A practical resource to support the Personal Development and Mutual Understanding (PDMU) Area of Learning in the Northern Ireland

Curriculum The To Be Me (Personal Development and Mutual Understanding) thematic unit for Key Stage 1 pupils with severe learning difficulties (SLD) aims to provide teachers with support in beginning the planning, teaching and assessing of PDMU within the Northern Ireland Curriculum.
This resource is comprised of six sub-units • Fit for Life • Let’s Get Moving • Home is Where the Heart is • Feast for the Senses • Straight from the Heart • Let’s Get Together It details suggested learning activities and methodologies which will assist teachers in developing children’s personal, emotional, social and health needs at the very earliest stages of development. It includes links to the Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities Framework, the cross curricular skills of Communication, Using Mathematics and Using ICT. The resource also connects to the Areas of Learning where appropriate and incorporates the principles of Assessment for Learning.

Strand 1 Personal Understanding and Health
Themselves and their Personal Attributes Begin to recognise uniqueness and value personal qualities and abilities Their Own and Others’ Feelings and Emotions Begin to recognise and manage some feelings Keeping Healthy and Safe Begin to recognise some aspects of a healthy lifestyle

Strand 2 Mutual Understanding in the Local and Wider Community
Similarities and Differences Begin to recognise differences in each other Learning to Live as a Member of a Community Begin to understand their role in the classroom community Relationships with Family and Friends Begin to understand the relationships within a family Similarities and Differences Begin to recognise differences Resource Sheet in this booklet

Skills listed on a light green background are Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities

Writers Anna Woznica, Lisanally School, Armagh Helen Stewart, Tor Bank School, Dundonald Stephanie Anderson, Tor Bank School, Dundonald Caroline Currie, Lisanally School, Armagh

Skills listed on a lime green background are Cross Curricular Skills

To Be Me
Curriculum Objective
Key Experiences

Straight from the Heart
Success Criteria
Pupils will: • begin to recognise how they feel; • begin to develop ways of expressing how they feel; and • begin to recognise that other people have feelings.

To develop the young person as an individual

Pupils will have opportunities to: • develop an awareness of the emotions of happy, sad, angry and afraid; • listen to stories about feelings and emotions; • take part in discussions and dramatisations; • reflect upon and share their own feelings; and • develop skills to manage their own emotions.

Attitudes and Dispositions
• • • • • • • • Personal responsibility Self-confidence Curiosity Concern for others Flexibility Tolerance Respect Openness to new ideas

Learning Intention
Pupils will begin to: • recognise and manage a variety of feelings.

Progress in Learning
I am beginning to: • use the language of feelings; • be able to talk about being happy, sad, angry and afraid; • be able to say what makes me happy, sad, angry and afraid; and • recognise how other people feel when they are happy, sad, angry and afraid.

Thinking Skills and Personal Capabilities
Working with Others

Fit For Life To Be Me Straight from the Heart

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What does feeling happy, sad, angry and afraid look like?
You will need :

Express yourself

Examine a range of 2D faces with your pupils. Point out the facial features that let us know how a person is feeling (for example smiling mouth, down-turned eyebrows, tears). See Resource 1 for a selection of 2D faces. Make the most of natural opportunities that arise in the classroom, exaggerating your own facial expressions or pointing out the facial expressions of others where appropriate. Set up contrived situations for the emotions of anger and sadness: for example, show anger because your tower of blocks fell over or sadness because you spilt your drink. Ensure that your pupils are never afraid or overawed by your demonstrations. The importance, as a role model, of demonstrating the correct way to display and handle strong emotions, will be discussed later in the unit. Next introduce the idea of degrees of emotions by focusing on each emotion in turn and looking at slightly more complex drawings or photographs of people who are obviously displaying each emotion. Using Resource 2, talk to your pupils about the faces they see. Ask them to identify which looks happy/sad/angry/ afraid. Use a range of pictures of familiar characters (for example from books) and ask your pupils to identify whether they look happy, sad, angry or afraid.

Resource 1: 2D Faces Resource 2: Degrees of Emotions

• Materials to make facial features: plates, wool, glue, etc.

