our training programmes with meaningful certification. the broadening of the work/training programmes for inmates and the introduction of recycling and waste prevention programmes.I. Realistic and Timely. Measurable. energy efficiency awards etc) Delivering SMART Outputs and Results The improvement in prison catering in recent years is testament to the professionalism of our multi-disciplinary catering management team. supermarket chains. We are the first organisation on the Island of Ireland to have achieved the combined standards of I. The catering success story had a knock on effect that reached into every corner of the institution and into every institution in the State. We guarantee quality and we are accredited exemplars of best practice. Innovation and Sustainable Quality Examples of our innovative approach include the design and introduction of safety signs. continuous professional development.68 Basics of Catering Management improvements are indisputable. The sustainability of the programme is as assured as its quality. food processing plants. Our kitchens are showrooms of excellence and shining examples of best practice. became dissatisfied with their own situation and strove for change).S.S. Each year we beat hundreds of competitors in the public and private sectors in the race for recognised excellence. Currently. We offer value for money. that same prison operates to Food and Beverage Distribution 69 the highest European standards and was a recent winner of of Excellence Ireland's Supreme Award for Hygiene. We are acknowledged exemplars of best practice and catering managers in the private and public sector now use our kitchens as benchmarks of sustainable quality. (N. Achievable. bakeries. We are engaged in continuous professional development. This resulted in improved services generally and a string of associated awards. restaurants. professional pride and a strong desire to maintain our international status is our guarantee of sustainable quality.g.-beating stiff competition from a wide range of top class private and public businesses throughout the country including hotels. prison officers compared the new improved kitchen standards with their own canteen and working areas. Our outputs and results are Specific. Independent assessment combined with training. We provide a quality catering service. Ireland's flagship prison was in breach of statutory regulations. induction booklets and interactive e-learning programmes that are suitable for trainees with literacy and numeracy problems. We can and do achieve excellence in standards when the occasion demands and we comply fully with current and pending legislation. 343:2000 for catering In 2004 we were outright winners of the Excellence Ireland Supreme Award. Today. We offer enhanced employment opportunities. and dairy producers. It resulted in the development of a national programme to improve the catering function at all prisons. wholesalers.O award for general safety. some of Ireland's oldest prisons are holders of the prestigious Hygiene Award and prisons now compete with each other and with a myriad of organisations in the private sector in the race for recognized . cost effectiveness and efficiency. We provide transferable life and work skills for inmates. We are acknowledged leaders in the catering sector.S. Improved Services and Applied Learning In 1991. It also had the indirect effect of raising standards in other areas within the prison (e.O 9001:2000 & I. Success breeds success and lessons learned on our journey often became foundation stones for other projects.

so lets do"is easier and better than "We have to. except some products like alcoholic beverages and also technology transfer. it is the practical option.70 Basics of Catering Management Food and Beverage Distribution 71 excellence. bad practices. food poisoning A FICCI survey of Food and Beverages Industry has shown positive growth trends during April-March 2004-05. cultural and medical). The overall industry has achieved a growth rate of about 8 % in terms of value during 2004-05. once we achieved compliance with statutory regulations. Our outdated. The most Important Lesson Learned "We want to. We were in obvious breach of statutory regulations. Our antiquated. The main Obstacles of the Case The Survey also confirms higher growth during 200506 in almost all the products belonging to Food and Beverage segment over the corresponding previous period. The survey confirms that the Rs 3584 bn Indian Food and Beverages industry have shown buoyancy due to some positive factors : Government's high priority for development of food processing industry to encourage commercialization and value addition to agricultural produce. chefs and prison management. so go do". and litigation. open to litigation and a potential outbreak of food poisoning due to bad food safety practices. cost effective 28 day standard menu cycle that incorporates a 14 day vegetarian cycle and caters for a wide range of individual needs (religious. cost ineffective system was driven by rules of operation that were designed in 1947. Main Sources of Inspiration behind the Case The initial source of inspiration was a desire to professionalise our catering programme. All concerned had to become aware of their fundamental role within the change management process to ensure the success of the initiative. innovative. Shaking people out of their comfort zones and changing attitudes were the hardest obstacles to overcome. Entire sector is de-licensed. Compliance with legislation and the adoption of best practices is not the hard option. wasteful and cost ineffective 7 day menu cycle has been replaced with a healthy. Zero duty import of capital goods and raw material for100 percent export oriented units. Automatic approvals for foreign investment up to 100 percent. Agro based l00 percent export oriented units allowed sale up to 50 per cent in domestic tariff area. . They had to be moulded into a cohesive multi-disciplinary team with a single agreed vision. cross contamination. However. Liberal reform measures and various tax benefits Policy Initiatives taken by the Government in the Food Processing Sector which include : Food processing industry declared a priority area. The improvement has been reflected both in volume terms and in terms of value for most of the products. Today while other organisations scramble to keep ahead of exposure and bad publicity. the Irish Prison Service is free to concentrate on new and innovative ways to improve its business performance. our professional pride and a desire to reach our full potential became our main motivators. super bugs. There was comfort and safety in familiarity for suppliers. while television programmes and newspapers tell stories of business closure.

. The Surya Food and Agro Private Ltd etc and a host of local manufacturers offering competition with their established brands on national level. India's middle class segment will continue to hold the key to success of the processed food market in India. HLL. Every player is busy in the race by expanding their product range. The market for branded foods is growing at a healthy 10%-15%. Cadbury. Godrej Consumer. family management. Conagra. ITC. Middle East and CIS countries because of similar The companies have added new variants into their existing brands including stylish packaging .awareness campaign about the products and brands. The next sunrise industry for India is going to be food. government and public sector undertakings. distribution of free samples with the focus on improving the distribution network to make strong presence in the Indian market. This is conducive to an expansion in demand for ready to eat Indian-style foods. Nepal. associations. . The Food and beverages sector is witnessing recently large-scale transformation. Government grant given for setting up of common facilities in Agro Food Park. small players account for more than 70 per cent of the industry output in volume terms and 50 per cent in value terms. Mars. Dabur are among the companies Some companies have achieved growth in the key processed food segment by reaching lower price points to make the products more affordable to a bigger consumer class The Unorganized. Branded Food. focused product lines and less expenditure on marketing help the unorganized sector to grow. Indian food and beverage companies are making a beeline for regional overseas markets like Bangladesh. Pillsbery.72 Basics of Catering Management Export earnings are exempted from corporate tax All processed fruits and vegetables products exempted from Central Excise Duty. Britannia. Smithkline Beecham. Dabur. The market is seeing players like Heinz. Pakistan. Health food and Convenient Food are rapidly rising segments of this industry which are gaining vast popularity. Marico. Key factors to success are distribution (in rural markets) and advertising (in urban markets Innovation and launching of new brands are being adopted by the companies to grab the market. In terms of total output addition. The profile of the middle class is changing steadily as hired domestic help is becoming costlier. Use of foreign brand name is freely permitted The Federation of Indian Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) has recently conducted the survey of industries in the Food and Beverages sector through extensive interactions with representatives of industry. Marico. Nestle and Amul. Food and Beverage Distribution 73 lifestyles and consumption habits. With the changing life styles of the consumers and rising disposable income of the growing middle-income group. food has surpassed IT and pharma Big companies have started sourcing their products from local manufacturers as cost saving measures and to enter the mass consumer segment. Lower overheads due to limited local area. Full duty exemption on all imports for units in Export Processing Zones. huge advertisement spending. allied industry organizations. Pepsi.

by value. claimed to be a first of its kind initiative in the country. Bikanervala. Brewers in India are gearing up for the consolidation wave sweeping the global beer industry. even though they are often relatively unhygienic.74 Basics of Catering Management Many food and beverage companies have targeted the schools spread throughout the country for brand promotion and sale of their products The focus on urban markets have also contributed significantly to the growth of the biscuit industry. Real Junior targeted Food and Beverage Distribution 75 at Children below 6 years. Smaller players are being bought over by larger estates or global consumer goods majors. Large MNCs. NAFED and MAFED in the fruit juice market Some market leaders have introduced age-specific market segmentation with a new sub-brand. The emergence of new players at the lower end of the packet tea market with marketing support from the retailers has affected the industry and particularly. Ganguram. Street corner vendors are still very popular. outsells mild beer in India and accounts for more than 68 % of the total sales. the current trend is that lager beer is giving way to strong beer. Major players are now trying to differentiate their brands to reflect their superior quality through superior packaging. K C Das. Both public and private players operate in the market. which has 5 percent of alcohol content. Semi-processed foods/Cooked/Ready to eat foods sector is growing by 20 per cent due to rising demand. Agarwal Sweets etc are getting wide acceptance because of consistent quality and product safety Local manufacturers with numerous local brands cater to populous segment and contribute considerably in the bread segment. Chitales. . The price stability throughout the year has contributed to the increase in domestic liquor sales. Malted beverages with nutritional attributes control around 70% of the total market and energy drinks (brown beverages) account for the rest. Amidst beers. Nestle and Pepsi Foods. select dairy companies are planning major expansion plans in various cities with new brands of products including those suited to local taste and preferences and realizing higher price with higher sales volume Some national brands like Haldiram. with one third of the Indian confectionery market. Biscuits' packaging has undergone a swift transformation. the value added segment badly. Standard grocers are the leading distribution channel. Fruit juices in the unorganized segment are considered cheaper and fresher by the consumers. Brijwasi. Strong beer.. compete with public sector giants such as NDDB. Milk and milk products is rated as one of the most promising sectors in the Food Processing Industry though traditional dairy products are India's largest selling and profitable segment and accounts for more than 50 per cent of milk and dairy products Cashing on brand value and encouraged by the growing market. such as Hindustan Lever. Beer is losing ground to hard liquor in India. Traditional grocers are the only other channel to take a double-digit share. There has been a trend towards consolidation of the existing tea plantations.

Bread (7. The Sectors that have recorded a high growth rate between 10%-20% are-Branded Flour (Atta) ( 12%). Flavoured low alcohol beverage with new variants like the 330 ml beer pack have driven sales growth across the country. Milk liquid/packaged(5%). is lack of adequate infrastructure. Butter(10%). in terms of both investment and exports. Culinary products/Snack food(8%).76 Basics of Catering Management The Northern region has contributed significantly as Rajasthan has regularized sales in the state with the formation of a distribution corporation similar to Karnataka. Chocolates (8%). Several Indian brands have made inroads into the foreign markets including British market Branded products are preferred in the Edible oil segment as the urban consumers are increasingly becoming health conscious and looking out for low-cholesterol cooking medium. There is a need for integrating into . Beer (10%). Pulp sauces. Bakery items including Bread. The overall industry has achieved a growth rate of 8 % in value terms during 2004-05. Sugar Confectionary/ Gums(4%). Liberal policy measures of the government and sector specific concessions have helped growth.Traditional/Unorganised milk products (10%). Biscuits Organised/Packaged sector(14%). Bread/ Organised (8%). transportation. Health Beverages/Malted Food(8%).and Ice-Cream (25%). Curds and curd products (12%). Milk and Dairy products (4. Organised Branded milk products (15%).Fruits and vegetables(5%). A package of fiscal incentives provided by various State governments like Himachal Pradesh. There is an absence of a strong and dependable cold chain system which is very vital and essential for food processing industry based mostly on perishable products. Milk (4. cold chain facilities and other infrastructure supports. Pastry (10%-Organised Sector(11%). Tea (7%).Cheese/ Panner(8%). Ketch ups (18%). Ghee(5. Milk Products (10%). have encouraged companies to set up manufacturing facilities in these regions. The industry is estimated to have achieved higher growth of 8 per cent in 2004-05 with an estimated figure of Rs. Farm produce of about 30 per is being wasted every year only because there is no adequate storage. Processed Fruits and Vegetable Juices. Some sectors which have recorded Moderate and single digit growth are-Food & Beverage (8%).5).5%). Spirits/Country Liquor (10%). 3584 billion. Growth Highlights The FICCI survey confirms higher growth rates for some sectors belonging to Food and Beverages segment as compared to the previous year based on the estimates made by the industry and interaction with the concerned representatives in the industry. Harmonization of multiple food laws is an urgent necessity. Uttranchal. Biscuits (12%).5%). Milk Products(8%). Wine (20%). It has been observed that there are 13 laws enforced by 9 Ministries.5%). Milk powder including infant milk(7%). Health beverages/Malted food Food and Beverage Distribution 77 (11%).Cakes.Khoa/chhana based sweets (10%). The sectors that have recorded an excellent growth of 20% and above are-Semi-Pocessed/Cooked Ready to Eat(20%).). Alcoholic beveragesIMFL (10%). The excise exemption for 10 years and income tax exemption for 5 years for units located in backward regions under section 80IA have encouraged many companies to set up new units and helped growth BASIC ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS The foremost setback in expanding the food-processing sector.

g. dual taxation system for tea. contradictory and highly prescriptive but should be made simple to be complied with and industry friendly. e. These are mentioned in the detailed segmentation section. There is a need for a review of the Agricultural Produce and Marketing Act to ensure freedom to farmers to sell agricultural produce to sellers of his choice at remunerative prices rather than selling them through regulated market committees or authorized agents. Excise on all Machineries used for the processed food industry should be lowered to a maximum of 8%. Ice-creams and Non-alcoholic beverages dispensed by vending machines are exempt from excise duty. dual licensing for sugar. The Essential Commodities Act (ECA) puts a lot of hindrances including easy inter-state movement of food grains and essential food items. e.78 Basics of Catering Management one common food law. The Excise Duty on all Value Added food products like Nutritional and health foods. Food standards should not be overlapping. edible oils etc that already exists at the zero rate. edible oil and all these add to cost of production. Commodity traders should not be regulated and free movement of agricultural produce should be permitted between states. FICCI has highlighted some areas of concern impacting the overall Food and Beverage Industry and some sector specific issues through its Pre-Budget Memorandum for the year 2005-06 to the Government for consideration as under : The exemption on Milk and Milk products. Different Mandi taxes charged by local market committees in different states. confectionary.g. 2005 with penal provisions requires a review as the same gives huge powers to the Inspecting Officers to seize the food articles without authorization and may create unwanted confusion to the detriment of the industry. fruits and vegetable products. edible oil used as raw materials for a number of items. while other beverages like chocolate drinks. should continue. molasses for alcohol etc. high value Ready to Cook/serve products to be brought down to a maximum of 8% from 16 %. ice cream etc sugar. Besides different commodities are subject to different rules and system of regulations and licensing. There is a need for review of all such cases involving the users and the producers. There is multiplicity of taxes. The proposed Food Safety and standard Bill. It is considered as an archaic and needs review. Prevention of Food Adulteration laws is not only stringent one but time consuming also. local taxes and levies charged on different commodities belonging to food and beverages industries. There has been a rise in the prices of all such commodities which have impacted the overall cost of production in the food processing industry sectors. different labeling rules for some food and beverages items like alcoholic beverages. Higher cost of raw materials and packing materials put pressure on margins Some commodities in one segment are used as inputs in another segment of the food processing Food and Beverage Distribution 79 industry. inter-state charges and levies like Chungi tax and procedural complexities add pressure on margins and put hurdles to sound growth and development of the food processing sector. health drinks which are . skimmed milk powder (SMP) used as raw material for chocolate. Different states have different sales tax rates. The higher railway freight has pushed up cost of raw materials and inputs such as sugar. This is very essential for food processing where the processing units are located in different states. innovative Indian ethnic products.

IMFL (10%). Culinary products/snack food) (10%). improving farm credit and doubling agricultural credit over the next three years. agro-based and food processing industries have been given high priority in the budget for generating employment. CST @ 4% is a big obstacle in creating one single Indian Market and it is suggested that the CST be phased out urgently. rural extension services. Milk Products(11%). Spirits/liquors (11%). Milk and Dairy products(6%). reducing poverty and raising the income level of the farmers and rural masses by the Government. cakes. Health beverages/Malted food (9%).The measures include strengthening the means to increase the yield in agriculture and dairy sectors. Sugar (8-10%) The recent policy packages announced by the government for farmers for raising rural income is bound to stimulate growth further.Curd & curd products(12%). Bakery Items including bread. 80000 crore during 2003-04 to about Rs 105000 crore and to bring l00 new farmers in a district in the yearly loan scheme would accelerate rural income and rural demand.pulp.Fruit juices. Flour/atta (7. Edible Oil (20%). The sectors that are projected to achieve high growth between 10%-20% are: Branded Flour Atta (13%).5%).5%). . raising horticultural output to 300 million tons by 2011 and removing all controls that hamper increase of farm income. The excise duty on packaging materials and packaging machineries used for the processed food industry should come down to 8%.5 % in 2005-06.Ghee (6. Development of rural infrastructure. Organized/branded (15%).and concentrates (18%). Bread(9%). Food products (8%).. The proposal to enhance the level of institutional credit to be provided by banks and financial institutions from Rs.5%). The Food and Beverage Industry is projected to have overall growth between 8%-8.organized sector (12%).Wine(22%). Ice-Cream(20%). Milk (6%). The government has recently outlined some measures for growth and development of the primary sector. Packaging material for match sticks is exempted from excise duty.Tea (8. Biscuits Organized/Packaged sector (14%).80 Basics of Catering Management dispensed by vending machines attract 16%.Beer (10%). The sectors which are projected to achieve excellent growth of 20% and above in 2005-06 are-Semi Processed/ Cooked Ready to eat (22%). pastry (11%). Milk Powder including infant milk (6%). Edible/ Vegetable oil (20%). Sauces/ ketups (17%). Sugar confectionary/gums (5%). The Union Budgets 2004-05 and 2005-06 have given some incentives for boosting the food processing industry sector including tax exemption on agroprocessing units and full exemption of excise duty on dairy machines.5%).Bread/organized (10%).Biscuits (13%).Traditional/unorganized (12%). Chocolates(10%).Butter(12%). The Sales Tax or VAT rates for all machinery used should be lowered to the concessional rate of 4%. Cheese/paneer (8%). The National Policy aims to increase the level of food processing from 2 per cent to 10 per cent by 2010 and 25 per cent by 2025.Khoa/chhana based sweets (11%). OPPORTUNITIES AND PROJECTION The survey confirms that the Food and Beverages sector is poised for further growth because of the emerging opportunities and strong fundamentals developing in the economy. Some sectors projected to record moderate and Food and Beverage Distribution 81 single digit growth are: processed Food products (8.


Basics of Catering Management

Food and Beverage Distribution


The process of setting up of Food Parks in various key
locations of the country with the involvement of the various
state governments and other allied institutions is on.. The
Minister of Food Processing Industries has announced the
setting up of 500 such parks within the 10th Five-year plan
across each parliamentary constituency. This will give a
boost to growth and development of food processing industries.


The FICCI survey highlights the need for pro-active
government action for helping the industry to achieve lower
cost, improved quality and better performance in the
competitive environment. For tapping the opportunities and
potentials, some initiatives and steps are required to be
taken for technology improvement, automation and
computerization in the manufacturing processes, quality
control, improvement of packaging to improve shelf life of
products, investment in R & D to develop new products and
for establishing an efficient cold chain system.

While food accounts for only 9.7% of the total private
consumption expenditure for an average American
person,15% for the Japanese and 15% for the British, for
the Indian it is the single largest component of their total
consumption expenditure, accounting for as much as 53%.

There is the need for ensuring adequate land for large
scale farming/contract farming by introducing necessary
amendment in the existing laws and in the Land ceiling Acts
Harmonization of multiple food laws by integrating into one
common food law is an urgent necessity.

Experts suggest that the next sunrise industry for India
is going to be food. In terms of total output addition, food
has already surpassed IT and pharma. While the total output
addition in information technology and pharmaceuticals is
of the order of Rs.30,000 crore and Rs. 15,000 crore,
respectively, between 1993 and 2000, food manufacturing
recorded an output addition of Rs.90,000 crore, which is the
double of the two industries put together.

The expert committee set up by Ministry of Agriculture
has estimated that an investment of the order of about Rs.
11200 crores in the next 10 years would be required for
establishing infrastructure in agriculture marketing. There
is need for developing market yards/auctioning centres to
handle perishable commodities including flowers. Commodity
exchanges in India are now being encouraged while covering
a large number of commodities.Commercial banks in India
with a wide network of branches in the rural areas may act
as intermediaries between the exchanges (aggregators)and
farmers to make available the benefits of price risk insurance
to large sections of the farmers.

The size of the Food and Beverages Industry is estimated
to be Rs 3584 billion. India is among the world's major
producer of food and produces over 600 million tonnes of
food products every year and has huge potentials with the
food and agricultural sector which contributes to around
22% of India's GDP.

India's food consumption market is expanding rapidly to
attract global food and drink giants. Rising per capita incomes,
changing life styles, and a growing younger population with
preference for convenience food have driven growth.

India is the second largest producer of rice and wheat
and the largest producer of pulses. The total production of
food grains is estimated to reach 213 million tones in 200304 after a setback in 2002-03 recording 174.2 million tonnes
of production. Table 1 gives product wise current performance
in production and growth rates.
The Food Processing Industry sector in India has been
accorded high priority by the Government of India, with a
number of fiscal relief and incentives, to encourage


Basics of Catering Management

commercialization and value addition to agricultural produce.
Indian food processing industry is poised for further growth
in view of the liberal policy measures and government's
commitment for reforms and development of food and agroprocessing industries.
This opens up huge opportunities for large investments
in food and food processing industries in different fields
including up gradation of technologies and improvement of
skills with installation of modern machinery and equipment,
especially in areas of canning, dairy plants, specialty
processing. The opportunities of investment lie in various
stages like packaging, preservation of food with suitable
refrigeration and thermo processing, quality control and
also in creating a good marketing and distribution
infrastructure and an efficient network of cold chain
management system.
Health food, health food supplements, Convenient Food
and Branded Food are rapidly rising segments of this industry
which is gaining vast popularity with the changing life
styles of the consumers.
Development of rural infrastructure, rural extension
services, agro-based and food processing industries have
been given enough priority for generating employment and
reducing poverty and raising the income level of the farmers
and rural masses by the Government. The present
Government also plans to continue the process further with
a package of incentives for rapid progress and development
of rural India.
Of the total estimated food market of approximately
Rs.3584 billion, value-added food products comprise about
Rs.920 billion.
The unorganized, small players account for more than
75% of the industry output in volume terms and 50% in

Food and Beverage Distribution


value terms There are very few large Indian Food Brands
with global presence. Although India is among the world's
largest producers of many food items, only about 20% of
India's fruit and vegetable output is processed in the country,
compared to 30% in Thailand, 80% in Brazil and 60-70%
in countries like the UK and US.
There is strong preference for raw and semi-processed
foods in most parts of the country. The tremendous potential
for growth of the industry is also reflected in the number
of foreign investment proposals received for the various subsectors of the industry.
Since the liberalization in 1991 till January 2004
proposals for projects of over Rs.87715 crores have been
proposed in various segments of the food and agro-processing
industry including Rs 33574 crore for food processing, Rs
33818 for sugar and Rs 20323 crore for vegetable oil and
vanaspati. Besides, the Government has also approved
proposals for joint ventures, foreign collaboration, industrial
licenses and 100%export oriented units envisaging an
investment of about Rs.20,000 crores. Out of this, foreign
investment is of Rs 9620 crore which is 3.3 of total Foreign
Direct Investment.
Liberalization of Food Sector started since 1991, removal
of price controls, de reservation of small scale industry,
reduction in import tariffs, fiscal incentives for encouraging
investment in the sector under the liberalized policy
environment of the Government have spurred growth in
this sector.
The Government has provided many liberal incentives
to encourage the Food Processing industry.
Policy Initiatives in the Food Processing Sector
Food processing industry declared a priority area.
Almost entire sector is de-licensed.


Basics of Catering Management

Automatic approvals for foreign investment up to 100
percent, except some products like alcoholic beverages and
also technology transfer.
Zero duty import of capital goods and raw material
for100 percent export oriented units.
Tax exemption on agro-processing units and full
exemption of excise duty on dairy machines
Agro based l00 percent export oriented units allowed
sale up to 50 per cent in domestic tariff area.
Export earnings are exempted from corporate tax
All processed fruits and vegetables products exempted
from Central Excise Duty.
Government grant given for setting up of common
facilities in Agro Food Park.
Full duty exemption on all imports for units in Export
Processing Zones.
Use of foreign brand name is now freely permitted
Income Tax exemption for 5 years for new units only in
fruits and vegetable processing industry etc.
Sector specific concessions have been extended to
different products of the Food Processing Industry which
among others include :
• Exemption for all the milk products but not condensed
• Reduction for biscuits,cakes and pastries to 8%
• Sugar based confectionary exempted
• Reduction for meat and poultry products to 8%
India's middle class segment will continue to hold the
key to success of the processed food market in India. Of the

Food and Beverage Distribution


countries total population of one billion, the middle class
segment account for about 350-370 million. Though a
majority of families in this segment have non-working
housewives or cannot afford hired domestic help they prefer
to prepare food of their taste in their own kitchens. But the
profile of the middle class is changing steadily as hired
domestic help is becoming costlier. This is conducive to an
expansion in demand for ready to eat Indian-style foods.
As about 10% of output is processed and consumed in
packaged form, there is huge potential for expansion of the
food processing industry.
In view of the tremendous growth potential of this
segment many MNCs as well as domestic players have made
an aggressive entry in the sector, betting large amounts of
Companies like Nestle after achieving growth in the key
processed food segment are now reaching lower price points
to make the products more affordable to a bigger consumer
With changes in eating habits and the increased
affordability of the growing middle-income group of Indian
population, the market for branded foods is growing at a
healthy 10%-15%.
In the basic food segment there is dominance of the
regional unorganized sector. This is to some extent due to
government policies of the past, wherein, many segments
were reserved for the small-scale industry.
However, the segments, which are dominated by the
unorganized sector, have the potential to grow faster in the
years to come. For example, products like 'atta' are already
poised for hectic competition between players like HLL,
Pillsbury, Conagra and ITC, because of changing lifestyles
and preference for brands.

Conagra. ready to eat food and drinks. ITC. Every player is busy in the race by expanding their product range. Mars.88 Basics of Catering Management Pizza hut outlets. The sector is witnessing large-scale transformation. Prevention of Food Adulteration laws is not only stringent one but time consuming also. There is an absence of a strong Food and Beverage Distribution 89 and dependable cold chain system. Britannia. Pepsi. particularly in trains for transport of perishable fruits and vegetables in cool condition on priority basis Harmonization of multiple food laws is an urgent necessity. Food standards should not be overlapping. is lack of adequate infrastructure. focus on improving the distribution network to make strong presence in the Indian market. vegetables. The Surya Food and Agro Private Ltd. It has been observed that there are 13 laws enforced by 9 Ministries. Marico. 2005 with penal provisions requires a review as the same gives huge powers to the Inspecting Officers to seize the food articles without authorization and may create unwanted confusion to the detriment of the industry. BASIC ISSUES AND CONSTRAINTS The foremost setback in expanding the food-processing sector. Pillsbery. contradictory and highly prescriptive but should be made simple to be complied with and industry friendly. HLL. There is a need for a review of the Agricultural Produce and Marketing Act to ensure freedom to farmers to sell agricultural produce to sellers of his choice at remunerative prices rather than selling them through regulated market committees or authorized agents. transportation. There is the need for ensuring adequate land for large-scale farming/contract . Dabur. The process of setting up of Food Parks in various key locations of the country with the involvement of the various state governments and other allied institutions has been initiated. fruits. Farm produce of about 30 per is being wasted every year only because there is no adequate storage. huge advertisement spending. Without a strong and dependable cold chain vital sector like food processing industry which is based mostly on perishable products cannot survive and grow. Cold chain facilities are miserably inadequate to meet the increasing production of various perishable products like milk. poultry. There is a need for integrating into one common food law. The proposed Food Safety and standard Bill. Smithkline Beecham. fisheries etc. Provision should be made for sufficient accommodation in various modes of transport. HLL has entered the ready to eat segment through Indus Valley rice meals in seven flavours. ITC 's more than 50 packaged branded food products under Kitchens of India and Aashirvaad brands with different varieties of ready to eat/ cooked food is gaining popularity in the market. The minister of Food Processing Industries has announced the setting up of 500 such parks within the 10th Five year plan across each parliamentary constituency. Cadbury. The market is seeing players like Heinz. the MNC food chains are operating in the big cities and expanding their network in cities and small towns with variety of cooked. It is considered as an archaic and needs review. in terms of both investment and exports. MTR Ltd etc and a host of other regional and local manufacturers offering competition with their established brands on national level. cold chain facilities and other infrastructure supports. Satnam Overseas has also entered this growing market with its Kohinoor brands of rice meals and curries. Nestle and Amul.

health drinks which are dispensed by vending machines attract 16%. fruits and vegetable products.90 Basics of Catering Management farming by introducing necessary amendment in the existing laws and in the Land ceiling Acts. ice cream etc sugar. edible oils etc that already exists at the zero rate. There is a need for review of all such cases involving the users and the producers.g. Commodity traders should not be regulated and free movement of agricultural produce should be permitted between states. Excise on all Machineries used for the processed food industry should be lowered to a maximum of 8%. e.g. innovative Indian ethnic products. Packaging material for match sticks is exempted from excise duty.. different labeling rules for some food and beverages items like alcoholic beverages. should continue. Ice-creams and Non-alcoholic beverages dispensed by vending machines are exempt from excise duty. skimmed milk powder (SMP) used as raw material for chocolate. high value Ready to Cook/serve products to be brought down to a maximum of 8% from 16 %. e.The excise duty on packaging materials and packaging machineries used for the processed food industry should come down to 8%. OPPORTUNITIES AND PROJECTION The Food and Beverages sector is poised for further growth because of the emerging opportunities and strong fundamentals developing in the economy. There is multiplicity of taxes. Food and Beverage Distribution 91 FICCIS TAX PROPOSALS The exemption on Milk and Milk products. dual taxation system for tea. These are mentioned in the detailed segmentation section. edible oil and all these add to cost of production. There has been a rise in the prices of all such commodities which have impacted the overall cost of production in the food processing industry sectors. The Essential Commodities Act (ECA) puts a lot of hindrances including easy inter-state movement of food grains and essential food items. while other beverages like chocolate drinks. dual licensing for sugar. Higher cost of raw materials and packing materials put pressure on margins Some commodities in one segment are used as inputs in another segment of the food processing industry. edible oil used as raw materials for a number of items. molasses for alcohol etc. Different Mandi taxes charged by local market committees in different states. Besides different commodities are subject to different rules and system of regulations and licensing. This is very essential for food processing where the processing units are located in different states. inter-state charges and levies like Chungi tax and procedural complexities add pressure on margins and put hurdles to sound growth and development of the food processing sector. The higher railway freight has pushed up cost of raw materials and inputs such as sugar. the . With the growing awareness about health products in the minds of consumers. The Excise Duty on all Value Added food products like Nutritional and health foods. increasing urbanization. rising standards of living and popularity of convenience foods. CST @ 4% is a big obstacle in creating one single Indian Market and its suggested that the CST be phased out urgently. Different states have different sales tax rates. The Sales Tax or VAT rates for all machinery used should be lowered to the concessional rate of 4%. local taxes and levies charged on different commodities belonging to food and beverages industries. confectionary. The packaging cost component in the food products is very high amounting to almost 40%-60% of the cost depending on the size of the product.

improved quality and better performance in the competitive environment. agro-based and food processing industries have been given high priority in the budget for generating employment. There is a need for pro-active government action for helping the industry to achieve lower cost. some initiatives and steps are required to be taken for technology . Table 2 gives product wise growth projection. There is the need for ensuring adequate land for large scale farming/contract farming by introducing necessary amendment in the existing laws and in the Land ceiling Acts The proposals also include removal of restrictions facing farming community including cross border movement of food grains. reducing poverty and raising the income level of the farmers and rural masses by the Government. rural extension services. The Minister of Food Processing Industries has recently announced the setting up of 500 such parks within the 10th Five-year plan across each parliamentary constituency. doing away with local level rules and restrictions that prevent easy movement and marketing of food grains and improving marketing structure. Uttranchal. The Union Budget 2004-05 and 2005-06 have given some incentives for boosting the food processing industry sector including tax exemption on agro-processing units and full exemption of excise duty on dairy machines. Development of rural infrastructure. have encouraged companies to set up manufacturing facilities in these regions. A package of fiscal incentives provided by various State governments like Himachal Pradesh. raising horticultural output to 300 million tons by 2011.. The excise exemption for 10 years and income tax exemption for 5 years for units located in backward regions under section 80IA have encouraged many companies to set up new units. The National Policy aims to increase the level of food processing from 2 per cent to 10 per cent by 2010 and 25 per cent by 2025. This will give a boost to growth and development of food processing industries. 80000 crore during 2003-04 to about Rs 105000 crore and Food and Beverage Distribution 93 to bring l00 new farmers in a district in the yearly loan scheme would accelerate rural income and rural demand and speedy monetization in rural area. The proposal to enhance the level of institutional credit to be provided by banks and financial institutions from Rs. The present Government with a human face in reforms process strongly favors the idea of raising the level of living of rural masses through innovative reforms and packages for farmers. The process of setting up of Food Parks in various key locations of the country with the involvement of the various state governments and other allied institutions is on. The recent policy packages announced by the new government for farmers for raising rural income is bound to stimulate growth further. The proposed measures also include some vital changes in the Agricultural Produce Marketing (APMC) Act by incorporating contract farming. land leasing and privatization of food grain storages over time. This would provide untapped commercial opportunities for banks to lend and earn reasonable profits.92 Basics of Catering Management industry is expected to witness further growth. For tapping the opportunities and potentials. The government has recently outlined some measures for growth and development of the primary sector which include among others strengthening the means to increase the yield in agriculture and dairy sectors.

