ANNUAL REPORT

V O LU M E 1

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CONTENTS
the record 1 meSSage From the preSident 2 Board oF directorS 3 policy and Strategy overvieW 4 delivering an eFFective organization
4

5 Sector and thematic highlightS 6 Financing operationS 7 central and WeSt aSia 8 eaSt aSia 9 paciFic

30 34 40 50 58

6 8

14

18

09
10 South aSia 11 SoutheaSt aSia 12 nonSovereign operationS 13 Finance and adminiStration 14 appendiXeS
68 78

ANNUAL REPORT

adB contact addreSSeS gloSSary aBBreviationS

120 122 122

88

92 98

The ADB Annual Report 2009 comprises two separate volumes: Volume 1 is the main report and Volume 2 contains the financial statements and statistical annexes.

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Asian Development Bank

The RecoRd ($ million)
OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES (A + B + c + d + e + F) A. LOANS (amount) (1 + 2) Number of Projectsa, b, c 1. Ordinary Capital Resources (ocR) Loans (amount) (a + b + c) Number of Loans disbursements (amount) a. Sovereign Number of Loans disbursements (amount) b. Nonsovereign Publicd Number of Loans disbursements (amount) c. Nonsovereign Private Number of Loans disbursements (amount) 2. Asian Development Fund (AdF) Loans (amount) (a + b) Number of Loans disbursements (amount) a. Sovereign Number of Loans disbursements (amount) b. Nonsovereign Private Number of Loans disbursements (amount) B. GRANTSc, f, g (amount) Number of Projectsa, b, c C. GUARANTEESb (1 + 2) Number of Projects 1. Political Risk Guarantee (amount) Number of Projects 2. Partial credit Guarantee (amount) Number of Projects D. TRADE FINANCE FACILITATION PROGRAMh E. EQUITYb, i (amount) Number of Investments/commitments F. TECHNICAL ASSISTANCE GRANTSg (amount) Number of Projectsa, b COFINANCINGj (amount) Number of Projects Sovereign operations (amount) Number of Projects Nonsovereign operations (amount) Number of Projects RESOURCES (as of period end) Ordinary Capital Resources Authorized capital Subscribed capital Borrowings (gross) (for the period) outstanding debt ordinary Reserve Special Reserve Gross Revenue (for the period) Net Income (loss) after Appropriation of Guarantee Fees to Special Reserve (for the period) Special Funds Resources Asian development Fund Total Resourcesl Technical Assistance Special Fund Total Resourcesl Japan Special Fund Total Resources Regular and Supplementary contributions Asian currency crisis Support Facility AdB Institute Special Fund Total Resources Asian Tsunami Fund Total Resources Pakistan earthquake Fund Total Resources Regional cooperation and Integration Fund Total Resources climate change Fund Total Resources Asia Pacific disaster Response Fund Total Resources

1966–2009
170,925 155,893 2,205 117,356 1,299 80,400 112,182 1,166 77,076 519 6 85 4,655 127 3,239 38,537 1,264 29,317 38,522 1,259 29,302 15 5 15 5,191 315 3,318 29 708 9 2,610 20 1,000 1,714 164 3,809 6,863 13,297 221 11,318 188 1,979 33

2006
8,389 7,264 64 5,992 33 4,420 5,542 26 4,061 75 1 1 375 6 358 1,272 44 1,338 1,272 44 1,338 – – – 530 41 125 3 15 1 110 2 – 231 12 240 259 970 14 565 10 405 4

2007
10,770 9,516 77 7,623 55 5,234 6,972 38 4,743 10 1 30 640 16 461 1,893 36 1,618 1,893 36 1,618 – – – 673 39 251 3 – – 251 3 – 80 5 251 239 321 7 121 6 200 1

2008
11,329 10,124 81 8,360 57 6,472 6,839 45 5,878 300 2 54 1,222 10 540 1,764 35e 2,043 1,764 35e 2,043 – – – 809 48 – – – – – – – 123 7 273 298 1,090 7 665 5 425 2

2009
16,078 13,230 93 11,020 64 7,898 10,577 57 7,449 134 2 – 309 5 449 2,210 47e 2,201 2,210 47e 2,201 – – – 1,113 64 397 2 325 1 72 1 850 220 5 267 313 3,164 14 2,768 10 396 4

166,179 60,751 93,714 42,123 9,790 219 1,472 14,114k

53,169 53,169 5,576 27,601 8,994 198 1,839 566

55,978 55,978 8,854 31,569 9,245 203 2,208 760

54,890 54,890 9,372 35,672 9,532 210 2,064 1,119

166,179 60,751 10,359 42,123 9,790 219 1,472 (37)

34,159 1,716 974 151m 149 587 144 43 41 40

29,247 1,347 929 151 121 594 114 – – –

31,950 1,361 956 151 133 617 137 41 – –

33,479 1,403 974 151 141 626 142 43 41 –

34,159 1,716 974 151 149 587 144 43 41 40

– = nil. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding. a Projects with multiple loans, or with combination of public and private lending are counted once. cumulative number of projects excludes supplementary loans. Grant projects with multiple funds are counted once. b excludes terminated loans, equity, guarantees, technical assistance, and grants. c Includes loans/grants arising from multitranche financing facilities. d These are loans to companies in which public sector entities own more than 50% of the capital or over which they exert management control in other ways. e Includes count for an earlier approved loan with supplementary financing in the current year. f Includes AdF and other grants. g Includes direct value-added cofinancing. h Includes the $150 million approved in 2003 (ocR loan of $45 million and partial credit guarantee of $105 million). i Refers to nonsovereign operations only. j Starting 2006, cofinancing statistics indicate direct value-added cofinancing: cofinancing with administrative or collaborative arrangements with AdB. k Includes cumulative effect of ASc 820/825 adoption amounting to $227.5 million, as an adjustment to the 1 January 2009 reserves. l cumulative resources excluding amounts not yet available for operational commitments. m Net of $90.0 million that was transferred to Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction in 2002.

Annual Report 2009
TABLe 1 ASSISTANCE BY COUNTRY, 2009 ($ million)
Central and West Asia Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Pakistan Tajikistan Turkmenistan Uzbekistan East Asia china, People’s Republic of Mongolia Pacific cook Islands Fiji Islands Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia, Federated States of Nauru Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu South Asia Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Sri Lanka Southeast Asia Brunei darussalam cambodia Indonesia Lao People’s democratic Republic Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Thailand Viet Nam Regional TOTAL Loans OCR 1,457.0 – – 75.0 – 687.0 – 695.0 – – – 1,954.9 1,954.9 – 136.7 10.0 76.7 – – – – – 50.0 – – – – – – 2,626.0 600.0 – 1,811.0 – – 215.0 4,845.3 – – 2,184.2 – – – 1,176.1 82.1 1,402.9 – 11,019.9 ADF 718.3 – 140.0 – 228.8 – 44.5 245.0 – – 60.0 50.1 – 50.1 95.0 – – – – – – – 95.0 – – – – – – 752.1 427.9 – – 36.5 172.8 115.0 594.8 – 71.7 – 0.1 – – – – 523.0 – 2,210.3 Grantsa 433.5 336.4 – – – – 35.5 – 61.6 – – 54.0 9.9 44.2 91.0 – – – – – – – 2.0 1.0 29.0 49.0 10.0 – – 286.2 58.5 38.8 2.0 – 172.5 14.5 248.7 – 108.7 5.0 126.6 – – 4.9 – 3.5 – 1,113.5 Guarantees – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 396.8 – – – – – – – 71.8 325.0 – 396.8 TFFP – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 850.0 850.0 Equity – – – – – – – – – – – 25.0 25.0 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 40.0 – – 40.0 – – – 40.0 – – 40.0 – – – – – – 115.0 220.0 Technical Assistance Grantsb 14.7 1.4 1.7 1.0 1.4 0.8 1.3 2.7 0.7 – 3.8 31.8 24.6 7.2 12.1 0.6 – 0.9 0.2 – – 1.2 3.5 1.6 0.7 0.6 1.0 – 1.9 50.7 12.0 2.0 19.5 3.0 5.7 8.4 37.2 – 7.9 6.3 4.5 – – 6.5 1.3 10.6 120.7 267.2 Total 2,623.5 337.8 141.7 76.0 230.2 687.8 81.3 942.7 62.3 – 63.8 2,115.9 2,014.4 101.5 334.7 10.6 76.7 0.9 0.2 – – 1.2 150.5 2.6 29.6 49.6 11.0 – 1.9 3,755.0 1,098.3 40.8 1,872.5 39.5 351.0 352.9 6,162.7 – 188.3 2,235.5 131.2 – – 1,187.5 155.2 2,265.0 1,085.7 16,077.6

5

– = nil, AdF = Asian development Fund, ocR = ordinary capital resources, TFFP = Trade Financing Facilitation Program. Note: (i) For reference to sovereign and nonsovereign approvals, see Statistical Annex 1 (Sovereign and Nonsovereign Loan Approvals by country) and Statistical Annex 10 (Nonsovereign Approvals and Total Project costs by country). (ii) Grants and technical assistance grants include those that are officially cofinanced by external sources. (iii) Totals may not add up because of rounding. a For reference, please see Statistical Annex 2 (Grant-Financed Project Approvals by country). b For reference, please see Statistical Annex 16 (Technical Assistance Grant Approvals By country and Regional Activities).

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Asian Development Bank

Chapter 1

MESSAGE FROM THE PRESIDENT

T

he global economic crisis presented developing Asia and the Pacific with one of the most challenging years since the 1997/98 Asian financial crisis. Reduced demand for the region’s exports from the major industrial economies, together with muted private consumption and investment in the region, cut growth rates to about 5.2% in 2009, just over half the decade’s peak of 9.5% in 2007. Asia is leading the world’s recovery, with regional growth expected to rebound to over 7% in 2010. Heartening as this is, there remains an underlying fragility to the recovery. Some economies are doing well but others are still struggling. External demand for the region’s goods and services, including tourism, may be sluggish for some time until the advanced economies fully emerge from recession. Increasing resilience to future shocks, especially by building domestic and regional demand, will be essential to produce the high rates of growth needed to reduce poverty over the long term. While economic recovery is under way, ADB has estimated that 71 million people, who could have escaped poverty if growth rates had stayed at 2007 levels, continue living on less than $2 a day; 54 million of them have remained living on less than $1.25 a day. High unemployment and its social impacts are likely to be felt for several years to come, especially in poorer countries. The crisis could have costly and long-lasting effects on human welfare, as families with few alternative jobs and little or no access to credit are forced to reduce the quantity

and quality of their food intake, withdraw children from school, or postpone health care. Against this backdrop, ADB shareholders agreed in April to triple ADB’s capital base from $55 billion to $165 billion, the biggest increase in ADB history and the first in 15 years, giving us the resources to pursue our mission. The capital increase enabled ADB to respond quickly to the needs of developing member countries by significantly scaling up our assistance, with overall operations growing by 42% from $11.3 billion in 2008 to $16.1 billion in 2009. Loan disbursements also reached a record high in 2009 at $10.1 billion compared with $8.5 billion in 2008. As the region continues on its path to recovery, it is critical to ensure that growth is more inclusive and environmentally sustainable. Regional integration must be deepened to further increase the region’s resilience, connect more of its economies to global markets, and spread the benefits of growth. The private sector must also be supported to help realize its key role in accelerating growth and generating wider prosperity.

ADB looks forward to working with shareholders and partners to spread the benefits of recovery more widely as the region emerges from a time of crisis

Annual Report 2009

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President Kuroda visits one of more than a hundred ADB-assisted urban primary health care centers in Bangladesh, which benefit mainly women and children

About 65% of ADB investments were allocated to infrastructure, helping promote inclusive growth by increasing access to important services and economic opportunities. Many of our infrastructure projects promote regional integration, and about 35% of ADB’s total 2009 investments supported environmental sustainability. About 81% of our total assistance in 2009 went to the five core operational areas of infrastructure, finance, education, environment, and regional cooperation. Alongside the global economic crisis, world leaders came together in Copenhagen in December to seek solutions to the climate change crisis. While progress was less than what many had hoped, leaders from both the developed and developing world are embracing the convergence among climate change, sustainable development, and human well-being. ADB’s climate change and sustainable development operations took a significant step forward. First, the ADB Board of Directors approved two major policies: the new Energy Policy and the Safeguards Policy Statement. Second, we have stepped up our financial and advisory assistance. Our clean energy program, for example, has invested $2.8 billion over the last 2 years, investing in renewable energy, energy efficiency, and clean technology deployment that encourage our developing member countries to move toward low-carbon energy generation and utilization. Third, ADB joined other multilateral development banks in establishing the Climate Invest-

ment Funds to support clean technology, climate resilience, forest protection, and renewable energy in low-income countries. Our overall operations of $16.1 billion in 2009 comprised loans and grants of $14.3 billion, guarantees amounting to $397 million, $850 million for a trade finance facilitation program, $220 million in equity investments, and $267 million in technical assistance. ADB also mobilized cofinancing amounting to $3.2 billion. With the Asian Development Fund replenishment in 2008 and the general capital increase in 2009, ADB has a strong mandate to fully implement its long-term strategy, Strategy 2020. The introduction of Our People Strategy in early 2010 will ensure that we have not only the financial but also the human resources to pursue our important mission. ADB looks forward to working with shareholders and partners to spread the benefits of recovery more widely as the region emerges from a time of crisis, with renewed determination to tackle the causes of poverty and raise Asia’s standards of living, especially for the poor.

Haruhiko Kuroda President and Chairman Board of Directors

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Asian Development Bank

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Chapter 2
The ADB Board of Directors continued to play its vital role in overseeing operations, guiding the institution as it responded to the economic crisis and worked to improve The Board supported the establishment of the $3 billion Countercyclical Support Facility to help member countries hit by the crisis, approved an additional $400 million for the poorest members, and expanded the Trade Finance Facilitation Program to $1 billion. R Safeguard Policy Statement, updating and superseding the policies on involuntary resettlement, indigenous peoples, and environment. The Board also approved a new Energy Policy. Internally, it established the Human Resources Committee to provide guidance on human resources management.

BOARD OF DIRECTORS

Annual Report 2009

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T

he Board of Directors is responsible for the overall direction of the operations of the Asian Development Bank (ADB), including the approval of policies, loans, grants, and guarantees. As the representative of ADB’s shareholders, the Board plays a vital role in overseeing ADB’s implementation of the guidance given by its shareholders. The Board has provided inputs both directly and from the member capitals to make ADB a more effective institution. As ADB expands its operations to meet the growing demands of its developing member countries, the Board plays an active role in overseeing institutional governance. The Board approved a number of key measures to improve ADB’s development effectiveness, responsiveness, and accountability. The meetings of the Board of Directors covered a broad range of policy, financial, and administrative issues, as well as a wide variety of projects and programs. The Board also endorsed new partnership strategies with several developing member countries. Total approvals by the Board, including loans, grants, guarantees, trade financing facility, equity investments, and technical assistance, exceeded $16 billion. In addition, ADB mobilized more than $3 billion in cofinancing. The Board approved the recommendation for a 200% general capital increase to the Board of Governors, a critical step in securing the funds needed to implement Strategy 2020 and address the global economic crisis. The fifth general capital increase was subsequently approved by the Governors. In response to the economic crisis, the Board supported several measures to assist ADB’s developing member countries. It approved the establishment of the $3 billion Countercyclical Support Facility as a short-term, budget support instrument for crisis-affected members with access to ADB’s ordinary capital resources. The Board also approved the distribution of $400 million in additional liquidity to ADB’s poorest members through the Asian Development Fund (ADF). With global trade shrinking and access to capital tightening, the Board approved an expansion of ADB’s Trade Finance Facilitation Program to $1 billion. The program increases the financing available for trade transactions to cushion the shock of the global downturn on developing countries in Asia and the Pacific. In line with the objective of Strategy 2020 to expand private sector operations, the Board approved a new exposure management policy for nonsovereign operations. The

policy, which establishes limits for nonsovereign exposure, is designed to support the prudential expansion of private sector operations without jeopardizing ADB’s credit rating. The Board also endorsed ADB’s new approach to assisting the Pacific. Expressing concern on the impact of global climate change on these small, developing countries, the Board underscored the need for ADB to respond to this challenge within the special development context of the Pacific. The Board continued to focus on reforms in key areas to improve ADB’s institutional effectiveness and accountability to shareholders and beneficiaries. The Safeguard Policy Statement was approved, updating and superseding the Involuntary Resettlement Policy (1995), the Policy on Indigenous Peoples (1998), and the Environment Policy (2002). The Board also approved the new Energy Policy to meet Asia’s rapidly growing energy needs, facilitate a transition to a lowcarbon economy, and achieve ADB’s vision of a region free of poverty. In addition, the Board discussed the 2008 Development Effectiveness Review, a key publication intended to drive future action and ensure greater accountability. With the aim of improving ADB’s internal operations, the Board established the Human Resources Committee to oversee and provide guidance on ADB’s human resources management. The Board also deliberated on ADB’s annual financial statements, its budget and borrowing program for 2010, its Work Program and Budget Framework for 2010–2012, and the salaries and benefits of staff. It also reviewed the 3-year rolling Work Program and Budget for 2010 of the ADB Institute.

Board oF directorS

Country Partnership strategies
The country partnership strategy maps out the ways that ADB can most effectively work with its developing member countries, given each country’s challenges and priorities. It also enables ADB to evaluate a country’s development performance over the strategy period. The Board endorsed six country partnership strategies in 2009: Afghanistan (2009–2013), India (2009– 2012), Pakistan (2009–2013), Nepal (2010–2012), Palau (2009–2013), and Vanuatu (2010–2014). It also endorsed an interim country partnership strategy for Solomon Islands (2009–2011).

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Asian Development Bank

BoARD of DiReCToRs

Visits to member countries deepen Board members’ understanding of the region

other Meetings
In November, the Board and Management participated in a 2-day retreat outside Manila, Philippines, covering two topics: ADB’s general capital increase and the way ahead, and ADB’s operations on climate change.

adoption of principles for the selection of outside auditors, as well as the implementation of the Information Systems and Technology Strategy II and other information technology–related activities. The committee monitored the work of the Office of Risk Management, including a review of ADB’s risk management capability and progress in integrating risk management in ADB, as well as the recommendations by the outside auditor. The work and findings of the Integrity Division of the Office of the Auditor General were closely monitored by the committee, including the implementation of recommendations to address weaknesses in internal controls and policies identified through investigations. The committee also monitored progress toward a whistleblower protection policy. The committee met 13 times.

Budget Review Committee
The committee discussed the President’s planning directions to prepare for the Work Program and Budget Framework, 2010–2012. It noted the development challenges facing ADB and the new approaches, streamlined business processes, and realigned skills mix that would be necessary to effectively meet these challenges. In August, the committee discussed the progress of operations programs with the operations departments; Strategy and Policy Department; and Budget, Personnel, and Management Systems Department. This included crisis response, countercyclical support, private sector operations, public– private partnerships, regional projects, cofinancing, and projects at risk. The committee also met with the vice-presidents on the highlights of the draft program and framework, focusing on priority work areas, new products, and continuing initiatives. The committee appreciated the plan under the program and framework for ADB to pursue additional environmental initiatives, such as those that address clean and/or renewable energy as well as climate change. Members underscored the need for ADB to strengthen collaboration with its development partners to achieve greater development effectiveness. The committee also emphasized the importance of the knowledge management culture and the need for the management action plan to be implemented well. The committee discussed the 2010 draft budget document. It noted that the document presents a coherent picture of how ADB aims to adjust its staff and internal resources to respond effectively to the challenges of imple-

Board Group Visits and Tours
Members of the Board made two visits around the region to get a firsthand view of ADB projects and their impacts, and to meet with senior government officials, development partners, private sector leaders, and other stakeholders. From 20 February to 9 March, a team visited the People’s Republic of China and Mongolia. Another team visited the Republic of the Marshall Islands and Palau 4–10 July. The visits strengthened ADB’s relationship with its development partners and generated valuable feedback. On 12 March, a Board group visited the International Rice Research Institute south of Manila for a familiarization tour.

BoARD CoMMiTTees
Audit Committee
The committee assists the Board in its oversight of ADB’s financial reporting and audits, including internal controls and audits, risk management, and ADB-related anticorruption and integrity efforts. The committee reviewed ADB’s financial statements and Management’s discussion and analysis with the outside auditor. It also monitored the selection process of the outside auditor and the progress toward

Annual Report 2009

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menting Strategy 2020, including support for achieving the Millennium Development Goals, and delivering the level of assistance envisaged by the ninth replenishment of the ADF and the fifth general capital increase. The committee called for continuing efforts to achieve efficiency gains, and to reassess and fine-tune the internal resource requirements in the coming years. The committee confirmed that the 2010 draft budgets for ADB, the Independent Evaluation Department, and ADB Institute were consistent with the work plans and appropriate for consideration by the Board. The committee also met in November 2009 to discuss the draft special capital budget proposal on the expansion of the ADB headquarters building and some resident missions. The committee met 11 times.

assistance program evaluations were timely in informing the preparation of new country partnerships and strategies. The committee consistently strived to recommend ways to ensure that ADB operations would achieve development effectiveness. The committee met 11 times.

ethics Committee
Board oF directorS
The Board established the committee to address matters of ethics that may arise under the Code of Conduct adopted by the Board in September 2006. The code provisions apply to all Board members (directors, alternate directors, and temporary alternate directors) and to the President. The committee is responsible for advising directors, alternate directors, and the President when they request guidance on actual or potential conflicts of interest or other ethical issues concerning themselves. The committee also considers any allegations of misconduct against directors, alternate directors, and the President that relate to the performance of their duties. It recommends appropriate action to the Board. The committee met once with the general counsel in attendance to familiarize the new members with their responsibilities under the Code of Conduct and related procedures.

Compliance Review Committee
The committee is responsible for clearing the terms of reference of the Compliance Review Panel and the time frame for conducting each compliance review authorized by the Board, and clearing the panel’s draft reports on monitoring the implementation of any remedial actions approved by the Board. The committee is mandated to meet as often as it considers necessary. The committee met once to discuss its work plan through 2010, the status of the Accountability Mechanism review, and its annual report, as well as to obtain an update from the panel on compliance review cases. The panel’s monitoring reports are available on the panel’s website (www.compliance.adb.org).

Human Resources Committee
In June, the Board established the committee to review, monitor, and make recommendations to the full Board on ADB’s human resources strategy and policies, particularly as they pertain to staffing, compensation and benefits, and other related issues. Members will also review any external evaluations of ADB’s human resources strategy and policies and report their findings and recommendations to the Board. These issues are considered vital to ADB’s ability to recruit, train, and retain the highly qualified staff needed to carry out its mandate under Strategy 2020. The committee made recommendations on major human resources initiatives such as the Our People Strategy and the Human Resources Action Plan. The committee also discussed other matters relevant to human resources management, including gender, integrity and ethics, and accountability issues. The committee had separate introductory meetings with the Staff Council and the Professional Women’s Committee. The committee met six times.

Development effectiveness Committee
The committee discussed major evaluation reports by the Independent Evaluation Department. These included 1 regional and 4 country assistance program evaluation studies, 11 sector assistance program evaluation reports, and 4 special evaluation studies. Other department reports that were discussed included two annual evaluation reports, one project performance evaluation report, one impact evaluation study, and one evaluation knowledge brief. The committee reviewed and discussed the 2008 Development Effectiveness Review to feed into the full Board discussion of the review. From its findings and recommendations in 2008 on ADB’s institutional effectiveness relative to its strategies, policies, and resources, the committee moved toward assessing ADB’s operations at the country and sector levels, and on crosscutting themes. The discussions of country and sector

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Asian Development Bank

BOARD OF DIRECTORS
PRESIDENT AND CHAIRMAN OF THE BOARD OF DIRECTORS EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS

Phil Bowen

Howard Brown

Curtis s. Chin

Marwanto Harjowiryono

Kyung-Hoh Kim

ALTERNATE EXECUTIVE DIRECTORS

Haruhiko Kuroda

Dereck Rooken-smith

Torben Bellers

Paul W. Curry

C.J. (stan) Vandersyp

Tsuen-Hua shih

Annual Report 2009

13

Ashok K. Lahiri

Michele Miari fulcis

Masakazu sakaguchi

siraj s. shamsuddin

Chaiyuth sudthitanakorn

eduard Westreicher

Yingming Yang

Md. Aminul islam Bhuiyan

Jose Miguel Cortes

Yasuto Watanabe

Marita Govinda Magpili-Jimenez Bahadur Thapa

Richard edwards Xiuzhen Guan

MANAGEMENT

C. Lawrence Greenwood, Jr.

Ursula schaefer-Preuss

Bindu N. Lohani

Xiaoyu Zhao

Rajat M. Nag

Robert L.T. Dawson

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asian development Bank

policy and Strategy overvieW

Chapter 3

POLICY AND STRATEGY OVERVIEW
shareholders endorsed a tripling of ADB’s general capital, enabling ADB to pursue longer-term development priorities in the region and substantially increase its support to countries affected by the global economic downturn. in June, ADB approved the new energy Policy to better align energy operations with ADB’s long-term strategic framework, strategy 2020. The safeguard Policy statement to address environmental and social impacts of ADB-supported projects was approved in July. it incorporates international good practice and harmonizes with the policies of other multilateral development banks. in october, ADB approved an exposure management policy for nonsovereign operations to ensure that the growth in private sector operations envisaged under strategy 2020 remains within ADB’s risk-bearing capacity.

annual report 2009

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fifTH GeNeRAL CAPiTAL iNCReAse
n 29 April, an overwhelming majority of ADB’s 67 member countries endorsed the fifth general capital increase (GCI V), tripling ADB’s capital base. The 200% increase is ADB’s largest and the first since ADB increased its capital by 100% in 1994. GCI V financially equips ADB to implement Strategy 2020, adopted in 2008, and to pursue longer-term development priorities in the region. GCI V also allowed ADB to substantially increase its support to countries affected by the global economic downturn and help prevent the reversal of hard-won gains in social and economic development and in poverty reduction in Asia and the Pacific.

o

in a manner that encourages social, economic, and environmental sustainability. Implementation centers on three key pillars: promoting energy efficiency and renewable energy; maximizing access to energy for all; and promoting energy sector reform, capacity building, and governance.

sAfeGUARD PoLiCY sTATeMeNT
On 20 July, ADB approved the Safeguard Policy Statement (SPS) governing environmental and social safeguards for ADB operations. The SPS supersedes three previous safeguard policies on the environment, involuntary resettlement, and indigenous peoples, uniting them in a single document that will enhance consistency and coherence. The policy defines common objectives and policy principles, and outlines a policy delivery process. It also provides specific requirements for borrowers and clients as they address the environmental and social impacts and risks of ADB-supported projects. The SPS incorporates international good practice and harmonizes with the policies of other multilateral development banks. It includes appropriate requirements for different lending modalities and recently developed financial instruments, and further strengthens requirements for safeguard monitoring and supervision. The SPS increases emphasis on developing capacity to manage environmental and social impacts and risks. It also introduces provisions to strengthen and use country safeguard systems for ADB projects, subject to ADB’s assessments of equivalence and acceptability.

policy and Strategy overvieW

iMPRoViNG CoHeReNCe iN CoRPoRATe sTRATeGies AND PoLiCies
Under Strategy 2020, ADB committed to improve the coherence of its corporate strategies and policies. In this context, ADB reviewed existing directional documents covering the five drivers of change and eight operational areas. The review concluded that some existing operational documents were not sufficiently detailed and/or current to effectively guide implementation of Strategy 2020. ADB completed new operational plans for private sector and nonsovereign (see Glossary) operations, knowledge management, and agriculture (focusing on sustainable food security), and began working on new operational plans for education, transport, and finance.