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To Be Me Straight from the Heart

Thinking Skill and Personal Capability: Develop routines of turn-taking, sharing and cooperating Cross Curricular Skills: Communication Read a range of texts for information, ideas and enjoyment Communication Communicate ideas and information Communication Listen to ideas

Use packs of photographs or cards displaying emotions, which can be purchased from educational catalogues. You can also find other suitable photographs by searching the internet. Use video clips (especially of favourite cartoon characters) to point out the more obvious body language signs (for example clenched fists, clapping hands, lowered head, etc.). Using this medium will also help illustrate how people sound when experiencing each emotion.

using play dough, or decorating digestive biscuits using tubes of icing (recipes for play dough can be found on Page 87 of CCEA’s ‘Learning Through Play’ folder).
Provide your pupils with ICT experiences by helping them access printable facial features online at: www.dltk-kids.com/crafts/miscellaneous/ memotions.html Stick these features onto paper plates to make a range of different expressions. Enhance them by using some wool for hair, etc. You can also purchase a large wall hanging of a face with re-movable felt facial features (called Mr and Mrs Face) from educational catalogues.

You can make links to The Arts by encouraging pupils to recreate some of the faces they are observing either by drawing,

To Be Me Straight from the Heart

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Are these people happy, sad, angry or afraid?
the lid of each box and cut out a small slit. Have pupils sort the pile of photographs or symbols and post them through the lid of the correct box. Make this as straightforward (matching symbol to symbol) or as complex (sorting through and grouping together photographs and symbols) as required. You can provide your pupils with ICT experiences by: • helping them access and print online expressions cards that could be used for snap or matching games at www.senteacher.org/Print/ Scroll down to ‘More General’; • playing Lotto style games on the subject of faces and feelings (available from educational catalogues); • playing a simple and appropriate downloadable game in which they select the correct symbol that matches the facial expression given, found at: www.senteacher.org/FileDetails/6/ Rubberface.xhtml; and • playing a game where they must click on the face showing a different emotion from the others, found at www.senteacher.org/ FileDetails/7/Faces.xhtml

Feelings Lotto

Play a lotto game with your pupils to explore different emotions. Make copies of the sheet in Resource 3 and laminate them to create game boards for each pupil. Then copy Resource 3 again, this time cutting out the faces to make playing cards. Provide one sheet’s worth of cards to each pupil. You will also need dice sided with the face images for this game. Templates for these are available online at www.senteacher.org/ Worksheet/41/Emotion.xhtml (select ‘Symbols 1’ in the right hand panel). Have each pupil throw the dice, then choose the corresponding playing card to place on their game board. The pupil who completes their game board first is the winner! Remember to start with just two emotions and assess your pupils’ progress before adding a third or fourth emotion.

Sorting and Matching

Draw different facial expressions onto wooden clothes pegs and encourage your pupils to sort the faces into hoops or bowls. Gather together shoe boxes and a range of symbols or photographs for a more complex sorting game. Stick a different facial expression photograph or symbol onto
4

You can make links to Mathematics and numeracy by encouraging pupils to visually sort and match facial expressions.

To Be Me Straight from the Heart

Thinking Skill and Personal Capability: Begin to understand how actions and words affect others Cross Curricular Skills: Communication Find, select and use information from a range os sources Using Mathematics Identify and use information Using ICT Access and using information

Encourage your pupils to change facial expressions depending on the visual symbol or photograph being shown. Ask them to change their own facial expression or change an expression using play dough (for example changing the turn of the mouth to change the play dough face from happy to sad). You can provide your pupils with ICT experiences by accessing an online game, where pupils can manipulate different facial features or choose an expression and watch the computer change the face appropriately at www.do2learn.com/ games/facialexpressions/index.htm (N.B. this includes more than the four emotions covered in this sub-unit); and an online game where pupils can make their own Jackanory Junior characters by switching body parts and choosing facial expressions at www.bbc.co.uk/cbeebies/jackanory/fun/ (choose ‘Character Maker’). Place a symbol card or photograph of a person with a happy expression and one with a sad expression on the tabletop. Ask your pupils to point to the happy face and the sad face in turn. Encourage pupils to verbally identify expressions. Point to just one symbol or photograph and ask your pupils to name the emotion.

For further information on assessment and teaching strategies, refer to ‘Teaching Children with Autism to Mind-Read’ by P. Howlin, S. Baron-Cohen and J. Hadwin. You can provide your pupils with ICT experiences by: Accessing an online game asking pupils to respond to the question ‘Which is angry?’ by selecting the correct photograph at: www.do2learn.com/games/ feelingsgame/index.htm (this game does require reading ability or an adult to guide, it also includes more than the four emotions covered in this unit).