Local manufacturers with numerous local brands cater to populous segment and contribute considerably in the bread segment. like Hindustan Lever (with its Annapurna brand) and Godrej Pillsbury (Pillsbury). The organized sector has a market share of 45 per cent and the balance 55 per cent is with the unorganized sector in the baked products. DETAILED SEGMENTWISE ANALYSIS Milling Industry Branded Flour (ATTA) The milling industry comprises rice milling. Modern Industries Ltd. which had been growing with excellent rate of 40-50% till 2000 is now growing by 12% in 2004-05. investment in R & D to develop new products and for establishing an efficient cold chain system. there has been a steady process of technology upgradation and modernization in the traditional milling industry. It includes a wide range of products. The grain-processing sector is largely unorganized.94 Basics of Catering Management improvement. pastries. automation and computerization in the manufacturing processes. quality control. some large players. There is need for developing market yards/auctioning centres that can handle perishable commodities including flowers.5 % growth is represented by both the organized and unorganized sectors with 55 per cent and 45 per cent contribution to production. The large organized sector players who are prominent in the high-and medium-price segments include Britannia. with "Captain Cook" atta. high level of fragmentation are the main . wheat-flour milling and pulse milling. Increased competitive activity is spurring market growth. buns. The market has huge potential as in urban areas (with market size of about 42 mn tons).. rusk etc is estimated to be 50 lakh tones in 2004-05 with estimated value of Rs 69 billion. Traditional brands like 'Shakti Bhog' have also consolidated their position. Agro Tech (Healthy World). Commodity exchanges in India are now being encouraged while covering a large number of commodities. cakes.Commercial banks in India with a wide network of branches in the rural areas may act as intermediaries between the exchanges (aggregators)and farmers to make available the benefits of price risk insurance to large sections of the farmers. BAKERY INDUSTRY The annual production of bakery products which includes bread. from basic ground wheat (atta) to flakes of wheat. rice or corn. biscuits. 11200 crores in the next 10 years would be required for establishing infrastructure in agriculture marketing. although there are a few large players in the market. The two major bakery industries. branded atta accounts for 2-3% of consumption and is getting increasing acceptance. Food and Beverage Distribution 95 ITC (Aashirvaad) entered the market. improvement of packaging to improve shelf life of products. Low margins. Nature Fresh and BREAD INDUSTRY The bread industry with estimated production of 27 lakh tons in 2004-05 and having 7. Brands like Modem and Britannia are major players in the bread market and together they account for 90% of the organized bread market. The segment. Since the packaged flour market was explored first at a national level by the Mumbai-based DCW group in 1994.. Over the years. bread and biscuit account for about 82% of the total bakery products. The expert committee set up by Ministry of Agriculture has estimated that an investment of the order of about Rs. viz.

particularly wheat flour. Various States have increased Sales Tax on Biscuits ranging from 16 per cent in Andhra Pradesh and 8 per cent in Uttar Pradesh. Dukes.52 kg as compared to more than 12 kg in developed countries. ITC Foods Ltd has expanded network and is promoting its Sunfeast biscuits across 1000 schools in the country. BISCUIT INDUSTRY The large organized sector players who are prominent in the high-and medium-price segments include Britannia. However. Besides the two major players. to Parle's stylish offering packaging has been completely transformed. The excise duty cut on biscuits from 16% to 8% has given a boost to biscuit industry. Volumes. The companies have added new variants into the existing brands as done by Britannia in Good Day brand. Karnataka. Anupam. HLL in Kisan Grudy biscuit brand.Cremica and Anmol have competed with each other over prices and quantities.000 tonnes of biscuit through a tendering process from Priya Gold. has been trying to make a dent into the mass market segment with the Tiger Brand with more emphasis to tap the rural market. the State-level markets show the presence of strong regional players such as Bakeman. these players have concentrated themselves in the super-premium and premium segments. Parle G in Hide & Seek with addition of flavors like butter. Priya Gold. . Iraq and Afganistan has opened opportunities for the Indian companies. Bakeman. Britannia. Windsor and Champion-brands present in almost all markets. Parle. Parle is doing the opposite. But there are some basic issues confronting the industry. Parle and Britannia. The World Food Programme procuring about 25. vegetable oil. The per capita consumption of biscuits in our country is about 1. Priya Gold. The Surya Food and Agro Private Ltd with its Priya Gold Brand has come out of the local fold. pista and cashew. According to All India Bread Manufacturers Association. Horlicks. Elite. Organized bread industry is recently facing problems due to low margins of profit due to escalating prices of major raw materials. badam. Shalimar. Parle and Bakeman. The top 5 manufacturers-Britannia. Foreign players like United Biscuits and McVities have also entered the fray. Britannia has become aggressive with its Tiger brand with variants to compete with Parle's Parle-G in the glucose biscuits category. Delhi and Haryana. which is a market leader in the top end. Britannia and Parle dominate in branded biscuit segment. brand loyalty and strong distribution networks are the main drivers of growth. which prevent breakage. Cremica and Anmol for school children in Pakistan. Focused advertising and new launches helped the biscuit industry to grow. Within the sector. The major brands of biscuits are Britannia. Priya Gold. Food and Beverage Distribution 97 The focus on urban markets have also contributed significantly to the growth of the biscuit industry. trying to break into Britannia's strong hold with its popular Parle-G brand.96 Basics of Catering Management features in the bakery industry. Cremica. Parle. sugar. Biscuits' packaging has undergone a swift transformation. bread should be included as a food item in the Mid-Day Meals Scheme and thus making a very nutritious and hygienic food available to the children and the poorer sections of the community. From Britannia's functional protective blister wraps. milk.

The culinary products including mainly wheat based products comprising of noodles. The company has carried out backward integration to source potatoes and other crops with farmers across the states The world's largest producer of French fries and potato specialties McChain Foods with McChain Smiles and NP Foods have entered in India's potato snack industry in 2005. SEMI-PROCESSED/COOKED/READY TO EAT The market for semi-processed/cooked and ready to eat foods is estimated to be of around Rs 82. Different Agro-climatic conditions ensure availability of a wide range of fruits and vegetables in large quantities throughout the year. MTR Foods has also launched a whole range of rice meals and other curries. and levy 12. India is the second largest producer of both fruits and vegetables in the world. Satnam Overseas has also entered this growing market with its Kohinoor brands of rice meals and curries. Biscuits should be recognized as a mass consumption item. macaroni and The potential of the sector has. Global Franchise Architects (GFA) currently has 37 Pizza Corner outlets across India. however. Pepsico's Snack Food Division having snack foods plants in Channa (Punjab) and Pune (Maharashtra). popcorn has yet to break into the Indian market. Indian snack food market has reached a value of Rs 1530 crore. Pizza Corner.5% VAT. At present. India produces about 148. With the changing life styles of the Indian middle class and the busy schedules of both the husband and wife in the family the demand for semi-processed cooked/ready to eat food will rise steadily as hired domestic help is also becoming costlier. vermicelli. as both have large product portfolios. HLL has entered the ready to eat segment through Indus Valley rice meals in seven flavours.9 billion in 200405 and is rising rapidly with a growth rate of 20 per cent. with 85% of the total market share. It is one of the largest snack markets in the world. not been fully tapped.5 million tons and vegetables account for the rest 100 million tons. ITC 's more than 50 packaged branded food products under Kitchens of India and Aaashirvaad brands with different varieties of ready to eat/cooked food is gaining popularity in the market. Frito Lay's India. and going for another in (Sakrail) West Bengal with investment of Rs 75 Crores as the state of West Bengal has immense opportunities for agro-based industries. Food and Beverage Distribution 99 spaghetti is gaining popularity. FRUIT JUICES/PULP & CONCENTRATES/SAUCES/ KETCH UPS The total production of culinary products and snack food is estimated to be around Rs 1750 crore in 2004-05 and is growing at a moderate rate of 8 per cent.has also expanded its outlets rapidly this year. Heinz and Top Ramen are also knocking at the door. Potato chips are by far the largest product category within snacks. Snack nuts and savory snacks also add to the market. India produces about 11 mn tonnes of processed CULINARY PRODUCTS & SNACK FOOD .98 Basics of Catering Management The Federation of Biscuits Manufacturers of India (FBMI) wants the Central government to reconsider its decision to include biscuits in the category of Revenue Neutral Rate (RNR).6 million tones of fresh fruits and vegetables of which fruits contribute to about 48. HLL (Kissan and Knorr range) and Nestle (Maggi) dominate this segment.

the essential ingredient for manufacturing milk chocolates and ice cream mixes in addition to biscuits and confectionery . Street comer vendors are still popular. Parle. Cadbury India is the market leader with 65-70% share in chocolates. namely Hard Boiled Candies (HBC). even though they are often unhygienic. Nestle. Dabur Foods not only leads with innovation in its product offerings but also has now taken the lead in redefining traditional marketing dynamics in the segment.100 Basics of Catering Management fruits and vegetables. Bubble gum. The entire market can be divided into 7 major categories. The chocolate market in India is estimated to be around 30800 tonnes. Traditional grocers are the only other channel to take a double-digit share. pulp and concentrates. Toffees. Chewing gums. The chocolate companies are facing problems due to scarcity of milk and rising prices. Candico etc. Parry's Confectionary. The remainder of the market shows a high degree of fragmentation. chocolates. Parle is trying to revive popular Poppins melody. 'Bytes' choclate wafer snacks by Cadbury India are driving growth. Pepsi with its brand Tropicana and Dabur Foods through Real brand compete in the market. Organized market for sugar confectionary/gums is estimated to be 183216 tons in volume and around 19. The confectionary market is highly fragmented with several players with strong Food and Beverage Distribution 101 regional presence. The Awareness about health and more sophisticated cocktail culture has driven growth in packaged fruit juice segment. Provision should be made for creation of an efficient cold chain system subsequently. Standard grocers are the leading distribution channel. Coca Cola India its only juice brand-Maaza is further is talking to multi-packaging to attract customers. price sensitivity and high advertising expenses characterize the Chocolate industry. with one third of the Indian confectionery market. It plans to give the brand a new packaging and a makeover for Mango Bite. Eclairs. The perishable nature of the product and the fact that India lacks a cold chain distribution network are among the major problems that inhibit market expansion. It is also concentrating on newer brands such as Smoothies (lacto). by value. The private dairies have raised the prices including the prices of Skimmed Milk Powder (SMP). Cadbury India Ltd and Nestle India Ltd. mints and Lozenges. About 89% of the processing units are in the small and medium sectors. sauces/ketch ups is estimated to be more than Rs 2800 crore in 2004-05 with growth rate of 18 per cent. mints and chewing gums. CONFECTIONARY INDUSTRY The Indian confectionary market can be segmented into sugar boiled confectionary. costing less than the regular packs to have larger penetration in the market New product launches including-a brown and white chocolate combination 'Dairy Milk Two-in-One'.2 bn in value. Mother dairy is also in the line to access the market effectively through Safal brand. which together account for about 90% of the total chocolate market. It is dominated by 2 major players. Chox (chocobar) and Cafechino (coffee toffee). but Nestle is also growing faster. ITC and HLL are also operating in the confectionery segment. Nutrine. Leading players are Cadbury India. high volumes. The market has immense potentialities provided some infrastructural facilities for efficient transportation and marketing of fruits and vegetables are created. Players like Cadbury and Nestlé have also introduced chocolates in smaller packs. The production/market for Indian fruit juice/pulp concentrate. fruit juices. Low margins. Fruit juices in the unorganized segment are considered cheaper and fresher by the consumers. Ravalgon.

India is the largest milk producing country with production of more than 92 million tonnes. The proposed Food Safety and standard Bill. Encouraged by the growing market and cashing on brand value select dairy companies are planning major expansion plans in various cities with new brands suited to local taste and preferences and realizing higher prices with higher sales volumes. K C Das. Bikanervala. Chitales. The traditional dairy products are India's largest selling and profitable segment and accounts for more than 50 per cent of milk and dairy products. MILK AND DAIRY PRODUCTS/HEALTH BEVERAGES SmithKline Beecham Consumer Healthcare. Ganguram. North India is one of the most important markets for ghee since it accounts for 45 per cent of the country's ghee . The production of traditional dairy products is estimated to reach Rs 1089 billion in 2004-05 against the total estimated production of milk and dairy products of the amount of Rs 1747 bilion. Agarwal Sweets etc are getting wide acceptance because of consistent quality and product safety. infant milk food. The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) is a major player in the market with its major brand. Some dairy plants have production of mithais on a commercial scale. including milk powder. With increased production of liquid milk. Mother Dairy and Britannia are in the race to tap the growing market. Amul. The organized sector sector accounts for Rs 264 billion. condensed milk. According to the Indian Confectionary Manufacturers' Association. About 60% of the installed processing capacity is in the co-operative sector. cheese. Leading brands like Amul. ice-cream. the import of technology and machinery has effected modernization and technological breakthrough in production of traditional milk products and The dairy industry is dominated by the co-operative sector. With liberalisation. Brijwasi. hard boiled candies should be brought out of the list reserved for SSI and also there should be reduction of excise duty on gums. 2005 with penal provisions requires a review as the same gives huge powers to the Inspecting Officers to seize food articles without authorization and may create unwanted confusion to the detriment of the industry. there has been a simultaneous growth in the production of processed milk products. Nestlé India and Heinz India are amongst the large MNCs that dominate the high-value milk products market. curd and khoa and khoa based sweets. Some national brands like Haldiram. The milk and dairy products segment is set for up gradation of cold-storage chains for expansion. Jagatjit Industries Ltd and various other state co-operatives. a wholly owned subsidiary of National Dairy Development Board plans to make strong presence in the market of milk and milk products under the Mother Dairy brand through retail outlets across the country in addition to its own 300 outlets with provision of cold storage and cold chains. Milk and milk products is rated as one of the most promising sectors in the Food Processing Industry.102 Basics of Catering Management Food and Beverage Distribution 103 products. butter. this has encouraged the growth of the organized sector in the Dairy segment. Mother Dairy. It has been observed that efficient production and marketing can bring about more than 200 per cent value addition in the Indian dairy segment. ghee. Other players include Indiana Dairy Specialties. Nestle.

West Bengal) and the South (Kerala. The people in the east prefer for sweetness of taste. 'Boost'.4 bn malted foods market is composed of two segments-brown and white. Tea has managed to remain on top despite repeated onslaughts by other beverage segments largely because of its price advantages. Tea plantations in India are concentrated in the NorthEast (Upper Assam. About 88 per cent of tea grown in India belongs to CTC variety. Tear and Curl (CTC). 'Milo' and 'Maltova' on the other hand are classified as brown drink. quality control. The North-Eastern region with 82% of area accounts for 76% of total tea production. improvement of packaging to improve shelf life of products.5 million Kg in 2004 with a growth of about 7 per cent. With the growing awareness about health products in the minds of consumers. The Industry is estimated to have achieved a production of 878 million kg in 2005 from 820. increasing urbanization. Malted beverages with nutritional attributes control around 70% of the total market and energy drinks (brown beverages) account for the rest. Black tea can be classified into two groups-Orthodox tea and Crush.104 Basics of Catering Management market. Smithkline Beecham's 'Horlicks' and 'Boost' dominate the segment with around 65 % of the Food and Beverage Distribution 105 market share. 'Bournvita'. The consumption pattern of malted beverages differs according to usage patterns across geographic zones. some initiatives and steps are required to be taken for technology improvement. Consumers in different parts of the country have heterogeneous taste. TEA INDUSTRY The Rs 86 bn Indian tea industry's leaders have launched a number of instant tea drinks for the new-generation consumers. automation and computerization in the manufacturing processes. the southern region prefers more cocoa based beverages. For tapping the opportunities and potentials. Dust tea is very popular in the south . India has a vast domestic market. the white drinks are regarded as milk substitutes. BEVERAGES/NON-ALCOHOLIC MALTED FOOD & HEALTH BEVERAGE The Rs. 'Complan' and 'Viva'. which are mainly known as white beverages. The malted food drink industry is dominated by few players. Hienz's 'Complan' and Amul's 'Nutramul' are the other famous brands of the respective players. Nestle's 'Milo'. While the brown drinks are held to be as energy boosters. There are different taxes and duties by both the Central and State Governments. the yield is lower but quality of tea is superior. India generally produces black tea. In the North East. These include brands such as ' Horlicks. rising standards of living and popularity of convenience foods. a cheaper variety depending on the system of processing the green leaves. investment in R & D to develop new products and for establishing an efficient cold chain system. Tamil Nadu). the industry is expected to witness strong long-term demand growth potential. 14. Cadbury's Bournvita. Some procedural issues including amendment of Milk & Milk Products Order (MMPO) of the Government of India need to be reviewed for bringing viability in the production of milk and milk products. In the southern and eastern regions white beverages are preferred as substitute for milk.

The Government has also taken some policy measures and incentives for the growth and development of the tea industry. Besides. Tea Marketing Control Order requires all the manufacturers to sell 75% of tea (excluding exports and packet sales) through auction houses. whereby profit up to 40 per cent can be ploughed back for these purposes. Duncans. Dhunseri Tea. The remaining 40% is taxable as corporate income by the Centre. 100 per cent foreign direct investment (FDI) has been . In the western states. The differential duty has led to surge in imports of foreign tea as well as lower quality tea in bulk form. which is taxable by the states. Regional brands have increased their market share from about 37 per cent to around 50 per cent. Bishnauth Tea. The Government has extended benefit under Section 33 AB of Income Tax Act.The major segment of the market is dominated by the unorganized players. This industry is very labor intensive. Goodricks and Jay Shree. Tea trading in the domestic market is done in two waysauction and private selling. In India. This Dual taxation system is hurting the industry badly. The other important players in this segment are Tata tea. Some of the basic issues and constraints are: The higher age of tea plants in India compared to tea plants in other tea producing countries has affected the quality and yield. Labor cost is generally fixed and therefore lower production would result in higher unit cost of production. whereas in Maharashtra. Warren tea. Huge investment is required for installation of machinery and equipment to enable the factories to have the facility of dual manufacturing. The eastern states of West Bengal and Orissa and northern states consume CTC. Harrisons Malayalam. Mcleod Russel. long gestation. Williamson Magors. On the one hand it is plagued by low productivity and lower price realizations and on the other hand the changes in demand due to changing consumer profiles and the threat of imports put pressure on the margins. The main players in the tea industry are Hindustan Lever. AFT Industries. Bulk trading is done by auction. stringent labor laws and restrictive land ownership laws prevent Indian entrepreneurs from expanding tea production and business. There are about 1000 brands of tea in the country and out of which more than 90 % brands are represented by the regional players. George Williamson. large capital investment. It is deemed that 60% of the pre-tax profits is agricultural income. consumers provide a large market to packet as well as unbranded tea. many local brands have entered the packaged tea segment.106 Basics of Catering Management Food and Beverage Distribution 107 and in central India. Tata Tea. good quality loose tea is preferred in Gujarat. Income tax liability for tea companies is calculated differently. The industry is faced with multi-pronged problems. There are six major auction centers in India Another issue confronting the industry is that of differential import duty on bulk and branded tea. All tea factories are not capable of manufacturing both CTC and Orthodox tea. These ten companies together account for approximately 75 per cent of the turnover In the packet/branded tea segment Hindustan lever is the leader.

MC Dowell & Co Ltd (part of the UB Group) Radico Khaitan. UB group has its eye open on entering the branded country liquor business. . Country Liquor Market is estimated to be 175 million cases. whisky. The Indian beer market has reached about 94 million cases or 7. Flavoured low alcohol beverage with new variants like the 330 ml beer pack have driven sales growth across the country. Strong beer. Gin. outsells mild beer in India and accounts for more than 68 % of the total sales. Shaw Wallace. Indian Made Foreign Liquor (IMFL) and wine. which has 5 percent of alcohol content. buying over Rossell Industries. Potable Alcohol segment comprises some categories as Beer. Replanting and modernization are very essential for maintaining the quality and productivity of tea bushes.. The alcoholic beverages industry in India is generally divided into two main categories-Industrial Alcohol and Potable Alcohol. Smaller players are being bought over by larger estates or global consumer goods majors. The price stability throughout the year has contributed to the increase in domestic liquor sales. The PepsiLipton alliance to launch iced tea and cold coffee is an initiative in this direction. Sula Vineyards.108 Basics of Catering Management Food and Beverage Distribution 109 allowed in the tea plantation sector with 26 per cent divestment over 5 years sales in the state with the formation of a distribution corporation similar to Karnataka. as in the case of Unilever Plc. Mount Shivalik. Mohan Meakins. Brandy. Country Liquor. United Breweries (UB) Ltd. The Northern region has contributed significantly as Rajasthan has regularized UB accounts for nearly 40 per cent of total domestic beer sales and controls close to 50 per cent of the brewing capacity. There has been a trend towards consolidation of the existing tea plantations. 2004-05 and is expected to reach 100 million cases in 2005-06. It has developed about 66 brands with different flavours (Whisky. now manage almost half of the beer sales in the world's second most populous market. Mount Shivalik Group. Apart from improving realizations the tea companies are also making strategies to attract new consumers (especially the younger generation) ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES Alcoholic beverages is growing industry in India. The purchase by Tata Tea of UK-based Tetley's tea is a move towards consolidation among the global tea majors. Wines). vodka. Vodka. Another significant player in the domestic spirits market is Seagram India which has launched a premium Vodka brand. has pioneered the concept of the Super Strong segment in India. a three-way joint venture with UK's Scottish & Newcastle (S&N) and UB group.The UB Group Spirits Division also controls about 35% market share. rum and brandy. IFML primarily comprises wine. Indian Made Foreign Liquor Market is estimated to be 105 million cases in 2004-05. The industry plans to access the market with innovative beverages such as "herbal tea" and "iced tea" for the modern consumer combined with an advertisement orientation. Radico Khaitan has established its presence significantly. Rum. Seagram India Ltd are among the familiar names in the alcoholic beverage industry in the country. United Breweries Ltd. and Millennium Alcobev Ltd (MABL). gin.3 lakh kilolitre (one case is 12 bottles each of 650 ml) in the financial year.

Free market system practiced in Mumbai while Government operated system is followed in Delhi. Nine major oilseeds contribute three-fourths of the total oil availability in the country. an essential commodity. Brewers in India are gearing up for the consolidation wave sweeping the global beer industry. NDDB has emerged as a major player in the sector with its "Dhara" brand of edible oil. The premium segment is expected to grow by 20 % and the cheap segment is expected to grow by 7-8 percent.110 Basics of Catering Management The Indian wine market. Treating beer to the same level of taxing as on hard liquor is unjustified since the alcohol content in beer is very low. has affected production adversely. The domestic alcoholic beverages industry is plagued with some basic issues and constraints. including those for industrial use. essential raw materials for production of alcoholic beverages due to shortage and inadequate availability. The country resorts to sizable amount of import to bridge the gap between domestic availability and to stabilise prices of edible oil. labeling laws and duty structure. mobility. Beer should be delinked from IMFL. there is no justification for the ban on expansion of domestic capacity by the domestic industry.. Different states have different labeling laws that leads to wastage. Several Indian brands have made inroads into the foreign markets including British market. The auction system is operational in Haryana and Madhya Pradesh. has witnessed robust 30% growth over the past few years. Asia's biggest wine producer and the largest indigenous wine maker in India. The Indian Liquor market is expected to grow at about 10 per cent in volume terms. Each state has a different tax structure and levies and other regulations regarding licensing fees and sales of new brands. The basic issues relate to distribution. According to All India Distillers' Association. Even small growers and cooperatives having crushing units or solvent extraction units . Sula and Grover's.4 million tones in 2004-05 including domestic production of about 6 million tons. However. they cannot transport their products from a market that has excess capacity to one where there is a short supply. Food and Beverage Distribution 111 The liquor output should be brought under the purview of the value added tax (V AT) in all States. Oilseeds have support price mechanisms to help the farmers. The market for edible/vegetable oils is estimated to be 10. Distribution schemes vary between states. Lack of uniformity in sales tax rates and other charges by different state governments is an important deterrent. Edible Oil The growth of the Rs. delay and higher cost of production.. is in the process of taking its niche red and white wine to mass market by breaking price barrier besides entering into beer market and acquiring a vineyard in Maharashtra. there is the need for a review of the ban imposed in the year 1975 on the expansion of capacity for production of alcoholic beverages As the quantitative restrictions on the import of alcoholic beverages has been removed on 1st April 2001. Increase in the price of molasses. Besides heavy financial implications on them. 250 bn edible oil industry in India has been somewhat stagnant at around 5% per annum. estimated at 5 lakh cases annually.The domestic production is having a growth of about 20 per cent Champagne Indage Ltd. This includes about 3 lakh cases of quality wine produced by emerging domestic wine companies like Indage. the V AT should comply with the principle of revenue neutrality rather than a revenue enhancing measures.

in the private sector. Avi Industries (Mumbai are the major players. more than 144 are remaining closed during the season bringing down sugar production.. As the urban consumers are increasingly becoming health conscious and looking out for low-cholesterol cooking medium. Bajaj Hindustan Ltd. The farmers co-operatives own and operate the bulk of sugar industry's total capacity. Karnataka. Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra are the leading sugar producing states of the country. Rath. Thiru Arooran Sugars Ltd and. fixes the prices of the levy quota sugar and determines maximum stock levels for wholesalers etc. and NDDB.7 million tons in 2004-05. Wipro (Bangalore). West Bengal. Raw material cost account for 70 per cent of sale price. Dual Pricing System is adopted in the Indian sugar industry. Andhra Sugars Ltd. delayed payments to farmers.5 million tones in 200304 and 12. Of the total 450 mills operating in the country. Ahmed Mills. Gujarat. ITC Agro-Tech (Secunderabad). Free imports. Tamil Nadu. Marico. The Government controls sugar capacity additions through industrial licensing. Sweekar and Postman. Marico Industries (Mumbai). inadequate availability of cane and some other reasons production came down to 13. The major oil brands are Sundrop. But the industry is recently facing a setback in production. etc. Hence the sugar production is also cyclical as it depends on the sugarcane production in the country. Of the total 564 sugar mills across the country. the industry suffers . The Indian sugar industry is faced with some problems. in the co-operative sector. The players are consolidating their position to increase their market share either by acquiring smaller mills or by going for green field capacity additions. low import duties and slump in global prices lead to `dumping'. Sugar is a controlled commodity in India under the Essential commodities Act. The production of sugarcane is cyclical in nature. The leading players in Indian sugar industry are Balrampur Chini Mills Ltd. Punjab. Andhra Pradesh. have made strongholds the urban market in various oil segments. Besides the Indian urban market is slowly moving towards branded sugar. Saffola. branded products have come to play a major role. The main issues in the edible oil segment is the rising cost of raw materials. Dhampur Sugar Ltd. In Edible oils. Indian sugar industry is highly fragmented with organized and unorganized players.Rasoi (Calcutta). decides the quantity that can be sold in the open market. Hindustan Lever (Mumbai). In vanaspati. As represented by Indian Sugar Mills Association (ISMA). Because of devastating drought. Players like ITC.112 Basics of Catering Management have started branding their products. National Dairy Development Board (Anand). Hindustan Lever. which includes sugar price in Public distribution system and the free sale sugar price. 1955. determines the price of the major input sugarcane. the sugar industries have sprung up in large sugar cane growing states like Uttar Pradesh. The major vanaspati brands are Dalda. Indian Sugar Industry India's sugar industry is amongst the largest agroprocessing industries of the country with an annual turnover of Rs 200 billion. (Mumbai) are the major players. Dhara. about 252 are in the cooperative sector. Maharashtra. Food and Beverage Distribution 113 As Indian sugar industry uses sugar cane as the only input.