2009 eNeRGY PoLiCY
In June, ADB approved a new Energy Policy, aligning its energy operations with Strategy 2020. The policy aims to help ADB’s developing member countries provide reliable, adequate, and affordable energy for inclusive growth

ReVieW of eXPosURe LiMiTs oN NoNsoVeReiGN oPeRATioNs
In October, ADB approved an exposure management policy for nonsovereign operations (NSO), establishing a medium-term overall limit for nonsovereign exposure that equals about 15% of projected total operations and gradually phases in NSO growth. It also limited to $2.1 billion the maximum nonsovereign exposure of any single country. This limit represents about 20% of the proposed NSO limit in 2014, or about 60% of notional NSO capital. The new policy ensures that the growth of NSO exposure envisaged under Strategy 2020 will not exceed ADB’s riskbearing capacity.

The Safeguard Policy Statement incorporates international good practice and harmonizes with the policies of other multilateral development banks

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asian development Bank

The country limit will vary according to the country’s credit rating. To ensure equitable access for all countries, the country limit cannot exceed 10% of gross domestic product, less sovereign (see Glossary) exposure. A minimum country allocation of $25 million will enable meaningful

private sector interventions in smaller countries. ADB also established prudential limits for industry, groups, single obligors, and counterparties, and introduced a definition of exposure that concurs with that already established by ADB’s capital adequacy framework.

The Global Economic Crisis: ADB’s Response

policy and Strategy overvieW

T

he global economic crisis presented developing Asia with one of its most difficult challenges in recent times. The crisis spread to Asia mainly through collapsing demand for regional exports in major global markets. Because a large portion of regional trade involves parts and components supporting supply chains, imports also suffered steep declines. Weakening regional consumption and investments further compounded these problems, substantially reducing growth rates (5.2% forecasted in 2009) from the decade’s peak of 9.5% in 2007. AdB estimates that the regional decline in economic growth projected for 2009 will cause 54 million and 71 million people to remain below the poverty threshold (at $1.25 and $2.00 a day, respectively), compared with a “without crisis” scenario under which the high growth rate of 2007 would have continued. This is a major setback to the fight against poverty.

By 31 december, AdB had allocated $8.8 billion in total crisis support for 43 projects, of which $7.0 billion (80%) was delivered in 2009. By source of fund, ordinary capital resources (ocR) provided $7.6 billion (87%) and AdF resources provided the remaining $1.2 billion (13%). By modality, program loans accounted for 40.1%, the countercyclical Support Facility (cSF) provided about 28.5%, nonsovereign operations accounted for 20.1%, and 11.3% came from sovereign project loans and grants. crisis assistance concentrated primarily on quickdisbursing budget support, and supporting public and private projects that generate employment and increase business confidence. As of 31 december, total crisis-related disbursement amounted to more than $4 billion.

Countercyclical Support Facility
In June, AdB established the $3 billion cSF. The new, timerestricted budget support instrument will support developing member countries eligible for borrowing ocR and help middle-income developing member countries sustain critical expenditures. designed as a short-term lending instrument, the cSF complements conventional program loans that support longer-term structural reforms. The cSF adopted access criteria to determine eligibility, and needs

Mobilizing Additional Resources to Support Emerging Development Needs
The timely completion of the fifth general capital increase and successful ninth replenishment of the Asian development Fund (AdF X) in May 2008 enabled AdB to respond quickly to the needs of developing member countries affected by the crisis.

Volume of ADB's Total Operations and Crisis Assistance ($ million)
18,000 16,000 14,000 12,000 10,000 8,000 6,000 4,000 2,000 0
2008 2009 2010 (Est) 10,714 9,058 11,329 615 15,863 7,020 16,078 17,011 1,148

Total OCR and ADF Crisis Assistance by Modality ($ million)
Nonsovereign operations (including TFFP and other guarantees, and project loans) 1,769 (20.1%) Program loans (excluding CSF) 3,520 (40.1%)

Regular ADB Program

Crisis Assistance

Total ADB

OCR and ADF project loans and grants 994 (11.3%)

CSF 2,500 (28.0%)

AdF = Asian development Fund, cSF = countercyclical Support Facility, ocR = ordinary capital resources, TFFP = Trade Finance Facilitation Program.

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and equity considerations to determine loan amounts. By 31 december, AdB had approved $2.5 billion in assistance to five countries (Bangladesh, Indonesia, Kazakhstan, the Philippines, and Viet Nam). consistent with the quick-disbursing nature of the facility, $2 billion (80% of the amount approved) had been fully disbursed by the end of 2009.

exposure supported $1.9 billion in trade, most of which occurred within the region. Much of AdB’s TFFP outstanding portfolio is in Asia’s most challenging markets, including Bangladesh and Pakistan. The program continues to expand aggressively throughout developing Asia.

Additional Asian Development Fund Commitment Authority
Also in June, AdB approved an additional $400 million AdF commitment authority to help the most fiscally stretched AdF-only countries, which have difficulty accessing nonconcessional resources. Funds were allocated according to the performance-based allocation formula, increasing the total AdF allocation for 2009– 2010 to $5.76 billion. In addition, AdF-eligible borrowers were allowed to front-load up to 100% of their biennial allocation. Armenia, Georgia, Mongolia, and Papua New Guinea sought and received approval for front-loading beyond their maximum allowable annual utilization.

Strengthening Regional Cooperation, Policy Advice, and Knowledge Sharing
AdB also intensified its policy advice to developing member countries through technical assistance grants. country economic analysis and forecast for Asia and the Pacific were spearheaded by the Asian Development Outlook (Ado) in March and the Ado update in September. To generate appropriate policy responses to the crisis, AdB and the AdB Institute also facilitated expert discussions and ideas exchange among developing member countries, organizing about 20 events on the global economic crisis (often in association with other development partners) throughout 2009. In March, AdB convened the first South Asian Forum on the Impact of the Global economic and Financial crisis. during the 2-day forum in Manila, public and private sector representatives from seven South Asian countries (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, the Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka) shared cross-country experiences on the impacts of the crisis, and on the ongoing and planned measures to preserve financial stability, stimulate growth, and ensure social protection in their respective economies. In September, a high-level conference on the impact of the crisis on poverty and sustainable development was held in ha Noi, Viet Nam. In early october, an international conference co-organized by AdB on financial policy responses to the crisis, held in Seoul, Republic of Korea, drew lessons from the crisis and identified areas to further safeguard regional financial systems.

policy and Strategy overvieW

Cofinancing
AdB also committed to increase project cofinancing. The total of direct value-added cofinancing (see Glossary) increased from $1.1 billion in 2008 to $3.2 billion in 2009. collaborative cofinancing with the World Bank accounted for most of the increase. To establish stable sources of funding alongside its own investments, AdB also increased its efforts toward more programmatic cofinancing arrangements with its financing partners (the People’s Republic of china, Islamic development Bank, Japan, and the Republic of Korea).

Supporting Private Sector Recovery
Strategy 2020 emphasizes the importance of the private sector as a key driver of change, a role that increased as the region worked to overcome the economic crisis and impel the next stage of growth. AdB’s crisis-related assistance to the private sector aims to rebuild business confidence by providing incentives for private investment and facilitating trade financing. The crisis dramatically reduced the amount of financing available to companies for trade. This shortage hit developing nations particularly hard as major international banks worked to rebuild capital and reduce risk. Access to trade finance has been vital in cushioning the shock of the global crisis on international trade. on 31 March, AdB expanded its Trade Finance Facilitation Program (TFFP), increasing its overall exposure limit to $1 billion from an initial $150 million. By the end of december, total TFFP exposure reached over $700 million, exceeding the $500 million target set for 2009. This TFFP

ADB estimates the regional decline in economic growth in 2009 will cause 54 million and 71 million people to remain below the poverty threshold (at $1.25 and $2.00 a day, respectively), compared with a “without crisis” scenario. This is a major setback to the fight against poverty

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delivering an eFFective organization

Chapter 4

DELIVERING AN EFFECTIVE ORGANIZATION
Through actions including stronger, more independent evaluation of its programs, influential research underscoring its role as a regional knowledge leader, and better management of human resources, ADB strove to increase the effectiveness of its development programs. it bolstered its institutional relevance and performance through a lasting commitment to the principles of good governance and sound business practices in all operations.

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oVeRVieW
ADB worked systematically to make its assistance more efficient, deliver better results, and make the best use of resources under the fifth general capital increase. Key activities for executing Strategy 2020 included initiatives to improve how ADB manages and accounts for its money, manages staff, and progresses toward building an effective learning organization that is able to excel at leveraging and sharing its expertise with development partners. Rigorous assessment of strategies, policies, procedures, and operations by the renamed Independent Evaluation Department (IED) continued during the year. Monitoring of IED’s recommendations for deeper management accountability and dissemination of lessons learned within ADB and beyond were important themes throughout 2009. ADB’s research departments—Asian Development Bank Institute (ADB Institute), Economics and Research Department, Office of Regional and Economic Integration, and Regional and Sustainable Development Department—continued to produce key analyses and information, such as the seminal piece of work on a “seamless Asia” which has influenced policy makers across ADB’s member countries. The year also saw ADB improve its human resources management to prepare for the increase in workforce required to implement Strategy 2020, and streamline business processes to consolidate partnerships with developing member countries and improve loan delivery. Credit risk management was improved to better position nonsovereign operations for the private sector’s increased role in ADB operations over the coming decade.

eNsURiNG ADB MAKes A ReAL DiffeReNCe
Managing for Development Results
In September, ADB Management approved a new action plan to institutionalize the managing for development results (MfDR) approach, support developing member countries’ capacity to follow its methods, and build partnerships with other organizations on global and regional MfDR initiatives. During the year, ADB further refined its focus on results. This was achieved through regular performance monitoring and action planning within the corporate

results framework, the second development effectiveness review (covering ADB’s performance in 2008), and the use of better tools for country operations planning, monitoring, and reporting, helped by user-friendly management information systems. ADB also implemented recommendations of the 2007 and 2008 development effectiveness reviews. ADB incorporated feedback from shareholders into the results framework and streamlined sector-wide outputs, and established common definitions for all performance indicators across departments. ADB added more quantitative data alongside qualitative country assessments in its Development Effectiveness Brief series. By using selected indicators from its results framework, ADB brought the briefs in line with the development effectiveness review. ADB also established a working group to identify better steps to incorporating gender issues in all its operations. ADB helped increase results management capacity in its developing member countries by promoting learning and knowledge exchange through the Asia-Pacific Community of Practice on Managing for Development Results. The community of practice fosters exchange between public managers, organizations, executing agencies, and practitioners. As the secretariat for the community of practice, ADB published Moving from Concept to Action on MfDR good practices. ADB also funded initiatives to promote MfDR in planning and implementing programs in developing member countries. ADB supported the Asia Regional Forum on Mainstreaming Managing for Development Results, held in Colombo in October. The forum gave developing member countries an opportunity to discuss MfDR experiences and current obstacles, especially in results-based budgeting. ADB participated in global and regional initiatives such as the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development–Development Assistance Committee Global Partnership on Managing for Development Results and the Multilateral Development Bank Working Group on Managing for Development Results.

delivering an eFFective organization

The Development Effectiveness Review assesses ADB’s progress in implementing Strategy 2020. It is a key element in mainstreaming the managing for development results approach in ADB’s operations

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Progress on Aid effectiveness Agenda
ADB made significant progress toward achieving most targets of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness. Concentrating on the need to keep policies and programs in step with those of developing member countries, ADB met targets for aligning aid flows with national priorities, coordinating technical support, and using country public financial management systems. It is also on track to meet targets on the use of country procurement systems for national competitive bidding, on reducing the number of parallel project implementation structures, and for enhancing aid predictability. ADB will need

to increase efforts to meet targets on using program-based approaches and coordinating donor missions, and to undertake joint country analytical work to meet the Paris Declaration targets by their 2010 deadline. In March, ADB launched a joint donor initiative called the Capacity Development Facility for Development Effectiveness to help governments prepare localized action plans on the declaration.

ensuring Accountability and Compliance
The ADB Accountability Mechanism provides an independent forum for people adversely affected by ADB-

delivering an eFFective organization

2008 Development Effectiveness Review
To ensure that it is meeting the goals laid out under its long-term strategy for 2008–2020 (Strategy 2020), AdB adopted a corporate results framework that measures its contribution to development in Asia and the Pacific, and its performance as an organization. AdB reports progress on the results framework annually through the development effectiveness Review. The 2008 development effectiveness Review is AdB’s second corporate performance report. The 2008 review confirms that, compared with its 2007 performance, AdB is improving its overall development effectiveness, with the majority of performance indicators on track to meet targets. It also highlights areas that need strengthening, such as project performance reporting, knowledge creation and sharing, cofinancing, gender mainstreaming through operations, and gender equality within the organization. In response to the review findings, AdB will implement a number of timebound remedial actions.
2008 Development Effectiveness Review Summary of Performance

ADB Countries Asia and the Pacific Development Outcomes (Level 1) Poverty and human development outcomes other outcome Indicators Performance Categories Key Sector Outputs and Their Contributions to Development Outcomes (Level 2) Operational Effectiveness (Level 3) operational Quality and Portfolio Performance Finance Mobilization Gender Mainstreaming Strategic Focus in operations Knowledge Management Partnerships Organizational Effectiveness (Level 4) human Resources Budget Adequacy Business Processes and Practices G G ADB Operations G G G R G A G A R G

ADF* Countries A G ADF Operations G G A R G A G A R G

Green: “on track” (More than 50% of indicators in the group have shown improvements over baselines or previous periods.) Amber: “Potential regression” (Results are mixed: equal number of indicators improving or beginning to stagnate or regress.) Red: “Stagnated or regressed” (More than half of indicators in the group stagnating or regressing over two or more previous review periods)
AdB = Asian development Bank, AdF = Asian development Fund. * AdF is a pool of funds available for financing AdB operations at concessional terms.

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assisted projects to voice complaints, report allegations of noncompliance with ADB’s operational policies and procedures, and achieve resolution. The mechanism has two related phases: consultation conducted by the special project facilitator, and review led by the independent Compliance Review Panel. People who believe that they are, or may be, adversely affected by ADB-assisted operations may bring a complaint to the special project facilitator to seek a resolution of the problem through consultation and facilitation. In certain circumstances, if the affected persons believe the alleged harm was the result of ADB’s failure to comply with operational policies and procedures, they may ask that the panel review the allegation of noncompliance. The mechanism is also designed to contribute to ADB’s development effectiveness and help improve project quality. The Office of the Special Project Facilitator (OSPF) reviewed 13 new complaints in 2009. Four were found to meet OSPF’s eligibility criteria, and their handling received priority attention. OSPF conducted studies and disseminated information on project-specific grievance mechanisms, including a book on handling complaints. The Compliance Review Panel received one request for a review filed in relation to the Fuzhou Environmental Improvement Project in the People’s Republic of China. The review was ongoing as of 31 December 2009. The panel also continued to monitor Board-approved remedial actions for the Chashma Right Bank Irrigation Project Stage III in Pakistan and the Southern Transport Development Project in Sri Lanka. Throughout the year, OSPF and the Office of the Compliance Review Panel (OCRP) continued their outreach activities, including disseminating information about the Accountability Mechanism, by updating, translating, and distributing information brochures; and conducting orientation and training sessions. To aid cooperation with independent accountability mechanisms of international finance institutions, OCRP established a global community of practice, which joins other international financial institutions and a number of bilateral agencies as part of a virtual network.

independent evaluation for Development effectiveness
Although the Operations Evaluation Department became operationally independent in January 2004 and

began reporting directly to ADB’s Board of Directors, a review in 2008—which included extensive consultation with members of ADB’s staff, Management and Board of Directors, and the Evaluation Cooperation Group of other multilateral development banks—concluded that its evaluation functions could be made more effective. Accordingly, on 1 January 2009, it became the IED. This and other changes effectively minimized the role of Management in selecting, appointing, and evaluating the performance of IED’s director general, thus ensuring operational autonomy and protection from outside influence. The changes also provided a greater degree of autonomy in the recruitment of department staff, and more independence in budget formulation and flexibility in resource use. The Board’s updated policy on IED likewise requires it to follow internationally accepted principles to ensure that its evaluations are impartial, independent, credible, timely, and useful, and that it works closely with all stakeholders. From an accountability perspective, the purpose of independent evaluation is to assess whether ADB is doing the right things, allocating and using resources properly, and realizing intended outcomes. One measure of this is the project and program success rate. The long-term trend in success rates of ADB projects and programs by the year of approval is shown in the figure in Appendix 15. The tables in the same appendix show project and program success rates by country and sector. The IED also derives lessons and best practices to promote the sustainability and development impact of ADB assistance; recommends measures for the design of future policies, strategies, practices, and procedures; and assesses the development effectiveness of resources. Follow-up assessments of recommendations are carried out to sustain the benefits of ADB’s operations. The department also coordinates evaluation practices and activities with other multilateral development banks through the Evaluation Cooperation Group, and reviews new operations to ensure that lessons learned and appropriate monitoring and evaluation frameworks have been incorporated. A more rigorous system to monitor the cumulative progress of actions taken on the department’s recommendations became operational in 2009. The management action record system serves as an accountability mechanism to monitor how the department’s recommendations are acted upon. The system allows

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assessment of how ADB Management incorporates the findings and recommendations of evaluations into its decision making. The system provides wide electronic access to evaluation recommendations. It also promotes ADB ownership and allows systematic tracking to help validate actions taken. To ensure improved development effectiveness, IED highlighted the importance of monitoring outcomes, particularly after loans are closed.

IED’s work program is rooted in Strategy 2020 and the ninth replenishment of the Asian Development Fund (ADF). It takes into account ADB’s changing operating environment and promotes self-evaluation by operational departments and developing member countries. IED increasingly turned to providing input into ADB policies and programs to ensure greater consistency with overall strategy. Both higher-level evaluations on a regional scale and the strengthening of self-evaluation within ADB’s

Helping Lives to Flow
delivering an eFFective organization
Independent evaluation allowed the success of a water and sanitation project in Pakistan to be gauged, while highlighting where there was room for improvement
dB-funded water and sanitation projects in Pakistan’s Punjab province brought the welcome benefit of freedom from an arduous task for one schoolgirl. “I do not have to suffer from back pain and headache from fetching water from outside. I can now go to high school and think about my future,” she says. The $38 million Punjab Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Project, completed in 2003, improved conditions for about 900,000 people in 335 communities; and the $50 million Punjab community Water Supply and Sanitation Project, completed in 2007, brought the same kind of benefits to about 2.3 million people in 788 communities. An assessment by AdB’s Independent evaluation department showed the sense of liberation felt by the girl in Rawalpindi and other districts, and improved the lives of the 3.2 million people given access to clean water. The department’s study measured the impact of the projects on health, school attendance, labor force participation, and the hours worked. comparisons with almost identical households in a similar location outside the project area enabled the scale of improvements to be estimated and attributed more accurately. The study compared a representative sample of 1,301 beneficiary households selected randomly from 115 communities (10% of communities in the project areas) with a comparison group of 1,301 randomly selected households from 115 communities that were not part of the project. These two groups were well matched in terms of all key socioeconomic attributes except access to a potable water supply. It was found that AdB assistance greatly improved access to drinking water and particularly benefited women and girls, freed from the time and difficulty of carrying water from far-flung places. “My girls do not have to walk long distances to fetch water because it is available within the house. I am happy with water quality and availability,” said a woman from Faisalabad district. The time and effort saved has resulted in 8.2% more girls (14–17 years old) attending high school, and significantly reduced the school dropout rate in the project areas, even among the poorest. Better access to safe water supply did not, however, improve women’s participation in the workforce, nor did it significantly reduce the incidence and intensity of diarrhea. Rural water supply and sanitation projects focus more on improving water access to the households, and less on managing wastewater and solid waste. The study concluded that the next step in project design to improve the effectiveness of AdB investments is to create synergies between water supply and the safe disposal of waste water.

A

“My girls do not have to walk long distances because water is available within the house”
Supplying running water in villages saves women from an arduous task

—A mother, faisalabad district, Pakistan

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Greenhouse Gas Emissions and ADB Operations in the Energy Sector
s a significant proportion of greenhouse gas (GhG) emissions originates from the energy sector, energy operations are critical to controlling pollution. At the same time, because of the vital role that energy availability plays in economic development, AdB assigns a high priority to investments in this sector. To address global concerns that GhG emissions accelerate climate change, both AdB’s Strategy 2020 and its 2009 energy Policy require that AdB assist developing member countries to put their economies on a low-carbon growth path. In particular, AdB is to help developing member countries improve energy efficiency, expand the use of energy derived from clean sources, reduce fugitive GhG emissions such as methane from landfills, modernize public transport systems, and arrest deforestation. In fulfilling this mandate, the Independent evaluation department recently reviewed AdB’s energy sector assistance to Bangladesh, the People’s Republic of china, India, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Viet Nam. These countries account for 80% of AdB assistance to the energy sector. comparing the periods 2001–2005 and 2006–2008, the review found that annual lending to clean energy projects increased fourfold to about $670 million,

A

the share of clean energy projects in total energy sector assistance increased from 26% to 43%, and energy sector assistance to the private sector (without government guarantee) increased twelvefold. The review also found AdB has increasingly emphasized GhG–efficient investments in its energy sector portfolio. The review found that in promoting investment in energy efficiency, AdB focuses more on energy sector entities rather than broad reforms of the entire sector. Scope exists for AdB to assist developing member countries to cut the high cost of energy from renewable sources. This can be done by helping developing member countries introduce more appropriate technologies, encouraging local production of equipment, and exploiting economies of scale. Finally, the review recommended that AdB promote GhG-efficient investments by helping developing member countries reduce the incremental cost of cleancoal technologies, encourage the use of appropriate and affordable renewable energy technologies, aggressively pursue methane capture projects, focus on projects that increase energy efficiency in the industry sector, and assess the GhG implications of proposed energy-sector investments.

delivering an eFFective organization

operational departments continued. IED also helped developing member countries build capacity to evaluate and monitor investments. In the People’s Republic of China, IED and the World Bank’s Evaluation Group jointly provided training in this regard. IED completed country assistance program evaluations for Bangladesh, Cambodia, Nepal, and Viet Nam. The department conducted several higher-level special evaluation studies relating to public–private partnerships, rural roads, gender and development, and justice reforms in selected developing countries. It evaluated ADB assistance to public sector reform in Pacific island countries. IED used quasi-experimental methods to assess the development impact of ADB operations (Helping Lives to Flow, p. 22). Besides providing timely feedback on operational documents, IED also continued to carry out real-time evaluation. It examined the ongoing Emergency Rehabilitation of Calamity Damage Project in Viet Nam, as well as ADB’s response to the global financial crisis of 2008–2009. In sum, IED continued to perform credible, timely, and strategic higher-level evaluations, and to encourage and validate self-evaluation by operational departments and developing member countries.

sTReNGTHeNiNG LeARNiNG
Learning from independent evaluation
IED disseminated its findings and lessons learned on its website and through knowledge products such as Learning Curves, Evaluation Alerts, Evaluation Presentations, and Evaluation News. IED also introduced Evaluation Knowledge Brief, which analyzes specific areas of ADB operations with respect to issues that interest both the developing member countries and the donor community. The first brief analyzed the interrelationship between economic growth, ADB operations in the energy sector, the global problem of greenhouse gas emissions, and Strategy 2020’s emphasis on environmentally sustainable growth (Greenhouse Gas Emissions and ADB Operations in the Energy Sector, p. 23). Such department initiatives provide timely information on matters of broad concern to development stakeholders and help decision makers take action. In February, IED’s internal structure was reconfigured to align with ADB’s overall organizational structure. IED also established a strategy, quality, and knowledge unit

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within the office of the director general to provide quality assurance services, improve and refine evaluation methodologies, and manage knowledge products. Finally, the department began developing a long-term strategy to 2020 to ensure appropriate responses to the region’s development requirements that are likely to emerge.