You will need:
Resource 3: Feelings Lotto • Clothes pegs • Hoops or bowls • Shoe boxes • Symbols and photographs • Play dough

To Be Me Straight from the Heart

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KEy QuESTIOn

What makes people feel happy, sad, angry and afraid?
You will need :
Resource 4: Storybooks an d Non-Fiction Bo oks about Emotion s

Emotional Tales

Read to your pupils from storybooks that deal with the four emotions of being happy, sad, angry and afraid. See Resource 4 for storybook suggestions. Pause the story where appropriate and discuss: “How does the character feel?” and “Why does the character feel that way?” Draw attention to facial expressions and body language in the illustrations as this will help your pupils to distinguish between the emotions. Name the emotion and, where appropriate, visually represent it using the Makaton sign or the suitable wws symbol. To reinforce the concept, encourage pupils to choose the correct symbol from a range of symbols and stick it onto the storybook page. The symbols in Resource 1 can be used again here. An adapted book could be made easily, where pupils choose the correct facial expression symbol, using the clear line-drawn images from the book ‘Teaching Children with Autism to MindRead’ by P. Howlin, S. Baron-Cohen and J. Hadwin. Encourage pupils to think about a number of situations and scenarios using the very useful package ‘The Box Full of Feelings’ by CEGO Publishers Ltd., which can be purchased from a number of online vendors.

• Hand pupp ets or craft materials to m ake hand puppets

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To Be Me Straight from the Heart

Thinking Skill and Personal Capability: Listen actively Cross Curricular Skills: Communication Understand and explore ideas, events and features in texts Using ICT Access and use information

Puppet Play

Use puppets to retell traditional stories in which the characters deal with feelings, for example: • afraid – Little Red Riding Hood, The Three Little Pigs; • sad – Cinderella, The Ugly Duckling; and • angry – Jack and the Beanstalk, Goldilocks and the Three Bears. Allow your pupils to explore the emotions involved. Alternatively, create everyday scenarios and share them with your pupils. Again, using puppets that display different facial expressions will bring stories to life and help consolidate concepts. For example, share the story of how one morning a boy missed the school bus and felt sad, but then his friend drove past and offered him a lift making him feel happy again.

You can make links to Language and Literacy by using interactive stories and dramatisations.
Make hand puppets in-house using craft materials, or purchase sets from educational catalogues. Puppets depicting traditional fairytale characters as well as those displaying different facial/ emotional expressions are widely available.

To Be Me Straight from the Heart

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KEy QuESTIOn

What makes me feel happy, sad, angry and afraid?
You will need :
Resource 4: Storybooks an d Non-Fiction Bo oks about Emotion s

Mixed Feelings

Happy Use the natural setting of play time to draw attention to the feeling of happiness. Offer choices of preferred toys, play favourite games and music, or look at photographs of family members sent in from home to evoke feelings of joy. Be specific in naming the emotion with each pupil and encourage them to either verbally say, sign or point to a symbol to confirm that they are indeed feeling happy. Use a large mirror to enable each pupil to view themselves ‘being happy’. Encourage self-reflection skills by taking a video and watching it after the activity. Reflect back on times when the pupil celebrated a birthday, went on a special outing or received a certificate in assembly (especially if there are photographs available to guide the discussion). Sad, Angry, Afraid It is inappropriate to evoke feelings of sadness, anger or fear. However, opportunities that arise naturally could be used if handled sensitively. For example, when the pupil is upset or angry use appropriate vocabulary to describe the emotions they are dealing with during and after the incident. This will help consolidate the words with the emotions. You could also use one of the storybooks in Resource 4 to begin a discussion about how the situations would make them feel. Ask your verbal pupils to recall situations when
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• A large mir ror • A video cam era