There is a shortfall in cash credit limit for sugar industry by banks to the extent of 40% of requirement. to discuss the implications of this influence on children's nutritional status. of foods and nonalcoholic beverages on children's dietary choices. The measures also include special attention to sugar by expediting special relief package for the sugar industry and reshaping the terms of credit by including either a one year moratorium on loan repayment or soft loan package for state governments meant to clear arrears to cane farmers.ALCOHOLIC B EVERAGES As part of the implementation of the World Health Organization (WHO) Global Strategy on Diet. Inadequate sugar cane availability. and in preparation for the WHO European Region Ministerial Conference on Counteracting Obesity. technical staff from ministries of health and representatives from different stakeholder groups. uneconomical size. They discussed the evidence of the impact of marketing on children's diets. and to review national experiences and actions taken by various stakeholders to address the issue. according to Indian Sugar Mills Association (ISMA). the changes that have taken place in statutory regulation and self-regulation between 2004 and 2006. The objectives of the Forum were to review the current state of knowledge regarding the influence of marketing. Government has outlined some measures involving banks and state governments to hike cash credit limit for the sugar factories. old age. The Norwegian Directorate for Health and Social Affairs kindly supported both the Forum and the Technical Meeting. Participants included academics. Norway. different methods of categorizing . The Central and state governments have announced measures for the development of the industry. including advertising. Central Government has also provided inland transport subsidy for sugar export. Physical Activity and Health (DPAS). 3 MARKETING OF FOOD AND N ON. Maharashtra state government has provided subsidy of Rs 1000/-for every ton exported from the state.114 Basics of Catering Management Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 115 from lack of a uniform pricing system. WHO organized a Forum and Technical Meeting on the at the Lysebu Conference Hotel in Oslo. from 2 to 5 May 2006. bad condition of plant and machinery are some of the reasons responsible for closure of many mills in the country.

In response to this disease burden. The Technical Meeting was one element of an ongoing process of evidencegathering. review and discussion with a wide range of stakeholders. the Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation Diet. but it was recognized that children under the age of about 13 years are more vulnerable and may therefore require more stringent protections. and representatives of civil society and the private sector. notes that there are limits to what individual countries can do alone to promote optimal diets and healthy living. micronutrient-poor foods and beverages1 can adversely affect children's nutritional status. In addition. cancers and other obesityrelated conditions-constituted 60% of global deaths and almost half of the global burden of disease in 2005. following the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. and. (iii) consider the development of an international code on the marketing of food and beverages to children. the Fifty-fifth World Health Assembly in May 2002 called on WHO to develop a global strategy on diet. the Technical Meeting participants discussed possible measures that could be taken by WHO and national governments to limit the adverse impact of marketing on children's health. nutrition and the prevention of chronic diseases. The participants at the Technical Meeting agreed that marketing should be defined in accordance with the definitions of the American Marketing Association and that all forms of commercial promotion should be considered as part of the scope of any action. The participants also agreed that exposure to the commercial promotion of energy-dense. physical activity and health in resolution WHA55. This meeting and others will serve to inform WHO's future work on this issue. "Children" was agreed to mean all persons aged under 18 years. Advice was also provided by a reference group of independent international experts. launched in April 2003. other intergovernmental bodies. Marketing of foods to children was often mentioned during these consultations as an important topic requiring action. INTRODUCTION Chronic. It states that: Strategies need to draw substantially on existing . The recommendations from the Technical Meeting are detailed in part 4 of this report. The development of this strategy involved consultations with Member States in all WHO Regions. noncommunicable diseases (NCDs)-including cardiovascular disease. other United Nations organizations. and the experiences of countries with either statutory or selfregulatory processes in place. Details of the presentations and the conclusions of the Forum are outlined in part 3 of this report.23.116 Basics of Catering Management foods according to their nutritional composition. Having considered the information presented during the Forum. Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 117 (ii) address issues such as cross-border television advertising and global promotional activities. "Promotion to children" was agreed to include both promotion that is deliberately targeted to children and scheduled to reach them and promotion that is targeted at other groups but to which children are widely exposed. micronutrient-poor foods and beverages to children. Meeting participants recommended that WHO should: (i) support national action to protect children from marketing by substantially reducing the volume and impact of commercial promotion of energy-dense. diabetes.

Outcomes of the Expert Meeting included various issues related to assessment and monitoring of the growth of school-age children and adolescents and effective strategies to prevent childhood obesity. At the time that DPAS was adopted. Japan. The strategy also notes that the private sector can be a significant player in promoting healthy diets and physical activity. which reviewed major contributing factors to childhood overweight and obesity. It specifies that food and beverage advertisements should not exploit children's inexperience or credulity. will lead to reduced disease and death rates related to unhealthy diet and physical inactivity. In June 2005. and enforcement of regulations varies considerably between countries. Member States may wish to see additional international standards that address. when taken together. Messages that encourage unhealthy dietary practices or physical inactivity should be discouraged. the marketing of unhealthy food (particularly those high in energy. was formally adopted by the Fifty-seventh World Health Assembly in May 2004. The report concluded that. for example. healthy messages encouraged. WHO published a report on the global regulatory environment related to the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverages to children. together with the resolution by which it was endorsed. while many countries have a range of regulations applicable to the marketing of food to children in place. and lessons learnt. DPAS specifically points to the responsibility of Member States to formulate and promote national policies. the right to adequate food. as well as possible measures to ensure that the marketing and promotion of food and non-alcoholic beverages to children are consistent with the achievement of a "healthy" diet. The strategy recognizes the heavy and growing burden of NCDs and addresses two of the main risk factors for NCDs-diet and physical activity. Social and Cultural . there were gaps and variations in the existing global regulatory environment. it is noted that work aimed to limit the adverse impact of marketing on children's health is in accordance with the rights of children for protection as acknowledged by the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. and the existing intervention programmes. saturated fat. a WHO Expert Meeting on Childhood Obesity was held in Kobe. The WHO Global Strategy on Diet. The goal of the strategy is to promote and protect health by guiding the development of an enabling environment for sustainable actions at individual. and poor in essential nutrients) to children across national boundaries. community. DPAS states that governments should work with consumer groups and the private sector (including advertising) to develop appropriate multisectoral approaches to deal with the marketing of food to children.118 Basics of Catering Management international standards that provide a reference in international trade. promotion and Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 119 advertising. salt and free sugars. In this context. national and global levels which. the assessment issues for identifying overweight and obesity among school-age children and adolescents. An updated version of the report was presented as a background paper at the WHO Forum and Technical Meeting on the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverages to children. Lastly. and to deal with such issues as sponsorship. in particular in school settings. as set out in the International Covenant on Economic. Physical Activity and Health (DPAS). the strategy highlights the fact that food advertising affects food choices and influences dietary habits. strategies and action plans to improve diet and encourage physical activity and recommends that governments should provide accurate and balanced information to consumers. and positive. their impacts on preventing childhood obesity.

and is responsible for. the International Food Policy Research Institute and the European Commission met at the Forum to review and discuss the current state of knowledge regarding the influence of marketing and various national experiences of how the issue can be addressed. promulgation and enforcement of statutory regulations are the responsibility of government or a mandated body. funded and administered by the industries concerned. summarizes the discussions that took place in the Forum. This is the combined report of the WHO Forum and Technical Meeting on the. will feed into the WHO European Region Ministerial Conference on Counteracting Obesity in November 2006. in collaboration with the WHO Regional Office for Europe. guideline or code of practice issued by any level of government or self-regulatory organization (SRO). and the second.120 Basics of Catering Management Rights. The development. the Technical Meeting and this report. the International Food Policy Research Institute and the European Commission met for a Technical Meeting to suggest possible measures to be taken. The Norwegian Directorate for Health and Social Affairs generously supported the convening of the meetings. Following these developments and as part of the implementation of DPAS. a process for the establishment. The structure of this report follows the structure of the meetings. with other background documents and the European Charter on Counteracting Obesity. WHO headquarters. and in many cases also involving the companies that use advertising to promote their products or . academics. a code of practice-a set of ethically-based guidelines-governing the content of marketing campaigns. review and application of the code of practice. or rules designed to fill in the details of the broad concepts mandated by legislation. self-regulation normally consists of two basic elements. organized a Forum and Technical Meeting in Oslo. DEFINITION OF REGULATION For the purpose of the Forum. technical staff from ministries of health. This process can be structured in many different ways. Led. technical staff from ministries of health. Norway. statute. Regulations can be divided into three categories: o statutory regulations o non-statutory government guidelines o self-regulations Statutory regulations are … either texts enshrined in laws or statutes. The report from the Forum and the recommendations of the Technical Meeting to WHO will serve to inform WHO's future global work in the area of marketing food and non- Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 121 alcoholic beverages to children and. and representatives of organizations of the United Nations system. and consistent with the United Nations guidelines for consumer protection. On the two following days. and representatives of organizations of the United Nations system. For the first two days representatives from health and consumer nongovernmental organizations. but typically involves an SRO set up by the advertising and media industries. The first. private food and advertising industry trade associations. its own regulation. academics. … Self-regulations are put into place by a self-regulatory system whereby industry actively participates in. from 2 to 5 May 2006 on the marketing of food and nonalcoholic beverages to children. The report outlines the purpose of the meetings. the definition of regulation was taken from Hawkes as follows: Regulation is … "broadly defined as any law. and details the conclusions and recommendations from the Technical Meeting that followed.

She highlighted the active involvement of Norway in the development of the WHO Global Strategy on Diet. Ms Aasrud urged the WHO Secretariat to continue its efforts to promote and coordinate implementation of DPAS. Switzerland. Bjørn-Inge Larsen. and said that the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes could provide guidance to the discussions in this meeting. should be introduced as a government initiative. . Self-regulation may be mandated by government framework legislation. Chair of the Norwegian National Council for Nutrition. but can also exist completely independently of government regulation. welcomed everyone to Norway. He said that the current major challenges are increasing fruit and vegetable intake. He highlighted the WHO Child Growth Standards launched in late April 2006 in Geneva. To prevent the development of an obesity epidemic. the Norwegian health authorities are now also considering whether or not symbols.122 Basics of Catering Management services. which will discuss possible restrictions on marketing to children. The Director General of the Norwegian Directorate for Health and Social Affairs. Mr Larsen said the Norwegian authorities should be a driving force in creating common international regulations in this area and welcomed the WHO initiative. The Norwegian State Secretary for Health. Director of the WHO Department of Nutrition for Development and Health. addressing the sharp increase in sugar consumption among children and adolescents and tackling overweight and obesity. Physical Activity and Health and expressed support for the multisectoral approach. said he Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 123 welcomed the opportunity to examine-together with the leading experts in the field-the different aspects of marketing food and beverages to children. Norway would support the development of such a system at a European level. then welcomed participants to the meeting on behalf of WHO headquarters. She described the meeting as an important response to the challenges set out in DPAS. She said she looked forward to seeing the results of the meeting and highlighted the 2006 World Health Assembly as an opportunity to give further attention to the issue of marketing to children. who introduced the speakers. An intersectoral strategy to tackle inequalities in health is also being developed. In the context of improving labelling. nutrient-poor foods to children. In Norway. as a key tool for the prevention and early recognition of childhood obesity. an action plan on physical activity was launched in December 2004. Ms Rigmor Aasrud. Norway has a long tradition of using tax and marketing restrictions in the field of tobacco and alcohol and Mr Larsen felt that now the time had come to consider such measures in other areas of public health. and an action plan on promoting a "healthy" diet. Norway regards preventive measures as very important. Dr Denise Coitinho. OPENING SESSION The meeting was opened by Professor Knut-Inge Klepp. similar to the Swedish keyhole symbol." In some cases voluntary codes are developed by individual companies-these are not the same as selfregulation but should still be considered for their potential impact on marketing. Mr Larsen pointed out that Norway has a long history of nutrition policy going back to the formulation of an integrated Food and Nutrition Policy proposed by the Government and endorsed by Parliament in 1976. will be finalized in late 2006. She pointed out the importance of taking further steps in the implementation of DPAS based on the growing problem of child obesity worldwide. including possible restrictions on the marketing of energydense.

Coordinator of the WHO Surveillance and Population Based Prevention Unit in the Department of Chronic Diseases and Health Promotion at WHO headquarters. The session comprised an overview of the nature of food marketing and the need for change. This Conference is expected to adopt a European Charter on Counteracting Obesity and to provide feedback on a draft second European Food and Health Action Plan. Food Marketing and Children: Setting a Course for Change The marketing of food to children accomplishes what industry intends. Marketing Foods to Children This first session examined different perspectives on marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverages to children. which will take place in Istanbul in November 2006. • To indicate elements to be included in future guidelines. Objectives of the Technical Meeting • To summarize and complete the discussions and evidence presented at the Forum on the current state of knowledge regarding the influences of marketing on dietary choices. the International Food Policy Research Institute and the European Commission. of foods and non-alcoholic beverages on children's dietary choices. • To discuss national experiences and actions taken by various stakeholders to address the issue. private food and advertising industry trade associations. Objectives of the Forum • To review the current state of knowledge regarding the influences of marketing. technical staff from ministries of health. in particular. The objectives of the Forum and the Technical Meeting were described by Dr Colin Tukuitonga. a review of the evidence of the effect of food advertising on children. Regional Adviser for Nutrition and Food Security. • To discuss the implications of this influence. Dr Branca said that the WHO Forum and Technical Meeting were important parts of the preparatory process for the Ministerial Conference and subsequent European Charter and Action Plan. . WHO FORUM The Forum was attended by representatives of a wide variety of stakeholders. Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 125 • To provide guidance for various actors and stakeholders on how to manage and limit the negative influences of marketing and advertising of foods and non-alcoholic beverages on children's dietary choices. including advertising. The following summaries of the speakers' presentations are based on the presentations given at the Forum supplemented by abstracts provided by the speakers. while encouraging the promotion of healthier food and beverage options. including representatives of health and consumer nongovernmental organizations. welcomed everyone on behalf of the WHO Regional Office for Europe. and an assessment of the changes in statutory regulation and self-regulation of food marketing to children since the last review in 2004. academics. the WHO Ministerial Conference on Counteracting Obesity.124 Basics of Catering Management Dr Francesco Branca. and representatives of organizations of the United Nations system. He highlighted relevant initiatives at the European Regional level and.

preferences and behaviour? The findings in relation to the extent and nature of food promotion were that: • Food dominates advertising to children. Nature and Effects of Food Promotion to Children: A Review of the Evidence A recent systematic review of the extent and nature of food promotion to children. A creative approach to the problem is needed. The findings in relation to the effects were that: • Food promotion influences children's nutritional knowledge. food preferences. namely that such marketing to children increases: • consumption • preference for energy-dense. preferences and behaviour. Industry activities. and diet and health status. children are trained to desire foods and beverages whose typical consumption may compromise health. Considerable talent resides in the food industry and in the marketing and lobbying industries which support it. Swift and aggressive action should be taken to address food marketing (and the other proven contributors to poor diets) if there is to be any hope of curtailing poor nutrition and obesity in children. consumption. • Children engage with and enjoy this "unhealthy" advertising. and its effects on their food knowledge. Science on the topic is abundant and converges on unambiguous conclusions. • Five product categories dominate this advertising (soft drinks. and taking a creative approach to limiting damaging practices. The convergence Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 127 of science and public opinion makes the present an ideal time to act decisively. presugared cereals. Public opinion polls show substantial support for regulation to curtail food marketing aimed at children. The Extent. snacks and fast food restaurants).Basics of Catering Management 126 Cultivated as consumers at very early ages. purchasing and purchase-related behaviour. noting that traditional advertising on television. low-nutrient foods and beverages • purchase requests • purchases • positive beliefs about food and beverage products. This requires anticipating industry manoeuvres that could undermine public health mandates for promotion of foods such as fruits and vegetables. Harnessing this human capital for good is possible but will only occur in response to government action or public outrage. possibly doing more harm than good by forestalling legislation and litigation. such as the promotion of physical activity and marketing self-regulation do not adequately address the problem and can be a diversion. and billboards is merely a fraction of total marketing (hence all forms of marketing must be included). confectionary. . radio. focused on the following questions: • What is the extent and nature of food promotion to children? • What are the effects of food promotion on children's food knowledge. • The advertised diet contrasts dramatically with the recommended diet. One way may be to set the industry a target-for example a 25% reduction in children's consumption of certain types of food-and leave the industry free to decide how it will achieve the target.

In different parts of the world consumer groups have stepped up campaigns calling for statutory regulation on all forms of marketing and have . • Slower development of statutory regulation by some governments. Changes in the Global Regulatory Environment In May 2004. with relatively little attention given to other forms of advertising. However. The evidence base focuses on television advertising. Although some changes have occurred. and several indirect effects of marketing are not considered. Countries can draw on these experiences as a means of informing the development of regulation appropriate to their national contexts. private industry. from a global perspective there has been more talk about regulation than action to implement regulations. It appears that this heightened level of discussion and action has been directly and indirectly stimulated by DPAS and as a result there are now increasing numbers of ideas and proposals on how food marketing to children can be regulated. Consumer groups remain firmly in favour of statutory restrictions. • Food promotion affects both total category sales and brand switching. The review concludes that food marketing affects children's food behaviour in a negative way and therefore global action is needed on the marketing of food to children. • They associate developed country brands with desirable attributes of life. the review shows that children respond to advertising in much the same way regardless of their country's place on the development ladder. Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 129 A review based on a systematic research strategy was recently carried out to investigate changes that have occurred in the regulatory environment around food marketing to children since then. The review is likely to understate the problem. and consumer groups to take action against marketing messages that promote unhealthy dietary practices. 10 countries have developed or revised selfregulatory codes on food-almost a 100% increase. Europe and North America. Some governments have taken action to address food marketing to children. The industry has also been lobbying aggressively against any legislative proposals to restrict food marketing to children. WHO's DPAS called on governments. Since 2004. Industry has been proactively developing self-regulatory processes. there is reason to believe that children in developing countries may be even more vulnerable to food promotion because: • They are less familiar with advertising. Six key trends are discernible: • The development of self-regulatory codes by the advertising and food industry. they have supported developments in self-regulation and discussed options for statutory regulation. the activity has been largely limited to Australasia. While the more complex studies have all been undertaken in developed countries. • They are a key entry point for developed country firms because they are more flexible and responsive than their parents. In fact.128 Basics of Catering Management • The extent of the influence is difficult to determine (though advertising is independent of other factors). despite strong advocacy by public health and consumer groups. Consideration should therefore be given to how infrastructure can be developed so that countries have adequate complaints procedures and mechanisms for enforcing and monitoring either legislation or self-regulatory activities. although there has been little real change in statutory regulation.

This includes both existing and new regulations. • A continued focus on television advertising. It can be used to communicate effectively with consumers the nutritional implications of their purchasing decisions.or • improved food choices made by children and their parents (outcome). In order to move forward. the goals of regulation need to be clarified in relation to whether we are aiming for: • responsible marketing to children (quality). monitoring is still inadequate in terms of measuring the impact of regulations on the quantity and quality of food promotion and on children's food choices and diets. since 2004. This is true for all countries. . • A concentration of activity in high-income countries. Nutrient profiling can be defined as "the science of categorizing foods according to their nutritional composition". However. There are a number of reasons why it might be important to distinguish between "unhealthy" and "healthy" food. and is partly stimulated by the liberalization of advertising services markets. but particularly for middle-and low-income countries. There is relatively little action to restrict marketing in middle-and low-income countries. Most of the discussions about regulation have focused on television advertising and in schools. nutrient-poor foods is continuing and intensifying. However. • reduced amount of food marketing experienced by children (quantity). This session considered different nutrient profiling methods under development and their potential usages. Nutrient profiling refers to a range of different mechanisms for classifying foods according to their nutritional value-varying from a simple definition of "low fat" being less than 3 g to the much more complicated nutrient profiling model recommended to inform the restrictions on advertising to children in the United Kingdom.130 Basics of Catering Management produced numerous reports indicating that the marketing of energy-dense. despite the fact that it is in these countries where advertising and promotional activities are growing faster and potentially have a greater impact. Categorizing Foods according to their Nutritional Composition For a long time food has been categorized in various ways to show what should be eaten more of and what should be eaten less of. • The continued growth of traditional and/or nontraditional advertising techniques. increased awareness and attention has been paid to other promotional techniques. different stakeholders often use different criteria when categorizing foods to identify which are the healthier options on offer. Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 131 It is also important that the level and type of evidence needed to support t development of regulations is clarified and targets are set to evaluate the impa of regulations as and when they are implemented. However. including: • improving the comprehensibility of nutrition labelling • regulating nutrition and health claims • compositional standards for foods • reforming taxation/subsidy systems • regulating the marketing of foods (to children). • More attention is now paid to monitoring and enforcement.

In addition. practical objectives have often driven the methodological decisions and-while this might . Clarity is also crucial when seeking to regulate the marketing of food to children. A uniform system would help consumers make their choice. meat and dairybased products to a balanced diet. Nutrient profiling systems aim to categorize foods according to their nutritional composition while also taking into account current objectives of nutrition policies. It identifies foods high in fat. and they may need to be adapted in the context of local foodbased dietary guidelines. when comparing how different systems rank the same foods. Therefore. including: • Which nutrients should be examined? • Should we consider specific food categories or take a more general approach? Other technical questions should also be considered.g.g. The global applicability of nutrient profiling systems may require further work to allow for a broad range of food products. 100-kcal. Comparisons of Different Systems of Nutrient Profiling-merits and Limitations Growing concern about food-related diseases-such as childhood obesity-has led to increased interest in nutrient profiling. Manufacturers already use different forms of nutrient profiling systems to justify their marketing strategies. e. The Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 133 approach was tested on food sold in the United Kingdom and therefore may not be relevant for other countries. Indeed. cereal. the independent regulator and competition authority for the United Kingdom communications industry. there needs to be clarity about which foods contribute towards a "healthy" diet and which do not. A nutrient profiling model has been developed by the United Kingdom Food Standards Agency as a tool for categorizing foods on the basis of their nutrient content. when drawing up rules or guidelines on which foods should be allowed in vending machines in schools. or which foods should be allowed to be advertised to children on television. consistency is often relatively weak-this may be shown using a list of 125 food items ranked by four different systems. When developing a nutrient profiling system. salt or sugar. vegetables. or portion basis? • Which mathematical model should be followedthreshold. staged approach to developing nutrient profiling involves generating a variety of different "nutrient profile models" and testing the different models to assess which is most suitable using different validation methods. scoring or continuous? • How should the final result be presented? An overview of existing nutrient profiling schemes illustrates how technical matters may influence the final result. A systematic. to help tighten controls on the advertising to children of foods high in saturated fat.132 Nutrient Kingdom Basics of Catering Management Profiling-experience from the United The marketing of foods to children is generally held to be beneficial if the foods marketed contribute towards a "healthy" diet and conversely is held to be harmful if the foods marketed do not. a series of practical questions arise. such as: • What is the reference basis e. The model was delivered to the Office of Communications (Ofcom). salt or sugar while recognizing the important contribution of fruit. The agency's nutrient profiling model uses a simple scoring system to rate the overall balance of nutrients in a food. on 6 December 2005. should foods be compared on a 100-g.

The Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 135 criteria for labelling are set by the National Food Administration. This session examined a number of national approaches to the statutory regulation of marketing of foods to children.134 Basics of Catering Management seem a pragmatic approach-this usually produces systems which are only fit for a unique purpose and that are not easily adaptable. One of its main purposes is to serve as an incentive to the food industry to reformulate products to make them more "healthy". vitamins. nutrient-poor foods and therefore cannot be used to identify those foods for which there should be marketing restrictions. If the primary goal of the nutrient profiling systems is to improve the nutritional quality of the diet. but also for food and nutritional labelling. positive label used to help consumers make "healthy" food choices. The criteria are based on the products that are on the market today and the scheme should be regarded as ongoing and dynamic where the criteria will change over time. The keyhole labelling scheme is a positive labelling scheme promoting healthier products. It does not identify energy-dense. Validation methods which have been proposed but are not yet operational include comparison with expert opinion and more science-based procedures. then we need to consider how they can be used. . even the perfect nutrient profiling system will remain a technical tool used to inform decisions that have to be taken and implemented in a political context. Today the symbol is used nationally on a voluntary basis. When the symbol appears on a package it guarantees that the product has a low amount of all of the following ingredients: • total fat • saturated fatty acids • trans fatty acids • added sugars • salt as sodium and/or that the product has a high amount of fibre The keyhole label is a relative. Work is currently under way to develop innovative and science-based systems focused on improving the quality of the diet. consumer education. The symbol combines two elements-the food circle and the food pyramid. minerals and protein. The keyhole label is a simple. For instance. including consumers. sugar. indicating nutritionally better options within a category. A validation step to compare systems is clearly needed. However. sodium. The label was introduced during the 1980s as part of a regional intervention project in northern Sweden to reduce the prevalence of coronary heart disease. The variety of systems in place today-and their relative incompatibility-may be very confusing for all stakeholders. not only in relation to the marketing of foods to children and to determining foods eligible for health claims. not an absolute. Practical Application of Nutrient Profiles: the Swedish Keyhole System Examples of countries with statutory regulatory or selfregulatory measures to control marketing of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children. fibre. There are also systems that include whole food groups-such as fruits and vegetables-in addition to several nutrients such as fat. while some nutrient profiling schemes take into account both "negative" and "positive" nutrients. and is free of charge to the user. scheme. and industry research and development. others are only concerned with the negative properties of food.

However. Other key points made in the presentation included the following: • No one will ever be able to establish what constitutes "sufficient evidence" of the influence of marketing on . most of which have been initiated by consumers. Several additional measures must be taken in the future combining selfregulatory measures. In Brazil. In addition. Education and information is essential and schools must play an important role in this. the Ombudsman can impose sanctions. • In 2003. several initiatives are being developed: Several laws regulate the marketing of food and beverages to children in Norway today. there is currently no specific legal regulation on food marketing to children. This Act states that marketing activities should not be in conflict with good marketing practice or otherwise unfair on consumers and that marketing should not be misleading or incorrect. • campaigns for "healthy eating" in schools • the introduction of labelling systems • negotiating guidelines with business • additional legislation after five years if advertising has not been reduced. Suggested measures to address marketing aimed at children include: • The federal health agency is aiming to pass a regulation banning all forms of commercial promotion of products rich in fat. two lawsuits were filed against soft drinks companies based on the Consumer's Defence Code. One case was overruled but in the other it was ruled that the company should stop marketing to children and that it should warn consumers on every soft drink container and in all advertising that excessive sugar consumption may damage health. and a discussion of the pros and cons of statutory regulation versus selfregulation. The Marketing Control Act is the general regulation for all marketing activities supervised by the Consumer Ombudsman. When fully implemented by an Executive Act. but do not promote them. corporate social responsibility and legislation. The Office of the Consumer Ombudsman has handled several cases of misleading or incorrect marketing practice.136 Basics of Catering Management Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 137 examples of self-regulatory approaches. Several companies claim to have internal guidelines. There is no overall self-regulatory framework to address food marketing aimed at children in Norway. this will provide the legal basis on which to restrict marketing to children. sugar or salt and compelling companies to include a statement about "healthy" eating with every piece of commercial promotion. • legislation prohibiting advertising of food and beverages in schools Advertising Foods to Children in Norway • warning systems (such as on tobacco products) The Office of the Consumer Ombudsman is an independent authority that monitors marketing activities and negotiates contracts between consumers and business. • The State of São Paulo Congress passed a law in February 2005 creating a public policy to prevent obesity. sweets and chocolate-while hardly any "healthy" food is advertised. No initiatives have been taken by trade associations to establish a self-regulatory framework. A brief survey done by the office showed that a large number of television commercials shown during youth programmes promote "unhealthy" foods-such as chips.

all forms of commercial advertising directed Although the agency does not have a Clearance Committee. These include counteradvertising. Thus. including distress. • WHO.138 Basics of Catering Management children's diet. which came into force in 1980. The agency reports directly to the Minister of Justice and has all the necessary investigation and prosecution powers to enforce the law. • Controls on marketing should form part of an extensive public policy to combat obesity. The compliance with this prohibition is mainly monitored through a complaint filing system and media reports on the issue. the Government of Quebec enacted the Consumer Protection Act. Elements to define an advertisement directed at children Legislation is enforced by the Consumer Protection Law Enforcement Agency in Quebec. advertising agencies and legal firms consult with it on a regular basis. Under this Act. The provisions were challenged by the industry as soon as they were enacted. Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 139 at children less than 13 years of age are totally prohibited. social discrimination and stigmatization among children. (b) the manner of presenting such advertisement. Section 248 of the Consumer Protection Act stipulates that "Subject to what is provided in the regulations. and in particular of: (a) the nature and intended purpose of the goods advertised. delaying action until we have "sufficient evidence" is a trap. and to all forms of advertising. public campaigns. Advertising to Children In 1978. lawsuits. because of its impartiality and credibility. Section 249 of the Act states that "account must be taken of the context of its presentation. To determine what constitutes an advertisement directed at children. and (c) the time and place it is shown". • Nongovernmental organizations and advocates should file lawsuits against companies for abusive campaigns. We should not convert to a perennial debate what can already be considered a known fact. and also in disseminating information and monitoring progress in relation to the regulation of food marketing. The regulatory ban on advertising to children is very broad and applies to any goods. including but not limited to food. has a very important role in providing technical support and guidance for policy-makers around the world. low selfesteem. Marketing Control Measures in Brazil • More emphasis needs to be given to the psychological consequences of obesity. • Measures successfully taken to prevent tobacco and alcohol use should be used as models to control marketing influences. no person may make use of commercial advertising directed at persons under 13 years of age". After a long judicial debate. reduction of marketing power and taxation. • The two main obstacles to the adoption of legal measures to control marketing influences are the strong lobby against them and the lack of public support for them due to the limited information available about the magnitude and causes of the public health problem. A scale chart is used to assess whether an advertisement is directed to children. the Supreme Court of Canada ruled in 1989 that although the prohibition constituted a restriction to the freedom of .