Generating and sharing Knowledge
ADB’s Strategy 2020 underlined the importance of knowledge solutions as a driver of change. On 31 July, President Kuroda approved a comprehensive plan of action to ensure that the organization’s knowledge products and services remains of the highest quality, continues to expand, and is of practical use in developing member countries. The plan is organized into four clusters. The first focuses on adding value to ADB’s operations in developing member countries, and the other three deal with how to do it. The plan is designed to sharpen the knowledge focus in ADB’s operations, empower communities of practice, strengthen external knowledge partnerships, and enhance staff learning and skills. Several parts of the plan were launched in 2009, building on work started in the previous year. Measures for implementing others were incorporated into ADB’s Work Program and Budget Framework (2010–2012). In November, the Regional and Sustainable Development Department began to formulate a knowledge management results framework to monitor and report on implementation. Toward the end of the year, ADB conducted its annual Most Admired Knowledge Enterprise survey to gauge staff perception of how effective ADB was in managing knowledge in 2009. Staff participation increased by

delivering an eFFective organization

155% over 2008, and the survey confirmed improved organizational knowledge capacities, especially in developing and delivering client knowledge-based projects and services and in creating a knowledge-sharing environment throughout the organization. In response to requests from policy makers, ADB Institute evaluated the impacts of the global crisis on Asia. The research recommended macroprudential surveillance and regulation of the finance sector; deepening of regional bond markets, including promotion of rating agencies, and harmonization of issuing requirements, regulations, and tax regimes; a regime for monetary policy that takes account of asset price movements to avoid development of bubbles; greater liberalization of regional trade (including services) and investment; development of an Asian infrastructure investment fund; stronger social safety nets and national pension systems; and policies and strategies to achieve low-carbon growth more cost-effectively and to lower trade barriers for green technology transfer. ADB Institute’s distinguished-speaker seminar series encouraged debate and knowledge sharing. At nine presentations, internationally known experts spoke on policy and development issues, including reform of international economic institutions, post-crisis issues facing Asia and the Pacific, and United States trade policy toward Asia.

sharpening the Knowledge focus in ADB operations
ADB leveraged its comparative advantages—expertise in identifying trends in the region, capacity for interdisciplinary and integrated approaches, and its ability to blend

Enhancing Knowledge Management under Strategy 2020: Plan of Action for 2009–2011
Sharpen the knowledge focus in ADB’s operations (Add value at regional, country, and project levels)

Empower the communities of practice (Collaborate for knowledge generation and sharing)

Strengthen external knowledge partnerships (Align and leverage external knowledge)

Further enhance staff learning and skills development (enhance opportunities for staff to learn)

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knowledge and insight with large, concessional financing— to generate and share operationally relevant knowledge. At the regional level, the knowledge departments generated and shared knowledge highlighting ADB’s stance on critical challenges in Asia and the Pacific. These products, designed to help key regional stakeholders make informed decisions and take positive action, received much coverage in the global media, reinforcing ADB’s image as a knowledge source. (See Appendix 14 for a list of ADB’s knowledge products.) Asian Development Outlook 2009: Rebalancing Asia’s Growth discussed the mix of actions that were undertaken in Asian economies to mitigate the effects of the global economic crisis and recommended measures to rebalance Asia’s growth. Asian Development Outlook 2009 Update concentrated on broadening the scope and structure of Asia’s openness to trade, capital flows, and movement of workers. ADB Institute’s conference with the Brookings Institution discussed the principles of financial regulation, financial development and regulation in emerging markets, macroeconomic frameworks to support financial stability and inclusion, and cross-border regulation of capital flows. The Regional and Sustainable Development Department and ADB Institute organized a conference on The Impact of the Global Economic Slowdown on Poverty and Sustainable Development in Asia and the Pacific in Ha Noi, Viet Nam. The conference also served as the 3rd China–ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations) Forum on Social Development and Poverty Reduction and the 4th ASEAN+3 High-Level Seminar on Poverty Reduction. 2009 Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific—besides featuring the latest available economic, financial, social, and environmental indicators for the region—deliberated on the impact of the crisis on small and medium-sized enterprises, and on how they might foster greater dynamism once the crisis has played out. Infrastructure for a Seamless Asia projected an annual infrastructure investment of $750 billion in the region during 2010–2020 and proposed an infrastructure fund to mobilize Asian and international funds. Economics of Climate Change in Southeast Asia: A Regional Review demonstrated to stakeholders, including policy makers and the private sector, that a wide range of adaptation measures are already being applied, and that the region has great potential to contribute to the global reduction of greenhouse gas emissions.

To further monitor developments in the region, Asia Capital Markets Monitor was launched. It is an annual report that reviews recent developments in Asia’s stock, bond, and currency markets, along with their outlook, risks, and policy implications. Asia Bond Monitor was launched as a quarterly publication to provide more timely analysis of local-currency-denominated bond markets in the wake of the global financial crisis. The semiannual Asia Economic Monitor was published in July and December. At the country level, the knowledge departments produced diagnostics to mainstream in-depth analysis of binding developments in ADB country partnership strategy formulation and improvements in project design. Examples included Diagnosing the Philippine Economy—Toward Inclusive Growth; Nepal: Critical Development Constraints; and Sanitation in India—Progress, Differentials, Correlates, and Challenges. The statistical database system, ADB’s searchable database for storing annually updated macroeconomic and social data from national statistical offices and central banks, continued to support ADB’s operations. The Economics and Research Department conducted a workshop on Challenges in Managing National Statistical Systems to build the capacity of national statistical offices and planning and finance ministries. At the project level, successful practices were documented and disseminated through briefs and good-practice papers. Many of these were founded on IED’s studies as well as self-evaluations. The Knowledge Showcase series—which presents innovative ideas and serves to foster discussion and research, and perhaps even encourages replication—covered disaster management, public accountability, and more. The readership increased both inside and outside ADB. Knowledge Solutions—quick reference guides to tools, methods, and approaches that propel development and enhance its effects—attracted more attention. Topics on strategy development, management techniques, collaboration mechanisms, knowledge sharing and learning, and knowledge capture and storage were covered in 43 issues added to the series. ADB Economics Working Paper Series, ADB Regional Economic Integration Working Paper Series, ADBI Working PaperSeries, ADB Briefs, and Asian Development Review—the forums for ongoing and recently completed research and policy studies by ADB and ADB Institute staff members, consultants, and resource persons—continued to stimulate discussion on key economic and development issues in the region.

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empowering the Communities of Practice
Communities of practice (CoPs)help generate and share knowledge, ultimately to the benefit of ADB’s clients. They keep know-how in sectoral and thematic domains alive by continuously sharing what they know, building on it, and adapting knowledge to specific applications. ADB hosted CoPs on topics such as agriculture and food security, education, energy, environment, finance, gender, governance, health, regional cooperation, transport, urban development, and water. The year saw a surge in support to CoPs, beginning with the first-ever survey to gauge factors contributing to their performance. Next came interventions to fill gaps and boost effectiveness— including significant budget increases, streamlined guidelines on sector and thematic reporting, a brainstorming session toward a forum on learning, and an inaugural year-end gathering to give in-house CoPs a chance to highlight their accomplishments and exchange lessons. CoPs contributed to key ADB documents, among them the Operational Plan for Sustainable Food Security and Sustainable Transport Initiatives and Action Plan. They also undertook numerous regional studies in aid of project design and implementation, including rapid gender assessments in four developing member countries, market analysis and project identification for nonsovereign lending in urban infrastructure in the People’s Republic of China, and an assessment of the community impact of environmental infrastructure in Pakistan. Outreach to stakeholders also gained firmer footing, with CoP members providing advice on projects managed by their peers (e.g., the Viet Nam Mong Duong 2 Power Plant), and CoPs as a group forging stronger links with development partners (e.g., the Clean Air Initiative for Asian Cities). Finally, the CoPs broadened ADB’s knowledge base by producing a long list of knowledge products, including good-practice studies on education, tool kits for urban transport development, and e-newsletters and video documentaries on water.

The number of ADB-assisted water-related hubs grew from 13 to 17. They offered innovative solutions in river basin management, climate change adaptation, water quality management, and irrigation service reforms. Seven regional knowledge hubs established in 2006 on clean energy; climate change; public finance; public–private partnerships; reducing, reusing, and recycling; sustainable development; and regional trade and investment cooperation stood to complete their deliverables in the first half of 2010. Work on guidelines to design knowledge partnerships for collaborative advantage was initiated to strengthen existing partnerships and develop new ones. Country diagnostics were developed in partnership with the United Kingdom’s Department for International Development and Department of Foreign Affairs, the International Labour Organization, the Islamic Development Bank, the United Nations (UN) Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific, and relevant government agencies. The Workshop on Challenges in Managing National Statistical Systems was held in collaboration with the Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN. ADB signed a milestone agreement with the National University of Singapore’s Lee Kuan Yew School of Public Policy to exchange information, knowledge, and staff. ADB Institute served as a forum for Asian think tanks to forge recommendations for East Asian countries participating in the G20 London Summit. The forum called for collective action in East Asia and encouraged the US and Europe to improve their fiscal and financial health. About 1,500 people, two-thirds of whom were government officials from developing member countries, attended 31 ADB Institute capacity-building events. The events tackled public–private partnerships in infrastructure, water resource management, climate change adaptation, capital market reforms, trade facilitation, eco-industrial clusters, the Millennium Development Goals, and competition policies. The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and ADB Institute’s 10th Roundtable on Capital Market Reform in Asia debated the causes of the global financial crisis, and the impact on and implications for capital market development in Asia.

delivering an eFFective organization

strengthening external Knowledge Partnerships
ADB shares insights from its development practices and benefits from knowledge generated by others. Knowledge hubs are important conduits.

enhancing staff Learning and skills
The ability of staff to learn is a precondition to the success of Strategy 2020. Beyond updating technical and professional skills, staff must also acquire and

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master methods and techniques for knowledge management and learning. Several needs-based learning programs were conducted. Among many others, these included economic analysis for investment-based lending, climate change and financing for ADB operations, and Islamic finance. The customized nature of the courses gave staff members new skills, from simulating climate change and its economic impacts to performing econometric analysis using state-of-the-art software. The Regional and Sustainable Development Department developed six courses, dubbed Learning for Change Primers, to help raise in-house capacity to leverage knowledge with information technology, grasp the essentials of successful communities of practice, understand knowledge management and learning essentials, manage knowledge at work, build a learning organization, and improve the design of knowledge partnerships. Efforts were made to capture, store, and share the knowledge of past and present staff members. Throughout the year, they explored ways to marry ADB’s narrative capacity with its analytical skills. To form a living archive, an exhibit, short structured sessions, and interactive workshops were held, and extended oral history interviews and on-location sound recordings were collected. ADB now has a pool of staff members trained to apply narrative techniques supported by a major publication, ADB: Reflections and Beyond. An accompanying audio composition, Beyond: Stories and Sounds from ADB’s Region, wove excerpts from the interviews to sounds from ADB’s headquarters and the field. Yet another product was ADB Narrative Practitioners Handbook. The successful introduction of stories and narratives in ADB significantly enhanced its ability to value, share, and capitalize on development impact.

ledge management and learning. Success stories showcasing accomplishments were publicized, and other instructive and informative materials were disseminated. Learning for Change in ADB—which illustrates how the parameters of a learning organization are defined and discusses how ADB can overcome key challenges—attracted worldwide attention. Brochures, posters, bookmarks, and digital signage sent out messages on the value of managing knowledge. Dissemination of knowledge products took traditional and modern paths. Aside from direct distribution to clients, audiences, and partners, and advertising through launches, press conferences, media interviews, and ADB websites, modern tools like blogs, tweets, social networking facilities, e-flyers, and podcasts were used to expand outreach and engage stakeholders.

delivering an eFFective organization

Disclosure and Transparency
Since the approval of its public communications policy in April 2005, ADB has become much more transparent in the way it communicates with the public and shares information with its stakeholders, particularly about ADB projects. Of initial project information documents for public and private sector projects under preparation, 97% were disclosed on ADB’s website (63% in 2006). Disclosure has become more timely each year since the policy’s approval in 2005. Policy and strategy papers, agendas, and minutes of meetings of ADB’s Board of Directors, and summaries of Board discussions on strategy, policies, and regional and country partnership strategies were made public, as were documents required for public disclosure during project design and implementation, including environmental assessments. Staff members (273, including 106 from resident missions) were briefed on the policy. The staff disclosure handbook was updated to cover new document types. Seminars on the policy were held for development partners, including 58 developing member country officials, and civil society organizations in Cambodia and Viet Nam. ADB also informed 30 network members of the NGO (Nongovernment) Forum on ADB of their right to access information and of the status of policy implementation. ADB continued to maintain and improve the disclosure information technology systems to adjust to changes in business processes and to address user concerns. The

Raising Awareness of Knowledge Management and Learning
Seeds planted in knowledge products and services blossomed into greater awareness and improved performance throughout the year. ADB’s web pages on knowledge management and learning (www.adb.org/ knowledge-management) were overhauled, sparking an immediate doubling of readership. Their content and usability were enhanced and instruments introduced to generate enthusiasm about ADB work, including tools, methods, and approaches for know-

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InfoUnit responded to all external requests in 4 days on average, the maximum time limit allowed by the policy being 30 days.

MAKiNG THe MosT of ADB ResoURCes
improving Human Resources Management
ADB shows its commitment to institutional effectiveness by continually improving human resources management. The 2008 comprehensive review of the human resources strategy (2005–2007) underscored the importance of linking ADB’s human resources management to its business to support and deliver Strategy 2020’s required results. The findings of the review and the 2008 staff engagement survey were combined to develop a detailed, time-bound human resources action plan. Its priority was the development of a new strategy on which to base workforce planning for successful implementation of Strategy 2020, taking into account projected growth in the number of staff from 2010 to 2012 that the fifth general capital increase will finance. Our People Strategy was drafted and circulated to the Board of Directors for discussion. An equally important section of the plan consists of measures to strengthen the human resources function (Finance and Administration, p. 92).

delivering an eFFective organization

from the country partnership strategy process and merged with ADB’s knowledge management functions. This will permit more demand-driven analytical work to be carried out with the participation of development partners. Loan delivery reforms included a single concept clearance process (combining project preparatory technical assistance and loans), the further merging of the project preparatory phase with loan processing, and enhanced quality assurance through a risk-based project categorization of operations (including greater management and peer scrutiny of complex projects). Still other reforms included more strategic and sector-focused peer review; better use of the project administration manual in project design, readiness, and implementation; and the introduction of indefinite delivery contracts to mobilize the expertise of consultants. These are expected to halve the average time for processing loans.

strengthening Risk Management
The Risk Management Unit was upgraded to the Office of Risk Management on 1 October. The expanded role will bring ADB into line with best market practice, including those of other multilateral development banks, and ensure greater efficiency and effectiveness of ADB’s operations. In conjunction with the review of ADB’s policy on exposure limits for nonsovereign operations (Review of Exposure Limits on Nonsovereign Operations, p. 15), ADB introduced a new risk-rating methodology for nonsovereign operations. This assigns loans to categories based on a complete assessment of credit risk and will help ADB gauge the potential losses and amount of capital needed to be set aside for absorbing expected and unexpected losses. As well as allowing for improved management of credit risks in ADB’s nonsovereign loan and guarantee portfolios, the methodology applies a system for considering credit risk when pricing new transactions, and adds to efficiency by standardizing credit processes. Work is also under way to develop an integrated risk management system that will provide an information technology platform to monitor and manage risk more efficiently.

streamlining Business Processes
ADB completed an assessment of its business processes. The work aimed to improve efficiency and streamline processes without sacrificing quality in two areas: the country partnership strategy and loan delivery. Working groups were established to consider options for streamlining documentation and reducing complex processing steps and reviews. Their recommendations were approved by Management in November. ADB is refocusing its country partnership strategies on the points where a country’s development plans and Strategy 2020 intersect. This will better align ADB resources with the national strategic planning cycle. Other improvements in ADB’s strategies included enhanced review processes through peer group assessments and the creation of a single documentation platform. In-depth sector and thematic evaluations were unbundled

Audit
ADB’s loan, grant, and technical assistance operations are audited independently by the Office of the Auditor General (OAG). The office also conducts audits of finan-

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cial, accounting, risk management, and administrative processes, and information systems. Risk assessment is at the heart of the audit process, which is geared to strengthening internal controls and governance, and ensuring compliance with ADB policies, procedures, and regulations. The audits achieve improvements in the effectiveness, efficiency, and economy of operational, financial, administrative, and information technology activities. OAG also works with Deloitte and Touche Singapore, ADB’s newly appointed outside auditor, to ensure effective transition and proper coordination of audit activities. Formalized principles for the selection of the outside auditor are under discussion with the Audit Committee of the Board of Directors. These principles will apply to the next selection of the outside auditor, which will take place in 2012, and will serve to further increase the transparency of the outside auditor selection process. OAG completed 25 audits in 2009. Loan, grant, and technical assistance portfolios of selected headquarters divisions, resident missions, and regional offices were reviewed in terms of their compliance with ADB policies and procedures and contractual agreements. The audits took account of the accuracy, reliability, and timeliness of financial, managerial, and operating information, and looked at whether significant loan and grant objectives were achieved. The audits also considered the propriety of disbursements of operational activities and the processes for safeguarding assets. Financial and administrative audits were conducted at headquarters and selected resident missions and regional offices to assess the reliability of financial data and the effectiveness of operations. Treasury reviews examined the investments of the staff retirement plan and the investment management system. Reviews of information systems covered the independent verification and validation of the governance of the Information Systems Technology Strategy II program, several information technology systems under development, and disaster recovery testing of critical systems. Several consultant contracts were audited to ensure the authenticity of claims. OAG also issued six internal audit certifications to donors of trust and grant funds upon the request of the Office of Cofinancing Operations and in compliance with the technical assistance letters of agreement and/or memoranda of understanding. Throughout the year, OAG continually monitored the progress of outstand-

ing recommendations, with an emphasis on high-risk recommendations.

integrity and Anticorruption Activities
ADB separated its Integrity Division from OAG and established the Office of Anticorruption and Integrity (OAI) in October to ensure independence and impartiality in investigations and other activities pursuant to ADB’s Anticorruption Policy. OAI serves as the reception point for allegations of fraud and corruption in ADB-financed activity. It is responsible for conducting independent and objective investigations of fraud and corruption, collusive and coercive practices, conflict of interest, and abuses. Working with other offices, OAI also advances awareness among stakeholders of Anticorruption Policy requirements. As part of its overall efforts to encourage the reporting of integrity violations and misconduct, ADB introduced provisions for whistle-blower and witness protection within its framework for regulating staff conduct. Among other things, the provisions establish how to respond to whistle-blowing-related retaliation, and provide clarity on the remedies for retaliation against whistle-blowers. ADB received 194 new allegations related to ADBfinanced projects and ADB staff members, and sanctioned 68 individuals and 56 firms. Six project procurement– related reviews (formerly called project procurement– related audits) were carried out on projects in Armenia, Cambodia, India, Papua New Guinea, the Philippines, and Sri Lanka. Three limited project procurement– related reviews were conducted in Mongolia. OAI held anticorruption training sessions in Indonesia, Mongolia, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam under two regional technical assistance projects. The office also conducted 18 orientation seminars and 5 fraud and corruption awareness workshops as part of ADB’s continuing endeavors to ensure that all ADB staff members observe the highest standards of integrity and ethics.

delivering an eFFective organization

ethics
The Ethics Committee was established by the Board of Directors in November 2006 to assist the Board of Directors with matters of ethics that may arise under the Code of Conduct for Directors, Alternates, and the President (see Board of Directors, p. 11, for details).

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Sector and thematic highlightS

Chapter 5

SECTOR AND THEMATIC HIGHLIGHTS

ADB strengthened strategies and safeguards to support efforts of the entire organization and development partners to facilitate sustainable and inclusive economic growth. A new energy Policy promoted the transition to a low-carbon economy, putting the environment at the heart of infrastructure investments. At a time of stress for Asia and the Pacific, ADB helped governments and the finance sector to better serve people and responded to growing demand for assistance in higher education. strategies helped steer developing member countries toward achieving the Millennium Development Goals, and to mainstream gender equality into policies and programs.

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s

trategy 2020 envisions ADB operations focusing on a handful of priority sectors and thematic areas that align best with the long-term agenda for inclusive growth. These priorities take into account the current needs of developing member countries but remain adaptable to demands and challenges yet to come. ADB has mobilized its resources and strengthened its support to meet this agenda.

sUsTAiNABLe iNfRAsTRUCTURe
Energy. ADB approved a new Energy Policy to promote energy security, universal access, and the transition to a low-carbon economy. The Energy Efficiency Initiative—the main vehicle for increasing investments in clean energy to $1.0 billion a year—was completed, with ADB’s investments reaching $2.8 billion over the last 2 years. Redubbed the Clean Energy Program, it monitored the extent to which ADB’s clean energy investments reduced greenhouse gas emissions, saved kilowatt-hours, and produced megawatts from renewable energy sources. Transport. ADB’s Sustainable Transport Initiative provided enhanced support to developing member countries in developing inclusive, clean, and energy-efficient transport projects and policies. ADB expanded partnerships in the transport sector, which led to the launch of the Partnership on Sustainable Low-Carbon Transport in Developing Countries. ADB signed a memorandum of understanding with the Inter-American Development Bank for cooperation on sustainable low-carbon transport, and was among the 50 organizations that signed the Bellagio Declaration on Transportation and Climate Change. Water. ADB’s Water Financing Program continued to promote increased investment in the water sector. By the end of 2009, 4 years after the program was launched in 2006, ADB had processed over $8 billion in water investments. Approvals for water loans in 2009 amounted to $1.6 billion. The Water Financing Partnership Facility, which was established to support the project, registered a total of $48 million in confirmed commitments from financing partners by the end of 2009. ADB emphasized the need for investments in sanitation “from toilet to river” in developing member countries. Beneficiaries included Azerbaijan, Cambodia, Indonesia, Kiribati, Pakistan, Palau, Samoa, Sri Lanka, Uzbekistan, and Viet Nam. ADB also increased assistance for climate change adaptation in the water sector. Urban development. Urban environment infrastructure is a high priority under Strategy 2020, addressing the pressing issues of climate change, poverty reduction, and the creation of livable and sustainable cities. The urban sector accounts for an increasing share of ADB

CLiMATe CHANGe
ADB further strengthened its capacity to support developing member countries in meeting climate change challenges. ADB engaged an advisory group of internationally recognized eminent persons, and drafted corporate priorities for action to provide strategic guidance to operations. ADB completed climate change implementation plans to guide operations in its five subregions and approved more than 40 new grant-financed programs, which leveraged over $600 million in low-carbon, climateresilient investments. A climate change coordination unit was established. ADB convened the High-Level Dialogue on Climate Change to discuss imperatives for climate action and mobilized climate finance for clean technology, climate resilience, forest protection, and renewable energy in low-income countries through the Climate Investment Funds, the Global Environment Facility, and the carbon market. The Future Carbon Fund provides up-front financing for post-2012 carbon credits. ADB also completed several ground-breaking studies on climate change: Impacts of Climate Change in Southeast Asia, Improving Energy Security and Reducing Carbon Intensity in Asia and the Pacific, Building Climate Resilience in the Agriculture Sector in Asia and the Pacific, and Climate Change and Migration in Asia and the Pacific.

Sector and thematic highlightS

ADB completed climate change implementation plans to guide operations in its five subregions and approved more than 40 new grantfinanced programs, which leveraged over $600 million of low-carbon, climate-resilient investment

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lending, with 20 loans totaling $2.3 billion approved in 2009. The Cities Development Initiative for Asia, supported by Germany, Spain, Sweden, and the Nordic Development Fund, with operations in 16 countries, leveraged resources with cofinancing and partnerships with private sector operations to approve programs and pre-feasibility studies in 11 cities. The Urban Financing Partnership Facility, designed to provide investment cofinancing for environmental infrastructure, and initially supported by Sweden with $85 million in grants and guarantees, was approved.

education and training, and cost sharing and financing in higher education. ADB also launched a regional study and capacity development project, Higher Education in Dynamic Asia. Health. ADB focused on areas where its skills and experience are bringing the greatest benefits: water and sanitation infrastructure projects; governance and public expenditure management in health programs in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Mongolia, and the Philippines; waste management in Bangladesh; and evidence-based advocacy and policy support in collaboration with other development partners. With the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and others, ADB helped develop an investment case for maternal, newborn, and child health; with the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the regional data hub for targeted interventions in HIV programs was further developed; and with the World Health Organization (WHO) and the World Bank, ADB initiated the Asia Pacific Health Observatory. ADB strengthened its partnership with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations and with the United Nations technical agencies (the Food and Agriculture Organization and the WHO) to develop regional collaboration and capacity to prevent and control infectious diseases. Asia was well prepared when the H1N1 pandemic hit the region. Millennium Development Goals. Taking into account the 2015 deadline for the United Nations Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the global economic slowdown, ADB committed $1.5 million to monitor and accelerate the achievement of MDGs in its developing member countries. Working with the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), ADB finalized its

fiNANCe AND GoVeRNANCe
Sector and thematic highlightS
Finance sector development. Finance sector development lending amounted to $410 million, or about 6% of total lending. The loans supported general finance sector and capital market development, and finance infrastructure development for small and medium-sized enterprises, infrastructure, and housing. Most technical assistance for finance sector development supported the preparation of lending programs or projects; the remainder backed collective efforts by developing member countries to promote regional economic and financial integration, international standards, and sound practices. Governance. Under the Second Governance and Anticorruption Action Plan, ADB neared completion of its risk assessments for several countries, focusing on public finance management, procurement, and anticorruption policies. ADB supported the Capacity Development for Development Effectiveness Program, designed to help governments of developing member countries implement capacity development policies to further the Accra Agenda for Action.

HUMAN DeVeLoPMeNT
Education. ADB responded to growing demand from developing member countries for assistance in education with the establishment of Focus on Education, a series of knowledge products that includes reports on good practice in information and communication technology for education, technical and vocational

ADB supports equal-opportunity education in Indonesia

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2009 MDG progress report, which discusses the effects of the global economic slowdown on MDGs and recommends ways to prevent backsliding. ADB also discussed the need for social protection in developing member countries with programs on social assistance, conditional cash transfers, and community-driven development. Gender mainstreaming in ADB operations. ADB set targets to achieve “gender mainstreaming”—the inclusion of gender-related analyses in program and project design—in 40% of public sector projects and in 50% of Asian Development Fund (ADF) projects by 2012. It established the interdepartmental Technical Working Group on Gender Mainstreaming to find ways to achieve the targets and reverse the retrogression of recent years. ADB also monitored pipeline projects for gender mainstreaming opportunities, increased the number of gender specialists in regional departments, conducted briefings, and developed reference materials. The Gender and Development Plan of Action 2008– 2010 continued to focus on accelerated gender mainstreaming in country partnership strategies and projects, enhanced policy dialogue and capacity support to developing member countries, and improved organizational effectiveness. Country gender assessments were conducted for Mongolia and Nepal. Gender specialists in 11 ADB resident missions continued to influence gender-responsive programming at the country level and provide oversight to ensure gender-responsive projects. The number of projects that mainstreamed gender increased. More innovative gender mainstreaming designs were developed and applied. Rapid gender assessments of ongoing projects in Indonesia, Mongolia, Sri Lanka, and Viet Nam noted positive and tangible gender equality results from gender action plans in rural development, education, and water supply and sanitation.

Other key activities included protecting critical biodiversity in the Greater Mekong Subregion; financing and implementing a marine conservation program in the Coral Triangle, source of food and income for about 120 million people; and supporting the Heart of Borneo Initiative to preserve the largest remaining forest in Southeast Asia. ADB also approved its Safeguard Policy Statement (see Policy and Strategy Overview, p. 15).

CRossCUTTiNG iNiTiATiVes
Agriculture and food security. ADB approved seven loans for agriculture and natural resources, totaling $443 million. Its non-loan fund of $154 million attracted $36 million in cofinancing. The new Agriculture, Rural Development, and Food Security Unit supervised ADB’s regional research programs, formulated a regional agriculture research agenda as part of the global research program of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research, and commissioned a study on Building Climate Resilience in the Agriculture Sector of Asia and the Pacific. Emergency assistance and disaster risk management. ADB approved the Asia Pacific Disaster Response Fund, which provides grants of up to $3 million to help governments cover the immediate costs of responses to natural disasters. Grants have been given to Indonesia (earthquake), the Philippines (typhoon), and Samoa (tsunami). Information and communication technology. By the end of 2009, there were 214 ADB-supported projects involving information and communication technology (ICT), including 76 loans and 138 technical assistance projects and grants. They have helped developing member countries improve ICT infrastructure; enhance ICT literacy and professional skills; and develop ICT applications, e-services, and content.