To Be Me Straight from the Heart

Thinking Skill and Personal Capability: Response to feedback Cross Curricular Skills: Communication Communicate information, ideas, opinions, feelings and imaginings using an expanding vocabulary Communication Listen to and take part in discussions, explanations, role plays and presentations

they felt the same (as appropriate for each individual). Encourage your non-verbal pupils to point to pictures in the storybooks that show the emotions being discussed. Encourage pupils to investigate and act out scenarios in a safe environment using role play, particularly in the house corner or with small world equipment. Refer to CCEA’s Learning Through Play – Dramatic Play and Small World Play for role play ideas. Some pupils may experience difficulties in identifying their emotions, while others may know they are ‘sad’ but not be able to explain why. Likewise, in many cases pupils will not be able to identify triggers for any negative emotions they experience. Good links with home are crucial and information should be gleaned from parents via home-school diaries or phone conversations.
To Be Me Straight from the Heart

You and classroom staff may also need to investigate pupils’ triggers. For example, after a display of negative emotion you might find it useful to study and note the events leading up to the incident (the antecedent), the behaviour itself and the resulting consequences. With time, patterns and likely triggers may emerge. Also, remember to be mindful of sensory issues such as sound or light sensitivities. During these activities, be responsive to the emotionally demanding events and experiences that your pupils may raise/ share, (for example bereavement, parents separating and abuse). Work closely with parents and with the member of staff responsible for pastoral care to ensure that the programme is appropriately supportive for each pupil.
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How do I feel today?

You will need:
Resource 1: 2D Faces Resource 2: Degrees of Emotion Resource 3: Feelings Lotto Resource 5: Tired and Hungry Symbols Resource 6: Feelings Songs

Today I Feel…

Organise a daily group hello time or circle time to create further opportunities for discussion about how each pupil is feeling. Have them respond to the question or song ‘How are you today?’ by selecting a visual card that represents how they feel and sticking this onto a board beside their photograph or name. See Resource 1 for symbols to create visual cards and Resource 6 for song suggestions.

Mayer Johnson PCS Symbols © Mayer Johnson LLC contact Widgit Software www.widgit.com

appy h

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To Be Me Straight from the Heart

Thinking Skill and Personal Capability: Developing routines of turn-taking, sharing and cooperating Cross Curricular Skills: Communication Communicate information, ideas, opinions, feelings and imaginings using an expanded vocabulary Communication Use non-verbal methods to express ideas and engage with the listener

afraid

angry

Alternatively enlarge the four symbols cards (happy, sad, angry, afraid) and display them within the teaching circle or around the room. Encourage pupils, where appropriate, to stand by the card with the symbol that represents their feelings. The symbols in Resources 1–3 could be used here. Include symbol suggestions for tired and hungry as well, as it is important pupils have a means to communicate these feelings and needs. See Resource 5 for these symbols. You can provide your pupils with ICT experiences by helping them access a printable feelings chart giving gradations from happy to sad at: www.do2learn. com/activities/learn/ feelingschart.htm
Mayer Johnson PCS Symbols © Mayer Johnson LLC contact Widgit Software www.widgit.com

tired

To Be Me Straight from the Heart

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KEy QuESTIOn

What can I do when I feel happy, sad, angry and afraid?
You will need :
• Scissors • A laminator • A hole punch • Key rings

Ensure that all staff are appropriate role models and deal with emotional situations in a calm and consistent manner. Make sure your pupils sense and know that they can come to staff with problems and for help.

Dealing with Emotion

Talk through stories and role play scenarios, and revisit incidents to help your pupils become more aware of the fact that there are always options and choices. You can provide your pupils with ICT experiences by helping them access and print symbol cards offering a range of things to do when feeling angry. Visit http://www.polk-fl.net/staff/resources/ese/ resourcesboardmaker.htm. In Behaviour Ideas section you will find Dealing with Anger as one such example. Cut out the cards, laminate them, punch holes in the corners and attach them onto a key ring to make them transportable. Develop this for the other emotions.

12

12

Thinking Skill and Personal Capability: Listen actively and share opinions Cross Curricular Skills: Communication Communicate information, ideas, opinions, feelings and imaginings using an expanding vocabulary Communication Using non-verbal methods to express ideas and engage with the listener using ICT Access and use information

Encourage pupils to give an insight into their feelings about certain situations through the use of ‘comic strip conversations’. Detailed information about this approach is available on the National Autistic Society’s website: www.nas.org.uk by entering ‘comic strip conversation’ in the search box. Train pupils in the use of meaningful ways of asking for a break or help (for example by exchanging a card). Visit www.thegraycenter.org for further information.

feeling?