A separate Monitoring Commission-made up of consumer and industry representatives and chaired by a government official-has also been created to review the operation of the PAOS Code and to propose improvements. advertisements directed at minors must be clearly distinguished from programmes. As part of this collaboration. Companies that infringe the code are fined. Any infractions of the code are assessed by an Autocontrol jury composed of "prestigious persons in the fields of advertising and commercial communication". there were a reported 35 signatories to the code. according to the level of premeditation and unfair competition to other food companies. Aiming to reduce the commercial pressure on children to consume disproportionately. . Autocontrol also offers copy advice for advertisers in advance of broadcasting. an agreement was signed with the Spanish Federation of Food and Drink Industries to develop a code to regulate advertising and marketing of food and beverages aimed at children. including through parents. food advertising cannot promote "unhealthy" food practices or sedentary lifestyles. This "Code of Self-Regulation of the Advertising of Food Products Directed at Minors (translation from Spanish)" (PAOS Code) is a big step forward in the regulation of commercial promotion of food. Physical Activity and Prevention of Obesity (NAOS Strategy). with a maximum sanction of 180 000 euros. Enforcement of the PAOS Code is the responsibility of the Spanish Association for the SelfRegulation of Commercial Communication (Autocontrol) funded by the commercial sector. unless used to "promote healthy eating habits" (or physical exercise) among children.140 Basics of Catering Management expression guaranteed by the Charter of Rights. It also Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 141 states that since children cannot distinguish clearly between television programmes and advertising. Funds raised from these fines are used to cover administrative costs and to undertake educational campaigns to promote "healthy" lifestyles. the code states that advertising will not exploit the special confidence of children. It requires special caution in advertisements directed to children under the age of 12. The PAOS Code explicitly states that celebrities cannot be used by commercial companies to promote food and drink. As a general rule. As of December 2005. No product should appear as a substitute for any of the three main daily meals. with the goal of promoting a "healthy" diet and physical activity. This self-regulation is in addition to the existing government control mechanisms. Self-regulatory Code on Advertising of Food Products Aimed at Minors in Spain In February 2005. Country Perspective: South Africa Concern about childhood obesity and the marketing of food is not currently seen as a real issue in South Africa although increasing local media coverage indicates that the issue is slowly gaining momentum. One of the objectives of the strategy was to develop a framework for collaboration with the food industry to promote the production and distribution of products that contribute to a healthier. teachers or celebrities. the Spanish Food Safety Agency launched a Strategy for Nutrition. this limitation is reasonable and justifiable in a free and democratic society mainly because the purpose of the measure is the "protection of a group which is particularly vulnerable to the techniques of seduction and manipulation abundant in advertising". including the Spanish Federation of Food and Drink Industries. more balanced diet.

The Food Industry Accord. e. while commercial research is plentiful. manufacturers and retailers. local government. It brings together HE (healthy eating) and HA (physical activity). largely as a result of initiatives arising from the HEHA strategy. but is an industrydriven body responding to strong imperatives from the Minister of Health to "do more". and it is not a priority on the government's agenda. The authority operates with a Code of Advertising Practice. education and industry. The HEHA strategy is an integrated policy framework relating to nutrition. Since 1969 the country has opted for a voluntary system of self-regulation based on that in the United Kingdom. community. This review has led to significantly strengthened codes linked with the strategy. The South African Advertising Standards Authority is responsible for the regulation of advertising within this self-regulatory framework. Six out of the 10 main advertisers promote food. The South African advertising industry compares with the best in the world and it employs the full spectrum of techniques in promoting to children. driven by the twin goals of social responsibility and a desire to avoid regulation. The accord has been a driver of a number of industry initiatives.142 Basics of Catering Management South Africa has a very young population with nearly 50% of the population under the age of 20. Civil society appears to pay little attention to the issue of marketing to children. arose from the HEHA Industry Group. representing marketers. including a review of the Advertising Standards Authority's advertising codes.g. The Advertising Standards Authority regulates advertising in New Zealand. in which provisions for the protection of children are made. primary care and local government . The complaints board reviews complaints about advertisements that contravene the code of practice in any media and requests withdrawal of advertisements found to be in breach. The Food Industry Accord is not a partnership with the Ministry of Health. The Code stipulates pre-clearance of advertisements. No consumer complaints relating to food advertising targeting children have been received by the Advertising Standards Authority in the recent years. Discussion continues around ways to further strengthen the self-regulatory mechanisms. Academic research on advertising aimed at children is sparse in South Africa. More support for research and a comprehensive media literacy campaign to introduce and engender healthy scepticism are important parts of the solution to the issue of advertising aimed at children in South Africa. with Food and Nutrition Guidelines and with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. Thus a wide range of projects-at District Health Board. Experiences from New Zealand At a wider level. The New Zealand Ministry of Health developed "Healthy Eating Healthy Action" (HEHA) in 2003 and its implementation plan in 2004. Non-compliance results in sanctions. Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 143 The HEHA strategy outlines the multiple actions required by multiple players and sets out government expectations for a wide range of other public and private sectors. and establish and support an impetus for change. transport. physical activity and obesity which aims to bring about changes in the environment in which New Zealanders live. There has been 100% compliance with rulings to date. school. work and play. a key strategy of HEHA is to mobilize community and intersectoral action around goals to build community ownership. The codes regarding children and food have recently been reviewed.

and are most effective when set at national level. accountable and transparent governance structures. The World Federation of Advertisers recognizes that advertising has a modest effect on children's food preferences. Obesity is rising worldwide despite a marked decline in food advertising in most mature markets and there seems to be no correlation between obesity levels and marketing regulation. but that this effect is small compared to a variety of other factors. innovation or increased choice. the European Vending Association. Physical Activity and Health and participates in similar multi-stakeholder platforms in several countries. without marketing there will be no competition. through participative. the Union of European Beverages Associations. to improve the diets of children? The European food industries have already taken important steps in creating principles of marketing and advertising as the basis for national norms to be used by governments. • The World Federation of Advertisers has made substantial commitments to the EU Platform on Diet. Marketing standards are a valuable complement to regulation. The vision is of standards that operate effectively within a regulatory framework. • Advertisers are investing to strengthen standards and governance structures for responsible marketing. Some examples of European food industries which have created such principles are the Confederation of the Food and Drink Industries of the EU. the Media Smart programme now operates in over 30% of primary schools in the United Kingdom. Marketing is central to the process of increasing the demand for "healthy options". as well as the International Chamber of Commerce. Marketing to Children: Threat or Opportunity? A Choice for the Future The title of the Institute of Medicine's report Food marketing to children and youth: threat or opportunity? encapsulates a basic choice to be made by those interested in improving child nutrition and health today-are we going to approach marketing to children primarily as an evil which is to be controlled. advertisers have taken action to address societal concerns. companies. the federation does not believe that Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 145 the literature provides evidence of a link between advertising and obesity. However. and that are enforced effectively. APPROACHES BY THE PRIVATE SECTOR AND INITIATIVES BY HEALTH AND CONSUMER ORGANIZATIONS Responsible Food and Beverage Marketing Owing to the rising incidence of obesity worldwide. combining social marketing with commercial marketing. The federation is also in dialogue with the European Commission and nongovernmental organizations through the EU Advertising Roundtable. or will we harness the power of communication. For example. Furthermore.144 Basics of Catering Management levels-are under way and will be supported by a national social marketing campaign. • Advertisers have invested heavily in media literacy education for children. Regulation cannot be effective if it stifles competition or innovation. but the policy instruments must be based on a realistic understanding of the food chain and the role of marketing. There is a need to address societal concerns. and industry associations. based on specific cultural and socioeconomic sensitivities and needs. food marketing has come under the spotlight. . Despite a lack of agreement on the role of marketing.

but should be dealt with in the context of a positive plan which has a chance of achieving dietary goals. in which self-regulatory organizations in 14 countries are monitoring all television food advertisements for a three-month period. in order to achieve those goals. The Institute of Medicine report sets out what needs to be improved in children's diets in the United States-and there is clear relevance for children in Europe and many other countries. Self-regulation is based on an agreement of what constitutes responsible behavior. needs to be devised. Industry codes are devised at national level by advertisers. and national self-regulatory organizations are set up to apply these codes. its flexibility in a rapidly changing industry and the ease of use for consumers who wish to make a complaint. promotes convergence among national self-regulatory systems. Food marketing works. combining the power of commercial and social communication. and prompt parents to purchase products that are high in fat. EASA's member organizations are self-regulatory organizations. By applying national self-regulatory codes of advertising practice based on the International Chamber of Commerce codes. detailing compliance rates with the International Chamber of Commerce Framework and national self-regulatory codes. industry demonstrates its ability to regulate itself responsibly. and carrying out comprehensive monitoring. changing behaviour in order to achieve dietary goals has proven to be very difficult. Food marketing aimed at children has increased dramatically in the USA over the last two decades. Unfortunately. advertisers. While the United States may presently have the most extreme levels of childhood obesity. An independent auditor will verify the results. national scoreboards will be developed. Based on the results of this exercise. Realistic goals for dietary change need to be established and a collaborative approach. according to the Institute of Medicine in the USA. which will be presented at the meeting of the European Commission's Platform on Diet and Physical Activity in October 2006.146 Basics of Catering Management Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 147 these principles (limits) on marketing are unlikely to achieve the objectives laid out by the Institute of Medicine unless they are a part of an overall communications and marketing effort to promote "healthy" diets. The barrage of food marketing by . The advertising industry supports self-regulation financially. It also provides information and research. Monitoring Compliance with Food and Nonalcoholic Beverage Marketing Codes There are several reasons for supporting self-regulation: its ability to respond quickly to breaches of codes. manipulate their food choices. Manufacturers and restaurant chains use aggressive and sophisticated techniques to attract children's attention. agencies and the various forms of media. EASA is currently running a comprehensive 2006 Monitoring Exercise. EASA applies its Best Practice Recommendation on Monitoring. The scoreboards will also show what parts of the codes are most often breached. For food advertising. EASA is the single authoritative voice of advertising selfregulation whose mission is to promote responsible advertising through best practice in self-regulation across the EU for the benefit of consumers and business. sodium and/or sugar. based on the International Chamber of Commerce Framework on Responsible Food and Beverage Communications. and manages cross-border complaints. morally and practically. and by what sector of the industry. agencies and media associations. dietary goals are much the same for European and other countries. Marketing norms are obviously a part of this.

the United States government is not seriously pursuing such steps.148 Basics of Catering Management industry has created a serious information imbalance where messages to children to eat healthfully are greatly outnumbered by messages from the industry to consume products of low nutritional value. and cannot. In fact. Rather. Food Marketing Works-regulatory Action is Needed Ultimately. and local legislation. • implement restrictions on the marketing and promotion of any foods that fall below these nutrition standards. and to monitor the effectiveness of the self-regulatory process. should consider developing nutritional standards for foods that can be promoted to children. sugar and salt to children undermines efforts to promote good dietary habits and has long been an issue of concern to consumer organizations globally. to seek federal. In addition. In the absence of legislative measures. protect children from marketing practices that harm their health. the United States Government needs to implement legislation that will limit the marketing of foods of low nutritional value and improve children's diets and health. This information imbalance is so great that it cannot be remedied simply by increasing the quantity of nutrition education messages to children. Instead. state. and in 2004 the organization published a study on food advertising to children in Asia and the Pacific. however. The Center for Science in the Public Interest urges WHO to draft an international code of food marketing to children to help facilitate progress at the national level. This effort will continue to be a major focus of these organizations. self-regulatory measures merely attempt to prevent the use of misleading or unethical marketing Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 149 techniques. This implies an important role for government in the area of food marketing to children. be marketed to children (although some individual food companies such as Kraft have set internal corporate guidelines that they use to restrict the promotion of certain products). Unfortunately. Instead. The 2005 European Consumers' Organisation's nutrition campaign focused on the need for more responsible marketing . The United States Department of Health and Human Services and the United States Federal Trade Commission have recommended that the selfregulatory body in the USA. This effort does not get to the crux of the information imbalance problem. the Children's Advertising Review Unit of the Council of Better Business Bureaus. To achieve this objective government authorities should: • Set nutrition standards for the kinds of food that can and cannot be promoted to children of different ages. the problem needs to be remedied by limiting the promotion of foods of low nutritional value. consumer organizations in the USA have begun to use the judicial system to push companies to make changes. Such standards. Consumer Concerns and Activities The marketing of foods high in fat. government has a role to restrict activities that undermine parental authority. consumer organizations will continue to educate the public. While parents bear much of the responsibility for feeding their children well. it is waiting for major commitments by the food and advertising industries. have not been achieved through industry-wide self-regulation. not a single self-regulatory authority in the world has set nutritional standards for the types of foods that can. In 1996 Consumers International published an international survey on television food advertising. It is too early to tell whether it will take that step. and help make the "healthy" choice the easy choice.

Research by consumer organizations has highlighted the plethora of methods that can be used to target children-everything from the use of cartoon characters and celebrities on food packaging through to the use of free toys. The Code was adopted by the World Health Assembly in 1981 as a recommendation rather than as a regulation.150 Basics of Catering Management of foods to children. web sites and text messaging. and that the promotion of foods high in fat. the way that foods are marketed makes it more difficult for parents to influence their children's choices. The scale of the problem of obesity and diet-related disease has become only too apparent in the last few years. which bans all promotion of breast-milk substitutes. condoning harmful practices. helping governments to identify loopholes and to bring in effective controls. sugar and salt to children stops. While parents have ultimate responsibility for their children's food choices. Public outrage about the harm caused by promotion of breast-milk substitutes paved the way for the development of the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes (the Code) under the leadership of WHO. There is clear evidence from academic reviews that food advertising and promotion influences children's food preferences and choices. Countries without such protection are inundated with aggressive promotion which undermines efforts to protect health. All forms of advertising and promotion of "unhealthy" foods must be tackled. is needed to ensure that irresponsible marketing practices are no longer tolerated. Strong action in this area by WHO. Progress on the Code is reviewed every two years and new resolutions are passed which ensure that it keeps pace with scientific knowledge and developments in marketing. Food marketing is increasingly sophisticated and integrated. The International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes The baby food industry described the Code as "unworkable" at its inception and over the years has issued many weaker versions. these approaches have been limited and largely focus on only the youngest children. The problem is global and so is the solution. It is the organization's experience that laws-especially those which have a wide scope and include truly independent monitoring and enforcement systems-are a much safer option than a reliance on self-regulation. The International Baby Food Action Network uses the Code and subsequent relevant World Health Assembly resolutions as a global benchmark for its monitoring. . but it is an important element of the multifaceted approach needed if the "healthy" choice is to become the easy choice. which is dependent on industry's goodwill. However. transparent and legallyenforceable controls on the marketing of baby food. It is a "minimum requirement" for all Member States to implement "in its entirety" and requires the baby food industry to abide by it "independently of government action". Some companies have recently made announcements that they are adopting a more responsible approach to food marketing to children. The International Baby Food Action Network works to remove obstacles to breastfeeding through the adoption of Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 151 independent. Tackling food marketing to children will not alone solve this global epidemic. Seventy-five countries now have laws implementing the Code and these are leading to increased breastfeeding rates and reduced sales of substitutes. computer games. such as the development of an international code. making it difficult to keep abreast of the messages that children are exposed to.

existing self-regulatory approaches aim to ensure that several aspects of marketing promotions (e. The following points were made: • At present. They do not attempt to address the volume of advertising (or other marketing practices) and they are not being monitored in relation to their effect on children's diets. • A global response is required to address the transnational nature of promotion strategies (e. selfregulation alone is not sufficient. However. although there is also a moral issue concerning child protection and children's rights which is relevant to an international approach. fat and sugar and there is clear evidence to show that this has a detrimental effect on children's diets. Through such sponsorship. • The purpose of measures to address food promotion is to improve children's diets and thus they should be part of a broader approach to improving diet and health. cross-border television advertising). In assessing the usefulness of the two options. • Clear targets need to be developed at national level and effective mechanisms need to be established for monitoring both statutory and self-regulatory approaches using clear criteria which incorporate frequency and amount of marketing. The World Health Assembly resolutions on infant feeding contain important safeguards relating to conflicts of interest which clearly define roles for different stakeholders and ensure that the appropriate professionals provide information to parents. SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS OF THE FORUM A summary and some initial conclusions from the meeting were presented. most commercial promotion targeted at children is for foods high in salt. • Self-regulation is likely to be more effective if it operates within a legal framework with incentives for change. • Cultural and national situations will influence the decisions about what type of restrictions are appropriate. companies gain the trust of parents. truthful. marketing and education.152 Basics of Catering Management A key concern is the sponsorship by the food industry of educational materials which blur the boundaries between advertising. The impact of any measures on inequalities in health also needs to be considered. Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 153 • Both statutory and voluntary/self-regulation are currently being considered as responses to the problem of marketing. This is shown by the systematic review commissioned by WHO for this meeting and by the Institute of Medicine Report. it is important to think in terms of the public health goal. Any measures should consider all forms of marketing and should anticipate new developments from the industry. legal. decent. children and teachers and influence policymakers and reposition themselves in society as providers of "healthy" food. television advertising) are responsible (i. honest). Public awareness about the problem also needs to be raised in some countries. The growth of . However. which also shows that the strongest impact of advertising on children's diet and nutritional status is on those aged 2-11.g.e. including measures to tackle the problem of the supply of energy-dense foods and to change consumer behaviour. which is to reduce the volume of marketing to children and to minimize its impact on children's diets. This was followed by a discussion.g. but does not exclude influences on older children.

and (iii) protection of the rights of the child-all of which support the need for action. 155 4 WHO TECHNICAL MEETING FOR C ATERING D EVELOPMENTS INTRODUCTION The working groups concluded that there is a robust evidence base to support the fact that exposure to the commercial promotion of energy-dense. and in advocating effective action by governments. • There is a vital role for WHO in the protection of child health through the development of guidelines and international standards for marketing to children. Maintaining the reputation of a brand might be a sufficient incentive to most companies to avoid breaking the rules. A large body of literature supports this view. . micronutrientpoor foods and beverages adversely affects children's diets. • The potential for nutrient profiling to support public health professionals.154 Basics of Catering Management Who Technical Meeting for Catering Developments marketing activities in emerging economies and developing countries is of special concern and any attempts to address the problem need to take account of the ability of these countries to implement and enforce the measures. consumers need to be provided with reliable and easy-to-understand information about food. the burden of proof should lie with the advertiser rather than with the person or organization complaining about the advertisement. In addition. as well as the 2006 report of the Institute of Medicine in the United States. (ii) a precautionary approach. • Any fines for breaking codes of practice should take into account the annual turnovers of the businesses involved and should be an adequate disincentive. The role of the industry in providing information to consumers needs to be considered carefully. In case of a controversy about the effects of an advertisement. government and industry should be examined further. Further evidence is needed to determine whether enforcement systems that rely on preclearance are more effective and cost-efficient than systems based on monitoring. Three forms of rationale for taking action were discussed: (i) evidence of harm. as summarized in the background paper by Hastings et al. • Independent government agencies should take responsibility for setting clear targets and monitoring progress. micronutrientpoor food and beverages to children. Moderate increases in the promotion of better foods are judged to be insufficient. The goal of any regulatory action should be to protect children from marketing which adversely affects their diets by substantially reducing the volume and impact of commercial promotion of energy-dense.

In addition. Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases and the 2005 WHO Expert Meeting on Childhood Obesity. the International Covenant on Economic. The meeting participants agreed to recommend that WHO should develop guidelines to promote and support national action to substantially reduce the volume and impact of commercial promotion of energy-dense. salt and low in certain nutrients are putting children at risk of overweight and obesity and other diet-related diseases which are increasing public health problems worldwide. micronutrient-poor food and beverages to children. • A strong scientific rationale is available through the robust science and research that links commercial promotion of foods and beverages to poor diets in children. saturated fat. • The Fifty-seventh World Health Assembly also identified the issue of marketing to children in the 2004 Global Strategy on Diet. and consider the development of an international code on the marketing of food and beverages to children to Who Technical Meeting for Catering Developments 157 address issues such as cross-border television advertising. micronutrientpoor food and beverages to children. and Cultural Rights and the United Nations guidelines for consumer protection. These include the 2002 joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation on Diet.156 Basics of Catering Management Four broad policy options to address the problem of commercial promotion of foods and non-alcoholic beverages to children at national level were discussed and further developed in the meeting recommendations-while acknowledging that implementation would depend on local circumstances. RECOMMENDATIONS FROM THE TECHNICAL MEETING The experts gathered in Oslo. Rationale • Diets high in energy. Social. micronutrient-poor foods and beverages to children has been identified as one of the many factors contributing to this in a series of expert consultations. The evidence clearly shows that: . a concept that can be further refined by using nutrient profiling. and to protect children in countries where national action has not been fully implemented. micronutrientpoor food and beverages. WHO should support national actions to substantially reduce the volume and impact of commercial promotion of energy-dense. and global promotional activities. Aim The aim is to protect children's health by improving their diets through substantially reducing the volume and impact of commercial promotion of energy-dense. free sugars. • The marketing and advertising of energy-dense. having considered the evidence and experience from countries and different stakeholders. on 4-5 May 2006 to attend the Technical Meeting on the. the need for international action was underlined. made the following statements and recommendations. Physical Activity and Health. The participants also agreed that WHO should take the lead in the development of an international code on the commercial promotion of food and beverages to children to address issues such as cross-border television advertising and global promotional activities. • Addressing concerns about the marketing of food and non-alcoholic beverages to children is consistent with the obligations of countries in implementing the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child.

educational settings. Marketing as referred to in this report includes the promotion and/or the sale of food and beverages in child-specific settings (e. point-of-sale displays. In addition. appreciative of.marketers' segmenting of child and adolescent populations. use of cartoon characters. attitudes. . contests. . free gifts. and engage with this promotion. This will take into account: . • Commercial promotion should be defined as all forms of communication activity designed to raise consumer awareness in order to encourage recognition and sales of a product. sponsorships. place. parents should not be targeted in ways that could damage children's diets.there is extensive food and beverage promotion to children. play areas. • Many of the existing regulations in countries recognize that children under the age of about 13 years are more vulnerable to exploitation by commercial promotions and thus have more stringent regulations for this age group than for adolescents. purchase behaviour. • The age group of under 18 years may be further segmented in order to formulate specific measures.different countries' legal definitions of what constitutes a child. daycare centres." The traditional Who Technical Meeting for Catering Developments 159 components are product.age-related developmental differences in children's comprehension of the nature and purpose of marketing. .this food promotion has a deleterious effect on children's food knowledge. and using activities designed to enhance brand recognition through image or lifestyle without specifically identifying food or drinks. micronutrient-poor foods and undermines recommendations for a healthy diet. Health and nutrition claims on products targeted to children should also be considered as they may also be a form of unwarranted commercial promotion. and communications using new media such as cell phones and the Internet. packaging. communicating. and consumption. etc). children's hospitals. product placement. This is concordant with the literature on the developmental transition to being less vulnerable and gullible in relation to targeted marketing.children are aware of. sweepstakes. • Marketing is defined as "an organizational function and a set of processes for creating. schools. . price.this food promotion is overwhelmingly for energydense. . and promotion. It is recognized that it will be easier to regulate and enforce restrictions on the use of some of these promotional strategies than others. .Basics of Catering Management 158 . Examples include competitions. following the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child. kindergartens. and delivering value to customers and for managing customer relationships in ways that benefit the organization and its stakeholders. as well as mass media advertising. • This report does not refer to the promotion of messages and products as part of non-commercial social . Scope • Evidence shows that all children are affected by marketing and therefore the current document would apply to all persons aged under 18. celebrity endorsements.g.

For the purpose of substantially reducing the volume and impact of commercial promotion of food and beverages to children. National actions • Cultural. Guiding Principles • Bold. Its effectiveness will be related to other positive or proactive interventions aimed at promoting healthy diet and lifestyle in children and young people. truthful. A. Prohibiting promotional marketing of energydense. This option would reduce the times and settings where energydense. the . Multinational companies market products around the world and many forms of marketing cross country boundaries. product. micronutrient-poor food and beverages to children7. decent and honest and • The action recommended in this document should not be seen as a stand-alone intervention. The first two take a targeted approach specific to the commercial promotion of energy-dense. Strong support by government agencies is essential. in specified settings. Poor diets and diseases related to them constitute a public health emergency.g. innovative action at both national and global levels is essential. Rationale and implications of the various policy options are suggested in Box 2 below. It is especially important to encourage children and youth groups to familiarize themselves and act upon the issues implied. price. • Global action is necessary. place) not addressed in this document. policies at the national and international level should be consistent as far as commercial promotion of complementary foods is concerned. using specified techniques or targeting specified age groups. • Increased population awareness and participation of national governments and international agencies in advocating actions to reduce the adverse impact of commercial promotion is essential. a standardized international approach is required. • Constructive action can be implemented through both statutory action and industry self-regulation. to deal with other aspects of marketing (e. Considering the globalization of the food system. micronutrient-poor food promotion to children is most intense. In particular. legal and regulatory climates differ from country to country and there are likely to be various ways of reducing the promotion of energydense. self-regulation is not sufficient. • Four policy options are suggested here. it is however a valuable supplementary strategy to ensure promotions are legal. This non-commercial promotion of healthy food choices is to be encouraged. • The action recommended in this document should be considered as a continuum to actions aimed at protecting breastfeeding in infants and young children according to the International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes. • National action is required and different models have been successfully implemented. micronutrient-poor food products at specified times. It is important that global rules be generated and that commercial promotions that target children across country boundaries be addressed.Basics of Catering Management 160 Who Technical Meeting for Catering Developments 161 marketing initiatives. micronutrient-poor food to children and the remaining two adopt a more comprehensive approach to achieving the same goal.

using methods such as nutrient profiling. Prohibiting the commercial promotion of all food or drinks to children. and for the age groups that are the most vulnerable. This option is likely to have less of an impact on children's exposure to the promotion of energy-dense. • Monitoring the application of the policy options and evaluating their affects on the volume and impact of commercial promotion and on children's diet should be performed. it should be considered as a first step (where other options are not feasible) as a means of reducing the most intense exposure times and the techniques that are particularly persuasive. such as pre-clearance of advertising campaigns and independent monitoring of complaints. This approach could act as an incentive for the food industry to develop healthier products. However. Prohibiting the commercial promotion of energydense. C. and of protecting the age groups that are the most vulnerable. Who Technical Meeting for Catering Developments 163 • Suitable enforcement mechanisms. micronutrient-poor foods or beverages to children This option only seeks to restrict the promotion of the specific foods and beverages that are considered detrimental to children's diets. Prohibiting all commercial promotion of any products to children. should be established. This option includes all products and protects children from commercial exploitation in general. Four Policy Options to Address Marketing to Children: rationale and Implications Option A-specified restrictions on the age groups targeted and the times. micronutrient-poor foods and beverages to children. This option would remove energy-dense. not just from exclusively child-centred environments and media-such as schools and children's television programmes-but also from environments that they share with adults such as shopping malls and prime-time television. The implementation of this option requires clear identification of products that cannot be promoted. It could also prohibit particular techniques used to promote energydense.162 Basics of Catering Management techniques that are particularly persuasive or difficult to understand. settings and techniques used by advertisers in the commercial promotion of energy-dense. that include adequate penalties. . Exceptions could be made for approved public health campaigns promoting healthy diets. This option widens the net and removes all forms of commercial promotion of food and drink to children. • All of these options may be combined with a regime of product-related health warnings and nutritional messages. micronutrient-poor foods and beverages to children. micronutrientpoor food products than the other alternatives. B. micronutrientpoor foods and drinks. D. micronutrient-poor food and beverage promotion. such as toys and collectables. Option B-no promotion of any energy-dense. for example by providing a means of ensuring that schools and children's television programmes remain commercial free zones.

It also requires acceptance by more players. cross border television advertising. • The international code should build upon and support activities taken by countries at the national level to strengthen the overall effectiveness and impact of various strategies to prevent the promotion of energydense. both at the national and local government levels. It provides a degree of equity between different industrial to the design. The international code will provide the basis for action at this level. The international code should specify precisely expectations of participating countries and how these national activities will be monitored. Activities undertaken at the national level should be incorporated into the scope of the international code to ensure that all activities are complementary and mutually supportive.g.actions to address the transnational nature of promotional strategies (e. It was recognized that this approach may not be a realistic option for many countries. . Internet).monitoring and reporting on the activities of transnational manufacturers and distributors that are not amenable to monitoring at the local level and provision of information to international agencies. micronutrientpoor food and beverages. International action • In order to address the international nature of commercial promotion of energy-dense. However.3. schools and health professionals rather than food industry protagonists. In addition.3) and parts of Scandinavia. micronutrient-poor foods and beverages to children.Basics of Catering Management 164 Option C-no commercial promotion of any foods or beverages to children This option is based on the view that children are best informed about healthy eating by parents. . and also of civil society and nongovernmental organizations. The unique issues to be addressed by the international code include: . Member States and other stakeholders. following models such as those being tried in Quebec (see section 3.provisions for limiting the promotional activities of companies irrespective of country. . It prohibits promotional marketing of any products specifically to children. including the media and communication industries. Who Technical Meeting for Catering Developments 165 United Nations Agencies. . enforcement and monitoring of country action. • The international code should also aim to build capacity of countries where infrastructure to address this issue is not already in place. but consideration needs to be given to issues such as "positive" marketing which encourages healthy behaviour. micronutrient-poor food products. this option would restrict the commercial promotion of more healthy foods to children. This would be concordant with the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child and with consumer protection legislation operating in many countries. It avoids classifying foods as "good" and "bad" and recognizes that the vast majority of commercial promotions to children are for energy-dense. WHO should take the lead in the development of an international code on the commercial promotion of food and beverages to children in association with international partners. Option D-no commercial promotion of any products to children This is the broadest approach of all and is based on children's right to a commercial-free environment.

responsibilities of Member States. . Member States are encouraged to take a stepwise approach to implementation appropriate to their local circumstances. Tools to assist countries may need to be developed. Member States Who Technical Meeting for Catering Developments 167 need to be consulted in terms of the feasibility of these recommendations and their commitment to undertake some of the actions.overall goal and purpose of the code. . After the assessment and consultation with Member States. nature and effects of food promotions on children in developing countries. The recommendations require discussion and assessment by WHO with regard to their technical merit. Technical assistance may be required to draft appropriate legal frameworks for consideration by Member States. More research is needed in the area of the extent. . .provision for revisions. financial implications and appropriate roles for the Organization.g. The critical steps in the implementation of these recommendations are: Appropriate forums should be identified to discuss the issue with Member States and ensure their commitment in undertaking national actions and in supporting the development of international guidelines. . . particularly in developing countries. The Ministerial Conference on Counteracting Obesity to be held in the WHO European Region will have on its agenda a discussion of these issues. plans and programmes for the prevention and control of chronic diseases. National actions need to be supported by suitable international actions. Elements of a future international code include: . and technical assistance provided to Member States on request. • Countries signing the international code will commit to a core set of actions. Voluntary regulation can be an effective supplement to national legislation and several self-regulatory models are . e. NEXT STEPS The discussions in the Forum and the recommendations from the Technical Meeting will be considered for future WHO work to ensure that appropriate actions are taken to protect children from inappropriate promotion of energy dense. Further Development of National Actions WHO will assess the feasibility for implementation of the proposed national actions and develop them further.Basics of Catering Management 166 there are several gaps in the knowledge and evidence base on the effects of food promotions on children. WHO plans to facilitate a process for the implementation of the recommendations and relevant units and programmes within the Organization are encouraged to incorporate the recommendations into workplans and secure the necessary funding.ensuring effectiveness.responsibilities of civil society (support can be provided to the civil society to carry out independent monitoring). "model" legislation. These actions can be implemented as part of national policies.scope and principles. . • The international code should be developed through a consultative process facilitated by a public sector body and signed by participating countries. micronutrient-poor food and beverages.monitoring and evaluation of impact.responsibilities of the commercial sector.