Sector and thematic highlightS

eNViRoNMeNT AND sAfeGUARDs
ADB approved 33 environmental sustainability projects totaling $3.7 billion, representing 27% more projects and 48% more funding than in 2008. It approved 91 technical assistance projects for environmental protection and climate change mitigation and adaptation.

ADB committed $1.5 million to monitor and accelerate the achievement of Millennium Development Goals in its developing member countries

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Financing operationS

Chapter 6

FINANCING OPERATIONS
ADB raised $10.4 billion in public bond issues and private placements. ADB approved a total of $16.1 billion in financing operations through loans, grants, guarantees, a trade finance facilitation program, equity investments, and technical assistance—a 42% increase from 2008. Loan cofinancing amounted to about $3.2 billion. Resources of $6.0 billion were transferred from ADB to its developing member countries, compared with $4.3 billion in 2008.

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uthorized and subscribed capital stock amounted to $166.2 billion and $60.8 billion, respectively. Other resources in ordinary capital resources (OCR) in the form of gross income, comprising revenue and net realized gains, amounted to $1.5 billion, $1.0 billion of which was generated from the loan portfolio, $489.8 million from the investment portfolio, and $45.2 million from equity investments and other sources. Resources in the form of contributions and revenue attained during 2009 in ADB’s Special Funds totaled about $4.4 billion. These included the Asian Development Fund (ADF) of $4.0 billion, Technical Assistance Special Fund of $313.7 million, Japan Special Fund of $1.2 million, ADB Institute Special Fund of $8.5 million, Asian Tsunami Fund of $0.9 million, Pakistan Earthquake Fund of $2.3 million, Regional Cooperation and Integration Fund of $0.4 million, Climate Change Fund of $0.4 million, and Asia Pacific Disaster Response Fund of $40.1 million. Additional resources of 2009 commitments to trust funds, comprising commitments for three new trust funds and replenishments of existing trust funds, totaled $296.3 million. The commitments to three new trust funds amounted to $126 million, including $17.2 million by Australia to establish the Carbon Capture and Storage Fund under the Clean Energy Financing Partnership Facility, $23 million by the United Kingdom for a new
Table 2 ADB Financing Operations at a Glance ($ million)
2008 Loans ocR AdF Grants AdF Grants other Grants 8,360 1,764 10,124 707 102 809 10,933 2009 11,020 2,210 13,230 911 202 1,113 14,343 397 850 123 273 11,329 1,090 220 267 16,078 3,164 79 (2) 42 Change (%) 32 25 31 29 98 38 31

A

5-year (2009–2013) strategic partnership to fight poverty in India, and $85.8 million, including $13.8 million in grants, by Sweden for a multidonor Urban Financing Partnership Facility. Commitments to existing trust funds amounted to $170.3 million, of which Japan pledged $100.0 million to enhance the Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction initiatives, which aim to support projects and technical assistance that address the effects of the financial crisis. In addition, the establishment of the Clean Technology Fund and Strategic Climate Fund under ADB administration was approved.

fUNDiNG
ADB raised $10.4 billion in medium- and long-term funds through public bond issues and private placements. Public offerings amounted to $7.7 billion and private placements totaled $2.7 billion. Of the public offerings, $4.0 billion was raised through two US-dollar global benchmarks.

Financing operationS

oVeRVieW of oPeRATioNs
ADB approved a total of $16.1 billion in financing operations (Table 2). These included 111 loans (93 projects) for about $13.2 billion, 64 grants for $1.1 billion, two guarantees for $397 million, one trade finance facilitation program for $850 million, 5 equity investments for $220 million, and 313 technical assistance projects for $267 million. Top recipients of financing operations are provided in Table 3.

Loans and Grants Guarantees Trade Finance Facilitation Program equity Technical Assistance TOTAL Memorandum Item cofinancing

AdF = Asian development Fund, ocR = ordinary capital resources. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding.

ADB approved a total of $16.1 billion in financing operations through loans, grants, guarantees, a trade finance facilitation program, equity investments, and technical assistance projects

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TABLe 3 Top Recipients by Approval, 2009 ($ million)
Loans Sovereign Viet Nam Indonesia china, People’s Republic of India Philippines Bangladesh Pakistan Kazakhstan Sri Lanka Nepal Regional other dMcs Total 1,925.9 2,184.2 1,762.1 1,711.0 1,056.1 1,027.9 940.0 687.0 330.0 172.8 – 990.5 12,787.3 Nonsovereign – – 192.9 100.0 120.0 – – – – – – 30.0 442.9 Grants 3.5 5.0 9.9 2.0 4.9 58.5 – – 14.5 172.5 – 842.7 1,113.5 Guarantees 325.0 40.0 25.0 40.0 TFFP Equity Technical Assistance 10.6 6.3 24.6 19.5 6.5 12.0 2.7 0.8 8.4 5.7 120.7 49.2 267.2 Total 2,265.0 2,235.5 2,014.4 1,872.5 1,187.5 1,098.3 942.7 687.8 352.9 351.0 1,085.7 1,984.2 16,077.6

850.0 71.8 396.8 850.0

115.0 220.0

– = nil, dMc = developing member country, TFFP = Trade Finance Facilitation Program. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding.

Financing operationS

Overall, sovereign lending of $12.8 billion approved in 2009 increased by 48.6% compared with $8.6 billion approved in 2008 LoANs
Of the $13.2 billion in loans, sovereign lending amounted to $12.8 billion for 104 loans (86 projects/programs), comprising 57 loans from ADB’s OCR for $10.6 billion, and 47 loans from ADF for $2.2 billion. These amounts include about $3.4 billion—pursuant to periodic financing
TABLe 4 Operations by Sector, 2008–2009
Loans 2008 $ million Agriculture and Natural Resources education energy Finance health and Social Protection Industry and Trade Public Sector Management Transport and IcT Water Supply and other Municipal Infrastructure and Services Multisector Total
IcT = information and communication technology. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding.

requests approved in 2009 under multitranche financing facilities—for 18 OCR loans for $3.1 billion and 6 ADF loans for $328.8 million. Overall, sovereign lending of $12.8 billion approved in 2009 increased by 48.6% compared with $8.6 billion approved in 2008 (an increase of 54.7% for OCR and 25.3% for ADF lending). Two nonsovereign public sector loans to state-owned enterprises for $134.3 million were approved. Five nonsovereign loans (5 projects) to the private sector for $308.6 million were also approved—74.7% less than the $1.2 billion for 10 loans (9 projects) in 2008. Of the 93 projects and programs approved in 2009, 67 (72.8%) were general interventions and 25 (27.2%) were targeted interventions (excluding one project with

Grants 2009 2008 % 3.4 0.6 16.1 3.9 0.7 0.8 40.1 17.7 6.1 10.6 $ million 82.6 27.8 259.9 1.0 15.7 10.0 122.4 169.1 59.9 60.5 % 10.2 3.4 32.1 0.1 1.9 1.2 15.1 20.9 7.4 7.5 2009 $ million 174.5 173.7 95.3 3.5 35.0 1.6 57.0 355.2 110.4 107.3 1,113.5 % 15.7 15.6 8.6 0.3 3.1 0.1 5.1 31.9 9.9 9.6 100.0 $ million 443.5 85.0 2,125.9 510.0 93.1 101.0 5,306.4 2,347.8 808.5 1,409.0

% 6.0 1.0 25.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 18.0 27.0 9.0 8.0

607.5 130.0 2,567.5 217.8 172.0 167.5 1,845.0 2,688.1 873.6 855.0

10,123.9 100.0

13,230.2 100.0

808.9 100.0

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TABLe 5a Loan Cofinancing Arrangements,a 2007–2009 ($ million)
2007 Sovereign Nonsovereign Total Syndications commercial Loansb official Loans Total 0.0 0.0 120.5 120.5 200.0 0.0 0.0 200.0 200.0 0.0 120.5 320.5 2008 Sovereign Nonsovereign 0.0 0.0 664.6 664.6 425.0 0.0 0.0 425.0 Total 425.0 0.0 664.6 1,089.6 Sovereign 0.0 0.0 2,768.0 2,768.0 2009 Nonsovereign 276.2 120.0 0.0 396.2 Total 276.2 120.0 2,768.0 3,164.2

Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding. a comprising direct value-added loan cofinancing for projects, i.e., those with administrative or collaborative arrangements with AdB. Net of cancellations. b collaborative cofinancing under a framework agreement.

TABLe 5b Loan Cofinancing Arrangements,a 2007–2009 (number of projects)
2007 Sovereign Syndications commercial Loans official Loans Total DVA Cofinancing
b

2008 Total 1 0 6 7 Sovereign 0 0 5 5 Nonsovereign 2 0 0 2 Total 2 0 5 7 Sovereign 0 0 10 10

2009 Nonsovereign 3 1 0 4 Total 3 1

Nonsovereign 1 0 0 1

0 0 6 6

Financing operationS

10 14

dVA = direct value-added. Note: Totals may not add up because a project with more than one source of cofinancing is counted once. a comprising direct value-added loan cofinancing for projects, i.e., those with administrative or collaborative arrangements with AdB. Net of cancellations. b collaborative cofinancing under a framework agreement.

pre-2004 targeting classification). Economic growth was the most common theme and was associated with 76 projects. Public sector management received the largest share of lending (40.1%) by sector (Table 4). Of the 93 projects and programs, the 70 projects amounted to $7.3 billion and the 23 programs totaled $5.9 billion. The project lending included nine sector projects amounting to $567 million, compared with four sector projects amounting to $279 million in 2008. Policy-based program lending, excluding programs financed under the Countercyclical Support Facility amounted to $3.4 billion. This constituted a 38.3% increase, compared with $2.49 billion in 2008.

Of the 64 grant projects, social development was the most common theme, associated with 42 projects. Transport and information and communication technology received the largest share among the sectors (31.9%).

GUARANTees
Two guarantee operations for $397 million were approved in 2009 (Table 3).

GRANTs
ADB approved 64 grant projects for $1.1 billion in 2009. Of this amount, $911 million was funded from ADF, $13 million from ADB’s Special Funds, and $189 million from external sources with full or partial administration by ADB, comprising $35 million from the Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction, and $154 million from other bilateral and multilateral sources.

TRADe fiNANCe fACiLiTATioN PRoGRAM
ADB approved additional trade financing commitment for $850 million, which increased the total exposure limit of the Trade Finance Facilitation Program to $1 billion. In partnership with numerous commercial banks from both developing and developed countries, the program in 2009 supported $1.9 billion in trade transactions in Asia (see Thawing the Big Credit Freeze, p. 89, for the program’s impact).

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TABLe 6 Nonsovereign Operations, 2006–2009a, b ($ million)
2006 Nonsovereign Loans – Private sector – Public sector equity Partial credit Guarantee Political Risk Guarantee Trade Finance Facilitation Program 450 375 75 230 110 15 – 2007 650 640 10 80 251 – – 981 971 10 200 200 – 3,485 2008 1,522 1,222 300 123 – – – 1,645 1,345 300 425 200 225 9,992 2009 443 309 134 220 72 – 850 1,585 1,451 134 276 220 56 4,506

TABLe 7 Cumulative Nonsovereign Operations by Top Countries, 1983–2009a, b
$ million china, People’s Republic of India Indonesia Philippines Pakistan Thailand Kazakhstan Sri Lanka Viet Nam Bangladesh Afghanistan Lao People’s democratic Republic Azerbaijan Nepal Georgia Papua New Guinea Regional other dMcs Total 2,188 2,129 919 768 721 395 375 280 280 242 198 100 66 59 25 25 1,895 62 10,728 % 20.4 19.8 8.6 7.2 6.7 3.7 3.5 2.6 2.6 2.3 1.8 0.9 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.2 17.7 0.6 100.0

Total Nonsovereign Approvals 805 – Private sector 730 – Public sector 75 Memorandum Items cofinancing (B-Loans) – Private sector – Public sector Total Project Cost 330 105 225 7,678

Financing operationS

– = nil. a Includes nonsovereign projects processed by the Private Sector operations department and various regional departments of AdB. Regional departments started nonsovereign operations in 2007. b Net of facilities cancelled in full before signing.

eQUiTY oPeRATioNs
Five equity investments totaling $220.0 million were approved in 2009, compared with seven for $123.1 million in 2008.

dMc = developing member country. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding. a Includes nonsovereign projects processed by the Private Sector operations department and various regional departments of AdB. Regional departments started nonsovereign operations in 2007. b Net of facilities cancelled in full before signing.

TABLe 8 Resource Transfers to Developing Member Countries ($ million)
2008 ocR Loan disbursements 6,472 (1,923) (1,416) 57 3,190 7,898 (1,891) (1,126) 13 4,894 Principal Repaymentsa Payments of Interest/charges Net equity Investment Net AdF Loan disbursements Principal Repayments Payments of Interest/charges Net Total 2,043 (677) (256) 1,110 4,300 2,201 (845) (261) 1,095 5,989 2009

LoAN CofiNANCiNG
During 2009, cofinancing continued to be integrated into ADB’s mainstream operations planning to support the goals of Strategy 2020. The total direct value-added (DVA) loan cofinancing in 2009 amounted to about $3.2 billion for 14 initiatives (Tables 5a and 5b). Moreover, an additional $5.9 billion in discrete (non-DVA) cofinancing was realized in the form of parallel loans for eight ADB-assisted projects and programs. DVA cofinancing under official loans (i.e., those provided by bilateral and multilateral agencies) totaled $2.8 billion for 10 projects and commercial loans totaled $396.0 million comprising $276.0 million for three projects, for which ADB is lender-of-record (B-loans) and a collaborative commercial loan cofinancing of $120.0 million. ADB also continued to promote its cofinancing products. For example, ADB hosted the Asia Finance and Risk Mitigation Forum, and co-hosted with

( ) = resource inflow from developing member countries, AdF = Asian development Fund, ocR = ordinary capital resources. a Includes prepayments of $6.7 million ($277.1 million in 2008).

Australia’s Export Finance and Insurance Corporation, the Asia EXIM Banks Forum Workshop on Re-Guarantee and/or Co-Financing. The regional technical assistance for strengthening the capacity of developing member countries in managing credit enhancement products was launched during 2009.

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ADB establishes framework cofinancing agreements with its cofinanciers to effectively create a pipeline of future cofinancing operations. Such a programmatic approach to cofinancing gives predictability to ADB’s cofinancing operations, moves cofinancing upstream, and allows the use of standardized, project-specific cofinancing agreement templates that streamline cofinancing operations. By the end of 2009, six framework agreements were in effect, the total value of which amounted to approximately $9 billion over the coming 2–3 years. In 2009, ADB signed a framework cofinancing agreement with the Export–Import Bank of China for $1.5 billion over 3 years for the cofinancing of infrastructure projects.

Cumulative nonsovereign operations are largest in the People’s Republic of China (20.4%), followed by India (20%), followed by Indonesia (9%), and the Philippines (7%). Regional projects account for roughly 18% of the total (Table 7).

ResoURCe TRANsfeRs
During the year, there was a net transfer of $6.0 billion from ADB to its developing countries, compared with $4.3 billion in 2008. Of these, net resource transfers of $4.9 billion went to OCR borrowers and/or investors in 2009, compared with $3.2 billion in 2008 (Table 8). The four countries with the largest net resource transfers were India, Viet Nam, the Philippines, and the People’s Republic of China. Loan disbursements totaled $10.1 billion compared with $8.5 billion in 2008. Of the total, OCR disbursements were $7.9 billion or 78% and ADF disbursements were $2.2 billion, or 22%. Loan service payments totaled $4.1 billion in 2009 compared with $4.3 billion in 2008.

TeCHNiCAL AssisTANCe oPeRATioNs
A total of 313 technical assistance projects for $267.2 million, including 267 new and 46 supplementary projects, was approved, or 2.2% less than the 298 projects for $273.2 million approved in 2008. Of the 313 technical assistance projects, 88 are project preparatory, 114 are capacity development, 71 are policy and advisory, and 40 are research and development.

Financing operationS

NoNsoVeReiGN oPeRATioNs
ADB approved a total of 12 financial markets and infrastructure nonsovereign projects, providing about $1.6 billion in assistance (Table 6). The interventions comprise five private sector loans of $309 million; two public sector nonsovereign loans of $134 million; five equity investments of $220 million; a credit guarantee of $72 million and, as mentioned above, an increase in the total exposure limit of the Trade Finance Facilitation Program by $850 million to $1 billion in 2009. As of 31 December, the total outstanding balances and undisbursed commitments of nonsovereign operations amounted to about $4.5 billion, consisting of loans of $2.6 billion, $1.1 billion in equity investments, and guarantees of $740.0 million. ADB’s nonsovereign exposure is largest in the infrastructure sector, with a total of $ 2.7 billion, followed by the finance sector with exposure of $ 1.7 billion, and other sectors with exposure of $70.0 million.

A power station in Pakistan, aimed at harnessing the power of the private sector, goes up with ADB support

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CENTRAL AND WEST ASIA
Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Pakistan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan
The provision of regional transport connectivity, energy security and efficiency, urban services, and finance sector and government reforms formed the bedrock of ADB assistance. Approval was given to build a railway linking Uzbekistan and Afghanistan as a flagship transport project for the region. The eight countries in the Central Asia Regional economic Cooperation program endorsed an action plan for the energy sector.

Chapter 7

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oVeRVieW
DB strategy highlights transport and logistics, energy security and efficiency, urban services (water, wastewater, and urban transport), and reforms (government efficiency, access to credit, and capital markets development). The strategy is delivered through transactions structured around debt and equity finance, guarantees, and grants. Accompanying technical assistance grants train clients in planning, project management, monitoring, evaluation, and reporting. Regional cooperation, environmental sustainability, climate change, and gender are emphasized. Disbursements rose to $2.2 billion (Table 10). New lending for public sector projects and reforms reached $3.1 billion.

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ical work shifted to the start of the project, increasing time and resources for implementation, and paving the way for longer term partnerships and faster approval. Total multitranche financing in 2009 reached almost $3 billion.

ReGioNAL CooPeRATioN
The Eighth Ministerial Conference on Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC), held in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, deepened cooperation among CAREC countries (Afghanistan, Azerbaijan, the People’s Republic of China, Kazakhstan, the Kyrgyz Republic, Mongolia, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan). The conference endorsed an action plan for the energy sector and agreed on the establishment of a comprehensive results framework for the CAREC program. A yearly effectiveness report will become a standard feature of the program. ADB approved a flagship regional transport project—a new railway line connecting Hairatan in Uzbekistan to Mazar-e-Sharif in Afghanistan. This initiated a three-phase program to develop a rail network

PoRTfoLio PeRfoRMANCe
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More effective project management resulted from cooperation between client and ADB teams, supported by an improved management information system covering project performance. A “no extension” policy on poorly performing projects ensured timely, within-budget project execution. Portfolio performance also benefited from clearer readiness filters, simplified design, and advance actions on procurement, safeguards compliance, and timely counterpart finance. ADB continued to rely on programmatic financing approaches, using multitranche financing facilities and cluster program loans. The analyt-

ADB approved a flagship regional transport project—a new railway line connecting Uzbekistan to Afghanistan. This will connect Central Asia to ports in South Asia and the Caucasus

TABLe 9 Central and West Asia: Grant-Financed Project Approvals by Country, 2009 ($ million)
Country Afghanistan hairatan to Mazar-e-Sharif Railway Water Resources development Investment Program – Tranche 1 energy Sector development Investment Program – Tranche 2 Kyrgyz Republic cARec Transport corridor 1 (Bishkek–Torugart Road) Project 2b Issyk-Kul Sustainable development Tajikistan crisis Recovery Support Program dushanbe–Kyrgyz Border Road Rehabilitation (Phase II) (Supplementary)b Regional customs Modernization and Infrastructure developmentb Total
– = nil, AdF = Asian development Fund, cARec = central Asia Regional economic cooperation. a officially cofinanced by external sources, and fully or partially administered by AdB. b Grant component of a loan project.

ADF 165.0 86.6 81.5 22.0 13.5 40.0 20.0 – 428.6

Other Sourcesa – 3.3 – – – – – 1.6 4.9

Total 165.0 89.9 81.5 22.0 13.5 40.0 20.0 1.6 433.5

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HiGHLiGHTs • Continued to

support Pakistan’s economic stabilization and key reforms in the electricity, finance, and agriculture sectors, as well as social protection systems through a new subprogram of $500 million under the cluster Accelerated Economic Transformation Program Provided an $81 million grant to improve energy transmission and supply in Afghanistan, and the first tranche of $60 million under a new multitranche financing for energy efficiency in Pakistan Extended substantial support to improve road and railway networks, including a $165 million regional railway project in Afghanistan connecting Mazar-e-Sharif in Afghanistan and Hairatan in Uzbekistan, which is the beginning of a network into Herat, Tajikistan, and Pakistan Made major advances in regional cooperation on trade policy, transport, and energy under the CAREC program; CAREC-participating countries endorsed an action plan for energy and the establishment of a results framework Greatly improved portfolio quality, closed 39 sovereign loans, 4 grants, and 51 technical assistance projects; contract awards exceeded the annual target by 6% and disbursements by 8%

The Global economic Crisis: ADB’s Response
Armenia

With an $80 million loan, supported critical crisis recovery measures that targeted social protection and job creation, and helped maintain critical public expenditures

Georgia

With three loans totaling $150 million, sustained social protection measures and aided in timely pension and social security payments

Kazakhstan

With a $500 million loan from the Countercyclical Support Facility, supplemented and sustained job creation and other social protection programs, and helped the government build public and investor confidence as it implemented an ambitious crisis recovery program

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The Kyrgyz Republic

With a $15 million grant, supported reforms to restore investor confidence, and supplemented the government’s crisis mitigation measures

Pakistan

across northern and southern Afghanistan, and improve transit and open up routes for Central Asia to access ports in South Asia and the Caucasus. The railway will dispense with the unloading and reloading of cargo onto trucks at Hairatan and will connect cargo and people to Mazar-e-Sharif airport and the country’s ring road.

With a $500 million loan, helped expand the social protection program and restructure power sector debt overhang, identified impediments to industrial diversification, and supported economic transformation

Tajikistan

CoUNTRY HiGHLiGHTs
Afghanistan
Partnership priorities. The 2009–2013 country partnership strategy, approved in January, complements the national development strategy. ADB will extend $1.5 billion for transport, energy, and irrigation; and will provide institutional and capacity-building assistance. Most of the assistance is via multitranche financing, to

With a $40 million grant, helped meet critical social protection expenditures, including for job creation, social assistance to vulnerable groups, fiscal subvention support for poor regions, and supplementary assistance to educational and health institutions

ensure continuity and timely implementation, and better partnerships. Impact of operations. The portfolio comprises 19 sovereign loan and grant projects totaling $1.7 billion. ADB approved a $165 million grant to lay a 75-kilometer (km) single railway line between Mazar-e-Sharif and Hairatan—a town at the Uzbekistan border that is the

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TABLe 10 Central and West Asia: Portfolio Performance Indicators for Sovereign Lending, 2008–2009
Ongoing Loans as of 31 Dec 2009 (no.) 11 4 10 3 3 7 42 11 20 111 Contract Awards/ Commitments 2009 ($ million) 37.1 117.0 149.0 111.1 700.9 14.1 1,178.9 40.5 137.8 2,486.3 2008 ($ million) 53.2 23.0 31.8 69.9 10.6 9.6 1,799.7 66.8 58.7 2,123.3 Disbursements 2009 ($ million) 74.3 119.1 58.5 111.4 542.5 24.0 1,093.3 67.1 125.9 2,216.1 2008 ($ million) 51.8 8.0 20.8 69.9 8.3 27.1 1,873.2 50.0 49.0 2,158.1 Loans at Risk 2009 (%) 18.2 – – – – – 21.4 – – 9.9 2008 (%) 9.1 – – – – 28.6 16.1 7.7 – 10.8

Country Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Pakistan Tajikistan Uzbekistan Total

– = nil. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding.

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gateway for half of Afghanistan’s imports and for humanitarian relief goods. This is the beginning of a network linking to Herat, Tajikistan, and Pakistan. In addition, with support by ADB and other donors, the North East Power System was commissioned. This serves Kabul and other cities, stimulating economic growth and job creation.

Impact of operations. In response to the government’s request, the $80 million crisis recovery loan was quickly prepared, approved, and disbursed, helping meet social expenditures and implement anti-crisis measures.

Azerbaijan
Partnership priorities. ADB focuses on transport, energy, and urban services. Three transport projects were funded, two of them under the $500 million multitranche financing facility for roads. In the water sector, ADB approved a $600 million facility targeting secondary towns, benefiting 500,000 residents. ADB’s cooperation in the energy sector will improve the transmission system and lead to a new master plan for power distribution. Impact of operations. The completed Flood Mitigation Project reduced poverty and increased incomes. The government estimates that 241,900 people have a safer living environment. Undeveloped land came into productive use, and water and wastewater services and transport connectivity improved because of ADB assistance.

Armenia
Partnership priorities. ADB’s engagement with Armenia expanded beyond rural transport and water supply with the approval of a $500 million multitranche financing facility (see Glossary) for a regional transport corridor. The 7-year program will build 550 km of highspeed road extending from south to north, connecting to Georgia’s highway, and reaching Black Sea ports. The first $60 million tranche will upgrade selected road sections. Work also began on improving urban transport in Yerevan.