are you

How

To Be Me Fit For Life

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2D Faces

Resource 1

happy

happy

happy

sad

sad

sad

Mayer Johnson PCS Symbols © Mayer Johnson LLC contact Widgit Software www.widgit.com

angry

angry

angry

afraid

afraid

afraid
To Be Me Straight from the Heart

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Degrees of Emotion

Resource 2

Look at each pair and identify which face looks happiest, saddest, angriest or most afraid.

happy

sad

angry
Mayer Johnson PCS Symbols © Mayer Johnson LLC contact Widgit Software www.widgit.com

afraid

To Be Me Straight from the Heart

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Feelings Lotto

Resource 3

happy

sad

happy

sad

happy

angry

Mayer Johnson PCS Symbols © Mayer Johnson LLC contact Widgit Software www.widgit.com

happy

sad

angry

sad

angry

happy
To Be Me Straight from the Heart

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Storybooks and non-Fiction Books about Emotions

Resource 4

Use some of the following storybooks and non-fiction books to explore emotions with your pupils.

Storybooks
Book Title Author

non-Fiction
Book Title Why Can’t I Be Happy All the Time? Covers a wide range of emotions with photographic illustrations How Do you Feel? Big book What Makes Me Happy? Rhyming story, covering a range of emotions Everybody Feels Happy Clear illustrations Everybody Feels Sad Clear illustrations Feeling Angry A lot of text with photographic illustrations Brigitte Weninger Nick Butterworth Feelings Minimum text and large, clear illustrations All Kinds of Feelings Martin Waddell Joanne Partis Brigitte Weninger Julia Donaldson Jez Alborough Martin Waddell Lift the flap book Emma Brownjohn Monica Hughes Althea Braithwaite Jane Bingham Jane Bingham Catherine Anholt Gillian Liu Author Mary Atkinson

Happiness
The Happy Bee Hug Happy Happy Horse If you’re happy and you know it Ian Beck Jez Alborough Caroline Castle Colin Hawkins Jan Ormerod

Sadness
Do you still love me? I Want a Cuddle Have you Got My Purr? Some Dogs Do Found you Little Wombat Little Tiger’s Big Surprise Charlotte Middleton Malorie Blackman Judy West Jez Alborough Angela McAllister Julie Sykes

Anger
Why Are you Fighting Davy? The Cross Rabbit

Fear
Can’t you Sleep Little Bear? Arnie the Accidental Hero Davy, Help! It’s a ghost! The Gruffalo/ The Gruffalo’s Child It’s The bear! Owl Babies

To Be Me Straight from the Heart

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Tired and Hungry Symbols

Resource 5

tired

hungry

Mayer Johnson PCS Symbols © Mayer Johnson LLC contact Widgit Software www.widgit.com

tired

hungry

tired

hungry
To Be Me Straight from the Heart

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Feelings Songs

Resource 6

if

you’re

happy

and

you

know

it,

clap

your

hands.

if

you’re

happy

and

you

know

it,

clap

your

hands.

if

you’re

happy

and

you

know

it,

And

you

really

want

to

show

it,

if

you’re

happy

and

you

know

it,

clap

your

hands.

...

stamp

your

feet

...

nod

your

head

...

do

all

3!
Mayer Johnson PCS Symbols © Mayer Johnson LLC contact Widgit Software www.widgit.com

(Tune: Skip to My Lou!)

Hello,

How are you?

Hello,

How are you?

Hello,

How are you?

How

do

you

feel

this

morning?

To Be Me Straight from the Heart

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Feelings Songs

Resource 6

The following books contain songs with new words set to familiar tunes. The Handy Band by Sue Nicholls, published by A&C Black See: ‘Who’s Afraid’ (afraid), ‘Safe and Sound’ (sad), ‘When I Feel Sad’ (sad), ‘Well Done Hip Hooray!’ (happy), ‘Have Another Go’ (angry) Bingo Lingo by Helen MacGregor, published by A&C Black See: ‘Hey Little Playmate’ (sad), ‘When I Feel Sad’ (sad), ‘The Hungry Rabbit’ (angry) Bobby Shaftoe Clap your Hands by Sue Nicholls, published by A&C Black See: ‘A Monster Came to Visit You’ (afraid)

The H Ba n d

Bingo Lingo

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To Be Me Straight from the Heart

notes

To Be Me Straight from the Heart

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