Quick Service Restaurants. Meals can be prepared on the premises or bought in to be consumed on site or to take away. micronutrient-poor food and beverages. Coffee Shops. national actions alone are inadequate. 169 FOOD AND BEVERAGE OUTLETS DEFINITION Food and Beverage (F&B) outlets are commercial establishments offering eating and drinking facilities to customers. There should be adequate levels of lighting for guest safety and comfort in all public areas. including stairwells and car parks. etc). Information on procedures in the event of an emergency should be clearly displayed in the F&B outlet (exit signs. "principles" of good practice in self-regulation can be further developed and disseminated to Member States. If required. All reasonable precaution must be taken to secure the personal safety of patrons and staff and prevent damage to or theft of their possessions. These models have been developed mainly by industry and the extent of state involvement varies from country to country. micronutrient-poor food and beverages to children. Bars. International action is essential to ensure an effective overall approach to limit that impact of promotion of energy-dense. Pubs. MINIMUM REQUIREMENTS BEVERAGE GRADING FOR FOOD AND Safety and Security A high degree of general safety and security should be maintained. 5 International Action In view of the cross-border promotion of energy-dense. The development of an international code will require the approval of the WHO governing bodies.168 Basics of Catering Management Food and Beverage Outlets in use in various countries around the world. Examples of F&B outlets include Restaurants. . and Taverns.

• Liquor license (if applicable). Assessors may request that relevant documentation or proof of compliance be presented at the time of the assessment. inter alia: • Provincial registration (if applicable). Each F&B outlet must have a valid and current Certificate of Acceptability to handle food-issued by the Environmental Health Services Division of the local Department of Health. Alternatively where the display is impractical a copy should be made available on request. physical or mental condition. • Health. Vigilant and competent supervision is essential (verbal and/or written policy confirmation required). Appropriate service and facilities should be available on all days that the establishment is open (unless advertised otherwise). provincial and local government regulations. citizenship or nationality. Food and Beverage Outlets 171 • Business registration which entitles the establishment to legally operate. ethnicity. . Management should commit to a programme of optimum hygiene covering all aspects of food handling. With regard to hygiene. etc. This includes. • Evidence of a smoking management policy. when this changes a new certificate is required). Guest complaints should be dealt with courteously and promptly (including those received via the Tourism Grading Council's Consumer Feedback mechanism). Particular attention should be paid to toilets.Basics of Catering Management 170 Cleanliness and Hygiene A high standard of cleanliness should be maintained in all parts of the establishment. notwithstanding the above. Access There should be no discrimination to accepting patrons based on their race. This certificate must be valid for the current owner (the certificate is issued in the name of the person in charge of the establishment. • Public liability insurance. Statutory Obligations Premises are expected to comply with all relevant statutory and national. The Certificate of Acceptability should be displayed in a conspicuous place in the food premises-for public viewing. In addition. Establishments should be open on the days stipulated by management and advertised as such. management has the right to refuse access in the interest of other users of the establishment. hygiene and food safety regulations (an appropriate and valid hygiene certificate). all employees should be clean and appropriately groomed and dressed. gender. However. kitchen and food storage and preparation areas. Courtesy The highest standard of courtesy should be shown to patrons at all times. • Compliance with national and local authority regulations including (but not limited to). it is mandatory for each F&B outlet to comply with the TGCSA Hygiene Checklist included in the F&B Grading Criteria document. o Compliance with building regulations-in particular with regard to accessibility. o Fire safety certificate.

Details of any in-house policies e. website. It should be made clear to patrons what is included in the prices quoted including service charges and other surcharges. Each customer should be provided. F&B OUTLET AREAS Reception Area A clearly designated reception or "wait to be seated" area should be provided. The interior of the building/s including all fittings. Full details of the establishment's cancellation policy should be made clear to patrons at the time of booking. Menus and wine lists. Interior Maintenance Prices for all meals and beverages served at the establishment should be clearly displayed and/or presented and available on request. clean and frequently checked. fixtures and furnishings must be maintained in a sound and clean condition and must be fit for the purpose intended. correspondence and complaints should be handled promptly and courteously. Menus and wine lists may be presented verbally. All toilets should be well maintained. All enquiries. The number of sanitary conveniences provided per member of staff and maximum number of patrons must be in accordance with South Africa's Hygiene Regulations. Ideally the toilets should not be connected directly to the kitchen (refer to Hygiene Regulations). Reservations and Pricing Food and Beverage Outlets 173 There should be friendly and efficient service appropriate to the style of the establishment. on request. All electrical equipment should be safely maintained and in good working order. with details of payment due and a receipt of payment. Prices should include VAT. The bill should be clearly presented and well laid out. Paths under the control of the operator should be well lit and directional signage should be provided. Dining Area A dining area should be provided which is available during operating hours with appropriate seating. requests. BUILDINGS Exterior Grounds and gardens under the control of the operator should be neat and appropriate.172 Basics of Catering Management Marketing. whether by advertisement. There should be appropriate signage (suitable to the requirements of the market) to direct patrons to the main entrance of the establishment. reservations. where appropriate. no smoking or no children should be communicated at the time of booking. verbal communication or other means. Public Toilets Public toilets should be provided for the use of patrons (located within close proximity-these need not be the property of the establishment). brochure. . A moveable podium is also considered appropriate. should be clean and well presented and provide accurate descriptions (where applicable) of the meals and beverages on offer. The exterior of the property must be well maintained and in a sound and clean condition.g. Facilities and services provided by the establishment should be described fairly and truthfully to all visitors and prospective visitors.

Alternatively if only public toilets are available then the Platinum Star outlet owner/manager should ensure that these public toilets are continuously monitored and kept clean. seafood. Appropriate table cloths and placemats to be used. Noise Levels: Entertainment/background music (where available) should be set at the appropriate noise level. hot air dryer. Fabric towels for hand drying purposes may only be provided if they are washed and replaced after a single use (Hygiene Regulations). etc) should be provided. attentive. ADDITIONAL REQUIREMENTS FOR GOLD AND PLATINUM STAR OUTLETS General All Platinum Star outlets should have private guest toilets located within the same property as the restaurant and under the control of restaurant management. Food and Beverage Outlets 175 management/waiting staff must have adequate knowledge of the different varieties on the menu. Table Appointment: Table appointment: High quality cutlery. All food and beverage should be hygienically stored. polite and helpful. meat dishes. Toilet cubicles should be lockable. glassware and linen. They should be dressed in clean. liquid soap and a hand drying mechanism (clean towel per user. The criteria cover: • Building exterior • Internal fabric • Toilets • Menu and wine list • Food and beverage • Services and service • Housekeeping and cleanliness • A kitchen Hygiene (check list) . The grading criteria have been developed based on guest expectations. salads. Management and staff should be well trained. Wine List : A wine list with a good selection of wines must be available and GRADING CRITERIA FOR FOOD AND BEVERAGE (F&B) OUTLETS Each establishment wishing to be graded needs to comply with the minimum criteria including the specified minimum criteria per star grading. Thereafter the establishment will be graded according to the criteria listed in this document. crockery. toilet. Staff should demonstrate adequate levels of product knowledge and provide efficient service. Services Table Reservation: All Gold and Platinum Star outlets should offer a table reservation service. prepared and presented. paper towels. Food and Beverage Food Menu: Food menu should offer a variety of items: entrees. and dishes for vegetarians.174 Basics of Catering Management At minimum a basin with running water. wellfitting clothes and be personally well-groomed. poultry. Service Table Spacing: There should be adequate space between tables to ensure privacy for conversation. toilet paper. desserts.

9 or 10. This means that F&B outlets will not be penalised for not having a service or facility beyond the minimum requirements. 9. an establishment need not comply with all criteria under a specific score in order to receive that score. These standards have been set at the highest levels possible to achieve. fresh wellmaintained paintwork. 9 or 10 Bronze Star Award Overall score of 50%-70% No unacceptable items Less than 3 Items to score No more than 2 items to score 4 or more 5 All service elements to score 6. 7. 8. rather a guideline to steer assessors and property owners or managers in the right direction in respect of scoring. In addition. It is important to consider that these are examples and guidelines only. The score will be based on: • The assessor's experience which will comprise a balance between quality and condition (personal preference and fashion should not have an influence) • Consumer feedback and comments. Examples of all possible standards are provided in the criteria. Where an area is not applicable it will not be graded and will therefore not count in the overall grading score. Food and Beverage Outlets 177 REQUIRED OVERALL SCORE FOR EACH GRADING BAND Platinum Star Award Overall score of 95%-100% Items to score 9 or 10 No more than 2 items to score 8 Gold Star Award Overall score of 84%-94% Items to score 8 or more No more than 2 items to score 7 All service elements to score 8. or 10 Silver Star Award Overall score of 71%-83% Items to score 7 or more No more than 2 items to score 6 All service elements to score 8.Basics of Catering Management 176 Not all areas will be applicable to all establishments. an overall clean and "new" . The grading assessor will award a score between 1 and 10 for each area assessed. The score for each standard is defined as follows: Excellent 10 Very good 9 Good 8 Standard 6 or 7 Acceptable 5 Poor 3 or 4 Unacceptable 1 or 2 In the TGCSA Star Grading Scheme the highest marks awarded. 9 or 10 Exterior Appearance of Buildings 10-9 New buildings. absence of weathering. reflect excellent quality together with excellent condition. The criteria are not exhaustive.

Uncluttered access to establishment and pathways. stone or brickwork although a certain natural weathering may be present. No potholes in driveway. illegible signs. within the grounds and within easy walking distance of the entrance. cracks.Basics of Catering Management 178 look. 7-6 Paintwork. rotting wood. All areas of paintwork to be in sound condition. etc under the control of management should be evaluated in this section. Domestic disorder kept to a minimum. Tidy pathways. Attractive appearance throughout the year. 7-6 No overgrown. Small defects. Well maintained driveway and entrance. Visible outbuildings or annexes to be of a similar standard. 5-4-3 Gardens and enclosed area around the establishment are kept under control. Addition of attractive architectural features. Some attempt to produce a pleasing effect with interesting design. Flaking paint. Grounds and Gardens All grounds and facilities including children's play areas. "Plain" architectural features are acceptable. paintwork. General public parking facility with security provided. Obvious structural defects or damage. etc. drains. Badly surfaced driveway with large pot-holes or puddles. Immediate surrounds kept tidy and well maintained. fairly close (but not adjacent). No obvious structural defects or damage. etc. Provision of garden furniture or architectural features appropriate to the nature of the guests attracted to the establishment. though not necessarily recent. Disorderly appearance. etc. Clear access. marked parking bays in a secure environment. Food and Beverage Outlets 179 8 High standards of maintenance in formal gardens. Some architectural features appropriate to the market. secure parking within the grounds of the establishment. Some additional external features to enhance appearance. Alternatively general public parking facility. Pleasant and tidy appearance throughout the year. No disorder or rubbish and no evidence of litter. Overflow parking outside grounds. Older buildings-no unsightly staining and well-maintained paintwork. Little attempt at interesting design. 10-9 Evidence of systematic programme of maintenance (excellent standard)-well-tended formal gardens or attractive "natural" environment. . in close proximity to establishment with security provided. No evidence of recent repairs. tangled areas. Good driveway. 2-1 Generally neglected buildings. Drive may have an uneven surface. 8 Some organised. 2-1 Neglected and overgrown appearance. 8 High quality maintenance of paint. No clutter or disorder around service areas. Alternatively plentiful and secure parking for vehicles close (adjacent) to establishment. etc in good state of repair. windows. Rubbish and clutter visible. 5-4-3 Some areas of paint may be ageing and rather weathered. damage. Parking 10-9 Sufficient.

but in close proximity (e. Slight signs of wear and tear (i. tiles. Where different standards are present. Some attempt at attractive lighting to highlight features. Little attention to detail.e. 5-4-3 Unorganised parking outside grounds with no security. External Lighting and Signage (on property) 10-9 Very good external security lighting. marks. Use of lighting to enhance appearance and highlight features. No parking available at the establishment and parking is located a long distance away. Internal Fabric: All reception rooms. finger marks. an average score will be applied. unless there is significant difference between the highest and the lowest score. Good clear signage. No signage. 2-1 Owner vehicles taking up most of available parking space. etc. 7-6 Competent. Thoughtful co-ordination of patterns. All work should look professional and be well executed. colours and textures. Some pictures in good frames. 5-4-3 Ageing looking décor. entrance and pathways.g. Difficult to navigate along pathways at night. etc. bars. Décor may be some years old but not obviously damaged. 7-6 Some external lighting in important areas. Difficult to find to Food and Beverage Outlets 181 establishment. No control and no security provided. of average quality to begin with. scratches. Limited external lighting. guiding patrons to the main entrance. 2-1 Poor or no lighting. Clear signage to guide patrons. Plain style with no adornment. parking. but need not be in excellent condition. Amateur application of paint or wall paper. 5-4-3 Ageing and limited signage. annexes. Lights shining at eye level. average quality wall coverings. etc. dining rooms and eating areas accessible to patrons will be evaluated under this section. Effective and attractive lighting guiding patrons along pathways on property. 8 Good security lighting in parking facilities and in grounds.180 Basics of Catering Management 7-6 Some parking in secure environment but not necessarily organised (not on property). Attempt to co-ordinate patterns and colours. Decoration 10-9 High quality wall covering (paint. Some wear and tear. scratched. Although some "minimalist" styles require less. wallpaper. etc). Signage to guide patrons but perhaps not clear enough or insufficient. etc). If the décor is "plain" then the addition of high quality pictures. Sufficient lighting to guide patrons to establishment and along pathways. in which case the lowest score will apply. Room décor may range from excellent to good. stains. Some security lighting. torn or stained. . objects d'art. on the pavement or street outside establishment). No jarring mismatch of colours and styles. Pathways sufficiently lit to guide patrons. Fairly close proximity to the establishment. Attention to detail. water splashes. 8 High quality wall covering.

Tables large enough for uncluttered use. tears. poor construction. Design may take precedence over comfort. Some contract furniture even when brand new will only be "very good". Ceilings to be of an excellent quality. stains or fraying on furniture. but all in good condition. but all items capable of use. . damaged. graphics. marks on soft furnishings. Flooring and Ceiling 10-9 High quality fitted carpets (high percentage wool content). Furniture of sound construction. but through ageing. Few pictures. attractive professional finish and detailing. All of high quality but not necessarily the same design though co-ordinated. High quality wooden or tiled flooring with high quality occasional rugs or mats. stained. unlined curtains. Some stains. some slight damage may be apparent. Uncoordinated styles and colours. fit for purpose. 7-6 Furniture which may have been "excellent" or "very good". Cramped. exposed wiring. Window coverings showing slight wear and tear. no sagging or evidence of water leakage or seeping. short. Good quality and attractive window coverings. Coordinated themed design. Tables close together. Thin. Table cracked. shapes and heights. wall hangings or works of art (if any). ages. Alternatively new. Wobbles in tables and or chairs. Alternatively excellent quality domestic carpeting. No jarringly uncoordinated styles-all furniture to be of a similar standard. stains. May be a mix of styles and ages. etc. splashes. 8 High intrinsic quality of materials may show some signs of use. marks. Surfaces not well-maintained. Little co-ordination of styles. Unsightly pipe work. wear and tear or ill-use. showing signs of wear and tear. Furniture and Furnishings 10-9 Excellent intrinsic quality and condition. Thin. Or attractive and appropriate window coverings. Full. Average quality. Uncoordinated styles. designs. Tables or chairs very wobbly. Little or no sign of ageing. worn upholstery. Signs of damp. in working order. 2-1 Furniture of a low quality material. Inadequate table sizecluttered and inconvenient. High degree of comfort. good (instead of excellent) quality furniture and furnishings. There should be no damage. marked or scratched. Good sized tables. Noticeable wear and tear. uncomfortable layout. Maybe a mix of styles. good thick pile and underlay. 5-4-3 Furniture of average quality and in well-used condition. NB: Some excellent antique furniture may show signs of "distress" which does not detract from its excellence depending on the degree of deterioration.182 Basics of Catering Management 2-1 Low-grade materials poorly executed. well-spaced chairs of appropriate height for tables. scratches. Spacious tables. Curtains to be full and effective in retaining heat/keeping out light. Alternatively. marks or stains. a medium quality range of materials and construction in sound and Food and Beverage Outlets 183 useable condition. skimpy curtains. Chairs not very comfortable. well lined curtains with appropriate accessories.

new. Vinyl or low quality flooring. visible canvas or backing fabric. burns or marks.e. etc. 8 High quality carpets beginning to show some signs of ageing (flattening or wearing). gaps between carpet and wall. old and amateurishly done. an adequate natural ventilation system i. tears. Temperature Control 10-9 Thermostatically controlled heating and or cooling system capable of maintaining a comfortable room temperature of between 18oC and 25oC in each separate dining or eating room (climate dependent). DIY fitting with gaping joints. 2-1 Carpets with distinct signs of wearing. Several unmatched styles or newer carpets laid Food and Beverage Outlets 185 on top of damaged or worn-through older ones. Missing tiles and obvious chips. evidence of water leakage or seeping. bleaching by windows. In larger establishments an excellent score would apply for ducted or air-conditioning hidden from general view. Good free airflow achieved . burns of other defects that render the carpet unsound). In moderate climate. heater or air-conditioner). but no evidence of sagging. Wooden or tiled flooring in need of buffing but with high quality rugs. thin or no underlay. painted and in pristine condition.184 Basics of Catering Management All of the above should be professionally fitted. Poor quality sagging ceilings and evidence of water seepage. tiles or wooden floors. wall or ceiling mounted-fan. In smaller establishments new domestic. Appliance in excellent condition and quiet. discolouration. Poor quality ceiling. large opening doors and windows may suffice. some thinning. No stains. (There should be no holes. Appropriate to size and location of room. good quality domestic heating or cooling appliances are acceptable (free standing. In these cases the intrinsic quality and condition would be assessed. excellent quality heating or cooling appliances are acceptable (free standing. Unprofessionally fitted with ripples. rough illfitting edges. Alternatively a cheaper new carpet. heater or air-conditioner). wall or ceiling mounted-fan. competent job of application. taking the style of the property into consideration. Ceiling of good quality. Paintwork competently applied. with worn and stained rugs. 8 Some ageing of excellent appliances. patches. no sagging. Alternatively carpet with higher percentage of man-made fibre but in new condition. obvious seams. NB: In all levels there may be a high quality natural alternative to carpeting. Ceiling of average quality. although not necessarily of a professional standard. Wooden floors that have aged-now in need of a new coat of varnish. In smaller establishments. 5-4-3 Carpets showing considerable use-flattened spots. stains. amateurishly fitted. Wooden or tiled floors a little scratched in places. Professionally fitted and painted. Stained paintwork. 7-6 High quality carpet with flattening in areas of most traffic but all in sound condition-some small discolouration in places. Good quality and quiet wall mounted (visible) air-conditioners could receive an 8 rating. Chipped wooden or tiled floors. Ceilings slightly stained paintwork of a poor standard.

Lighting appropriate for the ambience. not necessarily new heating or cooling. etc.e. ageing lamps. Good quality linen or cloth napery. slightly noisy. Dim. freestanding appliance in good condition is acceptable. Hot or cold only available close to appliance i. fraying wires. coasters. Lighting 10-9 Overall high standard of lighting providing sufficient light for all appropriate purposes. Stark. Fittings ageing. loose plugs. discolouration. chips. cracks. Table Appointments 10-9 An emphasis on style and high quality (stainless steel. Limited free airflow in moderate climate. No heating or cooling system in extreme temperature environment. more than just central lights. etc. lamps bases. etc.e. damage. Restricted natural light. 7-6 Effective heating and or cooling provided in rooms when appropriate. Additional features such as flowers. candles and candlesticks. 2-1 Old low quality appliances. 2-1 Low quality fittings in poor condition. No burnt shades. unable to maintain a comfortable temperature throughout the room. etc. corridors. Very cold in winter. though no sophisticated use of lighting "effects". 5-4-3 Free standing apparatus able of maintaining a reasonably comfortable temperature in room. In a smaller establishment good quality. Large. No harsh fluorescent tubes. beginning to look scruffy. rooms. Good blend of natural and electric light during day. 7-6 More than adequate room light. Able to create an appealing dining experience. All cutlery and crockery of a high quality. High quality fittings. Fittings dated. Stuffy room. but nothing more. Ageing appliances. etc). showing off features. No free airflow in moderate climate. No wobbly connections. unattractive. Medium quality fittings in sound condition. Poor natural light. No extra lights for effect. Exposed. Light in inappropriate places. Large. Enough light for practical use. stained. flimsy bases that fall over. matching and co-ordinated. . Very limited free airflow. No wear. ageing. Shades burnt. In a smaller establishment low quality heating or cooling. Lighting appropriate to create the required mood.Basics of Catering Management 186 Food and Beverage Outlets 187 throughout dining or eating areas in moderate climate. gloomy effect with dark areas. Not necessarily the most up to date system. etc. freestanding appliance is acceptable. All lights and shades of high quality manufacture and in excellent order. Room slightly stuffy and or cold in winter. 5-4-3 Minimum lighting in room. harsh lighting. irritating. Also designed for good effect. harsh fluorescent lights with no diffuser. Glaring. burnt shades. Picture lights. etc. wall mounted air-conditioners apply here. 8 Provision of more sources of light than is strictly necessary i. etc. silver. Recessed spot lamps. scruffy. Lighting appropriate for the ambience. Adequate free airflow in a moderate climate. No lighting provided for effect. with more adequate spread of lighting for practical use. wobbly fittings.

Themes or designs may add to the ambience. fewer glasses and smaller napkins. staff and customers can pass without inconvenience. Alternatively sufficient quantities of large 1-ply serviettes accompanied by a refresher towel or finger towel. Tiles well fitted. Music/entertainment to be appropriate to the style of the outlet. Strong smells. etc). etc. 8 High standard of décor and lighting. No marks. crockery. maybe recently decorated but not . 7-6 Middle to high range cutlery and crockery. Atmosphere and Ambience 10-9 Harmonious combination of décor and lighting. Sauces in bottles or packets. Toilets: If toilets are only available off the premises (for example. Cracks. Overall attractive and high quality décor. Tables rather close together. 2-1 Very crowded. No peeling wallpaper or flaking paint. with some background noise. Perhaps busy. Loud noise. high quality crockery rather than high quality china. Equally high quality accessories i. 2-1 Mismatched patterns. good quality stainless steel rather than silver. Very stuffy. Pleasant aromas. imperfections. chips. crockery. cramped. Cutlery. A certain amount of noise and activity from other areas. Atmospheric lighting. Decoration and Flooring 10-9 Highest quality floor and wall coverings. Alternatively. in shopping centres). sauce boats. Low quality functional crockery. 5-4-3 Cutlery and crockery of varying of styles and quality (not intentional).188 Basics of Catering Management fabric napkins. Thin (1-ply) but large paper napkins or well-used thin linen napkins. Tables all preset as per standard etiquette. No intrusive noise or smells. Small. All unclothed tables or surfaces to be in pristine condition. Alternatively. No accessories. Impossible to have privacy. Accessories of different style but good quality. Thick (multiply) paper or fabric napkins. Slight smudging on glasses. thin (one-ply) napkins. stains. management of the restaurant should have control to ensure safety and security. Sticky sauce bottles on table. Smaller room. Unpleasant smells. Intrusive. Intrusive noise and stuffy. Flooring well-fitted and free from stain or water damage.e. uncomfortable. 5-4-3 Crowded tables. Wear and tear (fading of pattern or glaze) but no chips or cracks. ice buckets. 8 Items of similar style and quality as above but perhaps more limited in range. Good condition and main service matching. Limited wear but no damage (chips. Food and Beverage Outlets 189 Spacious room and good layout of tables. well-used appearance. Grouting in excellent condition. etc. condensation damage. Difficult to have private conversation. glassware obviously dirty. Awkward access. cutlery. 8 Maybe high quality finish but not recent-some signs of wear but all in good condition. Provision of appropriate styles of cutlery and crockery for different dishes. Fine glass rather than crystal. 7-6 Tables quite close but with sufficient space to allow private conversation.

flaking. Pleasant aroma. solid. crazing or dull finish. fraying. All porcelain in good condition-no cracks. Some stains and marks. High quality finish. 8 Generally high quality fittings throughout. Tired. but not necessarily new. Slight unpleasant aroma. Large and loud hot-air hand dryer. Cracked washbasin or toilet. Liquid soap in poor dispenser. Loose or broken towel rail. damp. 5-4-3 Loose paper towels that are thin and disintegrate easily. hand cream to create a pleasing environment. Paintwork chipped. ageing and evidence of poor standard of DIY. Grouting discoloured. High quality floor covering or tiles. Adequate quality liquid. hand-washing soap (not a bar of soap). well-made fittings in excellent order and matching style. No dispenser. Fixtures and Fittings 10-9 High quality. 7-6 Standard domestic range of bathroom fittings. Sealant or grouting mouldy. scratchy. Addition of accessories such as air fresheners. Fittings not matching. well used. Maybe showing some wear but in good clean condition. smelly. flowers. fluffy hand towels with plenty of pile (replaced after each use). 7-6 Not necessarily recently decorated though in good condition. 8 Hand towels-linen not as high quality as found above (replaced after each use). Standard quality bathroom flooring. Linen. 2-1 Very tired and old style. 2-1 Towels that are very thin. Rough DIY grouting or sealant. dated style. Area around toilet discoloured. small. efficient and quiet hot-air hand dryers. No stains or marks. 5-4-3 Lower quality materials. Smells. Plastic taps. heavy. Sufficient two-ply toilet paper. Adequate quantities of one-ply toilet paper. etc. Very good quality liquid. Hand Drying Facilities and Accessories 10-9 Thick. faded. Easy to use with responsive controls. chrome wearing off. stained. small paper (disintegrates easily when wet). 5-4-3 Ageing fittings-dull finish to porcelain. Thick. Discoloured plastic cistern. no stains. Slightly smaller or thinner paper towels with easy to use dispenser. Evidence of cigarette burns.Basics of Catering Management 190 with the highest quality materials. Excellent quality liquid hand-washing soap. Neutral aroma. unprofessionally applied. 7-6 Good quality paper towelling system but possibly thin. Very plain with no attempt at adornment. Adequate quantities of one-ply toilet paper. Hot-air hand dryer not excellent (loud or less efficient). Cheap very low quality finish. Plenty of hot water at all times. good quality paper towelling with easy to use dispenser. old. Pleasant aroma. Damp or condensation marks. Matching and co-ordinated styles. Food and Beverage Outlets 191 2-1 Stained or mouldy grouting or sealant. carpet rotting. Ill fitted cheap plastic toilet and cover. Extensive quantities of two-ply toilet paper. hand-washing soap. damage. some holes. Effective. though a competent and professional job. Low . Some signs of wear. Out of date style or colour.

main light plus adequate light at washbasins and mirrors. No soap. over-used. Scrappy appearance. clear and accurate verbal descriptions. Attractive design in excellent condition. All verbal descriptions clearly. covering at least starters. Words appropriately used to describe dishes and wines. entrees and desserts available. stained. 2-1 Gloomy. etc to be clearly detailed and legible. payment terms. Verbal descriptions not totally clear. Many wines out of stock and not marked. Perhaps menu not quite as discerning as above. Clear. Difficult to read. written corrections. Wine set out in clear sections and all available. Lighting 10-9 Lighting effective for all purposes particularly at washbasins and mirrors. All menus and wine lists clearly legible. Clean. Excellent quality fittings. accurately and eloquently presented. Concise. although not dirty. May show a little wear. Stark fluorescent tube on ageing fittings. not worn or grubby. 8 Good range and variety of dishes. No toilet paper. Food and Beverage Outlets 193 8 High standard of presentation. No hand drying facilities. Vintages wrong. Where wines are not available-they should be clearly marked. Attention to detail in all aspects of print. services charges. informative layout.e. Poor. even in closed cubicles. Complimentary range of starters. Not replaced after each use.Basics of Catering Management 192 absorbency. Wine list out of date. thumbprints. mains and desserts (but not considered to be excellent). Menu and Wine List Menu and Wine List Appearance 10-9 Excellent presentation appropriate to the market (maybe verbal. Unintelligible verbal descriptions. Wines should be listed per cultivar. temporary i. No grease. vegetarian dishes should be available). Excellent use of seasonal ingredients. bears little relation to what is available. 7-6 Clear layout but not top quality production. "rattled off" but clear verbal descriptions. wine stains. 5-4-3 Dim centre light. Excellent range of dish options catering for different tastes and requirements (i. Good. damaged light fittings.e. blackboard or permanent). Recessed lights. Minimum charges. Charges for dishes to be clearly detailed and legible. All dishes to be appropriately described. dog-eared. 7-6 Centre light well positioned providing adequate light. No incorrect spelling. layout and descriptions. given the lighting in the restaurant. 5-4-3 Basic but legible. clearly marked as such. badly placed. etc. . Large majority of wines available and those that are not. 2-1 Dirty. unacceptable aroma. Excellent lighting in all cubicles (even when door is closed). Vegetarians considered. Variety of cooking styles available. No written corrections. 8 High standard of light fittings centre. Menu Content 10-9 Well-balanced menu. Possibly supplementary lights. ageing.