The Eighth Ministerial Conference on Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) endorsed an Georgia action plan for the energy sector Partnership priorities. Since Georgia joined ADB in and agreed on the establishment of 2007, loans worth $339 million were approved for transa comprehensive results framework port, urban services, and crisis support. ADB’s resident mission opened in January 2009. ADB approved loans for the CAREC program. A yearly worth $228.8 million: $80.0 million for growth recovery effectiveness report will become a in response to the global financial crisis, $30.0 million for municipal services (for transport and to resolve traffic standard feature of the program

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TABLe 11 Central and West Asia: Sovereign Loan Approvals by Country, 2009 ($ million)
Country SOVEREIGN Armenia crisis Recovery Support Programa North–South Road corridor Investment Program – Tranche 1 Azerbaijan Water Supply and Sanitation Investment Program – Tranche 1 Georgia Growth Recovery Support Programa Municipal Services development – Phase 2 Road corridor Investment Program – Tranche 1 Kazakhstan Kazakhstan countercyclical Support cARec Transport corridor I (Zhambyl oblast Section) [Western europe–Western People’s Republic of china International Transit corridor] Investment Program – Tranche 2 Kyrgyz Republic cARec Transport corridor I (Bishkek–Torugart Road) – Project 2 Issyk-Kul Sustainable development Pakistan Accelerating economic Transformation Program (Subprogram 2) National highway development Sector Investment Program – Tranche 2 Punjab Government efficiency Improvement Program (Subprogram 2) energy efficiency Investment Program – Tranche 1 Uzbekistan Water Supply and Sanitation Services Investment Program – Tranche 1 Total – 1,457.0 60.0 718.3 60.0 2,175.3 350.0 230.0 75.0 40.0 150.0 75.0 20.0 500.0 230.0 150.0 60.0 – – 28.0 16.5 28.0 16.5 500.0 – 500.0 – – – 80.0 30.0 118.8 80.0 30.0 118.8 75.0 – 75.0 – – 80.0 60.0 80.0 60.0 OCR ADF Total

187.0

187.0

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– = nil, AdF = Asian development Fund, cARec = central Asia Regional economic cooperation, ocR = ordinary capital resources. a consists of two AdF loans.

An ADB-funded water station in Sindh province, Pakistan, improves villagers’ health

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FIGURE 1 Central and West Asia: ADB Lending by Country, 2008–2009 (Sovereign and Nonsovereign) ($ million)
Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Pakistan Uzbekistan
0 60.0 130.0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 44.5 60.0 140.0

FIGURE 2 Central and West Asia: ADB Disbursements by Country, 2008–2009 (Sovereign and Nonsovereign) ($ million)
Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan
101.0 80.5 119.1 8.0 58.6 20.8 111.4 69.9 8.3 24.0 27.1 1,099.6 67.1 50.0 125.9 49.0 0 250 500 750 1,000 1,250 1,500 1,750 2,000 1,923.3 542.5

17.3

75.0

215.4 228.8

Georgia Kazakhstan

110.0 340.0 687.0

Kyrgyz Republic Pakistan
940.0 1,090.0

Tajikistan Uzbekistan

2008

2009

2008

2009

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problems), and a $500.0 million multitranche financing facility to develop regional transport corridors. The first tranche ($118.8 million) financed a road linking Black Sea ports and connecting Georgia with neighboring countries. Impact of operations. The Growth Recovery Support Program allowed the government to deal with revenue gaps and thereby maintain core spending for key social needs, including welfare payments and services for vulnerable groups.

TABLe 12 Central and West Asia: Cumulative Lending and Disbursements by Country as of the end of 2009 ($ million)a, b
Country Afghanistan Armenia Azerbaijan Georgia Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Pakistan Tajikistan Uzbekistan Regional Total Lending 952.3 223.9 660.4 363.8 1,703.6 648.0 20,245.8 372.5 1,290.9 20.0 26,481.3 Disbursements 660.4 127.2 146.4 206.3 1,161.6 576.2 15,334.2 290.2 659.9 3.0 19,165.2

Kazakhstan
Partnership priorities. Transport and water supply are strategic priorities. Two tranches were signed under a $700 million multitranche financing facility for the CAREC Transport Corridor 1 Investment Program. This will improve transit across Kazakhstan, linking

Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding. a Loan component of regional projects distributed to the countries whenever possible. b Includes nonsovereign (public and private) sector loans specific to the region.

Transport and water are priorities in Kazakhstan, and infrastructure, investment climate, and regional cooperation in the Kyrgyz Republic

eastern and western neighbors, and will open up north– south routes. It will be complemented by a loan for reconstruction of the Aktau–Beineu Road connecting Kazakhstan to its neighbors and the Caspian Sea. Impact of operations. ADB provided a $500 million loan under the Countercyclical Support Facility to mitigate impacts of the global economic crisis, support the government’s crisis-mitigation plan, and create jobs.

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The Kyrgyz Republic
Partnership priorities. Infrastructure remains a priority. Reforms to improve the investment climate are also part of the strategic initiatives. Regional cooperation is integral to ADB’s partnership with the Kyrgyz Republic. Impact of operations. ADB financing improved infrastructure and the tax and customs services. It supported policies to reduce investment barriers, lowered compliance costs, and enhanced access to finance. ADB

assistance upgraded rural drinking water, education, and early childhood development. A $30 million project was approved to protect Lake Issy-Kul from untreated wastewater discharges.

Pakistan
Partnership priorities. A new strategy prioritized energy, transport, irrigation, urban development, and government efficiency. A facility for energy efficiency, cofinanced by the Agence Française de Développement and with multitranche

Clean Water on Tap
A program in the Kyrgyz Republic is providing standpipes that connect villagers to clean spring water stored in reservoirs above their villages
ome of the richest water resources in central Asia can be found in the mountains of the Kyrgyz Republic, yet most people must walk miles to the nearest river to meet their daily needs. Thanks to an AdB grant, water is coming closer to home. Abdymanap lives with his family in Josholu, a village in the mountainous Alai district in the south of the country. Before AdB helped the village construct a pipe as part of a project to improve rural water supply and sanitation, the local river served villagers’ needs. “Water in the river was not bad,” he says. “But during the rainy season it turned brown because of the dirt.” Villagers had to leave the water in buckets for a few hours for the dirt to settle, Abdymanap explains. In any case, cows and sheep would drink from the river and pollute it with their wastes. “People were getting infections from the water before the water pipe was built,” says Janargul, a nurse at the local hospital. diarrhea was common and the hospital was so short of water that nurses had to carry bucketfuls from the nearest river 3 kilometers away. The AdB-financed project, known as Tazasuu (clean water), enabled local communities to construct water pipes. Josholu is typical of the many communities across the country that have benefited from the project. The village now boasts 56 standpipes, which provide its 4,500 inhabitants with fresh, clean spring water from the mountains. The source springs are protected by a tent to keep out rainwater and animal waste, and pipes carry the water from the spring to a reservoir above the village. The reservoir can hold up to 500,000 liters, enough to provide water to the village for 1 day, in case the springs stop running. Abdashym, who takes care of the reservoir, does not believe the springs will run dry. “It will never happen,” he says. “But even if it does, the village will not stay without water for very long.” Supplies are assured by a backup system that can take water from the river, filter it, and take it to the village. Fetching water is no longer a big issue for the women, as water is readily available at the standpipe just around the corner. children have less work to do and more time to play and study—and they have water on tap to drink whenever they like.

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Villagers in Josholu queue for water: clean water from convenient standpipes frees time for more productive activities

Supplies are assured by a backup system that can take water from the river, filter it, and take it to the village

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support for renewable energy and power transmission, broadened the energy partnership. Leaders of the Friends of Democratic Pakistan assigned ADB a lead role in helping prepare a master plan targeting international assistance in energy. ADB supported economic stabilization reforms under a program of the International Monetary Fund,

ADB’s share focusing on reforms in electricity, finance, agriculture, and social protection. ADB signed agreements with Pakistan banks to provide finance and guarantees for letters of credit with international banks. ADB also helped mobilize international financing for the first private sector hydropower project. With the World Bank, ADB completed

Learning in the 21st Century
An ADB project in Uzbekistan brings education into the 21st century by providing computers, internet connectivity, and training to schools, even in rural areas
Samoylovich, head of the teaching department at Tashkent’s Secondary School Number 94. hers is one of 860 cluster leader schools—hubs for an average of 11 other schools—where the government is providing IcT. When the entire network is operational, 540,000 students in 9,757 cluster leader schools will directly benefit. Their central role means all students and teachers—about 6 million students and 200,000 teachers over 5 years—will gain computer skills. AdB financed $30 million of the $43 million cost of the project. cluster leader schools act as resource centers for surrounding schools typically up to 30 kilometers away. By offering two computer classes—one for students and another for teachers—to surrounding schools, the opportunity for teachers to train and spread knowledge is readily available. The project contains specific measures that directly impact about 165,000 poor students in grades five through nine. For example, the project ensures 70% of the cluster leader schools are in rural and poor areas. Materials in languages, including Karakalpak, Kazakh, Korean, Kyrgyz, Russian, Tajik, and Turkmen, provide a leg up for minority students. Pilot projects are also testing alternative ways of connecting remote schools, including the use of digitized phone lines, or mobile and wireless connections. “IcT literacy has increased dramatically since the project was launched,” says Sayora Melikova, director of School Number 21 in Samarkand city. “Before, computers were for grades eight and nine, but now grades five through nine have them, too,” she says. Tertiary education is computer-based these days, so IcT study is critical to students’ further education. “This project is giving them a head start,” says Melikova.

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t Secondary School Number 94 in Tashkent city, Rogova Nadejda Viktorovna moves among students working on computers, supervising their multimedia lessons in mathematics. A teacher since 1990, she completed in-service teacher training in information technology in June 2009, part of the ongoing AdB-funded Information and communication Technology in Basic education Project. “Learning is more interactive using computers, and students learn far faster than the old ways,” Viktorovna says. “They are able to access a lot more information on various subjects, too.” Under the umbrella of the government’s National Program for Basic education development, the project aimed to put information and communication technology (IcT) in schools. Before the project began in 2006, computer access for students was limited to 18% of secondary and half of all schools. computers installed in September 2009 are already improving education for 1,700 students, says Tamara

“Learning is more interactive using computers, and students learn far faster than the old ways”
Uzbek students hone their information technology skills

—Rogova Nadejda Viktorovna, teacher

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a preliminary damage needs assessment for conflict-affected areas in northern Pakistan. Impact of operations. ADB disbursed $1.1 billion for investments and reforms. An electricity project is upgrading grid connectivity. Transport projects rehabilitated 400 km of roads and 300 rural access links. Support for a major cash transfer program assisted poor women. A rural development project provided electricity, extending productive work hours and raising living standards. The Pakistan Institute of Corporate Governance, established with ADB assistance, increased market efficiency. Safeguard training raised the awareness of public officials about compliance with ADB’s policies.

In Uzbekistan, resource transfers more than doubled from 2008 as more frequent interactions between government officials and ADB improved portfolio performance

Turkmenistan
Partnership priorities. The strategy focuses on transport, including construction of road corridors and a railway. The partnership will expand after ADB’s resident mission in Ashgabat opens in 2010. Impact of operations. ADB has yet to begin its lending operations in Turkmenistan.

Tajikistan
Partnership priorities. ADB will adopt a new country partnership strategy (2010–2014) in early 2010. Priorities include roads, energy, and investment climate reforms. To enhance aid efficiency and improve donor coordination, ADB and 11 development partners signed the Joint Country Partnership Strategy 2010–2012. Impact of operations. ADB projects improved transport connectivity and energy security. Irrigation and flood protection projects increased agricultural productivity. ADB approved a $40 million program to sustain social spending imperiled by the global economic crisis, helping the government manage budget shortfalls and supporting public investments that preserve and create jobs. ADB provided a $20 million grant to supplement the Dushanbe–Kyrgyz Border Road Rehabilitation Project, which is upgrading highways within the CAREC corridor.

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Uzbekistan
Partnership priorities. Priorities include transport, energy, sanitation, irrigation rehabilitation, and water management. Access to credit is also vital. ADB responded to private sector development opportunities, regional connectivity, and energy security and trade. ADB also provided a $300 million multitranche financing facility for water supply and sanitation, and began preparing for environmentally sustainable power generation and regional highway corridors. Impact of operations. Since 1996, ADB has financed 30 loans totaling $1.3 billion. Resource transfers more than doubled from 2008 as more frequent interactions between government officials and ADB improved portfolio performance. Farmers’ income increased because of a near doubling of wheat yields under the Grain Productivity Improvement Project, which introduced new farming equipment. ADB support also provided safe drinking water and sanitation. Women in rural communities started cottage industries and small businesses with support from the Small Microfinance Development Project. The Textbook Development Project implemented an innovative textbook rental scheme, providing textbooks to almost all needy students.

Educational benefits: poor women learn with ADB support

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The People’s Republic of China, Mongolia
ADB support for the People’s Republic of China (PRC) and Mongolia concentrated on mitigating the effects of the global financial crisis. Lending in the PRC complemented the government’s massive fiscal stimulus program and supported rehabilitation efforts in the wake of the devastating 2008 Wenchuan earthquake. in Mongolia, ADB helped develop a social program to improve access to basic social services for the poor. ADB facilitated cooperation between the PRC and Mongolia in such areas as joint customs control, border transport development, and trade logistics. Regional trade and economic cooperation with other countries of Central Asia and the Greater Mekong subregion were also promoted.

EAST ASIA

Chapter 8

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DB operations in East Asia were guided by Strategy 2020 and the need to respond to the effects of the global financial crisis on the PRC and Mongolia. In the PRC, ADB lending complemented the government’s massive fiscal stimulus program that moderated the impact of the crisis on the economy. Support for post-disaster rehabilitation, energy efficiency in transportation, natural resource conservation, and integrated urban–rural development were the highlights of lending operations. In Mongolia, ADB helped develop a social program that improved access of the poor to basic social services. ADB also promoted nonsovereign lending and private–public partnerships in infrastructure, and measurable progress was made in renewable energy projects in the PRC. In both countries, ADB provided technical assistance to increase access to financial services, support social services, promote clean technology and alternative energy, facilitate trade among neighboring countries, and enhance regional cooperation. Total lending operations (Table 15) in the PRC consisted of 12 sovereign loans for $1.8 billion and 3 nonsovereign loans for $192.9 million. For Mongolia, financial assistance included two Asian Development Fund (ADF) grants totaling $33.9 million, of which $16.9 million was made in conjunction with an ADF loan of $43.1 million

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The Global economic Crisis: ADB’s Response
The People’s Republic of China

Supported the stimulus package through investment in transport, natural resource management, urban infrastructure, environment improvement, and job creation in small cities and towns Provided technical assistance resources to improve access to financial services for the poor and vulnerable households and to strengthen the legal, regulatory, and supervisory framework of the PRC’s finance sector

Mongolia

Partnered with the Japan International Cooperation Agency to jointly finance $110 million to facilitate social welfare reforms and to help establish social safety nets. This complemented the 18-month stand-by arrangement with the International Monetary Fund Provided a $17 million Asian Development Fund grant for the Education for the Poor project and four Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction grants totaling $10 million to help protect the poor and the vulnerable groups from the adverse impact of the crisis Provided $2 million in technical assistance for policy and institutional support to the banking sector on systemic risk management

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HiGHLiGHTs •
A $400 million emergency loan to reconstruct and upgrade damaged roads, bridges, and school buildings in Sichuan and Shaanxi provinces in the wake of the devastating 2008 Wenchuan earthquake Greening of the PRC portfolio through projects in renewable energy, sustainable transport, urban development, and natural resource management A second Panda bond issue worth $146.5 million (CNY1 billion) to support ADB private sector operations A $60 million loan and grant for the Mongolia Social Sectors Support Program to mitigate the negative social consequences of the financial crisis and promote priority social sector reforms

• •

for the Social Sectors Support Program (Tables 13 and 15). The PRC received $9.9 million in grants from various sources for climate change, energy efficiency, and water conservation and wastewater-related demonstration components (Table 13). Mongolia received $10.3 million from the Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction for four projects that focused on energy conservation, early childhood education and nutrition, and health protection during the financial crisis. Total technical assistance amounted to $40.2 million, consisting of $24.6 million for the PRC, $7.2 million for Mongolia, and $8.4 million for regional technical assistance. Knowledge management was strengthened. Filters were adopted to screen project proposals upon entry, peer reviews helped ensure quality, and knowledge products

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TABLE 13 East Asia: Grant-Financed Project Approvals by Country, 2009 ($ million)
Country China, People’s Republic of Capacity Building for Energy Efficiency Implementation (Supplementary)b Liaoning Small Cities and Towns Development Demonstration Sectorb Shaanxi Qinling Biodiversity Conservation and Demonstrationb Integrated Ecosystem and Water Resources Management in the Baiyangdian Basinb Hebei Small Cities and Towns Development Demonstration Sectorb Shanxi Integrated Agricultural Developmentb Shanxi Small Cities and Towns Development Demonstration Sector Projectb – Support for Water/Wastewater Service Implementing Agencies and Companies Mongolia Reducing Persistent Chronic Malnutrition in Children in Mongolia Social Sectors Support Programb Protecting the Health Status of the Poor During the Financial Crisis Early Childhood Education for Rural, Nomadic, and Migrant Children Demonstration Project for Improved Electricity Services to the Low-Income Communities in Rural Areas Education for the Poor—Financial Crisis Responseb Total
– = nil, ADF = Asian Development Fund, CCF = Climate Change Fund. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding. a Officially cofinanced by external sources, and fully or partially administered by ADB. b Grant component of a loan project.

ADF

CCF

Other Sourcesa

Total

– – – – – – – – 16.9 – – – 17.0 33.9

1.2 – – – – – – – – – – – – 1.2

– 0.3 4.3 2.9 0.3 0.7 0.3 2.0 – 3.0 2.9 2.4 – 18.9

1.2 0.3 4.3 2.9 0.3 0.7 0.3 2.0 16.9 3.0 2.9 2.4 17.0 54.0

EAst AsiA

TABLE 14 East Asia: Portfolio Performance Indicators for Sovereign Lending, 2008–2009
Ongoing Loans as of 31 Dec 2009 (no.) 66 10 76 Contract Awards/ Commitments 2009 ($ million) 1,122.9 53.2 1,176.1 2008 ($ million) 1,312.0 19.0 1,331.0 Disbursements 2009 ($ million) 1,341.7 56.7 1,398.4 2008 ($ million) 1,234.3 26.7 1,261.0 Loans at Risk 2009 (%) 1.5 20.0 3.9 2008 (%) 1.8 – 1.5

Country China, People’s Republic of Mongolia Total
– = nil.

and services were jointly programmed with the government during country programming discussions. Thirty-two knowledge products and services were completed while knowledge sharing was conducted through 34 conferences and workshops, 8 book launches, and 8 international conferences.

to assume increased portfolio management responsibilities, and phased delegation of disbursement functions to the PRC was implemented. The increasing number of smaller loans approved and delays in project completion contributed to an expanding portfolio. Operational targets for project administration were met.

Portfolio ManageMent
ADB continued to promote results-based portfolio management and effective development by improving project readiness and streamlining ADB procedures, aligning them with government procurement and approval processes. Resident missions were strengthened

ADB continued to improve project readiness and streamline procedures, aligning them with government procurement and approval processes

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ReGioNAL CooPeRATioN
Regional cooperation programs promoted trade and economic cooperation among the countries of Central Asia Regional Economic Cooperation (CAREC) and the Greater Mekong Subregion. ADB also supported implementation of the joint action plan of the CAREC Transport and Trade Facilitation Strategy, and notable progress was achieved in fostering customs cooperation, measuring and monitoring transport corridor performance, and developing single-window customs clearance systems. ADB conducted a more targeted program between the

PRC and Mongolia, such as joint customs control, coordinating transport development, improving the legal and policy framework for power trading, and enhancing trade logistics and urban infrastructure development in key border towns.

CoUNTRY HiGHLiGHTs
The People’s Republic of China
Partnership priorities. The 2008–2010 country partnership strategy remains closely aligned both with the government’s Eleventh Five-Year Plan (2006–2010) and ADB’s Strategy 2020 priorities. The global financial crisis highlighted the urgency of rebalancing from export-oriented, investment-driven growth to a consumption-driven, service-oriented economy. Another emerging challenge was to reinforce environmentally sustainable development by addressing climate change issues and adopting greener, low-carbon growth strategies.

Notable progress was achieved in fostering customs cooperation, measuring and monitoring transport corridor performance, and developing single-window customs clearance systems
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TABLe 15 East Asia: Sovereign and Nonsovereign Loan Approvals by Country, 2009 ($ million)
Country SOVEREIGN China, People’s Republic of emergency Assistance for Wenchuan earthquake Reconstruction Xinjiang Urban Transport and environmental Improvement Liaoning Small cities and Towns development demonstration Sector Shaanxi Qinling Biodiversity conservation and demonstration Guiyang Integrated Water Resource Management (Sector) hebei Small cities and Towns development demonstration Sector Anhui Integrated Transport Sector Improvement Lanzhou Sustainable Urban Transport Railway energy efficiency and Safety enhancement Investment Program – Tranche 1 Shanxi Integrated Agricultural development Guangdong energy efficiency and environment Improvement Investment Program – Tranche 2 Shanxi Small cities and Towns development demonstration Sector Mongolia Social Sectors Support Programa Urban development Sector (Supplementary) Subtotal NONSOVEREIGN China, People’s Republic of Small hydropower development Zhangbei Wind Power Municipal Waste to energy Subtotal Total
– = nil, AdF = Asian development Fund, ocR = ordinary capital resources. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding. a Accompanied by a grant.

OCR

ADF

Total

400.0 100.0 100.0 40.0 150.0 100.0 200.0 150.0 300.0 100.0 22.1 100.0 – – 1,762.1

– – – – – – – – – – – – 43.1 7.0 50.1

400.0 100.0 100.0 40.0 150.0 100.0 200.0 150.0 300.0 100.0 22.1 100.0 43.1 7.0 1,812.2

58.6 34.3 100.0 192.9 1,954.9

– – – – 50.1

58.6 34.3 100.0 192.9 2,005.1

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TABLe 16 East Asia: Cumulative Lending and Disbursements by Country as of the end of 2009 ($ million)a
Country china, People’s Republic of Mongolia Totalb Lending 22,959.1 726.7 23,685.8 Disbursements 14,905.8 638.1 15,543.9

FIGURE 3 East Asia: ADB Lending by Country, 2008–2009 (Sovereign and Nonsovereign) ($ million)
China, People’s Republic of Mongolia
0 50.1 1,954.9 1,750.1

a Includes nonsovereign (public and private) sector loans. b excludes hong Kong, china; the Republic of Korea; and Taipei,china, which have graduated from regular AdB assistance.

500

1,000

1,500

2,000

2008

2009

Impact of operations. Most projects were in the lessdeveloped central and western regions of the PRC, where rural poverty and environmental degradation are more pronounced. Greening of the portfolio was achieved through the railway energy efficiency program under the multitranche financing facility and a nonsovereign wind power project in Hebei Province. Preparatory work was initiated for innovative projects such as the 250-megawatt Tianjin integrated gasification combined cycle project and a concentrated solar thermal power development project in the western PRC while carbon capture and storage demonstration studies were started to identify barriers, develop road maps, and to identify potential projects. ADB continued its support for balanced and environmentally sustainable urbanization of small cities and towns in Hebei, Liaoning, and Shanxi provinces. ADB, with the Ministry of Finance, organized a national workshop to promote sustainable urban development. The PRC–ADB knowledge-sharing platform, with its first event on sustainable urbanization, facilitated exchange between the PRC and other developing member countries on urban development.

FIGURE 4 East Asia: ADB Disbursements by Country, 2008–2009 (Sovereign and Nonsovereign) ($ million)
China, People’s Republic of Mongolia
0 58.7 34.7 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 1,468.2 1,292.8

2008

2009

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and a short-term crisis strategy in consultation with other development partners. ADB provided funds to help protect the poor during the crisis and discussed ways to adjust the timing, funding arrangements, and sequencing of proposed projects to support the government’s crisis response program.

Mongolia
Partnership priorities. To respond swiftly to the effects of the global financial crisis, ADB assisted the government in formulating a country operations business plan

The PRC–ADB knowledge-sharing platform facilitated exchange between the PRC and other developing member countries on urban development

ADB supports targeted provision of textbooks to poor students in Mongolia

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Impact of operations. ADB helped the government start reforms in the health insurance system, improving the financing of hospitals and rural health facilities, and developing incentives to encourage health workers to work in rural areas. ADB also supported overhauling the legal status of family group practices and strengthening the legal and regulatory basis for public–private partnership initiatives in the health sector. In education, an ADF grant ensured that those most affected by the crisis stay in school by helping the government meet its short-term

financing needs and by continuing longer-term policy reform. Two projects funded through the Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction sought to promote community natural resource management by introducing alternative livelihoods to the rural poor. A grant of $14.7 million in 2008 supported an innovative private sector development approach in agro-processing that helped the rural poor by expanding value chain processing of food products, marketing, and exports.

Methane: From Pollution to Solution
An ADB project is helping the PRC safely capture methane gas extracted from coal mines, and at the same time providing consumers, such as in Jincheng, clean alternative energy sources
of the cleaner energy sources since it produces no soot and does not contribute to acid rain, and it can replace dirty fuels such as coal and petroleum. A $117.4 million loan from AdB helped introduce new technologies that can increase the production and use of methane. Begun in 2004, the coal Mine Methane development Project in Jincheng captures coal mine methane from mine shafts to fuel a 120-megawatt power plant, and transmits and distributes methane to commercial, residential, and industrial consumers in the city. For Wei Jiusheng, who drives a methane-powered taxi, the availability of this cleaner, cheaper fuel is a boon. When Wei used gasoline, filling the fuel tank was so costly that he was barely able to support his wife and child. Now that he has converted his car to methane gas, he earns an average of $440 a month (cNY3,000), substantially more than most drivers in his city. To reduce air pollution and promote the use of methane gas, the municipal government later made the conversion mandatory for all taxis and buses, and many owners of private vehicles have made the switch, too. households also make major savings now that coal mine methane is widely available on tap. The average annual cost for gas supply for a family is $52 (cNY350), compared with $294 (cNY2,000) for coal. Making piped gas available not only reduced households’ expenses but also liberated women from time-consuming cooking. The Jincheng municipal government plans to cover the whole city with pipelines to supply over 60,000 households with coal mine methane for heating and cooking by 2011.

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he glassmakers at Jincheng east Glassware’s workshops in Jincheng, Shanxi province breathe easier now because the company’s switch from coal to methane gas to fuel its furnaces has improved air quality in the factory and greatly reduced the incidence of respiratory disease. The furnace upgrade saves the company $147.10 (cNY1,000) per day, and because the consistent gas supply keeps the temperature of the furnaces steady, the glass melts evenly without trapping bubbles, reducing wastage by 20%. The methane that fuels the glassworks is tapped from the city’s extensive coal deposits. Methane is highly explosive and must be extracted from the underground coal mines to keep working conditions safe. But once captured it is one

Glassware workers breathe easier as methane gas fires furnaces

Once captured, methane gas is one of the cleaner energy sources since it produces no soot and does not contribute to acid rain

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Education Comes in From the Cold
Mongolia’s extensive Second Education Development Project has constructed new schools, rehabilitated old ones, provided educational materials, trained teachers, and revised school policy, among its many achievements. Preschool enrollment has increased substantially
Mongolian herder’s daughter rushes into a kindergarten in Töv, some 135 kilometers from Ulaanbaatar. With temperatures outside dropping to –30°c, the school, with its age-appropriate safety furniture, audio and video equipment, and toys, provides warmth and comfort on an early morning in January. extreme winter weather is difficult for young children. Six new schools built under the AdB-supported Second education development Project provide welcome relief and have made a tangible contribution to preschool and primary education, with preschool enrollment increasing from 45% in 2002/03 to about 57% in 2007/08. They have helped develop part of the system that has struggled since the former Soviet Union–era funding was withdrawn in the 1990s. Approved in 2002, the project aimed to help provide universal access to quality primary and secondary education, especially in rural areas and poor urban communities. In 2009, newly constructed schools operated one shift for kindergarten and two for primary school, with 3,179 students enrolled. The project also provided educational and developmental materials to 150 kindergartens. Parents and teachers say this is the best investment made in preschool education in the last 20 years, benefiting about 30,000 children. Most schools were built 30 to 40 years ago and have received little maintenance. The project supported rehabilitation, including providing energy-efficient heating systems and sanitation, and installing ramps and other facilities for students with physical disabilities. By 2007, a total of 5,994 physically disabled students were enrolled in the 136 schools that AdB financing restored. The project provided much-needed teacher training and free textbooks to children from poor families. In all, the program benefited 72,653 primary school students and 124,251 secondary students in 2005/06. The project also supported several polices, including an extension of basic education to 12 years in 2009, from 10 years in 2005, and an education master plan for 2006–2015 that the government has adopted. The education donors’ consultative Mechanism devised in 2005 to guide activities of AdB and its partners is viewed as a model for donor coordination for other sectors. Total project costs of $68.5 million comprised $14.0 million from AdB, $45.0 million from Japan, $4.8 million from the Nordic development Fund, and $4.7 million from the Government of Mongolia. AdB assistance has played a part in Mongolia’s notable progress in reviving education since Soviet funding ceased. In 2006, the enrollment rate for primary and secondary education had recovered to 95%, from a low of 81% in 1995. ongoing partnerships have been a major factor in reclaiming achievements and a strong political will exists for reforms that deliver quality education.

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Students benefit as the project helps restore their school system

Most schools were built 30 to 40 years ago and have received little maintenance. The project supported rehabilitation, including providing energyefficient heating systems and sanitation, and installing ramps and other facilities for students with disabilities

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The Cook islands, the fiji islands, Kiribati, the Marshall islands, the federated states of Micronesia, Nauru, Palau, Papua New Guinea, samoa, solomon islands, Timor-Leste, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu
ADB’s scaled-up assistance for 14 Pacific developing member countries meets the region’s unique challenges, including their response to climate change. support boosted economic and social infrastructure, strengthened governance, and promoted private sector growth. The Pacific Approach 2010–2014 will guide the continued strengthening of regional cooperation, the regional provision of services, and improvement of policies.

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Chapter 9

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DB helps 14 Pacific developing member countries raise living standards and build resilience by developing economic and social infrastructure, strengthening governance, and promoting private sector growth. Innovative approaches continued meeting the region’s unique challenges. ADB has scaled up its lending and nonlending operations in response to increasing demand from Pacific countries. The Pacific Approach 2010–2014, produced in 2009, aims to improve the effectiveness of future ADB development operations in the Pacific. Frequent high-level consultation improved coordination among development partners, laying the groundwork for a regional approach to the global economic crisis and deepening the response to climate change. This included ADB strengthening its partnership with the US government.

A

The Global economic Crisis: ADB’s Response • Improved economic monitoring, led
quarterly Pacific Economic Monitor

by the

• •

Analytical work, including the release of Taking the Helm: A Policy Brief on a Response to the Global Economic Crisis Approval of economic recovery support programs for the Cook Islands and Tonga

PoRTfoLio MANAGeMeNT
Performance against targets for sovereign loans was 38.7% for contract awards ($48.2 million) and 84.2% for disbursements ($30.4 million) (Table 18). For Asian Development

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Fund (ADF) grants, contract awards were 79.3% ($15.7 million) and disbursements 90.5% ($14.1 million). The Pacific Department’s achievements in contract awards were the best in the past 10 years. The number of active technical assistance projects averaged 82 over the past 3 years. Technical assistance savings were $2.3 million. Five loans, four grant projects, and two technical assistance projects were delegated to the resident missions in 2009, resulting in more effective monitoring, stronger partnerships with Pacific developing member countries and development partners, and improved engagement in policy dialogue.

HiGHLiGHTs • New Pacific Approach •

ReGioNAL CooPeRATioN
The Pacific Approach 2010–2014 supports strengthened regional cooperation, the regional provision of services, and better policies. ADB approved a regional technical assistance project to improve its engagement in fragile states and situations. The Infrastructure Advisory Center, established under the Pacific Region Infrastructure Facility, will help Pacific countries develop sustainable infrastructure and services. ADF investments in border roads in Timor-Leste and cross-border infrastructure in Papua New Guinea were approved. The Private Sector Devel-

2010–2014 aimed at improved development effectiveness New country partnership strategies for Palau, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu, and a midterm review of Papua New Guinea’s country strategy and program 2006–2010 Significant increases in Pacific lending and nonlending operations: $231.7 million in loans and $71.0 million in Asian Development Fund grants, and $39.0 million in technical assistance projects (including cofinancing) Emergency response to natural disasters in the Fiji Islands, Samoa, and Solomon Islands The Climate Change Implementation Plan for the Pacific, which gave member countries a framework for developing and implementing climate change investments and action plans to 2015

• •

Frequent high-level consultation improved coordination among development partners, laying the groundwork for a regional approach to the global economic crisis

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TABLe 17 Pacific: Grant-Financed Project Approvals by Country, 2009 ($ million)
Country Papua New Guinea extending the Socioeconomic Benefits of an Improved Road Network to Roadside communities Samoa earthquake and Tsunami disaster Response Solomon Islands Road Improvement (Sector) (Supplementary) Road Improvement (Sector) (Supplementary) emergency Assistance (Supplementary) Second Road Improvement (Sector) Timor-Leste Road Network development Sector our Roads our Future–Supporting Local Governance and community-Based Infrastructure Worksb Tonga economic Support Program Total
– = nil, AdF = Asian development Fund, APdRF = Asia Pacific disaster Response Fund. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding. a officially cofinanced by external sources, and fully or partially administered by AdB. b Grant component of a loan project.

ADF

APDRF

Other Sourcesa

Total

– – – – – 15.0 46.0 – 10.0 71.0

– 1.0 – – – – – – – 1.0

2.0 – 0.2 1.9 4.0 7.8 – 3.0 – 19.0

2.0 1.0 0.2 1.9 4.0 22.8 46.0 3.0 10.0 91.0

TABLe 18 Pacific: Portfolio Performance Indicators for Sovereign Lending, 2008–2009
Ongoing Loans as of 31 Dec 2009 (no.) cook Islands Fiji Islands Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia, Federated States of Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Tuvalu Regional Total 4 4 – – 2 13 4 – 2 1 30 Contract Awards/ Commitments 2009 ($ million) 1.6 17.0 – – 0.8 23.6 5.1 – 0.1 0.05 48.2 2008 ($ million) – 6.2 0.1 – 1.6 16.1 9.6 0.02 0.04 0.7 34.2 Disbursements 2009 ($ million) (0.3) 5.3 – – 0.8 17.4 6.3 – 0.4 0.5 30.4 2008 ($ million) 1.3 9.7 – – 3.6 19.9 2.6 0.1 0.6 0.6 38.4 Loans at Risk 2009 (%) 25.0 25.0 – – – – – – – – 6.7 2008 (%) – 50.0 – – – – – – – – 3.7

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– = nil, ( ) = negative. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding.

opment Initiative, cofinanced with Australia, continued to improve the business environment and stimulate private sector investment. A second phase was approved during 2009.

CoUNTRY HiGHLiGHTs
The Cook islands
Partnership priorities. The country operations business plan, 2010–2012, continued to emphasize infrastructure and public financial management. A budget support program was also included in light of the adverse impact of the global economic crisis. ADB strengthened its focus on climate change and private sector development.

The Pacific Approach 2010–2014 supports strengthened regional cooperation, the regional provision of services, and better policies

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TABLe 19 Pacific: Sovereign and Nonsovereign Loan Approvals by Country, 2009 ($ million)
Country SOVEREIGN Cook Islands economic Recovery Support Program Fiji Islands Third Road Upgrading (Sector) (Supplementary) emergency Flood Recovery (Sector) Suva–Nausori Water Supply and Sewerage development (Supplementary) Papua New Guinea civil Aviation development Investment Program – Tranche 1a Pilot Border Trade and Investment development Subtotal NONSOVEREIGN Papua New Guinea digicel Mobile Telecommunication expansion Subtotal Total 36.1 17.6 23.0 – – – 36.1 17.6 23.0 OCR ADF Total

TABLe 20 Pacific: Cumulative Lending and Disbursements by Country as of the end of 2009 ($ million)a, b
Country cook Islands Lending 55.0 326.6 15.1 78.1 75.1 5.0 – 1,272.0 159.4 79.3 – 57.8 7.8 51.3 1.5 2,184.0 Disbursements 27.6 197.8 13.7 64.2 47.1 2.3 – 746.0 114.6 65.8 – 52.3 7.6 49.0 176.9 1,564.9

10.0

10.0

Fiji Islands Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia, Federated States of Nauru Palau Papua New Guinea

25.0 – 111.7

70.0 25.0 95.0

95.0 25.0 206.7

Samoa Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu

25.0 25.0 136.7

– – 95.0

25.0 25.0 231.7

Regional Total

– = nil, AdF = Asian development Fund, ocR = ordinary capital resources. a consists of two AdF loans.

a Loan component of regional projects distributed to the countries whenever possible. b Includes nonsovereign (public and private) sector loans specific to the region.

Impact of operations. Technical assistance for the Infrastructure Master Plan and Infrastructure Development Project improved coordination among development partners, helping them support the infrastructure sector and elevate government efforts to manage and develop infrastructure and reform the ministries.

The fiji islands
Partnership priorities. ADB operations are guided by its 2007 Approach to Reengagement. ADB continued to support ongoing operations in water supply, sanitation, and road development.

Impact of operations. The Suva–Nausori Water Supply and Sewerage Project continued to improve water and sanitation services. Notable achievements included commissioning a 10-kilometer (km) large-diameter raw water main, completing a 4-million-liter clear water reservoir, upgrading five major sewage pump stations, and constructing about 5 km of sewers for a heavily populated residential area.

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Kiribati
Partnership priorities. ADB continued to help the country overcome limited resources and geographic isolation and make progress toward its economic growth goals by emphasizing economic and financial planning and management. Technical assistance was approved to support economic management and reforms of stateowned enterprises. Impact of operations. The Integrated Land and Population Development Program on Kiritimati Island, which considered planning and zoning for residential and economic development land uses, continued to help the government improve land allocation.

ADB continued to help Kiribati overcome limited resources and geographic isolation and make progress toward its economic growth goals by emphasizing economic and financial planning and management

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FIGURE 5 Pacific: ADB Lending by Country, 2008–2009 (Sovereign and Nonsovereign) ($ million)
Cook Islands Fiji Islands Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia, Federated States of Nauru Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu 0 2008 50 2009 100 150 200
2.8 100.0 145.0 10.0 15.5 76.7

FIGURE 6 Pacific: ADB Disbursements by Country, 2008–2009 (Sovereign and Nonsovereign) ($ million)
Cook Islands Fiji Islands Kiribati Marshall Islands Micronesia, Federated States of Nauru Palau Papua New Guinea Samoa Solomon Islands Timor-Leste Tonga Tuvalu Vanuatu
(10) 0 10 20 30 40 0.4 0.6 6.3 2.6 0.1 35.4 19.9 0.8 3.6
(0.3)

1.3 5.3 9.7

2008

2009

The Marshall islands
Partnership priorities. The government cleared its loan repayment arrears with ADB in March and has maintained subsequent repayments. The approved country operations business plan, 2009–2011, prioritizes technical assistance and policy advice to support public sector reform initiatives, formulate climate and environmental adaptation plans, and improve the government’s financial management. Impact of operations. Technical assistance programs continued to support improved public sector performance and a better enabling environment for private sector activity. ADB also supported the organization of

national conferences on public sector reform, fisheries development, energy reform, and climate change, leading to the adoption of strategy documents and work plans.

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The federated states of Micronesia
Partnership priorities. Economic management and accountability, including social and private sector development, remained priorities. ADB strengthened its partnership with the US through high-level dialogue and closer collaboration during project implementation. Impact of operations. The Omnibus Infrastructure Project helped restore critical water supply, sanitation, and power infrastructure. The technical assistance program continued to strengthen the government’s ability to manage finance, budget, and performance.

Technical assistance programs in the Marshall Islands continued to support improved public sector performance and a better enabling environment for private sector activity

Nauru
Partnership priorities. After its reengagement in May 2008, ADB stepped up its activities, which are closely aligned with the updated National Sustainable Development Strategy.

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Impact of operations. ADB operations focused on improving infrastructure and public sector management.

Palau
Partnership priorities. ADB and the government developed a country partnership strategy to guide their relationship over the next 5 years. They will work to improve the public sector’s effectiveness, facilitate private sector development, and manage the threats of climate change. Impact of operations. Technical assistance supported embedding the development strategy into ministries’ budget plans, helped develop a health insurance scheme to complement existing health care services, and helped prepare a new commercial code to improve private sector and consumer lending.

ADB’s first private sector project in Papua New Guinea was approved and disbursed in 2009. A total of $18 million was disbursed for the expansion and improvement of a nationwide mobile telecommunication network, which increases access to affordable telecommunication services, particularly for low-income users, and improves their accessibility and quality, particularly in the country’s remote and rural areas. Impact of operations. Ongoing ADB assistance improved the Highlands highway network and national road safety. ADB also strengthened support for private sector participation and development by providing assistance for the implementation of the national public–private partnership policy and in the delivery of rural health services, including HIV/AIDS prevention. The private sector was tapped to improve the supply and distribution of medical supplies. An ADB-supported project established a financial literacy and outreach program, and continued to strengthen the successful Nationwide Microbank, which grew to 12 branches.

Papua New Guinea
Partnership priorities. The midterm review of ADB’s country strategy and program 2006–2010 confirmed the rationale and validity of the four strategic priorities: public financial management, private sector development, infrastructure, and health and HIV/AIDS.

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ADB’s first private sector project in Papua New Guinea was approved and disbursed in 2009

ADB support in the Pacific has helped train health workers including in Papua New Guinea

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samoa
Partnership priorities. The country partnership strategy, 2008–2012, emphasizes poverty reduction, with three pillars for intervention: removing infrastructure constraints, improving access to and delivery of public services, and promoting private sector development.

Impact of operations. A $1 million grant from the Asia Pacific Disaster Response Fund helped the government provide medical care, shelter, and food to the population affected by the tsunami. The Power Sector Expansion Project facilitated installation of prepaid power meters in households.

Restoring the Reef
An ADB-financed fisheries management project in Papua New Guinea’s coastal regions could begin to turn the tide against destructive fishing practices through a community-based approach
come here have no idea about the importance of managing these resources.” The big prizes—sea cucumbers, trochus shells (used to make mother-of-pearl buttons), and reef fish—have vanished because of the twin pressures of growing coastal populations and destructive fishing practices. By contrast, villagers of Panakais on the west coast have established a no-fishing zone, although on this day they give themselves permission to break the ban for a special feast. The community has also renounced poisoning fish with derris root powder, fishing with dynamite, and night fishing by flashlight using fine-mesh nets as part of a self-imposed management plan drawn up with the help of Ailan Awareness, a local nongovernment organization. “They told us in a scientific way why we should not catch small fish and why we should leave the spawning fish alone,” says Francis Bolaf, chair of Panakais’ fisheries management committee. The community-based management approach to conserving marine resources has been pioneered through the coastal Fisheries Management and development Project, financed by AdB with a $5.7 million soft loan. Seven communities in New Ireland and another 17 in Morong province had applied the methods by the time the project ended in 2007. A further 37 were waiting to participate. “our project was to kick-start this concept and pilot it, and I’m happy that this has been achieved and we would like to see it replicated throughout the coast,” said Allan Lee, officer-in-charge at the AdB resident mission in Port Moresby. As more communities decide to make short-term sacrifices for long-term gains, the tide could turn for Papua New Guinea’s once bountiful reefs.

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ocals wade through the shallows on a beach in the slim hope of finding a few small shells and peanut worms. Two hours away, on a palm-fringed coast on the other side of a mountain range dividing this narrow island province, shiny mullet slither in the nets of joyful fishermen. The contrast between these two stretches of water reveals much about the story of Papua New Guinea’s declining coastal resources—and the efforts of some communities to reverse the trend. “This area has been totally overfished because it is near town, very accessible, and there are no restrictions or management of the reef,” a resident complains on the beach outside Kavieng, the main port of New Ireland. “The people who

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“They told us in a scientific way why we should not catch small fish and why we should leave the spawning fish alone”
Fishermen in Panakais and elsewhere are learning new ways to bring in the day’s catch

—francis Bolaf, chair of Panakais’ fisheries management committee

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solomon islands
Partnership priorities. A new interim country partnership strategy continued the focus on improving transport infrastructure and services and developing the private sector.

Impact of operations. Rehabilitation work under the emergency assistance program (in response to the 2007 earthquake and tsunami) progressed well and the Gizo town road was reopened. ADB continued to help the government implement company laws and establish a companies registry.

On the Same Track
Through post-conflict reconstruction, such as in Solomon Islands, ADB is helping governments restore fragile connections. The successful project has rebuilt roads and bridges, providing a lifeline to markets and hospitals
everal times a week, Mary Puke travels from Visale in West Guadalcanal to sell mangoes in honiara, the capital of Solomon Islands. The 80-kilometer round trip used to take her about 6 hours on a route damaged in conflict more than a decade ago. She can now cover that ground in 2 hours, after AdB’s Post-conflict emergency Rehabilitation Project restored roads and bridges. Bridges were bombed and major roads linking provincial and market centers with communities in Guadalcanal and the Island of Malaita were severely damaged during ethnic tensions that afflicted this South Pacific archipelago in 1999–2000. An october 2000 peace agreement ended conflict between groups from Guadalcanal and Malaita provinces, but communities were left without access to markets, clinics, schools, and agricultural services. “Frankly speaking, these were the worst conditions I’d seen in nearly 30 years of working on road projects,” says Rishi Adhar of AdB’s Pacific Liaison and coordination office, who worked on the project, which started in 2002. Additional funding made available by the Australian Agency for International development (AusAId), through its Regional Assistance Mission to Solomon Islands, and the New Zealand Agency for International development (NZAId) helped expand the rehabilitation project and avoid duplication of efforts. “By pooling our different ideas, we generally come up with a much better result,” NZAId manager Guy Redding says. The restoration of important transport links like the Tanavasa Bridge—the “Bridge of Peace,” which had been blown up during the conflict—is a tangible symbol of the trust and cooperation that now exists between communities previously at war. “The project has been widely regarded as being successful, delivering on its original objectives in an environment that was still fragile,” says Paul Kelly, RAMSI development coordinator. “It also contributed to economic growth in Solomon Islands. A working network of improved roads and bridges, particularly in rural areas, has joined communities together and become a lifeline to markets and hospitals.’’ The Solomon Islands Road Improvement Project is the next big transport rehabilitation project. This will build on the work of AdB’s Post-conflict emergency Rehabilitation Project, spreading the gains more widely. Policy advice and capacity building for the Ministry of Infrastructure is part of the package, and there are plans to involve youth, school dropouts, and women’s groups in local road maintenance to maximize the useful life of these arteries of commerce and peaceful existence.

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The project rejoins communities separated by conflict

The restoration of important transport links such as the “Bridge of Peace” is a tangible symbol of the trust and cooperation that now exists between communities

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Timor-Leste
Partnership priorities. ADB priorities include infrastructure, public administration, and ongoing support for the Instituicao de Microfinancas de Timor-Leste. Regional technical assistance was also approved to improve cross-border linkages between Indonesia and Timor-Leste. Impact of operations. The concluded $10 million ADF Road Sector Improvement Project rehabilitated about 123 km of deteriorated national roads, piloted road maintenance on 47 km of national roads using laborintensive methods, and engaged roadside communities in feeder road maintenance.

Impact of operations. ADB continued to help upgrade the Tuvalu Maritime Training Institute to double the number of students. A program grant supported improved public financial management, including major changes in taxation legislation.

Vanuatu
Partnership priorities. The country partnership strategy, 2010–2014, focuses on transport, urban development, and energy. It aims to strengthen the private sector through an improved regulatory environment, better access to finance, and reform of state-owned enterprises. Impact of operations. ADB continued to improve access to financial services by strengthening the Financial Services Commission’s institutional framework, reforming company and bankruptcy laws, modernizing the registry of companies, and establishing a framework for secured transactions.

Tonga
Partnership priorities. The joint ADB–World Bank field presence in Tonga has strengthened country-level interaction. A budget support program grant will help mitigate the impact of the global economic crisis. Impact of operations. ADB supported state-owned enterprise (SOE) reforms. Finding the Balance, a 2009 comparative study of SOE performance, rated Tonga as having outperformed the Fiji Islands and Samoa in SOE reform.

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Tuvalu
Partnership priorities. The country operations business plan, 2010–2012, focuses on improving public expenditure and financial management.

ADB priorities include infrastructure, public administration, and microfinance in Timor-Leste; budget support in Tonga; improving public expenditure financial management in Tuvalu; and strengthening the private sector in Vanuatu

Once of doubtful use for heavy cargo, the improved port at Suva is now the biggest in the Fiji Islands

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Bangladesh, Bhutan, india, the Maldives, Nepal, sri Lanka
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SOUTH ASIA

Chapter 10

ADB strengthened partnerships with key donors to deliver effective assistance and provided support to mitigate impacts of the global economic crisis. Regional cooperation and integration efforts were stepped up and the risk-based approach to portfolio management was strengthened. Climate change became a pillar of a country partnership strategy.

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DB’s performance in South Asia remained strong. ADB strengthened donor harmonization and aid effectiveness through donor partnership in formulating country strategies. ADB made climate change a pillar of a country partnership strategy and provided substantial assistance in response to the global economic crisis.

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loan disbursements increased to $2.8 billion from $2.4 billion in 2008, while contract awards and commitments reached $3.2 billion from $2.4 billion in 2008 (Table 22).

HiGHLiGHTs • Included climate change as a pillar of Nepal’s
country partnership strategy

• •

Extended substantial financial assistance in response to the global economic crisis Further strengthened donor harmonization and aid effectiveness through partnership with key donors in formulating country partnership strategies in addition to undertaking country portfolio reviews Strengthened risk-based approach to portfolio management

PoRTfoLio MANAGeMeNT
ADB strengthened the risk-based approach to portfolio management. This focuses on complex and problematic projects and sectors; capacity development assistance to executing agencies; better project preparation and enhanced quality-at-entry review, including more rigorous assessment of project readiness; and closer monitoring of major deviations at all stages of the project cycle. As a result,

The Global economic Crisis: ADB’s Response
Bangladesh


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Helped the government stimulate economic recovery and improve social safety nets through the Countercyclical Support Facility Improved service delivery, boosted the efficiency of social safety net programs, promoted public–private partnerships, and strengthened public resource management through the parallel Public Expenditure Support Facility

The Maldives

Supported reform measures to arrest the deteriorating macroeconomic situation and help the country resume sustainable growth by providing concessional loans through the Economic Recovery Program Helped improve macroeconomic policy formulation and development effectiveness through technical assistance grants

Nepal

ADB helped preserve spending on social welfare, including urban primary health care in Dhaka, Bangladesh

Mitigated the reduction of remittances and tourism income by increasing investments in the productive sectors, using resources allocated from the Asian Development Fund’s additional liquidity for crisis response

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TABLe 21 South Asia: Grant-Financed Project Approvals by Country, 2009 ($ million)
Country Bangladesh developing Inclusive Insurance Sector Second Primary education development Program (Supplementary)b emergency disaster damage Rehabilitation (Supplementary)b Post-Literacy and continuing education (Supplementary)b Bhutan Road Network II India capacity Building and Livelihood enhancement of Poor Water Users Nepal emergency Flood damage Rehabilitation establishing Women and children Service centers Second Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Sector education Sector Program – Subprogram III capacity Building for the Promotion of Legal Identity among the Poor South Asia Tourism Infrastructure developmentb Air Transport capacity enhancementb energy Access and efficiency Improvementb Flour Fortification in chakki Mills Sri Lanka clean energy and Access Improvementb Improving connectivity to Support Livelihoods and Gender equality North east community Restoration and development Program II (Supplementary)b Total
– = nil, AdF = Asian development Fund, ccF = climate change Fund. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding. a officially cofinanced by external sources, and fully or partially administered by AdB. b Grant component of a loan project.

ADF – – – – 38.8 – 25.6 – 45.1 70.0 – 12.8 10.0 – – – – – 202.2

CCF – – – – – – – – – – – – – 0.3 – 4.2 – – 4.5

Other Sourcesa 2.0 30.0 24.0 2.5 – 2.0 – 0.8 – – 2.0 – – 4.2 1.8 – 3.0 7.3 79.5

Total 2.0 30.0 24.0 2.5 38.8 2.0 25.6 0.8 45.1 70.0 2.0 12.8 10.0 4.5 1.8 4.2 3.0 7.3 286.2

Table 22 South Asia: Portfolio Performance Indicators for Sovereign Lending, 2008–2009
Contract Awards/ Commitments 2009 ($ million) 1,209.4 75.6 1,657.1 6.9 94.0 157.4 3,200.5 2008 ($ million) 506.2 18.8 1,154.0 4.5 64.5 611.0 2,358.9

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Country Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Sri Lanka Total

Ongoing Loans as of 31 Dec 2009 (no.) 59 6 53 9 17 40 184

Disbursements 2009 ($ million) 1,068.0 31.0 1,339.8 5.3 73.5 245.6 2,763.2 2008 ($ million) 615.6 4.3 1,507.7 2.7 60.9 249.5 2,440.7

Loans at Risk 2009 (%) – 16.7 5.7 55.6 5.9 15.0 8.7 2008 (%) 2.0 – 9.1 50.0 5.0 4.9 7.1

– = nil. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding.