Some drying out of food. colour. Variety of different brands per type of beverage. Limited variety of colours and textures. Selection provides variety in texture. Tendency to standardise garnish or display. standard range of beverages. 2-1 No variety. Good description of wines (verbal or written). (verbal or written) including year. Excellent variety of wines and beverages available. Inappropriate garnish. Excellent variety of beverages. Food and Beverage Meal Presentation 10-9 Well laid out on appropriately sized plate with attractive and complementary garnish or display. Extremely imaginative and exclusive in concept and outstanding execution. Charges are clearly depicted. No careful arrangement. Creative and artistic use of garnishes. Neat arrangement on plate. 8 Obvious care and attention to detail with visual effect but perhaps not with the highest degree of skill. Menu illegible and unclear. Lukewarm. . Only unbranded products available. All charges clearly described and legible. 5-4-3 Limited range of dishes available and limited options in terms of cooking style.194 Basics of Catering Management Food and Beverage Outlets 195 Good description of dishes. 7-6 Wines from a number of different cultivars available but limited choices within each. Complimentary garnishes to enhance overall appeal. Only one cooking style available. Excellent description of wines available. and shapes. 2-1 Badly presented. within limited cultivar range. theme and temperature. Extreme attention to care with attention on visual appeal. Wines from a variety of different cultivars available. Possibly only local beverages (with limited international brands) available. liqueurs. 8 Good range of wines from a variety of cultivars. textures. Charges listed but not that clear. Knowledge of in-stock and out-of-stock wines by year. 5-4-3 Limited range of standard wines and beverages available. Wine and Beverage List Content 10-9 Sommelier or qualified. Highest skill applied to meal presentation. Ingredients meticulously integrated with plate design. 7-6 Attractive. Incorrect temperature. Good. A variety of good quality wines available by the glass. 5-4-3 Unadorned and straightforward. Attention to food placement and design. liquor. etc. wrinkled skin on sauce. Pleasing combination of colours. No attempt to enhance appearance. Some dishes with appropriate descriptions. substance. 7-6 Variety in dishes and cooking styles available-but not extensive options. Alternatively good number of different brands 2-1 No variety and choice in beverages. Dull combination. Good variety of appropriate beverages but perhaps only one brand per option. trained wine advisor to assist diners with their wine choice.

Culinary Skill and Temperature 10-9 Flawless and meticulous execution of all cooking methods. etc). Preferably all dishes made fresh. 8 High quality. Imbalance of flavours. poured and displayed according to internationally accepted etiquette and the guest's specific request. Texture and Flavour 10-9 Interesting textures with layers and depth of flavour. tins. Correct texture of main ingredients. Pleasing aroma. 2-1 Inedible. 2-1 Poor quality ingredients. in appropriate glasses. On a par with international culinary trends. Presentation good. on-site (pre-prepared ingredients and dishes are acceptable but quality is important and it should be indiscernible from freshly prepared). Wide variety of different glass types available. 7-6 Beverage presentation standard. Cognisance should be taken of changing styles in the F&B industry. Pleasant aroma. poorly prepared. Overall good use of different glasses. 5-4-3 Limited range of different glass types. Texture and flavour according to menu specifications and guest's specific requests. unexciting. 5-4-3 Basic ingredients. 2-1 Beverages presented in inappropriate glasses. Could be simple style but with great attention to detail and quality. No evidence of the use of artificial enhancers and discernable convenience items (i.e. Bland. 7-6 Mixture of fresh ingredients and high quality pre-prepared ingredients for meal components. etc. Beverages presented. Unpleasant aroma. Correct and appropriate textures. Perfect flavour of different ingredients discernable. Dried out. 5-4-3 Basic blend of flavours. 7-6 Good and appropriate flavour. 8 Correct texture of main ingredients. preproportioned. frozen. fresh ingredients. Perfect balance of a complex range of different flavours and textures. Guest's asked how they would like their beverage presented. Variety of cooking techniques applied to . etc. 8 Some variety in different presentation styles for beverages. Well-balanced flavours. pre-baked.Basics of Catering Management 196 Beverage Presentation 10-9 Appropriate glasses for all beverages. Appropriate flavours are discernable. pre-prepared in some Food and Beverage Outlets 197 manner. including use of convenience items. Wide variety of different ingredients used. burnt. no flavour. individually wrapped. fresh ingredients. Incorrectly cooked. Limited evidence of convenience items. Wines stored and poured appropriately. Wide variety in beverage presentation. Quality of Ingredients 10-9 Skilful use of finest. Some attempt at basic etiquette. canned. Unacceptable flavour and or texture. No knowledge of basic beverage presentation etiquette. but overall presentation techniquestandard. Badly flavoured too much salt. Low quality food. Everything prepared to the right degree.

Variety of cooking techniques efficiently executed. licensed. Failure to answer telephone or return messages. spices. slightly too hot or too cold. sugars. easy to dispense cruets. in-house preparation). breads.g. but quality acceptable. butters. Thanks patron for calling. corkage. minimum charges. Food at incorrect temperature. 7-6 Adequate culinary skill. at least half full. 8 Reservation dealt with promptly and all necessary information taken and provided. Failure to properly record booking. Surly. May call to confirm or provide written or SMS confirmation. Excellent quality. Food and Beverage Outlets 199 7-6 Limited range of good quality sundries. Incorporates limited variety of cooking techniques. etc.e. . 5-4-3 Average to limited degree of culinary skill evident. 5-4-3 Name taken. booking policy. Dirty. salt and pepper dispensers. Some standard sundries absent. Sundries 10-9 Appropriate range of sundries e. With the exception of classic dishes. herbs. Covered after-dinner sweets and toothpicks of excellent quality. Guest information confirmed for accuracy. easy to dispense cruets. Clean. Difficult to dispense cruets 2-1 No sundries. children. Food correctly cooked. Overall personalised approach to reservation. too hot or cold. 2-1 No culinary skill evident. Services and Service Reservations 10-9 Efficient and helpful telephone reservation. Clean.Basics of Catering Management 198 dishes. sticky condiment. 2-1 Name not taken. Food served at the appropriate temperature. 5-4-3 Inappropriate sundries. 8 Good quality and appropriate range of sundries. Incorrect temperature. Empty cruets. smoking. Classic dishes correctly and expertly executed. Prompt service. Food served at the appropriate temperature. etc as per the character of the establishment. Cooking techniques incorrectly applied. sweets and toothpicks. Casual approach to bookings. Alternatively good range of standard quality sundries. Uncovered sweets and toothpicks. Food served at the appropriate temperature. Good quality (covered) after dinner mints. Stale bread. Minimal information given. off-hand phone manner. All dishes cooked correctly. High degree of telephone etiquette evident. 7-6 Reservation dealt with fairly well and all necessary information taken and provided. food is prepared in a manner that is highly imaginative and adventurous. dress code. Clean cruets. All details taken down and checked and all necessary information about the establishment given (i. Information not available. Limited range of sundries as would typically be expected. condiments. etc). Correct cooking techniques applied. 8 Advanced degree of culinary skill evident throughout. All menu items are prepared from scratch and in-house (pre-prepared ingredients or dishes should not be discernable from fresh.

Patrons shown to table and seated. 8 Good responses to any requests. 2-1 Off-hand manner. Menu and wine list presented at appropriate time. Menu not presented promptly. No manager present. Casual guidance to table or self-seating. 2-1 Off-hand behaviour. Limited assistance from staff. Any further needs responded to. Food and Beverage Outlets 201 Management Efficiency 10-9 Prompt. Personal assistance provided as appropriate. Management of queue efficiently and effectively handled (time provided is adhered to. Complaints handled promptly and courteously. but patron needs aren't anticipated. polite. time not adhered to. Willingness to help when asked. High standard of personal cleanliness. name left off the list. not kept up-to-date. thorough acknowledgement of guest comments or complaints. Prompt and efficient service. 7-6 Greeting from host or hostess. 8 Courteous greeting by host or hostess. Menus and wine lists presented promptly. No greeting. Polished. Charges from lounge or bar are transferred to dining room. 5-4-3 Rather unwilling response to any requests. Helpful attitude. Orientation provided. irritation at being asked for anything. Cheerful demeanour and attitude. list kept upto-date. Wellinformed about food and wine. Menus not presented or presented at the door. Encouraged to ask if anything else required. Warm friendly smile. 5-4-3 Unenthusiastic welcome. Menus provided promptly. etc. Table preset per reservation. An excellent dining experience would be an evidence of management efficiency (often behind the scene). Management confirmation of guest experience. Help with provision of information about the establishment. Queue not managed efficiently-time taken is significantly longer than indicated. Extra place settings removed. Management identification of problems that may arise. Patrons addressed by name. All food should be presented simultaneously to correct . Good judgement on timing of courses and drinks. Patron needs anticipated. Pleasant appearance. including how dishes are prepared. Queue poorly managed. well-trained staff.200 Basics of Catering Management Welcome. Patrons offered use of pre-dining area. Attitude and Seating 10-9 Courteous greeting from maitre d' or someone of similar authority. Patrons shown to table and given necessary information. just doing the job. All guest comments. Offers a seat in waiting area if seating is delayed. friendly. 7-6 All requests dealt with pleasantly. Correct cutlery and glasses supplied for each meal. professional manner. friendly and pleasant attitude). complaints handled at management level. Guest needs anticipated. Plates are only cleared when all meals are finished (or if guest requests plate to be cleared). All descriptions presented in a clear tone and at an appropriate pace. Clear indifference to patrons. Extensive menu knowledge. Attempt to establish a good rapport and show willingness to please. Meal Service 10-9 Cheerful. Thorough knowledge of specials. Marked reluctance to give any help. Appropriate description of menu and specials provided.

Wine and Beverage Service 10-9 Sommelier or trained advisor present. All bottles opened correctly at table and service etiquette followed. Disinterest. indifferent. Payment and Departure 10-9 Waiter/waitress anticipates when patron wants the bill. 8 Server anticipates when patron wants the bill or reacts quickly to patron request. Internationally accepted high standard of serving etiquette and protocol to be observed. Not really interested. Attention to detail. insensitive. More enthusiastic than polished. Could benefit from more training. courteous service. Remove all empty bottles and ice-buckets. 7-6 Willingness to be helpful and attentive. 8 Well-motivated. 5-4-3 Low skills but basically pleasant. 2-1 Server with no wine training or knowledge. Informality bordering on inefficiency. efficiently and discreetly handles settlement. but respond in reasonably helpful way to requests. Little interest. patrons' glasses kept half full at all times. Top ups offered. but may fall a little short. Stacking of plates on the table. legible. Clear. Do what they are asked without enthusiasm. etc. Service slightly slow.202 Basics of Catering Management guest specifications. Conversely well skilled and trained but lacking social skills. No rapport. Patron needs not anticipated. 7-6 Overall good service. Drinks correctly served and presented. Beverages not presented to table. Canned drinks opened at Food and Beverage Outlets 203 the table. Stacking of plates at the table. Staff always present and respond helpfully when asked. unskilled staff. but lapses in serving etiquette. arrogant. Ignoring customers they are serving. Slow service. attentive staff that shows evidence of aspiring to an excellent standard. If necessary partially full bottles to be stored in ice-bucket. Patrons fill own wine glasses. Little product knowledge. No willingness to be helpful. Bottle held between knees when opened. Would benefit from further training. correct and well-itemised bill presented in a folder (consistent with theme). willing. Waiter/Waitress and Maitre'd willingly acknowledge patron's departure. helpful. but trying to do their best. Bill typically accompanied . All payments handled at the table. Inefficient staff missing for long periods of time. Beverages served from left and cleared from right. No taste poured for the patron. Server quickly. Clear. request if guest would like their drink poured. Attempt at excellent standard. Efficient. 5-4-3 Patron needs not anticipated. No need for patrons to request for top-ups or help themselves. 8 Some slight lapses in beverage etiquette. Use of patron's name in all acknowledgements. 2-1 Off-hand. correct and itemised bill presented in a folder (consistent with theme). Staff difficult to locate at times. Stretching across the table to access plates. legible. Bill typically accompanied by some form of complement such as mint or speciality candy. Wine offered for tasting but no knowledge of wine or other standard serving etiquette evident.

Basics of Catering Management


Food and Beverage Outlets


by some form of complement such as mint. Server
quickly and efficiently handles settlement. Server
and greeter willingly acknowledge patron's

dusting. All surfaces, high and low, dust free, no
cobwebs. Table surfaces well-polished, no smears.
Ashtrays clean. Everything tidy and well

7-6 Bill presented on a plate, in a folder or on a tray
upon request from patron. Server and greeter
willingly acknowledge patron's departure.

7-6 High level of cleanliness. Pre-dinner area may
have "lived-in" feel.

5-4-3 Bill presented after meal or upon request. Pay at
cashier. Server handles payment with limited
enthusiasm. Server briefly thanks patrons or says
2-1 Bill not presented after meal or upon
request. Repeated request for bill. Incorrect
charges or items on bill. No farewell on departure.
Unacceptably slow processing of bill and payment.
Bill presented in a dirty, unacceptable folder.

Public Areas
Includes all general public areas visible to patrons
such as open kitchens and work areas, pre-dinner
areas, patios, gardens, pavements, etc but
excluding the eating/dining areas.
10-9 All well cleaned and vacuumed. All surfaces, high
and low, dust free, no cobwebs. Table surfaces
well-polished, no smears. Ashtrays clean. No
fingerprints or smudges on windows or glass doors.
No fingerprints on door plates, light switches, etc.
Flowers fresh and well arranged. Newspapers,
books, etc up to date and tidy. Overall excellent
standard of cleanliness evident and neat
8 Generally very good level of vacuuming and

5-4-3 Clean but with some dust on high and low
surfaces. Personal clutter. Dying plants, flowers.
Smears on surfaces.
2-1 Generally neglected housekeeping-carpet badly
vacuumed, floors dirty. All surfaces dusty.
Cobwebs, dead insects. Evidence of pests. Dead/
wilting plants or flowers. Ashtrays full and dirty.
Dirty glasses, cups on tables.

Dining and Eating Rooms
10-9 Excellent standard of cleanliness in all areas no
evidence of previous meal. Efficient cleaning and
vacuuming. Tables always set to highest standard.
Waiter station neat and orderly. Restaurant fully
set when not in use complete with flowers, crockery
and cutlery. During meal times vacated tables
are cleared, cleaned, provided with fresh linen
(neat and tidy). Crumbing of tables executed
8 Generally high standard of cleanliness no dust,
etc. May be some clutter.
7-6 Always tidy and clean in time for beginning of
meal service. Generally good standards of dusting,
tidiness. Some tables remain unset during meal
service but have been cleared and cleaned.
5-4-3 Not always at it's tidiest. Bottles, glasses, menus
on surfaces. Generally clean but may be some

Basics of Catering Management


Food and Beverage Outlets

dust on high or low surfaces. Pot plants and
flowers neglected. Crumbing of tables poor, crumbs
dropped onto the floor.

A general smart, well-groomed appearance.
Sleeves and trousers the right length. Clothing
fresh and well ironed. Hair clean and under
control. Hands and fingernails clean. Standard of
dress uniform throughout serving staff. Polished
shoes. Uniform appearance, quality and type
consistently applied across all staff

2-1 Dusty, crumbs on carpet, surfaces smeared, ring
marked, dead or dying flowers. Untidy piles of
menus etc scattered around. Marks, stains on
tablecloths, dirty ashtrays. Dirty cutlery and
crockery on tables.

8 Approaching excellent, but lacking the final touch.
Perhaps some items a little ill fitting. All clothing
clean. Standard of dress uniform throughout
serving staff. Excellent standard of personal
cleanliness and grooming.

Public Toilets
10-9 Fastidious attention to hygiene. All surfaces
gleaming. Clean, fresh smell. High level of
efficiency. Toilets, including access area to toilets
are kept clean throughout use of restaurant. Lots
of toilet paper available.
8 Generally very high standard, but perhaps one
or two slight lapses.
7-6 No evidence of dust, hairs or grime. Surfaces all
clean. Floor clean, vacuumed and free from dust.
5-4-3 Generally clean but lacking attention to detail.
Dust on low and high surfaces and in inaccessible
2-1 Low standard of housekeeping dust on all surfaces.
Long term encrusted grime in inaccessible places,
dirt and hairs on floor, in corners. Flooring around
toilet stained, smelly. No toilet paper. Toilet paper
on floor, blocked toilets, leaking toilets, etc.

Appearance of Staff
The nature of the establishment will be
taken into account as formality may vary
10-9 Clean, neat, appropriate clothes that fit properly.


7-6 A noticeable attempt to be smart. No stains, tears,
etc but dressed for comfort rather than smartness.
All clothing clean. Very high standard of personal
cleanliness and grooming.
5-4-3 Clothes starting to look worn, rumpled, lived in,
but basically clean. Hair a bit uncontrolled.
2-1 Clothing dirty, stained, frayed, holed. Dirty shoes.
Hands and fingernails grubby. Hair unwashed
and out of control. Unshaven. Personal hygiene

Additional Requirements for Gold and Platinum Star
All Platinum Star outlets should have private
guest toilets located within the same property as
the restaurant and under the control of restaurant
management. Alternatively if only public toilets
are available then the Platinum Star outlet owner/
manager should ensure that these public toilets
are continuously monitored and kept clean.


Basics of Catering Management

Determining Food and Beverage Standards


Table Reservation: All Gold and Platinum Star
outlets should offer a table reservation service.
Wine List : A wine list with a good selection of
wines must be available and management/waiting
staff must have adequate knowledge of the
different varieties on the menu.
Table Appointment: High quality cutlery, crockery,
glassware and linen. Appropriate table cloths and
placemats to be used.
Food Menu: Food menu should offer a variety of
items: entrees, seafood, poultry, meat dishes,
salads, desserts, and dishes for vegetarians.
Noise Levels: Entertainment/background music
(where available) should be set at the appropriate
noise level.
Table Spacing: There should be adequate space
between tables to ensure privacy for conversation.

Developing standards (levels of expected performance)
is part of the process of controlling food and beverage costs.
Standards specific to the property's current plans will better
indicate problems (variances from planned costs) than will
standards adopted from industry averages or standards
developed from the property's past operating statistics.
The usefulness of control information can be increased
by establishing standards for each revenue center within
the food and beverage operation. For example, instead of
computing a standard food cost covering all outlets, a property
might establish separate standard cost levels for its coffee
shop, dining room, room service, and banquet operations.
An advantage of this alternative is that each outlet can be
evaluated separately based on its own set of anticipated
However, food and beverage managers realize that as
a standard becomes more specific, more time is required to
develop and monitor it. The longer the time needed to collect
information on which to base the standard, or later to measure
actual results, the less practical managers may judge the
task; and as a result, the less likely they may be to undertake
the control activity. In addition, the more complex the

In this way. the more likely the task will be met with resistance by those who must collect the information. over time they may become the maximum quality that will be purchased. five standard cost tools can be developed: • Standard purchase specifications. and other factors needed to describe a desired item. • Standard recipes • Standard yields • Standard portion sizes • Standard portion costs STANDARD PURCHASE SPECIFICATIONS A purchase specification is a concise description of the quality. an ideal control system must strike a balance between the time and effort spent developing the control system and the usefulness of the results the system provides. Once a menu is created. The development of specifications involves time and effort. The specified factors should be described in sufficient detail to properly guide the company's Determining Food and Beverage Standards 211 suppliers and receiving personnel in the delivery and receipt of the desired products. and receiving will have the necessary written guides to permit the operation to consistently obtain the quality and kind of food and beverage items desired. However. the menu is the most basic and important control tool. Therefore. size. count. supplying. all of the parties involved in ordering. Furthermore. the property's suppliers. fast food or gourmet. Analyzing the menu may suggest ways to duplicate product use (use an ingredient for several menu items) so that fewer ingredients have to be purchased. standard purchase specifications offer several other advantages: • Fewer products may be required. Once developed. and receiving personnel. since specifications establish the minimum quality expected. The menu should be designed to implement the property's marketing plan as it relates to the food and beverage operation. • If purchase specifications are properly established. The principles for establishing standards are the same regardless of whether the property is commercial or institutional. Simplified. Systems for developing food and beverage standards must begin with the menu. In addition to providing a knowledge of what is required by the operation. Because it establishes which food and beverage items will be served. Developing purchase specifications based on the needs of the menu means that the property will not have to pay a higher price for a product of greater quality than necessary. Managers in any kind of operation who want to develop in-house food and beverage standards can use the procedures discussed in this chapter. timeand cost-effective systems for determining food and beverage standards are offered in this chapter. Finally.Basics of Catering Management 210 development of standard costs becomes. weight. Time is needed to create the specifications and then to monitor the need for changes as the operation's business evolves. standard purchase specifications should be given to those responsible for purchasing. . large or small. more than one supplier will likely be able to quote prices and compete for the operation's business. Management should establish standard purchase specifications based on menu requirements and the operation's merchandising and pricing policies. their use will create increased duties for the receiving staff. • Reduced purchase costs are possible if proper quality items are purchased. hotel or restaurant.

• Since standard recipes indicate needed equipment and required production times. regardless of prepares the item. portion size and portioning equipment. STANDARD RECIPES A standard recipe is a formula for producing a food or beverage item. inexperienced employees will be slow and may make mistakes. cost. specific preparation procedures. however. To aid in portioning. There are several other reasons to use standard recipes in Determining Food and Beverage Standards 213 addition to the advantages of consistency in appearance. a product can be produced if a standard recipe is available. if the recipe is in the head of an absent employee instead of on a standard recipe card or available for printout. managers should routinely evaluate the quality of items produced and ensure that standard recipes are followed correctly. Of course. guarantee that products of the correct quality will be received unless effective receiving control procedures are in use. temperature. and taste: • When managers know that the standard recipe will yield a specific number of standard-size portions. use of standard purchase specifications will not. and many marketing. the recipe's "Procedure" column specifies that a #60 scoop (which equals 60 level scoops.212 Basics of Catering Management considering the many advantages to the use of purchase specifications relative to the few disadvantages. • If the chef is ill or the bartender doesn't show up. Note also that the recipe clearly indicates baking time. Many persons think about the importance of standard recipes for food production. Liquor liability concerns often arise when standard recipes are not available and or when standard portion controls are not in use. • Less supervision is required since standard recipes tell the employees the quantity and preparation method for each item. Note that this recipe yields 60 portions. when it is prepared. it is less likely that too many or too few items will be prepared. or servings. and taste the same. systems. However. Remember. The" Amount" column on the left margin can be used to adjust the yield to a larger or smaller quantity. management will be in an even more awkward position. and the exact procedures for preparing the menu item. Today in the U. it should be clear they are a critical standard cost control tool. per quart) should be used. It is only through carefully developed and rigidly enforced specifications that the operation can help assure that the" right" quality product is consistently available for production and service. managers can more effectively schedule food production employees and necessary equipment.S. cost. it is critical that standard recipes specifying ingredient and portion sizes of alcoholic beverages be available in consistent use. and any other information necessary to prepare the item. The primary advantage of following a standard recipe is that. each with a standard portion size of 6 ounces. the required quantity of each. or to whom it is served. The advantages of standard recipes are equally relevant in both food and beverage preparation. as suggested above. Granted. the product will always look. alone. The consistency in operations provided by the standard recipe is at the heart of all control. It is . garnish. Guesswork is eliminated. however. employees need only follow recipe procedures. It provides a summary of ingredients. they're also critical to control the consistency (quality and cost) of beverages.

but it does not always need to be read. concise. DEVELOPING STANDARD RECIPES Developing standard recipes does not require throwing out existing recipes and starting over. At this point you need to be sure that the proper equipment is available. For example: • Record procedures in detailed. or spend one hour each week with the head bartender to develop standard beverage recipes. flour.. recipes should be developed that call for standard-size pans and other equipment. • List all ingredients in the order they are used. tell how to mix (by hand or by machine) and provide the exact time and speed if a machine is used. At these meetings. It would obviously be impractical if. it often requires standardizing existing recipes according to a series of steps. . A standard recipe must always be followed and must always be available. For example. note these What are the ingredients and how much of each ingredient is needed? What are the exact procedures? What are cooking/baking temperatures and times? What portioncontrol tools are. express all quantities in amounts that are practical for those preparing the item. For example. and it is just as practical to weigh liquids. After a cook prepares a menu item several times. he or she will-remember ingredients. Determining Food and Beverage Standards 215 portions are needed for busy times. • Decide on the desirable yield. Record the recipes in a standard format that will be helpful to those preparing the items. or three teaspoons to one tablespoon. or can be. ask the cook or head bartender to talk through the preparation of the item. Also. quantities. • Decide whether to use weights or measures or both. and exact terms. or a bartender mixes a drink several times. recipes should be designed to yield these servings. and procedures. For example. It does little good to specify a three-ounce quantity when an accurate measuring scale is not available.214 Basics of Catering Management always necessary to be able to verify the actual quantity of alcohol (not just number of drinks!) that has been consumed by a guest. and other necessary controls. • Whenever possible. when applicable. you may choose to standardize three recipes at each weekly cooks' meeting. a busy bartender had to refer to a standard recipe. Using a standard recipe does not requite that the recipe be physically in the work area during production times. Avoid ambiguous statements. Weighing is always more precise than measuring. Select a time period for standard recipe development. etc. If 25 portions of a food item are normally prepared for slow periods and 60 • Carefully consider potential sanitation problems which can arise in each step of recipe production. what does" one cup whipping cream" mean? Does it mean one cup of cream that has been whipped or does it mean one cup of cream that must be whipped? When mixing is called for. Change 4/8 cup to 1/2 cup. before preparing a drink. four cups to one quart. Avoid confusion by using consistent abbreviations throughout all the standard recipes you are developing. cooking times. State the size and type of equipment and small wares such as pans or bowls needed and always list exact temperatures. as it is to measure them. used? On what plate or in what glassware is the item served? What garnish is used? Doublecheck the recipe by closely observing the cook or bartender as the item is actually prepared. Rather. convert all measures into the largest possible units.

cooked. A standard yield results when an item is produced according to established standard production procedures outlined in the standard recipe. and it takes time to train production employees to precisely follow them. They may resent the need to put things down on paper. They serve as a base against which to compare actual yields. In addition. a last step in the recipe for hollandaise sauce might state: "Hollandaise sauce is a potentially dangerous food which can become contaminated by microorganisms. For example. if the standard purchase specifications are adhered to and a meat item is properly trimmed. from a practical standpoint. These concerns. yield tests are typically performed only on high-cost items or on lower-cost products used in large quantities. are minor when compared to the points already noted in favor of using standard recipes. . After successful testing. however. Ideally. which includes such activities as meat trimming and vegetable cleaning.) However. In general.216 Basics of Catering Management and incorporate food handling precautions directly into the recipe. for example. For example. Solicit their ideas about accuracy and possible refinements. If garnishes or sauces are needed. Other difficulties may be related to concerns about time. share them with other production staff. The second step is cooking. and specify the expected number and size of portions. the recipe may be considered standardized. Holding. these should be listed. The first step is preparation. Cooks or bartenders. A "loss" can occur in any of these steps. managers can minimize difficulties with Determining Food and Beverage Standards 217 implementing standard recipes by explaining to employees why standard recipes are necessary and by involving them in developing and implementing the recipes. (Examples of items with 100 percent yield [100 percent edible portion] are some portion-controlled products such as meats and those convenience foods that only need to be plated. the third step includes the portioning of those products that have not been preportioned. Finally. Despite the advantages of using standard recipes. the actual yield should closely approximate the standard yield. It takes time to standardize existing recipes. everything that does not have a 100 percent yield should be tested. Be sure all required portioning equipment is available for use. indicate portioning equipment. and portioned. always prepare in small batches and do not hold on the serving line for more than one hour. After the standard recipes have been recorded. test the recipes to be certain that they yield products of the desired quantity and quality. there may be some difficulties encountered in implementing them. The difference between the raw or "as purchased" (AP) weight and the prepared or "edible portion" (EP) weight is termed a production loss. such as ladle or scoop. there are three steps in the production process. Indicate the type and size of the serving dish. DETERMINING STANDARD YIELD Standard yields are determined by conducting a yield test." • Provide directions for portioning. if the operation uses a hollandaise sauce (this sauce is potentially hazardous and is highly susceptible to contamination by microorganisms). STANDARD YIELDS The term yield means the net weight or volume of a food item after it has been processed and made ready for sale to the guest. may feel that they can no longer be creative in the kitchen or behind the bar. Also.