ReGioNAL CooPeRATioN
ADB supported regional cooperation and integration in South Asia through the South Asian Association for Regional Cooperation (SAARC), the Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation, and subregional initiatives. In April, ADB convened the first High Level Forum on Emerging Vision for Shared

ADB convened the first High Level Forum on Emerging Vision for Shared Prosperity: South Asia and Beyond

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TABLe 23 South Asia: Sovereign and Nonsovereign Loan Approvals by Country, 2009 ($ million)
Country SOVEREIGN Bangladesh Participatory Small-Scale Water Resources Sector Small and Medium-Sized enterprise development Urban Public and environmental health Sector development Program – Program Loan – Project Loan Public expenditure Support Facility Program and countercyclical Support Facility Support Programa, b South Asia Tourism Infrastructure development (Bangladesh, India, and Nepal) Padma Multipurpose Bridge design (Supplementary) India Uttarakhand Power Sector Investment Program – Tranche 3 Rajasthan Urban Sector development Investment Program – Tranche 2 India Infrastructure Tranche Financing Facility – Tranche 2 National Power Grid development Investment Program – Tranche 2 Madhya Pradesh Power Sector Investment Program – Tranche 5 National highway corridor (Sector) I – (Supplementary) North eastern Region capital cities development Investment Program – Tranche 1 Rural Roads Sector II Investment Program – Tranche 4 Mizoram Public Resource Management Program developing Public Resource Management Program in Mizoram South Asia Tourism Infrastructure development (Bangladesh, India, and Nepal) Second India Infrastructure Tranche Financing Facility – Tranche 1 Assam Power Sector enhancement Investment Program – Tranche 1 Jharkhand State Roads himachal Pradesh clean energy development Investment Program – Tranche 2 Maldives economic Recovery Program capacity Building for economic Recovery (TA Loan) Nepal education Sector Program (Subprogram 3) South Asia Tourism Infrastructure development (Bangladesh, India, and Nepal) Air Transport capacity enhancement energy Access and efficiency Improvement Sri Lanka clean energy and Access Improvement eastern and North central Provincial Road Greater colombo Wastewater Management Subtotal NONSOVEREIGN India Small and Medium enterprise Trade Finance development Facility Subtotal Total
–- = nil, AdF = Asian development Fund, ocR = ordinary capital resources, TA = technical assistance. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding. a consists of two AdF loans. b consists of two ocR loans.

OCR

ADF

Total

– – – – 600.0 – – 30.6 150.0 200.0 200.0 166.0 100.0 30.0 185.0 94.0 6.0 20.0 210.0 60.3 200.0 59.1 – – – – – – 135.0 – 80.0 2,526.0

55.0 76.0 70.0 60.0 144.9 12.0 10.0 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – 35.0 1.5 25.0 12.8 70.0 65.0 25.0 70.0 20.0 752.1

55.0 76.0 70.0 60.0 744.9 12.0 10.0 30.6 150.0 200.0 200.0 166.0 100.0 30.0 185.0 94.0 6.0 20.0 210.0 60.3 200.0 59.1 35.0 1.5 25.0 12.8 70.0 65.0 160.0 70.0 100.0 3,278.1

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100.0 100.0 2,626.0

– – 752.1

100.0 100.0 3,378.1

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FIGURE 7 South Asia: ADB Lending by Country, 2008–2009 (Sovereign and Nonsovereign) ($ million)
Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Sri Lanka
0 36.5 15.0 172.8 330.0 149.8 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 2,500 3,000 592.0 80.0 1,811.0 2,707.6 1,027.9

FIGURE 8 South Asia: ADB Disbursements by Country, 2008–2009 (Sovereign and Nonsovereign) ($ million)
Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Sri Lanka
0 9.3 2.7 73.5 61.7 253.0 259.5 500 1,000 1,500 2,000 31.0 4.3 1,551.7 1,655.6 615.6 1,068.0

2008

2009

2008

2009

Prosperity: South Asia and Beyond, bringing together stakeholders from the finance and foreign ministries of South Asian countries, their neighbors, and the SAARC Secretariat to agree on approaches for advancing regional cooperation in South Asia and beyond. ADB approved the second multi-country investment project in South Asia, which will create infrastructure for regional tourism; approved a road project for Bhutan, which has significant regional implications; and prepared the subregional transport infrastructure and trade facilitation project. ADB provided technical assistance to support resolutions of the SAARC Summit and the activities of the SAARC Secretariat, including regional food security initiatives. ADB also assisted networking among policy research institutes and think tanks involved with regional cooperation and integration. ADB prepared the regional cooperation operations business plan for South Asia, 2010–2012, which provides $1.6 billion for lending to regional and national projects with a regional dimension, and $15.8 million for nonlending products and services. ADB prepared the completion report for the regional cooperation strategy and program 2006–2008 to help formulate the new strategy.

TABLe 24 South Asia: Cumulative Lending and Disbursements by Country as of the end of 2009 ($ million)a, b
Country Bangladesh Bhutan India Maldives Nepal Sri Lanka Total Lending 10,885.3 256.1 22,228.2 152.8 2,473.7 4,685.5 40,681.6 Disbursements 7,924.1 147.6 13,557.2 80.8 1,777.2 3,414.8 26,901.6

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Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding. a Loan component of regional projects distributed to the countries. b Includes nonsovereign (public and private) sector loans.

CoUNTRY HiGHLiGHTs
Bangladesh
Partnership priorities. The midterm review of the country partnership strategy, 2006–2010, completed in August, validated its strategic pillars (sustainable economic growth, inclusive social development, and good governance) while underscoring the need for greater investment in basic infrastructure and further progress on economic and governance reforms. ADB mobilized additional financing to support government efforts to stimulate economic recovery and improve social safety net programs, and funds were redirected from ongoing projects for emergency postcyclone rehabilitation. ADB also extended its support

ADB approved the second multicountry investment project in South Asia, which will create infrastructure for regional tourism

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for small-scale water resources and small and mediumsized enterprises. Ten loans were approved totaling $1 billion. Impact of operations. ADB’s support for primary education engendered progress in several key performance indicators. The sector-wide approach fostered

harmony among development partners and reduced transaction costs for the government. The design of the Padma Multipurpose Bridge was initiated with ADB support, and additional resources were provided through a supplementary loan to accelerate preparation of this high-priority project. The Northwest Crop Diversification Project substantially raised the incomes

Birth Free of Worry
Women in towns and cities across Bangladesh can welcome their babies safely into the world as an ADB-funded partnership works to combat maternal and child mortality
amrunnahar Akter says the birth of her third child at a well-equipped health care center was free of the stress she experienced in her previous deliveries. “I have had two children at home in deliveries that had a lot of anxieties and difficulties, but here I have had no worries,” Akter, who is 29, said as she rested after giving birth to a healthy boy at the center run by Progoti Samaj Kallyan Protisthan, a nongovernment organization (NGo) running health care centers in dhaka operated under the Second Urban Primary health care Project in partnership with the Government of Bangladesh. Akter’s experience is typical of women across the country who have benefited from an innovative tie-up between local governments and NGos to deliver primary health care to poor urban communities. Such public–private partnerships provide facilities and services to six city corporations and five municipalities across Bangladesh. Building on an earlier AdB project, this initiative aims to reach underserved communities and, in particular, to improve child and maternal health in areas where mortality rates remain high. The under-5 child mortality is 65 per 1,000 births; 41% of children under 5 are underweight, 12% severely so. only 52% of pregnant women obtain antenatal care from a medically trained provider and only 15% of births take place in health care facilities. “We believe our health centers have contributed to a substantial reduction in child and maternal mortality and morbidity in Bangladesh,” said Kazi Nurun Nabi, project manager of Progoti Samaj Kallyan Protisthan, who oversees an average of five deliveries per day at the maternity center where Akter gave birth. So far the project has established 116 primary health care centers and 9 comprehensive reproductive health care centers; 41 more health care facilities and 42 community toilets will be built before the project closes at the end of 2011. The centers also provide other medical treatment, vaccinations, family planning and nutritional advice, and education on primary health care. The project targets care to the most needy: at least 30% of the health centers’ free services reach the urban poor, and nutritional supplements are supplied to severely malnourished women and children. Satellite clinics in slum areas treat patients who cannot come to the main health centers. The project has assisted more than 100,000 institutional deliveries, and over 5 million have benefited so far from the project. The government is responsible for devising and overseeing the program, while NGos deliver the health care and family planning services. The project is financed mainly by AdB with cofinance from the department for International development (dFId) of the United Kingdom, the Swedish International development cooperation Agency (Sida), and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). oRBIS, an international NGo, helps the project provide primary eye care services.

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“We believe our health centers have contributed to a substantial reduction in child and maternal mortality and morbidity in Bangladesh”
A baby gets treatment at an ADB-funded health center

—Kazi Nurun Nabi, project manager of a maternity center

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of some 250,000 small and marginal farmers, and ADB began preparing a second phase.

and ADB’s Strategy 2020. The review recommended continued implementation as planned. Impact of operations. Accessibility is Bhutan’s key development issue. The Road Network II Project increased passenger and freight transport within the country and with India, and integrated the southern region with its primary markets through the expanded road network and accessible border crossings. ADB’s power interventions enabled poor households to establish income-generating microenterprises and strengthened small-scale cottage industries benefiting from

Bhutan
Partnership priorities. The July midterm review of the Bhutan country partnership strategy concluded that the strategy of poverty reduction through program and project assistance in four core sectors (roads, power and rural electrification, urban infrastructure, and financial and private sector development) and capacity development in these sectors is fully aligned with the government’s Tenth Plan

Paving the Way to Prosperity
Bhutan is upgrading and extending its roads and highways, dramatically improving road safety and livelihoods for farmers, business people, and transport workers
udhbir Tamang tells stories of close calls driving on Bhutan’s treacherous mountain roads, white-knuckle experiences that left him inches from plunging to certain death. The 27-year-old truck driver has fewer hair-raising tales after AdB assisted in the renovation and upgrading of 328 kilometers (km) of the east–West highway, a vital passage that connects the two sides of the country. All-weather pavement was installed on the single highway bisecting the country, along with concrete barriers on the most dangerous curves. “It’s still dangerous,” said Tamang, “but now my wife doesn’t worry that I won’t come home alive when I have to drive cross-country.” Vehicular transport in Bhutan, which did not have a single car until the 1960s, has grown rapidly in recent years, but the country’s road network, comprising 4,153 km of drivable roads, provides only limited coverage and cannot meet the growing demands of larger and heavier vehicles. The government partnered with AdB to meet Bhutan’s transport needs. AdB has provided four loans and two grants totaling $85.9 million, and has helped build or upgrade 346 km of roads and highways. The Bhutan Road Improvement Project has reduced vehicle operating costs by 19%– 38%, cut travel time by 25%, and benefited nearly 100,000 people, according to an independent evaluation by AdB. AdB is also working to improve about 140 km of the Trongsa–Gelephu highway—the vital route linking Bhutan to the India border—and about 100 km of other important road sections. “The benefits of that project have been immense,” says Pherub Phuntsho, an engineer with Bhutan’s department of Roads, who reports that heavy vehicle and bus accidents have fallen dramatically. The impact of upgrading the east–West highway is highly visible. Traffic in some sections of the highway has increased from as few as 4 or 5 vehicles per day before improvement to 300 or 400 vehicles per day, and twice as much in other sections. Temphey, a 50-year-old farmer living near the western city of Wangdue, has also benefited immensely as a result of the highway improvement. The farmer of potatoes, radishes, and chili peppers used to spend more than a day hauling his goods to market by ox. Today, it takes about an hour to get his goods to market. “I used to live like the ox in the field,” Temphey says. “Now, my work is easier and I can spend more time with my family.”

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Driving on Bhutan’s highways is a lot safer these days, says truck driver Budhbir Tamang

“My wife doesn’t worry that I won’t come home alive when I have to drive cross-country”
—Budhbir Tamang, truck driver

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microcredit under ADB’s Small and Medium Enterprises Sector Development Program. The finance sector was stronger because of sustained regulatory and policy development assistance. Access and electrification have allowed the government to establish schools and health units, increasing ADB’s direct and indirect contribution to poverty reduction and achievement of the Millennium Development Goals.

The Maldives
Partnership priorities. Under the country partnership strategy, ADB and the government agreed to augment human resources capacity, a binding constraint in the Maldives; strengthen economic management; improve development effectiveness; and provide assistance for private sector development, energy, and transport with an emphasis on public–private partnership. The strategy contains a provision for ADB to respond quickly if circumstances change. The recent global economic slowdown has adversely affected the Maldives, and ADB approved quick-disbursing assistance to support the government’s economic reform program. Impact of operations. The Economic Recovery Program contributed $35 million to a government emergency program supported by international financial institutions that sought to correct underlying economic distortions and restore a sustainable medium-term growth trajectory. By supporting structural reforms, the program facilitated progress toward more broad-based and sustainable development, thereby reducing vulnerability to external shocks.

india
Partnership priorities. The country partnership strategy 2009–2012 will speed up poverty reduction and social development. It will strengthen ADB support for infrastructure development, promote public–private partnerships in infrastructure development, support climate change adaptation and mitigation, and encourage innovative financing. Results and knowledge creation will also be enhanced. Impact of operations. The Chhattisgarh Irrigation Development Project improved irrigation infrastructure and agriculture extension services, leading to an estimated 50% yield increase in irrigated rice and 30% in wheat and the piloting of new cash crops. The $100 million Assam Power Sector Development Program, 2003–2009, helped restructure the Assam State Electricity Board, developed tariff rules, funded an electric service billing system, and lowered transmission and distribution system losses. Power supply was made more reliable and 1,200 villages were connected to the grid. ADB financed 24 projects under the first tranche of the India Infrastructure Project Financing Facility, 2008– 2010, leveraging more than 10 times its own resources from other commercial sources.

Nepal
Partnership priorities. The country partnership strategy, 2010–2012, was prepared based on consultations

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Donor Partnership in Formulating Country Strategies for Nepal
dB’s country partnership strategy for Nepal 2010–2012 was formulated through stakeholder consultations in partnership with the United Kingdom’s department for International development and the World Bank. consultations solicited feedback on Nepal’s development priorities, and explored ways to ensure programs’ development effectiveness. A second round of consultations was held in december to provide feedback to stakeholders on the development partners’ country strategies and discuss implementation challenges. The donor partnership was extended to sector and thematic assessments, such as critical development constraints, gender equality and social inclusion, and climate change assessments. A “peace filter” was developed as a conflictsensitive tool for project design and implementation.

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The country partnership strategy 2009–2012 for India aims to speed up poverty reduction and social development, help build infrastructure, promote public– private partnerships, support climate change adaptation, and encourage innovative financing

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ADB’s country partnership in Nepal aims to sustain the gains of the peace process

with key stakeholders, including other development partners. It aims to sustain the gains of the peace process by promoting broad-based inclusive economic growth, inclusive social development, governance and capacity building, climate change adaptation, and environmental sustainability. The December participatory country portfolio review focused on development effectiveness. ADB approved six projects for $336.2 million in Asian Development Fund (ADF) loans and grants and approved nine technical assistance grants for $5.8 million. Impact of operations. The Crop Diversification Project completed in December 2008 improved the productivity of secondary crops in 12 mid- and far-western districts. Extensive social mobilization, innovative agriculture extension services, and processing and marketing services helped increase production, raise incomes of participants, and improve nutritional status. An additional 14,963 person-years of employment were created. The ongoing Community-Based Water Supply and Sanita-

tion Project continued to provide improved water supply and sanitation services and better health and hygiene in remote areas.

sri Lanka
Partnership priorities. In line with the country partnership strategy, 2009–2011, ADB projects supported fiscal management, roads and transport, energy, water supply, and education. ADB focused on postwar development efforts when the long war against separatist rebels ended in mid-2009. ADB approved $330 million in loans for three projects: the $160 million Clean Energy and Access Improvement Project, the $70 million Eastern and North Central Provincial Road Project, and the $100 million Greater Colombo Wastewater Management Project. Impact of operations. The Road Network Improvement Project improved 309 kilometers (km) of national roads and rehabilitated 450 km of flood-damaged roads. The Road Sector Development Project completed 800 km of provincial roads. A 153 km road, cofinanced by the European Union, connected the South and East of Sri Lanka. ADB continued to assist development in the previously conflict-affected northern and eastern provinces. Assistance for water supply and sanitation provided 2 million people with safe water. ADB supported the modernization of secondary education, the development of a distance education network, and expanded access to higher education.

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The end of the long conflict in Nepal in mid-2009 allowed ADB to focus development assistance on fiscal management, roads and transport, energy, water supply, and education

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Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, indonesia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic, Malaysia, Myanmar, the Philippines, singapore, Thailand, Viet Nam
The promotion of regional cooperation saw two subregional programs pass significant milestones and strengthened ADB’s relationship with the Association of southeast Asian Nations.

SOUTHEAST ASIA

Chapter 11

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DB helped mitigate the impact of the global financial crisis and to alleviate the plight of communities affected by natural calamities. ADB’s operations also sought to improve transport, electricity supply, access to clean water and sanitation, education, and primary health care, particularly for the poor and disadvantaged. ADB activities further prioritized sustainable natural resource use, enhanced public service delivery, and finance sector and public expenditure management reform. Indonesia, Viet Nam, and the Philippines were among the top five recipients of ADB support (Table 3). Regional cooperation accelerated, expanding into new areas to improve connectivity. ADB intensified its emphasis on the quality of projects at entry, portfolio

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performance, results monitoring, and knowledge management.

PoRTfoLio MANAGeMeNT
Portfolio performance continued to improve due to a sustained focus on efficient project management and closer monitoring, greater delegation to resident missions, and country-specific actions to address systemic issues (Table 26).

The Global economic Crisis: ADB’s Response
Cambodia

HiGHLiGHTs • Almost doubled

lending, compared with 2008, to $5.4 billion—41% of total loans approved—especially to help countries affected by the global financial crisis and to sustain social sector spending Supported developing member countries’ crisis responses with Countercyclical Support Facility loans, and a loan and guarantee to enhance access to commercial financing sources Facilitated the adoption of a new strategic vision for cooperation between countries of the Greater Mekong Subregion toward increased connectivity, and an accelerated agenda of infrastructure investments in the Brunei Darussalam–Indonesia–Malaysia– Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area and the Indonesia–Malaysia–Thailand Growth Triangle Significantly aligned operations with Strategy 2020 to achieve ADB’s operational targets for education, environment, infrastructure, finance, and regional cooperation Improved the quality of the portfolio, with contract awards/commitments and disbursements exceeding projections, and program loans timely disbursed, boosting achievement of outcomes and enhancing impact

Helped alleviate adverse impacts on the poor in the Tonle Sap Basin by modifying the Emergency Food Assistance Project to expand the cash-for-work program

Indonesia

• • •

Supported access to commercial financing by providing the $1 billion Public Expenditure Support Facility Supported countercyclical spending with the $500 million Countercyclical Support Facility

The Lao People’s Democratic Republic Helped the government mitigate the budgetary impacts by expediting disbursements of ongoing operations and providing an additional $35.3 million grant for 2009–2010

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The Philippines

Helped the government mitigate the impact of the crisis through policy-based operations, by approving three loans amounting to $975 million including the $500 million Countercyclical Support Facility

Viet Nam

Supported crisis response policy measures through the $500 million Countercyclical Support Facility, especially for infrastructure, irrigation, and transport development Mobilized commercial bank financing for the power sector through a $325 million guarantee

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TABLe 25 Southeast Asia: Grant-Financed Project Approvals by Country, 2009 ($ million)
Country Cambodia Piloting the Post-harvest Technology and Skills Bridging Program for Rural Poor Second Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Strengthening Technical and Vocational education and Training Tonle Sap Poverty Reduction and Smallholder developmentb Greater Mekong Subregion: Rehabilitation of the Railway in cambodiab Indonesia Rice Fortification for the Poor West Sumatera earthquake disaster Lao People’s Democratic Republic Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Sustainable Natural Resource Management and Productivity enhancement developing Model healthy Villages in Northern Lao People’s democratic Republic Private Sector and Small and Medium-Sized enterprises development Program (Subprogram 2) Strengthening higher education health Sector development Program – Program Grant – Project Grant Philippines Philippine energy efficiencyb enhancing Midwives’ entrepreneurial and Financial Literacyb Typhoon Ketsana (ondoy) under the Asia Pacific disaster Response Fund Viet Nam Thanh hoa city comprehensive Socioeconomic developmentb Formalizing Microfinance Institutions Total
– = nil, AdF = Asian development Fund, APdRF = Asia Pacific disaster Response Fund. a officially cofinanced by external sources, and fully or partially administered by AdB. b Grant component of a loan project.

ADF

APDRF

Other Sourcesa

Total

– 21.0 24.5 27.3 – – – 23.0 20.0 – 15.0 24.8 10.0 10.0 – – – – – 175.6

– – – – – – 3.0 – – – – – – – – – 3.0 – – 6.0

2.0 – – 12.4 21.5 2.0 – 5.8 15.0 3.0 – – – – 1.5 0.4 – 2.0 1.5 67.1

2.0 21.0 24.5 39.7 21.5 2.0 3.0 28.8 35.0 3.0 15.0 24.8 10.0 10.0 1.5 0.4 3.0 2.0 1.5 248.7

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TABLe 26 Southeast Asia: Portfolio Performance Indicators for Sovereign Lending, 2008–2009
Ongoing Loans as of 31 Dec 2009 (no.) 16 30 15 11 1 43 116 Contract Awards/ Commitments 2009 ($ million) 30.8 721.9 24.1 1,314.1 – 1,782.0 3,873.1 2008 ($ million) 109.7 1,031.2 30.9 632.2 – 390.5 2,194.3 Disbursements 2009 ($ million) 61.1 732.7 37.0 1,317.5 – 1,093.4 3,241.7 2008 ($ million) 106.4 949.6 49.1 653.2 – 264.6 2,022.9 Loans at Risk 2009 (%) 6.3 10.0 6.7 – – 2.3 5.2 2008 (%) 5.3 – 11.8 7.7 – 10.3 6.7

Country cambodia Indonesia Lao People’s democratic Republic Philippines Thailand Viet Nam Total

– = nil. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding.

ADB intensified its emphasis on the quality of projects at entry, portfolio performance, results monitoring, and knowledge management

The number of loans and grants in the region increased from 154 to 168, with a net amount of $11.1 billion. Contract awards were 142% of projections and 172% of the 2008 level. Disbursements were 168% of projections and 158% of the 2008 performance. The technical assistance portfolio consisted of 200 active projects, for a total of $293.2 million, of which 87% were rated “satisfactory.”

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TABLe 27 Southeast Asia: Sovereign and Nonsovereign Loan Approvals by Country, 2009 ($ million)
Country SOVEREIGN Cambodia Greater Mekong Subregion: cambodia Northwest Provincial Road Improvement Second Financial Sector Program (Subprogram 3) Tonle Sap Poverty Reduction and Smallholder development Greater Mekong Subregion: Rehabilitation of the Railway in cambodia (Supplementary) Indonesia Indonesian Infrastructure Financing Facility Public expenditure Support Facility Program countercyclical Support Rural Infrastructure Support to PNPM Mandiri Project II capital Market development Program cluster (Subprogram 2) Fifth development Policy Support Program Lao People’s Democratic Republic decentralized Irrigation development and Management Sector (Supplementary) Philippines Philippine energy efficiency credit for Better health care countercyclical Support development Policy Support Program (Subprogram 3) Local Government Financing and Budget Reform Program (Subprogram 2) Thailand Greater Mekong Subregion: highway expansion – – – – 100.0 1,000.0 500.0 84.2 300.0 200.0 – 31.1 50.0 500.0 250.0 225.0 77.1 16.3 10.0 3.4 42.0 – – – – – – 0.1 – – – – – – 72.0 95.0 151.0 – 100.0 20.0 40.0 45.0 – 594.8 16.3 10.0 3.4 42.0 100.0 1,000.0 500.0 84.2 300.0 200.0 0.1 31.1 50.0 500.0 250.0 225.0 77.1 72.0 95.0 151.0 500.0 100.0 20.0 40.0 45.0 902.9 5,315.1 OCR ADF Total

Viet Nam Thanh hoa city comprehensive Socioeconomic development – Quality and Safety enhancement of Agricultural Products and Biogas development – Renewable energy development and Network expansion and Rehabilitation for Remote communes Sector – countercyclical Support 500.0 Support for the Implementation of the Poverty Reduction Program V (Subprogram 2) – Secondary education Sector development Program – Program Loan – – Project Loan – – central Regions Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Mong duong 1 Thermal Power –Tranche 2 902.9 Subtotal NONSOVEREIGN 4,720.3

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Philippines Visayas Base-Load Power development Thailand Biomass Power Subtotal Total

120.0 5.0 125.0 4,845.3

– – – 594.8

120.0 5.0 125.0 5,440.1

– = nil, AdF = Asian development Fund, ocR = ordinary capital resources, PNPM = Program Nasional Pemberdayaan Masyarakat (National Program for community empowerment).

ReGioNAL CooPeRATioN
ADB achieved new milestones in its subregional programs within the Brunei Darussalam–Indonesia–Malaysia– Philippines East ASEAN Growth Area (BIMP−EAGA), the Indonesia–Malaysia–Thailand Growth Triangle (IMT− GT), and the Greater Mekong Subregion (GMS), and enhanced collaboration with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) Secretariat. The BIMP−EAGA member countries agreed to facilitate interstate transport and to accelerate infrastructure development, and ADB helped them identify projects and prepare a program of

12 high-priority transport and energy projects for 2010− 2011, worth about $1 billion, and fast-track implementation of these projects. Leaders of the IMT−GT countries agreed to accelerate the implementation of connectivity corridors. ADB helped identify and include eight priority projects in the IMT−GT pipeline with an estimated total cost of $2.5 billion. A midterm review of the IMT−GT Road Map and a parallel review of IMT−GT business processes are being undertaken to ensure effective implementation. ADB supported and provided advice to the Center for IMT−GT Cooperation.

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In the GMS, ADB continued to prioritize infrastructure projects to expedite development of integrated transport networks in the region’s economic corridors and the implementation of cross-border transport agreement and trade facilitation measures. ADB organized the 15th GMS Ministerial Conference in Thailand and facilitated the Second Economic Corridors Forum in Cambodia. ADB and the ASEAN Secretariat discussed the review of their memorandum of understanding and undertook a strategic comparison of ADB’s programs in BIMP−EAGA and the GMS with the ASEAN integration framework to enhance synergies.

assisted 24,000 additional poor households in the Tonle Sap Basin. The Tonle Sap Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Sector Project expanded access to safe water and sanitation, resulting in better health and greater convenience, especially for women and girls, and helping achieve Cambodia’s Millennium Development Goals.

indonesia
Partnership priorities. The country strategy and program for 2006−2009 was fully aligned with the government’s medium-term development plan, which aimed to increase economic growth, create jobs, and accelerate the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. ADB’s largest interventions focused on mitigating the impact of the global economic crisis. Impact of operations. ADB’s combined assistance of $1.5 billion under the Public Expenditure Support Facility and the Countercyclical Support Facility helped maintain capital flows and financed a temporary fiscal expansion to protect social spending and support poverty reduction programs. These facilities, coupled with prudent macroeconomic management, enabled Indonesia to weather the global financial crisis. The Development Policy Support Program improved the investment climate through a range of measures, increased access to credit, strengthened public financial management and governance, and improved public service delivery to the poorest sub-districts.