On one occasion. original weight.25 percent yield. Basing the selling price of the food or beverage item. assuming that the standard purchase specifications. THE COST FACTOR The cost factor is a constant value that may be used to convert new AP prices into a revised cost per servable pound. Assume that 50 8-ounce edible portions of beef ribs in the above example are required for a banquet and that there is a 55. or value. discussed later in this chapter. 3 ounces. and multiplying by 100 to change the decimal to a percentage. Assume that an operation does not provide a standard portion size. To find the cost per servable pound. it is helpful for a food and beverage purchaser to compare the yields for similar products from different suppliers. you can determine the loss in cooking-in this example. Value is the relationship between price and quality. an average of 3 pounds. a cost per servable pound can be determined. by the original AP cost per pound. The yield percentage (sometimes called yield factor) is the ratio of servable weight to original weight and is calculated by dividing the servable weight by the original weight (normally both weights are expressed in ounces. Next the fat cap and bones must be removed. What quantity of beef ribs will be needed to yield the 25 pounds (50 portions at 8 ounces per portion) that are requested? The cook will have to prepare approximately 45. STANDARD PORTION SIZES Each food and beverage standard recipe indicates a standard portion size.218 Basics of Catering Management The yield from a product depends upon several factors.25 pounds (724 ounces divided by 16 ounces per pound) to yield the 25 pounds that are needed. and the remaining meat weighed. The cost factor is obtained by dividing the cost per servable pound. standard recipe. a guest may receive a very large portion-a great value. Therefore. Because a given menu item or drink will be the same size each time it is portioned. including the grade. and standard yield remain the same. upon its cost will help to establish a fair selling price. It may be possible to substitute a raw product with a lower cost per unit that provides a yield similar to that of a higher cost product. the same guest may receive . and preparation and cooking methods. One can make a similar calculation to determine the total AP quantity needed once the yield percentage is Determining Food and Beverage Standards 219 known. COST PER SERVABLE POUND Once the edible portion (servable) weight is determined. 14 ounces per beef rib. no guest will get a larger or smaller portion or a stronger or weaker drink. Since the AP weight is already known. without compromising the operation's quality standards. first establish the yield percentage. Subtracting the edible portion (servable) weight from the cooked weight indicates that the loss in carving and bones averaged 5 pounds. This is the edible portion or servable weight-in this example. The cost per servable pound is the information needed to calculate standard portion costs. the meat must next be weighed when it is removed from the oven after cooking. and the guest will always receive the same value for the dollars he or she spends. calculated as part of the yield test. The benefit is twofold: portion costs for the same food and beverage items will be consistent. By subtracting the cooked weight from the original weight. there are 16 ounces in one pound). 3 ounces per beef rib. from the guest's perspective. This is the fourth standard cost tool for ensuring consistency in operations. Returning at a later time. at least in part. an average of 11 pounds.

00 + 50 portions). A standard portion cost is determined by dividing the recipe's total ingredient costs by the number of portions the standard recipe yields.50 --------------------------. in terms of value perceived by guests. For example. some operations use pictures of each item. Portion control tools must be available and used every time a recipe or beverage is prepared. When these are posted in serving line stations. Portion control tools include such items as weighing and measuring equipment. For example. jiggers and shot glasses for beverages. For example.220 Basics of Catering Management Determining Food and Beverage Standards 221 a smaller portion at the same selling price-a lesser value and a disappointment for the guest. Changes in the yield of a standard recipe that occur because of a change in the portion size will affect the standard portion cost. no costs are included for salt and pepper. if the cost to prepare a recipe is $75. the standard portion cost-the cost to prepare one portion according to the recipe-is $1. For example.= $1. CALCULATING STANDARD DINNER COSTS Many food service operations combine individual menu items to create dinners or other meals that are casted. the total cost of fish fillets is calculated as follows: Amount x Cost/Unit = Total Cost 22 lb. STANDARD PORTION COSTS After standard recipes and standard portion sizes have been developed.50 ($75. Today. a standard portion cost-the fifth standard cost toolcan be calculated.99. 8 oz x $4. the amount of the ingredient is multiplied by the cost per unit. the cost of preparing and serving one portion of food or one drink item according to the standard recipe.85 = $109. many operations use computerized precosting systems to keep the per-portion cost of standard recipes current. a new standard portion cost must be calculated. Anytime the portion size is altered. the new cost is entered into the menu management system and all recipe costs in which ground beef is an ingredient are automatically adjusted to reflect the price increase.-= Standard Portion Cost Number of Portions $119. The process of establishing this cost is called pre-costing. The prices for ingredients listed in standard recipes can be obtained from current invoices. if the price To arrive at the total cost of each ingredient. then the standard portion cost for one item is $1. A standard portion cost is.50.99 60 Therefore. simply.13 (rounded) The total ingredient cost for preparing 60 portions of fish fillet amandine according to the recipe is $119. then. is a primary advantage of standard portion sizes. In addition to these lists. Consistency.00 and it yields 50 portions. Required portion sizes from each standard recipe should be posted in production areas for cooks and bartenders to refer to. The portion cost for this menu item is calculated at the bottom of the worksheet: Total Cost ----------------------------------------------------------. of ground beef increases. priced/ . employees can see how the item should look or how it is placed on the plate. ladles and scoops to portion food. Employees must know about portion sizes in order to follow them. or automated beverage-dispensing equipment.

It is also possible to select the item with the highest portion cost in a category and use this when determining the standard dinner cost. Therefore. it would take an impractical amount of time to determine the standard dinner cost for all the different dinner combinations that are possible. computerized systems make this process quick and easy. such as the one shown in Exhibit 8 for a Manhattan. A standard recipe form. some beverage managers deduct an ounce or so before dividing to allow for . three ingredient price changes can be noted before a new standard form must be used in this manual system. for example. The costs of items offered as part of the dinner are totaled to arrive at the dinner cost of $4. Most alcoholic beverages are sold by the liter rather than by the ounce. the price of the bottle of rye whiskey first must be divided by the. How are ingredient costs calculated? To determine the cost of the rye whiskey used in the Manhattan. Since there are four columns in this section. if baked potatoes are chosen most often by guests. These systems are also used to calculate possible food costs when managers consider changing menu prices. other dinner items to arrive at a revised standard dinner cost. In addition. computerized menu management systems are used to update the costs of menu items. Increasingly. Then. planners should be aware of the item cost which is used in calculating the standard dinner cost. As with the food costing procedures noted above.286 33. and juice categories. CALCULATING BEVERAGE For example. managers can choose the cost of the most popular item in the category to determine the dinner cost. because recipes and bar equipment typically use ounces as a unit of measure. Because the vegetable varies from day to day (the term" du jour" for vegetable means" of the day. then the portion cost of baked potatoes might be used when calculating the standard dinner cost. When this occurs. The worksheet provides four more columns for calculating the standard dinner cost when the standard portion costs of items change (due to a change in an ingredient's price on the item's standard recipe). can provide space for listing ingredient costs and calculating the standard drink cost. the new standard portion cost is added to the unchanged costs of the STANDARD PORTION COST: Establishing a standard drink cost for beverages is relatively simple because usually there are few ingredients.14. it is usually necessary to convert liters to ounces before making recipe extensions or costing calculations.8 (ounces per liter bottle) (rounded) When calculating a bottle's cost per ounce. dressing. The cost of each item listed on the standard dinner cost worksheet is obtained from pre-casted standard recipes for each menu item. managers can track the actual number of each item chosen for several days. and then calculate an average cost that can be used when determining the standard dinner cost. Regardless of the method used." and because guests have choices in the potato.65 (price per liter bottle) Cost per Ounce = 0$. number of ounces in the bottle to obtain the cost per ounce: $ 9. when additional items are considered. For the categories in which the guests have a choice. they can better assure that the per portion cost of the new item will be in line with that used in earlier cost calculations.222 Basics of Catering Management Determining Food and Beverage Standards 223 and sold as one selection (although some operations such as cafeterias offer items a la carte-each item individually priced).

two additional standard cost tools are important to the beverage operation: standard glassware and standard ice size. standard portion sizes. Bigger cubes leave more empty space in the glass because they do not clump together as smaller cubes do. the ingredient cost for rye whiskey is $. but both melt more quickly.3% Special Standard Cost Tools for Beverage Control The five standard cost tools-standard purchase specifications. problems with the costs of glassware. it is wise to limit the number of different glasses in inventory. However. The costs of the rye whiskey and the other ingredients used to make the Manhattan are added together and the total drink cost ($. the same glass might be used for ice water.133 (rounded) X100= 13. The drink cost percentage is calculated by dividing the cost of the drink by the drink's selling price and multiplying by 100. such as a martini. that sufficient quantities of all necessary glassware must be available at all times. small cubes or shaved ice fill up a glass more completely before a beverage is added.5 ounces of rye whiskey are used in a Manhattan. or water will be too strong since less mixer can be added to the standard portion of liquor.5 ounces = $. Determining Food and Beverage Standards 225 Conversely. This figure is then transferred to Line B at the top of the recipe. highballs made with mixers such as soda. and training time for bartenders and servers may be reduced. Glassware is also important in marketing to help carry out an atmosphere theme and to influence the appearance and presentation of the drink. Therefore. the drink will taste weak since the greater amount of mixer dilutes the standard portion of liquor. and highballs.43: $. standard yields. which should be determined when the beverage recipe is standardized. standard recipes. On the other hand.530) is recorded at the bottom of column 5. In a mixed drink. Line C at the top-of the recipe indicates the drink cost percentage.530 (drink cost) Drink Cost Percentage = $4. storage space behind the bar. The same style and size of glass should be used every time the drink is prepared. In a liquor-only drink. the amount of beverage appears smaller. the drink will be diluted by adding more mix. A standard glassware review sheet. soft drinks. Although any size ice is suitable for most food service purposes. Since 1. Standard Ice Size: It is easy to ignore the effect of ice size on drink quality. Standard Glassware: Glassware obviously affects portion size. . Therefore. or $. This means. of course.286 X 1.429. should be posted in the work area. Management must therefore consider its operating procedures to determine the proper size of ice cubes for the operation.00(sellingprice) = . However. the standard drink recipe should specify a standard glass size. milk. The drink cost percentage expresses how much of the drink sales price (recorded on line A) the drink cost represents. and perceived value. and standard portion costs-are necessary to establish performance standards for both food and beverages. while glassware affects presentation (marketing) concerns. If this can be done. quality. unless a larger portion is served.224 Basics of Catering Management evaporation or spillage. This space must be filled with something. in too large a glass. tonic. This will increase the cost per ounce. In too small a glass. For example. a delay in serving or consuming the drink may create a diluted taste. drink standardization must consider ice cube size.43 (rounded). The drink cost percentage for the Manhattan in the sample recipe is calculated as follows: $.

The software converts recipe ingredient amounts to weights and then to ingredient costs. thus providing a complete plan for the new recipe's production. Numerous software programs that calculate recipe quantities based upon estimated unit sales and then print the standard recipe are available. This report is useful for detailing unit expenditures at current costs and monitoring relationships among various product units (such as purchase. If errors are made when initially entering data. as well as each ingredient's: • Purchase unit and cost per purchase unit • Issue unit and cost per issue unit • Recipe unit and cost per recipe unit. This can be a useful feature when the number of portions yielded by a particular standard recipe has to be expanded or contracted to accommodate forecasted needs. it is important that data contained in the file are accurate. Some recipe management software programs provide space within standard recipe records for preparation instructions (also referred to as assembly instructions) that are typically found on standard recipe cards. For example. the benefits of an ingredient file often outweigh the cost of creating and maintaining the file. Standard Recipe File Computers can assist in generating standard recipes by simplifying many of the calculations needed. a standard recipe file. A recipe for 530 portions can be printed that includes preparation information. weekly. A sample ingredient cost list produced from some of the data contained in an ingredient file. whether ingredients are to be issued or delivered to specific workstations). if a standard recipe is designed to yield 100 portions but 530 portions are needed. Most other management software programs must be able to access data contained within these files to produce special reports for management. . Standard recipe conversion information generated by recipe management software. etc. ingredient data can easily be transferred (rather than re-inputted) to Determining Food and Beverage Standards 227 appropriate management software programs. Since other management software programs rely on data maintained by the ingredient file. and a menu item file. all subsequent processing will be unreliable and system reports will be relatively worthless. When the ingredient file can be accessed by other management software programs (especially by inventory software). the recipe unit for bread used for stuffing may be by the ounce. However.) are often challenging tasks for many food service managers. The initial creation of an ingredient file and the subsequent file updates (daily. issue. It can also determine nutritional information for an entire meal (or other period) and define applicable preparation areas (for example. For example. monthly. Ingredient file data generally include ingredient code numbers and descriptions. the recipe unit for bread used for French toast is by the slice.Basics of Catering Management 226 Computer Applications: Recipe Management Software Recipe management software maintains three of the most important files used by an integrated food service computer system: an ingredient file. Some ingredient files may specify more than one recipe unit. it may be possible (depending on the particular menu item) to instruct the system to proportionately adjust the ingredient quantities. Ingredient File An ingredient file contains important data about each purchased ingredient. and recipe units of the same ingredient).

the food cost percentage often measures food cost differently by expressing it as a percentage of total operating expenses rather than as a percentage of revenue. descriptor. This means that the ingredients within a standard recipe file may be either inventory items or references to other recipe files. The procedure to calculate food cost percentage begins by first establishing all standard cost tools: standard purchase . the menu item file is accessed and appropriate changes are entered according to procedures indicated in the user's manual provided by the system's vendor. determine the number of ingredient quantities to purchase. or year. the menu item file to produce various sales analysis reports for management. Standard costs can be implemented after the standard cost control tools for the food and beverage operation discussed earlier in this chapter have been developed. and schedule needed personnel. Important data maintained by this file may include the menu's identification number. STANDARD FOOD COSTS Menu Item File A menu item file contains data for all meal periods and menu items sold. In addition. Some ingredients are made on the premises. computer-based sales analysis applications access data in The best sources of information to use as the basis for establishing standards are the property's operating budgets developed for a current fiscal period and in-house measurements that consider potential costs matched with anticipated revenue. When ingredient costs change. In institutional. after a meal period. and sales totals (by unit). non-pricing operations. ingredient quantities for inventory reporting. week. In all cases. prices. selling price. When standard food costs are known. or automatically transferred from an electronic cash register (ECR) or point-of-sale (PaS) system through an interface to the restaurant management system. but also the costs of sub-recipes that are used as ingredients in other standard recipes. the standard food cost percentage represents the planned food cost percentage against which actual food costs are measured. recipe code number. Including sub-recipes as ingredients for a particular standard recipe is called chaining recipes. management is able to compare the cost of food with the revenue it generates. Chaining recipes enables the food service computer system to maintain a single record for a particular menu item that includes a number of sub-recipes. When menu items. recipe management software programs must be capable of automatically updating not only the costs of standard recipes. There are several ways to measure food cost.228 Basics of Catering Management Determining Food and Beverage Standards 229 Few restaurants purchase all menu item ingredients in ready-touse or preportioned form. This file also stores historical information about the actual number of items sold. This data can be accessed by management or by sophisticated forecasting programs to project future unit sales. The remainder of this chapter discusses this second method of establishing standard costs. or tax tables need to be changed. This expresses cost as a percentage of food revenue and is calculated by dividing food costs by food revenue and multiplying by 100. The more common method of measuring food cost in commercial food and beverage operations is the food cost percentage. Recipes that are included as ingredients within a standard recipe record are called subrecipes. Generally. One way expresses costs in terms of total dollars spent on food per day. the actual number of menu items served is manually entered into the menu item file.

such as soup or eggplant appetizer. With these tools. Each menu item is listed on the left side of the form. resulting in a total revenue of $200. A practical and reasonably accurate method for calculating standard food costs involves the use of the worksheet illustrated in. Actual revenue may be less than expected revenue. The total food cost. it is listed separately on the worksheet. total sales (number of units) and total food costs for the trial period can be easily tracked. if an entirely new menu is introduced). For example. The information may come from an analysis of the guest checks created each day during the study period or from a management report generated by most electronic cash registers or point-of-sale Determining Food and Beverage Standards 231 systems. Because each food item is likely to have a different food cost percentage. and portion costs. Since actual food cost is calculated across all meal periods (properties do not determine actual food cost separately for breakfast. The longer the time period for the analysis. and dinner) the worksheet should list all menu items. SALES HISTORY INFORMATION The information necessary to determine standard food cost may come from actual sales records citing the number of each menu item sold during one or more prior periods. Next. a time period for a trial study must be selected. is: . two or more forms can be used to tally item sales for at least one month. If it is sold as a dinner or in combination with other items. accurate sales information for each menu item is collected to calculate an overall standard food cost. 3. 1. to errors in processing sales information. With this information. An accurate tally of the number of each a la carte and complete meal item sold during the trial period must be made. If a sales history has been kept.230 Basics of Catering Management specifications. Over this trial period. an overall food cost percentage can be figured. the more accurate the information. Items with a high food cost raise the average food cost percentage. items sold must be tallied daily during the study period. If the item is a grouping of menu items. it is combined with the dinner. If there is no record of past item sales (for example. The item sales price is the actual selling price of each menu item as printed on the menu. 2. Because accuracy increases as the number of days increases. Total food cost is the total cost of all food used to produce the number of items sold.70. this figure can be taken from the pre-casted standard recipe. the standard food cost for each item is developed following the process discussed earlier. then. By recording this information on a worksheet. If an item is offered for sale individually. yields. If the item is sold individually. portion sizes. It is this weighted average food cost that will be used as the standard against which to measure actual food costs. 4. such as seafood or steak. lunch. or to inaccurate counts of the number of items sold. calculating the overall food cost involves determining a weighted average food cost. Differences could be due to theft. then the figure can be transferred from the standard dinner cost worksheet. 223 servings of soup were sold at 90 cents each. In the first example. such as a New York strip steak dinner. the total number of each item sold can easily be transferred to the worksheet. Total food revenue represents the total revenue expected from sales of the individual menu items. recipes. the 223 servings of soup each had a standard food cost of 32 cents. items with a low food cost reduce it. Item food cost is the standard portion cost. The worksheet has space for only 16 days.

the process of determining how much of each food item is used for breakfast. DEFINING EXPECTED FOOD COSTS The standard food cost percentage is one of the most important tools of the control process. storing. CALCULATING STANDARD COSTS PER MEAL One final comment about developing standard food costs must be made. Second.892. If actual food costs are close to this goal. There are two advantages to a separate listing.370 The effort needed to calculate an overall standard food cost percentage can be simplified by using one of the many electronic spreadsheet programs available for a personal computer. one serious disadvantage to overcome when standards are established for each separate meal period.84 × 100 = 35. the actual cost of food used would be greater than that determined from the tally of sales. it may be that more items with higher food cost percentages are being sold. For example. the sum of the total food cost column is divided by the sum of the total food revenue column and multiplied by 100. there may be problems within the operation. The computer can calculate total revenue and total costs along with the item's standard food cost percentage and the overall standard food cost percentage. calculations for each meal must be done on a separate worksheet. To calculate the standard food cost percentage against which to compare actual food costs. For example. The manager should first check to see if the sales mix has changed since the information was collected to determine the standard food cost. the management team is probably doing a good job. If. The number of each menu item sold can be entered on a daily basis. The standard food cost percentage for the soup is: While the standard food cost percentage for each individual item is of some interest. and issuing. however. therefore. higher than expected food Determining Food and Beverage Standards 233 costs. If by-meal food costs are desired. such as ineffective purchasing. But if some food was wasted or improperly portioned during preparation. or problems in production and service. Properties offering more than one menu.232 Basics of Catering Management 5. one more step is needed to arrive at the overall standard food cost percentage. the reasons for losses can more quickly be identified and brought under control. rather than searching for problems applicable to a specific meal period. This is a common reason that total food costs and food cost . To effect control. First. Many food and beverage managers. Even with the use of point-of-sale equipment. lunch.64%. must decide whether to develop standard food costs by meal or across all meals. when food cost standards are separated by meals. on the other hand. The food cost percentage is calculated by dividing the food cost by the sales price and multiplying by 100. actual food costs must also be assessed separately for each meal. In the example in Exhibit 14 the standard food cost percentage is calculated as: $11. $33. or dinner is very timeconsuming. receiving. 6. it is easier to compare any differences between standard and actual costs. find it more helpful to spend time identifying problems common to all meal periods. such as lunch and dinner. It becomes the manager's goal since it defines expected food costs. a manager might know the cost of food that should have been used during a meal period (number of items sold times each item's standard food cost). There is. since corrective action can focus specifically upon the meal period contributing. actual food costs are greater than standard food costs.

portion sizes. The need for a large amount of computation suggests that ideal cost may be best implemented using a computerbased system. we have discussed the development of standard food costs that are based upon historical sales mix. An ideal cost is based on the actual number of each menu item sold. the review should cover two or three weeks in succession. STANDARD BEVERAGE COSTS Standard beverage costs are calculated for exactly the same reason as standard food costs. it provides a more accurate basis of comparison against actual food cost. glassware. portion costs. This data is. If this is not the cause. in turn. The steps in calculating standard beverage costs are: • Establish all standard cost tools: standard purchase specifications. Determining Food and Beverage Standards 235 To that end. The reason for the study-to determine cost expectations for accounting. This gives management an opportunity to effect control closer to the time of production and service. no system can provide data with 100 percent accuracy. • Select a time period for the analysis. The standard beverage cost becomes the goal. and control purposes. or shifts with high. . IDEAL COSTS BASED UPON ACTUAL SALES MIX To this point. low. the process of determining ideal costs is relatively simple. • Inform all affected staff members-bartenders. The best time schedule will allow observation of all phases of the beverage operation. and others-about the study. The concept of ideal cost addresses this problem. system manufacturers often include software to generate an ideal cost as part of their ECR or POS systems. more time and effort spent on determining standard beverage costs will generally produce more accurate cost calculations. and ice. standard recipe costs must be kept current. The manager wants to establish a goal-a base of comparison-against which to measure actual results of the beverage operation. Operations with several beverage outlets need a longer observation period for sales to reflect an average volume and a variety of drinks served. When this process is completed for all menu items and the expected costs are added together. After each meal period or at the end of a day. This means that management must maintain up-to-date information about ingredient purchase costs and continually recalculate (pre-cost) standard recipes. record keeping.234 Basics of Catering Management percentages are higher than expected. As with standard food costs. For an ideal cost system to be effective. the manager must analyze the food service operation to determine where corrective action is needed. They will want to know: a. and/or regular prices. food and beverage servers. We have noted that when actual costs do not approach standard costs. At a minimum. recipes. Because an ideal cost is based on the actual number sold. However. the actual number of each item sold can be multiplied by its per-portion standard food cost to arrive at the expected cost for serving that number of the item. including both slow and busy times. an ideal cost for the meal period or day can be determined. yields. summed for each successive meal period or day to generate an ideal food cost for the entire time period (such as month) for which actual costs will be assessed. one reason may be that the sales mix for the period under study is different from the sales mix at the time the standard food cost was calculated. management. With computerized systems.

a problem may exist. d. Determining Food and Beverage Standards 237 e. • Calculate the standard beverage cost. a. control of the beverage operation may gradually become looser.236 Basics of Catering Management b. e. take careful inventory of the quantity of liquor behind the bar. • Before the study begins. Special precautions to minimize the possibility of guest" walkouts" and errors in guest checks should be used. d. Management must approve all complimentary drinks. • Set rules for the study period. of course. . a lower beverage cost percentage most likely could not be achieved without measures such as raising prices. errors may occur. • Maintain a record of the cost of all liquor issued to the bar during the trial study. When not working the bar. with continued use of the standard cost tools. c. the standard beverage cost percentage is a goal that managers of the beverage operation should work toward. Why the study is important-management wants to assess how well the beverage program is operating. • Record any beverages transferred from the bar and any food transferred to the bar. Procedures for the study-there will be minimal. b. Portion control tools (shot glasses. if any. or revising basic operating procedures. The purpose is to ensure that accurate and reliable information is collected. These and similar factors reinforce the value of recalling the standard beverage cost percentage when examining actual operating results. the manager should remind personnel that the property is involved in the beverage study and that careful compliance with all procedures is important. managers should carefully supervise operations to ensure compliance with all standard operating procedures. and cost savings may be shared with the staff. no one's honesty or competency is being reviewed or questioned. There are. As with the standard food cost percentage. reducing portion sizes. Revenue from all drinks served must be collected. or changes in policy may require revised procedures. many factors that affect actual practice. jiggers) and standard glassware are to be used in preparing every drink. Close supervision and efficient operations during the study period should yield a reasonably accurate standard beverage cost. Personnel must save all drinks returned because of mistakes. emphasizing that during the trial study employees must very carefully follow all standard procedures. That is. disruption in on going operations. Implications of the study-results of the analysis have no bearing on employment status. For example. Standard beverage recipes are to be used whenever drinks are prepared. What's in it for them-the results of the study will help staff members know what's expected of them. At the beginning of each shift. c. Management personnel might work behind the bar whenever possible during the study to better assure that required procedures are followed consistently. The beverage manager should understand that when actual beverage costs exceed standard beverage costs.

These tools must be available and used every time a recipe or beverage is prepared. Pre-costing: The process of determining the costs of ingredients used in a standard recipe to arrive at a standard portion cost for one item yielded by the recipe. weight. Standard portion cost-The cost of preparing and serving one portion of food or one drink item according to the standard recipe. Determining Food and Beverage Standards 239 Ingredient File: An electronic record that contains important data on each purchased ingredient. and standard yield remain the same. Standard Recipe: A formula for producing a food or beverage item.238 Basics of Catering Management Key Terms Adjustment Factor: The number by which the amount of each ingredient indicated in a standard recipe is multiplied in order to increase or decrease the recipe's yield. number of ounces or cost) of a menu item to be derived from a standard recipe. standard recipe. specific . weight. and recipe unit cost. Standard Portion Size: The quantity (for example. Chaining Recipes: Including sub-recipes as ingredients for a particular standard recipe. the food cost percentage expresses cost as a percentage of expenses and is calculated by dividing food costs by total operating expenses and multiplying by 100. Portion Control Tools: Items such as weighing and measuring equipment. food cost percentage expresses cost as a percentage of revenue and is calculated by dividing food costs by food revenue and multiplying by 100. count. the required quantity of each. determined by dividing the" as purchased" (AP) price by the yield percentage as a decimal. and other quality factors desired for a particular item. determined by dividing the desired yield by the original yield. ladles and scoops to portion food. jiggers and shot glasses for beverages. purchase unit. assuming that the standard purchase specifications. size. Standard Dinner Cost Worksheet: A format for determining standard food costs for all items that are combined in a menu selection. Cost per Servable Pound: Information needed to calculate standard portion costs. the actual count of each item sold is multiplied by its per-portion standard food cost to arrive at the expected cost for serving all portions of the item. Ideal Cost: A method of calculating standard food costs based on the actual number (sales mix) of each menu item sold during a day or meal period. Food cost percentage-In relation to commercial food and beverage operations. This enables the food service computer system to maintain a single record for a particular menu item that includes a number of sub-recipes. Standard Food Cost Percentage: The planned food cost percentage against which actual food costs are measured. Production Loss: The difference between the raw or "as purchased" (AP) weight and the prepared or "edible portion" (EP) weight. The cost factor is determined by dividing the cost per servable pound by the original" as purchased" (AP) cost per pound. issue unit cost. or automated beverage-dispensing equipment. such as ingredient code number. Cost Factor: A constant value that may be used to convert new" as purchased" (AP) prices into a revised cost per servable pound. The formula provides a summary of ingredients. purchase unit cost. in relation to institutional food and beverage operations. issue unit. Purchase Specification: A concise description of the quality. description.

portion size and portioning equipment. ingredients. hotel and catering chains from which it has learned new management methods and a new approach to service in numbers. but at the very time that these are slowing down in the United States in favour of restaurants offering table service at moderate prices. EMPLOYMENT PROSPECTS IN THE HOTEL AND CATERING TRADE Hotel and catering jobs offer considerable employment possibilities for a young labour force which. if the standard purchase specifications are followed and a meat item is properly trimmed. Yield-The net weight or volume of a food item after it has been processed and made ready for sale to the guest. especially in supervisory. calculated by dividing the servable weight by the original weight and multiplying by 100 to change the decimal to a percentage. France. not without a certain resistance. and food cost percentage. Today. The main growth expected in France is that of the fast-food outlets. 7 TRAINING AND E MPLOYMENT Since the 1970s. recipe name. which is still largely dominated by a tradition of self-run enterprises in the hotel and catering trade. Yield percentageThe ratio of servable weight to original weight. cost of ingredients. the chains are improving their positions in both countries. while recognising France's advance in the constitution of the different occupations and hotel management training. menu selling price. will probably undergo an increase in the share of salaried jobs. and portioned. garnish information. and any other information necessary to prepare the item. France has exported its gastronomical expertise and received in return. Important data included are recipe code number. Standard Recipe File: An electronic record that contains recipes for menu items. preparation instructions. with little . for example. management and marketing functions. Sub-recipe: A recipe that yields an "ingredient" such as sauce which is used for another recipe. France and the United States have carried out a veritable transfer of competences in the hotel and catering trade.240 Basics of Catering Management Training and Employment 241 preparation procedures. cooked. The American advance in this area thus permits us to take a prospective look at employment. the actual yield should closely approximate the standard yield. Yield Factor: See yield percentage. number of portions. portion size. Standard Yield: Results when an item is produced according to established standard production procedures outlined in the standard recipe.

Indeed. however. the number of hotel and catering jobs is generally underestimated owing to the large number of canteens. the profession represents nearly one million jobs. it tends to take its inspiration . with 40 percent of the turnover for food consumed outside the home. who eat an average of one out of every five meals outside their homes. One-third of these jobs are carried out in canteens and only one-fifth in hotels or other accommodations. which are run by private and especially public operators. regular employment and professions within the hotel and catering trade. including three-quarters in 'traditional-style restaurants' and one-quarter in 'fast food'. REGULAR EMPLOYMENT AND ODD JOBS The French hotel and catering industry is characterised by a high turnover and a workforce that is largely young and unskilled. where only some states require a basic training course in hygiene. and may thus come to limit the opportunities for creating an independent activity. offers even fewer employment opportunities than in France: proportionally. which are so attractive to the young generation. moreover. where a distinction is made between odd jobs. often places its career hopes on specialised training. meanwhile. Catering remains largely perceived as an opportunity open to all age groups. are frequently found in structures less prestigious than the palaces or five-star restaurants of the candidates' dreams. AN INDUSTRY SEGMENTED BETWEEN PROFESSIONS. in the form of a real employment or profession. the same statistical operation leads to an estimate of nearly ten million hotel and catering jobs. school. On the other hand. Anyone can open a restaurant. The growth of hotel and restaurant chains in France is gradually extending salaried work. 25 percent of hotel and catering personnel are self-employed. In this respect.242 Basics of Catering Management experience.6 times fewer hotels (and 1. notably elderly persons and school children identified as undernourished. only one-tenth of companies with more than one hundred full-time employees offer eating facilities to their personnel. Three-fourths are found in restaurants. The hotel trade. account for only a small proportion of the jobs and 13 percent of the turnover for meals eaten outside the home. compared to fewer than 5 percent in the United States. Canteens. RESTAURANTS AS THE SECTOR'S MAIN EMPLOYER In France. In addition. where table service is less widespread than in France. From this point of view. military and other activities. without significant capital and without diploma requirements. If institutional food service is reintegrated into the hotel and catering industry. with the result that such Training and Employment 243 jobs are evenly divided between what are defined as 'fullservice restaurants' and 'limited-service eating places'. the United States. prison. is not very visible in statistical breakdowns since it is generally classified not with the hotel and catering sector but with hospital. as in the United States. which is nearly twice as often as the French. In fact. which is much less developped than catering. In the United States. and the other canteens often provide only a basic service to a needy population. they do not offer longer term career opportunities. such jobs. the United States has 2. France is the European leader in the field. to more than a tiny proportion of these young people. but this sector.5 times more restaurants) than France. In France. known as 'institutional food service'. going to restaurants is more widespread among Americans. More than one-third are found in restaurants. permits a prospective look at the activity in France. Indeed.

generally holding diplomas Training and Employment 245 and employed full time. company strategy and so on. more numerous in restaurants than hotels. accounting. o a majority of odd jobs for students. notwithstanding their subordinate role. It is true that cooking is still largely the work of skilled personnel. however. generally in contact with customers and employed on a part-time. to have a specialised diploma. porter. the management of the workforce in hotel and catering activities is fairly close to that practised in France: apart from supervisory personnel. The restaurant chains in particular. a population essentially consisting of minority groups who hold the less prestigious full-time jobs such as cleaning or caretaking in the hotels or dishwashing. and personal services such as hostess-desk clerk. The cooks. doorman or bell captain. o one-fourth full-time jobs. hourly basis. sometimes delegated to specialised companies. the proportion of jobs for short-order or fast-food cooks is sharply increasing and now equals that of traditional cooks. basic cooking or baking in food services. whose expertise is recognised. This change is more indicative of a concern for harmonising international statistics sources than a real linking of the two trades. hotel and catering activities are included in the same service sector. a considerable student population in need of work to help pay for costly studies. within the cleaning and personal services sector. but highlevel jobs are increasingly reserved for those with specialised diplomas in business. The occupation of cook is nonetheless becoming more commonplace in the United States. often have real possibilities for advancement. Two distinct populations occupy the subordinate posts: on the one hand. on the other hand. under the heading 'accommodation and food services'.244 Basics of Catering Management from the American model. and. with diplomas or experience. unlike table service and the bottom-level hotel jobs. including the subordinate positions that basically involve minorities. It is mainly composed of operating personnel who are often in contact with customers and thus essentially recruited on the basis of behaviour assessment. Nonetheless. while insisting that this personnel is 'educated but not skilled' in relation to the job held. while 'food services' were attached to retail trade. The Americans. especially in receptiondesk functions. can rely on standardised work which permits the rapid learning of limited techniques. which involve a personnel that is often very young (under 25). Thus. Only major hotels and gourmet restaurants seek personnel with a good level of general training for jobs as waiters or other service posts. management. They also require their cooks. It is possible to arrive at supervisory or managerial posts through internal promotion. The career prospects for operating personnel are thus often limited. where a third of the population has worked in a restaurant at one time or another. only competences in culinary production are really recognised. Catering is also a two-tiered sector. long counted the hotel industry. the majority of jobs involve cleaning. This category-based management of the workforce reflects the coexistence of different kinds of jobs: o about one-fifth treated as skilled professions and centred on culinary production. as an essentially non-specialised activity. . where the hotel trade is above all a sector for initial labour-market entry before professional reorientation. meanwhile. In the hotel industry. American employers even tend to maintain a three-tiered management of operating personnel. Since 1997. whose menus are often developped around a single theme. unspecialised and employed on a part-time basis.


Basics of Catering Management

If the spread of odd jobs still seems unlikely in France
because of the relatively small number of students who
work, the downgrading of certain jobs relating to the
profession of cook and their opening to unskilled labour is
underway, notably among large employers in urban areas.
French hotel training, mainly taking its inspiration from
the luxury hotels, grew out of a large number of specialities
basically intended to satisfy a prestigious, independent hotel
and catering trade. Over the past thirty years, it has been
restructured around basic specialisations: cooking, table
service and hotel management. Recently, moreover, its level
has been improved to meet the management needs of hotel
chains and catering companies providing a service that is
often standardised but more diversified in terms of the range
of chains, and thus reaching a larger clientele.
Hotel education remains dominated by an artistic ideal,
however-and this is the case as of the initial levels of vocational
training, which begin around the age of fifteen (certificat
d'aptitudes professionnelles [vocational aptitude certificate,
CAP] and brevet d'études professionnelles [vocational studies
certificate, BEP])-which may explain the frequent
dissatisfactions of cooks when they actually enter the labour
At present, France and the United States have the same
proportion of high school graduates: 62 percent of a given
age group. But the American educational system is more
orientated to the recognition of higher-education diplomas.
In the hotel and catering trade in the United States, there
is no real professional recognition for low-level operational
specialities such as cleaning, service or assembly cookery
(which consists of carrying out simple food preparations on

Training and Employment


the basis of semi-prepared products from the foodprocessing
industry). Specialisations come into play after the first two
or four years of higher education and are thus more limited:
they deal only with culinary arts and hotel management.
They are generally recognised in terms of job status-with
more full-time posts and more attractive wages-and better
career prospects. Certain hotel schools subsequently propose
narrower specialisations in management, distinguishing, for
example, independent hotel management from that of chains
or restaurant management from that of canteens, while
these options do not yet exist in France.
These two educational systems correspond, however, to
a comparable employment structure in both countries. With
the exception of gourmet cooking, the traditional activity in
the sector remains fairly indifferent to high-level diplomas
and privileges on-the-job training. On the other hand, the
hotel and restaurant chains have a great demand for
highereducation graduates. Such chains are, moreover, more
widespread in the United States, where they represent 27
percent of the restaurants and 20 percent of the hotels and
employ half of the industry's employees. In France, fewer
than 4 percent of the restaurants and only 7 percent of the
hotels belong to chains. The essential part of the restaurants'
activity is thus still carried out in an artisanal context,
within SMEs. Only the canteens generally belong to very
large structures, with several thousand salaried employees
In both countries, chains and large employers generally
have a stronger union presence and often provide better
employment conditions, with possibilities of advancement to
supervisory and management posts. In France, however,
independent of these advantages, working for chains which
offer such run-of-the-mill services is viewed as so socially
degrading and technically deskilling that they often have
difficulties in recruiting professional cooks.


Basics of Catering Management

Attached to the image of gourmet cooking, French
professionals are less sensitive to objective working conditions
than to the socially prestigious nature of the services
provided. In a trade that counts above all on its artisanal
features and the personal involvement of individuals, the
orientation towards canteens or hotel and restaurant chains
tends to be seen as a 'comfortable' choice-but also one that
cannot be reversed. On the other side of the Atlantic, it is
simply seen as a passing chance in the context of constant
professional mobility.
In the United States, the economic recovery of the late
1990s saw the average unemployment rate fall to around
4 percent, as compared to 9.6 percent in France (August
2000). Sometimes confronted with a shortage of labour,
American employers have lowered their demands for
They turn, for example, to retired or unemployed
individuals seeking work to compensate for inadequate
income and also employ large numbers of young people
(one-fourth of the employees in the American hotel and
catering industry are under twenty years old). This
phenomenon remains quite limited in France, where only
10 percent of the 15-19 age group works, as compared to
50 percent in the United States. It is thus not certain that
France's hotel and catering trade will follow the same evolution
as that of the United States, which provides odd jobs to
students, low-skilled employment to a needy labour force
and a few professions with real prospects for career
Nonetheless, in France as well the profession seems to
be having difficulties recruiting young, low-skilled personnel,
to whom it often offers inferior employment conditions and
few possibilities for career advancement. In the face of a
labour force which is less 'flexible' than in the United States,

Training and Employment


it would seem to be lacking in attractiveness and, above all,
to have difficulties in keeping its employees.
It does not always give clear indications to young people
about the content of hotel and catering jobs and their middleterm prospects and has yet to adopt less irregular working
hours or offer better recognition of experience in the trade
and employees' involvement in their work. From the
educational system onwards, this sector is too often described
as a prestigious artisanal and artistic activity rather than
as an efficient commercial activity serving a broad public.
In Chile, higher technical education is open to high
school graduates and is offered by three different institutions:
university, vocational institute or technical training centre.
Each of these bodies is authorised to grant its own diplomas,
without coordination among them. All students pay for their
courses and tuition costs are roughly the same regardless
of the institution, but loans are available only to students
enrolled in State universities. Each institution is responsible
for its admissions choices.
There is a general feeling that the system functions with
great obscurity, if not inequality, in relation to students,
their families and the companies which use their services:
o access to a higher-education diploma is held to offer
protection against unemployment and favour social
mobility, but higher technical education suffers from
an inferior social image;
o students choose orientations without knowing the
likely effects of their choices, which are based on
supposed reputations and opportunities, while the
cost of the studies often constitutes a considerable
sacrifice for their families.


Basics of Catering Management

Chile: Longitudinal Survey of Exits from Higher
Technical Education
o employers are seeking qualities of initiative, autonomy
and adaptation, which higher education does not
always provide, while the technical competences
expected may be at a lower level;
o the directors of the higher technical education
institutions would like the diplomas they grant to be
better recognised both officially and socially.
The Ministry of Higher Education is planning an overall
reform of the system but, in line with the recommendation
of the World Bank, is waiting for advice from an employment
observatory on the paths to be promoted.
In this context, Céreq, the French Ministry of
Employment and Solidarity and the University of Marnela-Vallée participated in a seminar on "Higher Education
and Labour-Market Entry of Young Graduates" held in
Santiago on 15-17 September 2000.
This meeting brought together experts from Chili, other
Latin American countries and France. Representatives of
the Chilean Ministry of Education presented the results of
a survey of two thousand graduates exiting the highereducation system between 1995 and 1999. This survey,
carried out by telephone, is representative at the level of
Chili's main regions and covers graduates of the three cycles
of higher technical education as well as graduates of full
higher education programmes.
It thus offers the first statistical findings on the
opportunities for young graduates in the Chilean labour
market. It notably brings out sharp disparities between
university and non-university streams, as well as those
between technician training and full training programmes,
in terms of both access to employment and remuneration:

Training and Employment


while university graduates come out quite well, the schoolto-work transition of those exiting vocational institutes and
technical training centres is much more problematic. Among
university graduates, moreover, those coming from the former
public universities generally encounter less unemployment
than graduates of the other private universities. These results
will be consolidated by those of a postal survey carried out
among five thousand graduates from the class of 1995.
New Publications and Special Events

2 Jean-Paul Cadet, Laurence Diederich-Diops,
Dominique Fournié, Chirstophe Guitton
The arrival of sixty thousand assistant educators in the
schools since autumn 1997 through the "New Services, Youth
Jobs" programme raises three groups of questions for the
Ministry of Education:
o To what extent do the activities assigned to the
assistant educators prefigure new functions likely to
become permanent?
o Does the integration of assistant educators give them
a particular identity in relation to teaching and
administrative personnel and can this serve to modify
the practices of the latter?
o What is the impact of the assistant educators'
experience within the school system on their chances
of labour-market entry, given that they are not
supposed to remain in this function beyond the five
years of their Youth Jobs contract? Some initial
responses and resulting recommendations are provided
by the first phase of a study, which combines the
results of a panel survey of three thousand assistant
educators and analyses of activities based on the
ETED (typical job studied in its dynamic) method.

provides counselling for employees. Controller contracts and licenses. may design and carry out training programme for employees of an establishment. determines the effectiveness of training activities. . determines payroll and operating costs so as to establish food and beverage prices. general accounting. organizes special food and beverage promotions and festivals. analyses operation costs and closely liaises with purchasing manager. 106 Training Manager Plans and implements effective training programmes for all levels of staff. directs and controls the marketing functions. loan and money changer. But if the jobs have similar or related functions. organizes. develops new menus. coordinates public relations activities relating to sales promotion. 119 Executive Chef/ Sous Chef Establishes standards of food quality and preparation. Controller/Financial company financial policies and procedures. supervises the credit department. 121 Food and Beverage Manager/Senior Assistant Food and Beverage Manager Plans. income audit.N. makes contacts with clients regarding functions. usually with other managers/executives as direct subordinates. organises.Basics of Catering Management 252 2001/02 Manpower Survey of the Catering Industry Job Descriptions for Principal Jobs in the Catering IndustryCatering Establishments other than Chinese(Some of the job titles may not be identical to those used in your establishment.) C. carries out inspection and maintenance of the kitchen set-up. Job Title Training and Employment personnel records and fringe benefits. please treat them as the same and supply the required information in the questionnaire. coordinates with other departments on food selection and storage. acts as course leader in specific training programmes. 108 Purchasing Manager 113 Marketing Manager Plans. senior executive 253 Plans. co-ordinates with executive chef in menu planning and staffing. maintains amicable staff relations. directs and controls operation of food and beverage facilities. implements the company's policies and their objectives with a view to achieving them. studies market trends by visiting other establishments. manages cash flow. reviews market and sales analysis to determine local and overseas market requirements. costings sections. cashier. arranges LCs for the company's purchases and liaises with suppliers. Job Description MANAGERIAL AND PROFESSIONAL LEVEL 101 General Manager/ Managing Director Assumes the total responsibility of managing of hospitality establishment. 105 Personnel Manager Formulates and supervises the implementation of personnel policies. prepares cost lists and requisitions on market items. supervises performance and discipline of kitchen staff. organizes and controls purchase and stock of food commodities for sale or internal consumption according to supply and demand trends. makes improvements in service procedures and guest relations. procedures and regulations. 102 Executive Assistant Takes charge of the overall daily Manager/Club operations and management of the Manager hospitality service establishment. CATERING ESTABLISHMENTS OTHER THAN CHINESE 107 Chief Accountant/ Controls budgets and expenditure. coordinates and controls internal and external training. advises management on training and management development trends.

g. 229 Captain/ Service Supervisor Takes orders from guests and delivers orders to kitchen. cakes. issues guest checks daily to all F & B cashiers and follows-up on missing checks. Japanese. responsible for table and food decorations. advises on the selection of wines and serves them. able to operate all machinery in pastry and bakery room. transfers and dismiss employees based on appraisal of supervisors. checks function sheets and menus daily for distribution of work loads to helpers. performs periodic reviews on trainees’ progress and recommends actions based on appraisals. participates in discussions regarding the adoption of new or improved training methods and/or materials. Vietnamese. 206 Store Supervisor Supervises and co-ordinates the work of the fast food outlets’ staff. designs and supervises the (e. ensures that all required food item for each outlets are ready in time. receivable) prepares expense analysis and other reports on suppliers’ invoices and monthly statements. Manages and co-ordinates the activities of the restaurant and trains staff to ensure prompt and courteous services. oversees the training of new staff. arranges cashiers for other banquet functions. assumes the management responsibility of a fast food establishment. counsels. prepares expense analysis and other reports on suppliers’ invoices and monthly statements. interviews and hires employees for the hotels. Trains new or existing employees. supervises maintenance of bar and service equipments.g. maintains supplies of training materials. handles guest complaints. keeps professional records of recipes and working methods. prepares and remits payroll reports. responses to accounts disputes and queries. prepares accounts receivable report. SUPERVISORY AND TECHNICIAN LEVEL 201 202 203 Personnel Officer Training Officer Recruits. and compiles all tax returns. sweets petit fours. Singaporean. picks up cashiers’ daily reports at the close of each shift. prepares work schedules and checks on staff performance. keeps all records relating to payroll. preparation of exotic cuisines and Indian. Korean.Basics of Catering Management 254 125 126 Pastry Chef Restaurant Manager Supervises the pastry cooks in the preparation of all doughs. keeps a record system of all amounts due to the establishment from 255 . Malaysian) 130 Others (M) Training and Employment guest/patrons. Thai. 208 Head Cashier Trains all food and beverage cashiers. 231 Gardemanger Supervises preparation of all cold foods. recommends menu and dishes to clients. Counsels and advises department heads regarding personnel problems. Accounts Supervisor Audits and processes the payments (e. pastries. may carve meats and prepare flambe dishes at table. payable/ of all the establishment’s disbursements. maintains prescribed profit margin. maintains quality standard set by executive chef. sugar decorations and butter carvings. 127 Specialty Chef/Cook Plans. different national food specialities. 228 Beverage/ Bar Manager Ensures bar is equipped with supplies and correct liquor brands are served. 207 Audit Supervisor/ Paymaster Audits and processes the payments of the company’s disbursements.

254 Maintenance Supervisor/ Technical Supervisor Inspects the establishment’s premises. makes random inspections on all supplies to the hotel. butchery. soup. 302 Cook Checks daily and weekly menus. Corrects all daily receipts. reviews purchase requests for food Cost Controller and beverage. makes daily bank deposits and prepares a daily accounting of cash. provides changes for all cashier. checks sales figures. supervises work of apprentice pastry cooks. checks on the electrical/mechanical plant and equipment. 257 258 263 Food and Beverage Supervises cost control and inventory Controller/ taking. processes . contacts outside contractors regarding repair and maintenance works or renovations. checks stocks in his location in kitchen area. 256 Chief Security Officer Informs department heads concerned of any necessary procedures on internal security matters. prepares cashier’s daily report. filing and recording information. acts as a petty cash disbursing agent. recording. cold cut and vegetable. stock and customer preferences. Assists in implementing personnel policies and functions. CLERICAL LEVEL 401 Accounting Clerk 402 Food and Beverage Cashier Records all food and beverage sales at the time of meal and that charges and timely remitted to the front office for posting to the ledger by the front office cashier. fish. 411 General Storekeeper/ Checks all merchandise entering the Store and premises and their proper documentation. Storekeeper wine cellar. prepares press releases in both English and Chinese. investigates all incidents and thefts within the premises. roast. Public Relations Officer Liaises with media. 409 General Cashier 410 General Office Clerk Performs clerical duties of a general nature such as copying. 307 Engineering Craftsman 308 Others 301 Baker/Pastry Cook Prepares cakes. silverware and glasses inventories and store records. may specialize in sauce. filing and typing duties in an accounts department. Maintains and repairs all necessary mechanical and electrical engineering works of a catering establishment. provides management with information regarding operational costs. security screening of new employees. Training and Employment performs different types of cookery and meal preparation. supervises sales persons. 408 Food and Beverage Checks and maintains cold and dry store. liaises with sales executives and cover other duties assigned by the management. liaison with police department. handles publicity and photographic assignments. posting. operates utensils and crockery used in kitchen. compiling. pastry and desserts for during the day time and bread and loaf during night time.Basics of Catering Management 256 248 Public Relations/ Sales Supervisor Promotes the sale of food and beverage items for groups/parties/individuals. informs management of the storage situation for expensive items. arranges staff safety training and fire drill tests. 412 Personnel Clerk Others (S) CRAFTSMAN LEVEL 257 Performs a variety of routine calculating. Receiving Clerk maintains par stocks in storeroom. prepares forecasts and analysis on all cost reports.

Telephone Operator Processes local and overseas calls. 602 Steno/Typist Performs stenographic and related secretarial duties. verifies of invoices and freight charges. 514 Receptionist/ Hostess/ Waiter/Waitress Serves guests in assigned station under supervision of a captain. checks on inform supply. serves wine at the required temperatures. follows proper procedures for handling emergencies. SECRETARIAL AND OTHER MINOR STAFF LEVEL 601 Secretary Takes dictation and transcribes letters. knows all items on menu. knows all menu items. provides service to guests when required. maintains a library of catalogues. prepares daily supply requisition for bar manager’s approval. ensures all items found in the premises are properly recorded and kept safety. prepares table setting and removes dishes. maintains daily calendar and appointment schedules and receives personal callers. 511 Junior Waiter/ Junior Waitress/ Barboy/Bar Porter Collects food from kitchen. posting and recording. Cloakroom stores and controls replacement of Attendant household supplies. checks all exists and back staircases. keeps up-to-date stock records. reports and memos. performs a variety of routine calculations. conducts full enquiry on incidents occurred. provides protection to VIP guests on management’s instruction. takes care of the wine and liquor stocks in the restaurant. cleans stove and top of exhaust fans. 603 Office Assistant/ Messenger/Runner Handles odd jobs and run errands of the general office. keeps close communication between executives. keeps staff records. 604 Others . helps expedite delivery. keeps good guest relations and extend personalized service. disposes garbage. Captain checks on supplies of wines and spirits. Prepares replies to routine enquiries. Carries out guard duty. cleans up table and changes linen. makes random inspections on all supplies for the outlet. Follows up purchase orders and requisition requests. assists in cost control and inventory taking. repairs curtains and drapes. Answers telephone. price and reference data. 526 Other (O) Others (C) OPERATIVE LEVEL 504 506 507 Security Officer 259 Regular patrol in premises. 512 Cleaner/ Dishwasher/ Kitchen Helper/ Steward/ Pantry Helper Washes crockeries by hand and by machine. provides wake-up call service. screens calls and takes messages. checks and repairs staff uniform/house linen. has good knowledge of wine and advises guests on selection. patrols the premises entrances and passageway in the rear service area.Basics of Catering Management 258 413 416 Purchasing Clerk/ Quality Control Clerk Training and Employment application forms from prospective employees and arranges interviews. provides directory service for guests. Uniform and Linen Controls supply and distribution of all Attendant/ house linen. sweeps the floor and wipes clean stainless steel counters in kitchen. 520 Wine Steward/ Sommelier Pushes for beverage sales. 513 Bartender/Barman/ Follows specified drink and cocktail Soda Fountain receipts by free pouring jigger quantities.

Restaurant. J. London. and Travel Law: A Preventive Approach. 1996. New York. Chapman and Hall. Wayne: Professional Cooking. Marjorie: Careers in Travel. Southern Beverage Journal. J. London. Gisslen.: Customer Service in the Hospitality and Tourism Industry. Thomas.: An Introduction to Hospitality Today. Clark. C. International Thomson Business Press. New York. Crown. Eberts. Jarvis. Donald. New York. London. Alfred. Elio. B. Delmar Publishers. E. Hospitality and Leisure in Europe. New York. 1993. B IBLIOGRAPHY Michael. Zupan. Tourism. Educational Institute of the American Hotel & Motel Association. : Introduction to the Hospitality Industry. 1995. 1996. F. Haworth Press. Swarbrooke. 1993. Thomas. Wiley. Ware.: A Host of Opportunities: An Introduction to Hospitality Management. .: Managing Hospitality Human Resources. Englewood Cliffs. Rocco.: International Dictionary of Food & Cooking. Rosemary. 1997. 1998. Glen Cove.: Escoffier Cook Book: A Guide to the Fine Art Cookery. Chicago. H. A. Norman. Robert. Prentice Hall. Wiley. Radice: Restaurant & Food Graphics. 1995. Chicago. G. 1995. Bryson. London. 1995. 1999. Wiley. 1995. Irwin. Berry.: Managing Employee Relations in the Hotel and Catering Industry. 1973. R. 1997. 1992. London.: Hotel. Timothy. M. Hubert. Keown. New York. 1994. 1969.: Hospitality Design for the Graying Generation: Meeting the Needs of a Growing Market. M. Lincolnwood.: How Consumers Pick a Hotel: Strategic Segmentation and Target Marketing . Petty.. H.: Marketing Tourism. 1994. and Hospitality. 1991. Cassell. and Martin: Basic Financial Management. New York. Richard: How to Open Your Own Restaurant: A Guide for Entrepreneurs. 1999. E. 1995.M. Dennis. New York. 1998.: Managing Tourism . New York.: The Hospitality Law Desk Reference. Oxford. Albany. 1991. PBC International.. Wiley. Baltimore. Prentice Hall. R.: The Distribution of Air Quality in the New York Region. Mona: Interpersonal Skills for Hospitality Managers. 1997. Charles. VGM Career Horizons. New York. Chapman Hill. Miami. Orlando. Wiley. G. Fitzroy Dearborn. 1994. McDowell: Concierge: Key to Hospitality: A Training Manual. J. Cassell. Auguste. ButterworthHeinemann Ltd. 1996. Penguin Books.: Introduction to Management in the Hospitality Industry. East Lansing. Wiley. Medlik.260 Basics of Catering Management Bibliography 261 Judi. Educational Institute.: Business Accounting for Hospitality and Tourism. S. Johns Hopkins University Press.: Cases in Hospitality Management: A Critical Incident Approach. John: Principles of Hospitality Law. F. Scott.

76. 27. 42. 244. 51. 73. 84. 137. 69. 119. 255. 125. 136. 171. 145. 103. I Industry. 210. 52. 45. 140. 4. Beverage Innovation. 96. 47. 121. 75. 232. 59. D Development. 20. 140. 244. 62. 100. 236. 127. 107. 246. 194. 125. 56. 132. 77. 78. 237. 232. 143. 134. 157. 61. 92. 45. 59. 263 128. 49. 82. 20. 92. 73. 206. 102. 36. 238. 121. L Leadership. 138. 107. 34. 106. 46. 220. 136. 138. 45. 96. 10. 26. 84. 12.Basics of Catering Management 262 Advantages. 23. 95. 214. 7. 22. 164. 120. 86. 18. 173. 91. Food Products. 44. 110. 70. 247. 48. 15. Management. 258. 145. 83. 46. 74. 71. 70. 148. 7. Atmosphere. 180. Beverage Distribution. 67. 164. 178. 52. 234. 10. 78. 153. 181. 39. 11. 247. 71. E Employment. 137. 61. 93. 58. Catering Trade. 248. 164. 67. 26. 13. 252. 144. 252. 159. 24. 54. 97. 105. 43. 117. 139. 79. 169. 40. 19. 54. 57. 154. 26. 82. 47. 109. 196. 150. 84. 140. 20. 74. 29. 108. 51. 101. 60. 56. 129. 21. 48. 2. 39. 57. 49. 148. 101. 11. 128. Food Processing Sector. 50. 136. 31. 54. 145. 42. 114. 33. 151. 15. 129. 17. 110. 125. 152. 102. 254. 19. 248. 149. 96. 59. 47. 179. 51. 168. 109. 9. 167. 109. 65. 68. 66. 130. 126. 105. 22. 137. 18. 143. 211. 147. 16. 146. 241. 225. 28. 71. 61. 9. 69. 60. 53. 48. 103. 43. 16. 259. 39. 42. 32. 81. 256. 7. 42. M Maintenance. 99. 176. 72. 81. 42. 31. 85. Company. 139. 50. 140. 89. 80. 126. 212. 163. 131. 148. 60. 126. 39. 40. 154. 147. 242. 48. 46. 124. 67. 245. 17. 112. 241. 84. 57. 129. 49. 252. 95. 255. 177. 52. 213. 149. 213. 63. 168. 78. Beverage Presentation. 46. 97. 120. 78. 44. 58. 58. I NDEX A Index 25. 184. 49. 9. 73. 101. 90. 57. 129. 95. 242. 57. 21. 163. 64. 90. 160. C Catering Business. 241. 104. 81. 140. 235. 91. 66. 132. 21. 22. 1. 84. 96. 118. 113. 113. 122. 60. 37. 161. 55. 156. 53. 83. 257. 196. 32. 79. 144. 29. Distribution. 1. 114. 73. F Food Marketing. Bread Industry. 150. 29. 255. 92. . 243. 253. 17. 131. 243. 150. 69. 43. 211. 133. B Bakery Industry. 247. 156. 117. 87. 251. 130. 25. 82. 248. 50. 209. 253. 244. 67. 247. 236. Catering Management. 153. 152. 147. 195. 123. 216. Food Safety. 94. 258. 128. 152. 141. 63. 65. 65. 112. 146. 111. 45. Business. Advertising. 98. 84. 134. 47. 90. 246. 69. 250. 205. 256. 7. 50. 45. 223. Catering Operation. 49. Biscuit Industry. 88. 121. 42. 107. 85. 230. 47. 88. 135. 246. 5. 151. 171. 218. 128. 235. 46. 32. 259. Beverage Outlets. 58. 141. 48. 115. 97. 250. 118. 45. 34. 57. 33. 231. 163. 44. 9. 99. 127. 16. 239. 65. 44. 36. 76. 75. 151. 142. 89. 142. 33. Food Specifications. 14. 28. 165. 43. 62. 50. 58. 188. 96. 65. 71. 242.

126. 46. 102. 54. Presentation. 45. 142. 86. Products. N Reservations. 136. 135. 120. 47. 253. Organizations. 247. 151. 45. 122. 89. 113. 93. 123. 131. 166. 112. 140. 160. 172. 134. 161. 212. 80. 137. 15. Basics of Catering Management 265 C ONTENTS Preface 1. 46. 27. 76. 193. 24. 256. 78. 148. 153. 139. 179. Restaurants. 153. 47. 155. 242. 71. 123. 15. 127. 27. 103. 45. 247. Projection. 195. 91. 212. 243. 73. 103. 80. 147. 158. 83.Basics of Catering Management 264 Marketing. 75. 119. 27. 225. 132. 98. 68. 101. 132. 83. 161. 92. 82. 199. 163. 145. 211. 24. P Personal Management. 144. 106. 150. 196. 29. 124. 58. 116. 147. 120. 137. 135. Technology. Stress Management. 169. 77. 121. 156. 234. O Opportunity. 138. R S Security. 172. 84. Time Management. 107. 217. 180. 84. 45. 128. 52. 146. 57. 206. 150. 87. 241. 218. 99. 122. 216. 118. 158. 140. 86. 195. Training and Employment 241 Bibliography 260 Index 262 . 74. 141. 88. 148. 57. 79. 82. 37. 8. 33. 72. 144. 129. 100. 138. 137. 145. 165. T Tea Industry. 189. 104. 245. 73. 33. 169. 243. 228. 59. Who Technical Meeting for Catering Developments 155 5. 31. 72. 133. 149. 94. 28. 60. 94. 195. Determining Food and Beverage Standards 209 7. 178. 225. 92. 12. 139. Nature. 7. 32. 10. 94. 125. 95. Meal Presentation. 157. 192. Introduction to Off-Premise Catering Management 2. 36. 125. 160. 31. 16. 102. 149. 147. 159. 228. 121. 164. 14. 130. 164. 89. 71. 105. 117. 115. 64. 210. 124. 257. 11. 146. 258. 81. 91. 82. 248. 104. 33. 162. 110. 117. Food and Beverage Outlets 169 6. Project. 241. 125. 164. 127. 95. ‰‰‰ 107. 163. Marketing of Food and Non-alcoholic Beverages 1 42 115 4. 126. 166. 139. 134. Food and Beverage Distribution 3. 152. 36. 6. 154. 159.