CoUNTRY HiGHLiGHTs
Brunei Darussalam
Partnership priorities. Brunei Darussalam chaired the BIMP−EAGA ministerial and senior officials meetings, confirmed two connectivity projects between Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia in the subregional priority pipeline, and partnered with ADB to develop its finance sector in pursuit of economic diversification and reduced public sector dominance. Impact of operations. ADB’s first reimbursable technical assistance helped establish a strategy and action plan to develop the country’s capital market. ADB collaborated with Brunei Darussalam to determine follow-on technical assistance on a reimbursable basis.

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The Lao People’s Democratic Republic
Partnership priorities. The midterm review of ADB’s country strategy and program for 2007–2011 affirmed its continued relevance to the country’s development

Cambodia
Partnership priorities. ADB’s country operations business plan 2009−2012 was fully aligned with the government’s 2008 Rectangular Strategy, Phase II. It aims to achieve more inclusive, diversified economic growth and greater poverty reduction through more targeted interventions in agriculture and rural development; private sector, governance, and capacity development; and regional economic integration. Impact of operations. The Emergency Food Assistance Project continued to help 89,000 poor households cope with food price hikes, and the cash-for-work program

ADB subregional programs achieved new milestones, accelerating infrastructure development and enhancing collaboration with the Association of Southeast Asian Nations Secretariat

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FIGURE 9 Southeast Asia: ADB Lending by Country, 2008–2009 (Sovereign and Nonsovereign) ($ million)
Cambodia Indonesia Lao People’s 0.1 Democratic Republic Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Thailand
82.1 1,176.1 820.0 71.7 53.8 2,184.2 1,085.0

FIGURE 10 Southeast Asia: ADB Disbursements by Country, 2008–2009 (Sovereign and Nonsovereign) ($ million)
Cambodia Indonesia Lao People’s Democratic Republic Malaysia Myanmar Philippines
1,317.5 37.0 52.5 61.1 113.4 739.9 1,003.1

853.2

Thailand
1,925.9 789.7

Viet Nam
0

Viet Nam 2,500
0

264.6

1,118.4

500 2008

1,000 2009

1,500

2,000

200 2008

400 2009

600

800 1,000 1,200 1,400

context. Priorities supported include agriculture, health, education, and infrastructure which are core sectors in the Sixth Five-Year National Socio-Economic Development Plan, 2006–2010. Impact of operations. During the first half of the country strategy and program, income growth and poverty reduction targets were surpassed, and the business environment improved significantly. The Rural Financial Sector Development and Banking Sector Reform programs strengthened the banking system and bank oversight, recapitalized state banks, improved credit quality, and significantly reduced the number of nonperforming loans. The entry of new private banks during 2007–2009 fostered competition and efficiency and helped establish the banking system as the main credit source for agriculture and small and medium-sized enterprises.

TABLe 28 Southeast Asia: Cumulative Lending and Disbursements by Country as of the end of 2009 ($ million)a, b
Country cambodia Indonesia Lao People’s democratic Republic Malaysia Myanmar Philippines Thailand Viet Nam Total
c

Lending 1,072.8 25,707.5 1,211.5 1,997.5 530.9 11,828.9 5,470.2 8,195.0 56,014.3

Disbursements 850.5 19,140.9 1,171.3 1,414.0 411.8 9,706.9 4,207.7 3,752.0 40,655.1

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a Loan component of regional projects distributed to the countries. b Includes nonsovereign (public and private) sector loans. c excludes Singapore which has graduated from regular AdB assistance.

Malaysia
Partnership priorities. Malaysia expanded its partnership with ADB under BIMP−EAGA and the IMT− GT, contributing projects that form part of a fast-track pipeline of priority infrastructure projects in the subregions. This demonstrated the country’s commitment

Malaysia worked closely with ADB to develop regional finance markets, including support given to the Islamic Financial Services Board to foster international prudential standards and liquidity management

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to promoting private financing for infrastructure in the subregions. Malaysia worked closely with ADB to develop regional finance markets, including support given to the Islamic Financial Services Board to foster international prudential standards and liquidity management for Islamic financing systems. It also discussed support to the ASEAN capital market integration implementation plan.

Myanmar
Partnership priorities. ADB continued to monitor economic development in coordination with the development partner community and will formulate an operational strategy when appropriate. Myanmar participated in major GMS meetings and in some regional technical assistance projects. ADB’s last loan project to Myanmar

Cambodian Women: Improving Skills to Boost Income
At women’s development centers across Cambodia, women learn to turn a profit by using local materials to produce goods for growing markets
hav heat’s stilted, wooden house in the province of Siem Reap looks out onto verdant rice paddies. But life is not as idyllic as it may seem in the luscious cambodian countryside. “It can be very tough to feed my four children, especially in the rainy season,” Thav heat, a widow, says. “When the harvest season comes, we have food or rice to keep us going for just 5 months. But after that we have to earn money to buy food.” Women across cambodia face a similar challenge to make the money they need, with husbands absent because of death, divorce, or migration for work in other provinces or abroad. While women are a mainstay of the informal economy, there is little formal employment for them outside agriculture or the garment factories in and around Phnom Penh. “The problem is poverty—and access to opportunities,” says Ing Kantha Phavi, the minister for women’s affairs. But at new women’s development centers, women like Thav heat are learning how to earn money and overcome a lack of skills. Women’s development centers, overseen by Ing Kantha Phavi’s ministry, and supported by partners, including AdB, train women in life skills and entrepreneurship. They also facilitate access to microcredit. This may have some impact on developing the informal economy, which has received little attention from either the government or international donors, according to the ministry. The women’s development centers focus initially on enhancing existing skills and using locally available materials to help clients improve their livelihoods. The opening of a women’s development center in Leang dey, Siem Reap, gave Thav heat the opportunity to learn not only improved mat-weaving and design techniques but also how to produce bags and purses for the growing tourism market in Siem Reap. “People used to spend up to 6 days making one mat—and then they would sell it for $5. Lots of labor to make very little money,” says Uch Sarom, a training adviser with the ministry. “Now they can make $3–$4 a day depending on how fast they work. We are teaching them marketing and design, and also giving general business training.“ her new skills mean that Thav heat can stay close to home while earning the extra money her family needs. even the raw material for the bags she makes, a grass known locally as romchek, grows right on her doorstep.

T

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Thav Heat and others earn extra money by weaving local grass into mats and purses

Her new skills mean that Thav Heat can stay close to home while earning the extra money her family needs

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Chasing Buses, Chasing Profits
Building a new bus and jeepney terminal in Panabo City not only benefited travelers but also created space and extra income for the hawkers who make a living serving refreshments
elen dolino used to chase buses up and down the main road of Panabo city, scrambling on board to hawk her wares like many other women offering refreshments to travelers in the Philippines. “We would run from one bus to the other to sell our merchandise since there was no designated terminal for provincial buses and jeepneys,’’ says dolino. It was chaotic, and did not result in many sales, she recalls. Today, dolino and other vendors proudly display their snacks, drinks, and souvenirs at small stalls they occupy at an integrated terminal for buses and jeepneys—local minibuses—built with AdB’s help along a main highway in this southern Philippine city. In addition to this welcome benefit, the terminal, opened by the city’s government with funding from the Mindanao Basic Urban Services Sector Project, streamlines the loading and unloading of passengers and goods. While vendors, most of whom are women, are not charged rental for the stalls, they must first undergo training at the Women’s Resource center, constructed with the aid of a $1 million grant from AdB’s Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction. The center teaches poor women in Panabo city new ways to increase their incomes, and helps them set up small stores to sell their products. So far, it has trained more than 100 women, including dolino. Training modules include food processing for native delicacies, fruit processing, ice cream making, and simple accounting and bookkeeping. The center plans to train 1,600 poor women in the city. Before she attended the Women’s Resource center, there were times when dolino, 43, and her friends earned so little money that they had to resort to asking the local social welfare office for rice and dried fish to feed their families. Now, thanks to her training, dolino earns extra income by selling native delicacies that women at the center produce. “We now can earn $2 to $6 (P100 to P300) more each day,” she says. The Women’s Resource center also operates a preschool where busy vendors can leave their children, knowing that they are safely learning nearby. In 2009, 37 students were enrolled. The Japan Fund for Poverty Reduction is financing the construction of women’s resource centers in six other provinces in Mindanao.

H

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Women vendors used to chase buses up and down the main road of Panabo, scramble aboard and hawk their wares

Dolino earns extra income by selling native delicacies that women at the center in Panabo City, Davao del Norte, produce
Impact of operations. ADB helped the government mitigate the impact of the global financial crisis through policy-based operations and a $500 million Countercyclical Support Facility loan. ADB also helped promote

was approved in 1986 and its last technical assistance project was approved in 1987.

The Philippines
Partnership priorities. ADB continued to align its strategy and program for 2005−2007 with the government’s Medium-Term Philippine Development Plan, 2004−2010, emphasizing fiscal consolidation, an improved investment climate, and accelerated attainment of the Millennium Development Goals. ADB and the government agreed on a country operations business plan for 2010−2012.

ADB provided a $3 million grant under the Asia Pacific Disaster Response Fund to help people in the Philippines affected by typhoon Ondoy

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Pipes in Negros Occidental, Philippines, are part of a project that brings water to the poor

energy efficiency and health care, particularly for mothers and children. ADB provided a $3 million grant under the Asia Pacific Disaster Response Fund to assist people affected by typhoon Ondoy, and participated with partner agencies in a post-disaster needs assessment to determine the extent of losses caused by typhoons Ondoy and Pepeng and to identify recovery and reconstruction measures.

strategic direction to deepen the Thai capital market. A study on an integrated ticketing system provided important recommendations for an expansion of Bangkok’s mass rapid transit.

Viet Nam
Partnership priorities. ADB’s country partnership strategies and operational programs continued to focus on economic growth, social development, and environmental management. ADB’s engagement achieved these priorities by enhancing transport networks and improving management, increasing power supply and connectivity, developing the private sector, establishing a diversified market-based financial system, improving efficiency in public administration and governance, and fostering regional cooperation and integration. ADB approved a $630 million multitranche financing facility for reform of state-owned enterprises. Impact of operations. ADB provided a $500 million Countercyclical Support Facility to augment the government’s existing measures to ameliorate the adverse impacts of the global economic crisis. Trade and economic development increased dramatically with the completion of ADB-supported road construction and rehabilitation and bridge construction, and the implementation of a cross- border agreement and simplified border formalities in the East–West Economic Corridor.

Thailand
Partnership priorities. The country partnership strategy for 2007−2011 remained aligned with the government’s policies and action plans to promote long-term, sustainable economic growth and social development. The GMS Highway Expansion Project aimed to reduce logistics costs along the East–West and Southern economic corridors and to help the government plan an intercity motorway network. Impact of operations. An ADB-supported capital market master plan laid the basis for the government’s

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ADB supported Thailand’s strategic direction to deepen its capital market, and a study to expand mass rapid transit in Bangkok

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Chapter 12
nonSovereign operationS

NONSOVEREIGN OPERATIONS
Amid challenging financial conditions in the wake of the global financial crisis, nonsovereign operations came under increased due diligence to reduce risks. Private sector projects approved in 2009 included a major boost to trade financing after capital markets came to a standstill. ADB focuses on nonsovereign projects with significant development impact, and its target is for half of total lending by 2020 to support the development of a healthy private sector.

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A

DB’s nonsovereign operations are integral to the objectives of Strategy 2020, which include a target of 50% of ADB’s lending operations by 2020 in support of private sector development and private sector operations. ADB focuses on nonsovereign projects with significant development impact as well as on initiatives that stimulate the private sector and lead to accelerated, sustainable, and inclusive growth.

The bulk of ADB’s nonsovereign operations emanate from the Private Sector Operations Department (PSOD). In 2009, two nonsovereign public sector projects with total financing of $190.5 million were processed by the South Asia and East Asia Departments of ADB. PSOD assists developing member countries that may have limited access to private capital by financing projects with significant development impact. The assistance is provided through

Thawing the Big Credit Freeze
AdB dramatically stepped up assistance for trade finance when banks hit by losses and writedowns lost trust in each other and stopped lending
nternational trade was in free-fall at the beginning of 2009. Banks had lost confidence in each other and, as concerns about the deepest recession since the 1930s reverberated around the world, lenders were so averse to risk that the once-vibrant trade finance network shut down. Asia’s export-dependent economies were caught between a rock and a hard place. Amid grave concern that the lack of trade finance would impede economic recovery, AdB ramped up its $150 million Trade Finance Facilitation Program to $1 billion. Through the power of leveraging with partner banks, the program’s loans and guarantees on letters of credit for Asian exporters supported $1.9 billion in trade last year—almost double the target—with AdB exposure soaring 230% year on year. The program is expected to help generate a further $13 billion of trade by the end of 2013. “Making it easier for companies to get hold of trade finance should boost their business and encourage them to expand and create jobs. This is critical to sustainable long-term economic growth and to the poverty reduction that goes along with it,’’ said Robert van Zwieten, director of AdB’s capital Markets and Financial Sectors division, of which the program is a part. The 443 transactions supported last year amounted to just under a quarter of the 1,650 that have received support since the program started in 2004. of the 443 transactions, 59% helped small and medium-sized enterprises—double the average since inception—and half backed trade between developing member countries. Ranging from as little as $6,000 to $79 million, they supported exports as varied as agricultural commodities, medicines, electrical goods, oil, and a drilling rig. Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Viet Nam occupied large chunks of the portfolio. other major markets included Azerbaijan and Sri Lanka, and the program also operates in Afghanistan, cambodia, Indonesia, Nepal, and Tajikistan. The number of issuing banks in 2009 increased from 50 at the start of the year to 73, while 89 banks that confirm letters of credit for trading parties are now in the program after 18 joined during the year. Negotiations are ongoing with other banks as AdB targets an expansion of the program in 2010, including an aggressive push into central Asia. The much-anticipated recovery in the global economy is driving up trade volumes, particularly in Asia, and that is spurring a blossoming in the demand for and supply of the trade finance needed to fuel it. With AdB expecting the economy of developing Asia to expand 6.6% this year, against 1.6% growth in the United States and further likely stagnation in the eurozone, the Trade Finance Facilitation Program will play a small but growing part of a brighter future for the region.

I

nonSovereign operationS

“Making it easier for companies to get hold of trade finance should boost their business and encourage them to expand and create jobs”
ADB played a part in expanding trade that ultimately cuts poverty

— Robert van Zwieten, director of ADB’s Capital Markets and financial sectors Division

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ADB has set the standard for the construction of “good dams”

nonSovereign operationS

nonsovereign loans to private sector entities without sovereign counterguarantees; equity investments; and credit enhancement products, including guarantees and B-loans (see Glossary), where ADB arranges a complete financing package for a project with participation from local and international commercial banks and other financial institutions. Private entities seeking assistance from ADB benefit not only from financial assistance but also from the expertise and guidance of the ADB team. Assistance is focused principally in the finance sector and in infrastructure. In 2009, nonsovereign operations came under revised due diligence guidelines and credit procedures, which aimed to enhance the internal risk environment. Meanwhile, the external market environment continued to be characterized by challenging economic and financial conditions in the wake of the global economic crisis. Against this backdrop, the Board of Directors approved nine private sector projects, and a major boost in scope and amount for the Trade Finance Facilitation Program (TFFP). TFFP operates directly in response to the economic and financial crisis and to the deterioration in trade and trade finance specifically, and supports Strategy 2020’s regional integration agenda.

Nonsovereign operations continue to support Strategy 2020’s three development agendas: inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration

Newly approved financial assistance reached $1.9 billion, consisting of $443 million in direct loans, $220 million in equity investments, $72 million in partial credit risk guarantees, $276 million in B-loans, and $850 million in TFFP loans and guarantees. The average size of projects decreased from $155 million for 16 projects in 2008 to $92 million for 11 projects in 2009 (excluding TFFP). Nonsovereign operations continue to support Strategy 2020’s three development agendas: inclusive economic growth, environmentally sustainable growth, and regional integration. In connection with environmentally sustainable growth, five projects were in the area of renewable energy, at a cost of $426 million and representing 23% of approvals. Other approvals consisted of a $200 million waste management project representing 11%, a $120 million conventional energy project accounting for 6% of overall operations, TFFP representing 46%, three finance sector projects representing 13%, and one project in telecommunications (1%). ADB’s nonsovereign operations focused on two of the core areas of operations identified in Strategy 2020: infrastructure (with particular emphasis on energy) and finance. Strategic interventions through public–private partnerships focused on renewable energy and other infrastructure sectors. For example, ADB agreed to invest $40 million in a new public–private joint venture company that will develop, construct, and operate a portfolio of renewable energy projects in India, with an initial focus on wind power and small-scale hydroelectric power (see Boosting India’s Wind Power, p. 91). ADB finances commercially viable infrastructure projects that are structured or capable of being structured as public–private partnerships. An example is an equity investment of $40 million in an Indonesian

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Boosting India’s Wind Power
AdB’s long-term loans make it easier for companies to accept the financial risk and huge cost of renewable energy investments
ith their 73-meter “stalks” and 26-meter “petals,” the wind turbines look from afar like giant plants sprouting from the landscape in a remote corner of India’s Maharashtra state. From isolated locations like this, the turbines feed nearly 80 megawatts of electricity—enough to power several thousand households—into the state grid. Like most rural areas in energy-starved India, where during peak hours demand outstrips supply by some 20%, villages in Maharashtra commonly experience power outages of up to 12 hours a day. Without electricity, the villagers are virtually cut off from the outside world. Tata Power is one of the major power utilities working to expand generation capacity to help make the nation’s power supply more reliable. encouraged by a loan from the private sector operations of AdB, which supports the government’s drive to provide more reliable power supply and transition India to a low-carbon economy, Tata Power has become India’s largest private power player in wind energy, with a capacity of 200 megawatts, and it plans to continue to be a leading player in wind energy by developing more wind farms. The company borrowed about $65 million (Rs3 billion) from AdB (including cofinancing arranged by AdB). The 13year loan helped the company fix its borrowing costs and avoid the risk rising interest rates might have on its wind power investments at Khandke in Ahmednagar district, Bramanvel in dhulia district, and Sadawaghapur in Satara district. The government’s goal of “Power for All by 2012” requires renewable sources—solar, biomass, small hydro, and wind—to be developed. In Maharashtra, the state government is adopting a carrot-and-stick approach. It pays a higher rate for wind energy but requires power distributors to procure at least 6% of their input to the state grid from renewable energy sources by 2010, or face penalties. however, wind technology is still relatively costly and remains unattractive to some commercial enterprises. Through its carbon Market Initiative—a financing scheme that helps developing countries tap the global carbon market—AdB is also helping the Khandke project qualify as a clean development Mechanism project under the Kyoto Protocol. Under this mechanism, AdB is prepared to provide up-front financing by purchasing up to 50% of Tata Power’s anticipated certified emission reductions. These payments will add significantly to the company’s earnings from electricity sales. Life for India’s large rural population will improve hugely with greater access to electricity. Meanwhile, Tata Power expects to benefit both from lessons learned and cost reductions from advances in turbine technology as it expands its wind power investments.

W

Windmills grace the landscape in Maharashtra state, where ADB backs the government’s push to put the economy on a low-carbon footing

nonSovereign operationS

infrastructure financing facility company and a public sector loan of $100 million to a fully government-owned holding company, which will in turn relend the entire amount to the financing facility company. Nonsovereign projects were administered in 23 developing member countries, including ADB’s first private sector intervention in Papua New Guinea, which was approved, signed, and disbursed in 2009.

CofiNANCiNG
ADB’s private sector policy restricts direct project funding to 25% of the total cost. However, in exceptional circumstances, ADB will directly support a higher

percentage of the overall financing for small transactions with a very high development impact. Given this overall lending restriction for the private sector, cofinancing is an important instrument for ADB to enhance support for the private sector. ADB has various guarantee and cofinancing products, and demand for them has increased substantially of late, particularly since the recent financial market turmoil. In this regard, PSOD will continue to build close and collaborative relationships with the financial community, thereby enhancing the opportunities to avail of these products. ADB applied its cofinancing instruments to mobilize cofinancing with several partners, catalyzing $220 million of direct new money for developing member countries for two projects with an aggregate cost of $2.2 billion.

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Chapter 13
Finance and adminiStration

FINANCE AND ADMINISTRATION
our People strategy was prepared to help ADB recruit, retain, manage, and develop the human resources needed under strategy 2020. staff members’ management and technical skills were upgraded. Business processes were streamlined.

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HUMAN ResoURCes
Improving human resource management. ADB formulated the Human Resources Action Plan (2009– 2010) based on the results of two initiatives carried out in 2008: the comprehensive review of ADB’s human resources strategy (2005–2007) and the staff engagement survey. A priority initiative of the plan was to prepare a human resources strategy to guide the recruitment, retention, management, and development of the workforce required to implement Strategy 2020. ADB accomplished this goal by preparing Our People Strategy, which will guide human resources management through 2015. Workforce planning exercise. To ensure that resources will be adequate to implement Strategy 2020 and that ADB operations can sustain quality at the levels supported by the ninth replenishment of the Asian Development Fund and the fifth general capital increase, the Budget, Personnel, and Management Systems Department undertook a workforce planning exercise. The exercise comprised a review of workforce requirements to identify gaps in staff head count, allocation, and skills mix, and an institutional review of strategic areas. Staff development. ADB reprioritized staff development programs to ensure that ADB will have the staff skills needed to implement its operational programs. The development programs emphasize team-based leadership development and sector and thematic programs to support Strategy 2020. As a result, staff members at headquarters and field offices were offered 152 training programs. In all, 4,668 staff members participated in 509 learning sessions.

5 members of Management, and 927 professional and 1,670 local staff members, of whom 523 or about 20.1% were in field offices. Appointments and departures numbered 119 and 66 among professional staff, and 154 and 109 among local staff. Women accounted for 27.8% of all professional staff. New position and staff management systems. ADB improved its systems for managing various aspects of staffing, including the distribution of staff among ADB’s job levels. Organizational realignments. In response to the changing environment in which it operates, ADB undertook a number of institutional realignments: it raised the institutional credit risk management unit to the level of an office; established the Office of Anticorruption and Integrity; created the Unit for Institutional Coordination within the Budget, Personnel, and Management Systems Department; and consolidated its human resources function into two divisions.

CoMPeNsATioN AND BeNefiTs
The Board of Directors approved a 1.8% weighted average increase in ADB’s overall salary structure and a 3.4% salary increase for professional staff in 2010. This increase was in addition to the budget of $1.6 million allocated for performance bonuses. For national officers and the administrative staff at ADB headquarters, the Board approved a 2.7% weighted average increase in salary structure, and a 6.9% salary increase in 2010. Management approved a new salary structure for national officers and administrative staff working at ADB’s field offices, with salary increases ranging from 0.5% to 17.7%. Salary increases are effective 1 January 2010 and apply to the midpoint salary level within each staff pay grade.

Finance and adminiStration

sTAffiNG
Additional staffing requirements in 2010–2012. The results of the workforce planning exercise indicated that ADB will need 500 more staff positions to implement Strategy 2020: about a 20% increase in staff strength over the 2009 level by 2012, and a total increase of 90 professional staff, 86 national officers, and 74 administrative staff positions in 2010. 2009 staffing. As of 31 December 2009, ADB’s staff strength totaled 2,602 from 58 of its 67 members:

Staff members at headquarters and field offices were offered 152 training programs in 2009. In all, 4,668 staff members participated in 509 learning sessions

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The Board also approved lowering the vesting period from 10 to 5 years for staff retirement plan participants who were hired on or after 1 October 2006. This change is effective as of 1 January 2010 and is retroactive for participants hired on or after 1 October 2006. Thus, staff retirement plan participants who have met the 5-year service requirement are eligible for a pension. For service of less than 5 years, participants will receive a lump-sum withdrawal benefit upon termination of employment. ADB also upgraded its relocation package and field office benefits for professional staff members assigned to field offices so that they remain competitive with other international financial institutions, especially in non-family and hardship duty stations, effective 1 June 2009.

influenza A (H1N1). Although the systems are no longer active, the team can reactivate them as necessary.

iNTeRNAL ADMiNisTRATiVe eXPeNses
Internal administrative expenses totaled $379.0 million, compared to the net internal administrative budget of $388.9 million. Of the total savings of $9.9 million, about 2% of the 2009 internal administrative expenses budget amounting to $7.7 million is being carried forward to 2010. The overruns in certain budget items in the operational and administrative budget categories were fully met through reallocations within the same budget categories. The savings were mainly attributable to staff vacancies and lower-than-budgeted use for relocation, business travel, office occupancy, and contractual services. These savings were partly offset by overruns in staff benefits, because of additional contribution to the staff retirement fund to meet increasing funding requirements, and in depreciation, primarily because of completion of certain information technology projects under the Information System and Technology Strategy, Phase II, for which depreciation began in 2009. For 2010, the net internal administrative expenses budget is $439.5 million, including the budget for the Independent Evaluation Department of $8.4 million. The increase of $50.6 million, or 13% over the 2009 budget, reflects a price increase of 5% and a volume growth of 8%.

PANDeMiC PRePAReDNess PLAN
The pandemic crisis management team set up screening procedures at ADB gates, a screening center, and a medical hotline to respond to the outbreak of new

The net budget for internal administrative expenses in 2010 is $439.5 million, a rise of 13% over the 2009 budget, including $8.4 million for the Independent Evaluation Department
Finance and adminiStration

A resident mission staff member consults with farmers in Bajhang district, Nepal

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The 2010 budget is net of $6.7 million in service charges estimated to be recoverable from administrating trust funds of multilateral and bilateral institutions. In addition to internal administrative expenses, the 2010 budget includes an annual capital budget of $6.5 million, mainly to fund cyclical capital expenditures for headquarters and field offices, and security and safetyrelated expenditures.

ADMiNisTRATiVe seRViCes
The Office of Administrative Services (OAS) continued to improve overall service delivery, and focused on equipping staff with upgraded management and technical skills. In May, OAS and the Regional and Sustainable Development Department jointly prepared the second sustainability report. OAS obtained ISO (International Organization for Standardization) 14001 and OSHAS (Occupational Safety and Health Assessment Series) 18001 recertification as part of its environmental health and safety management system. OAS also undertook an energy audit and launched green procurement guidelines, these activities being steps in obtaining Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design, or green building certification. OAS improved the microfilming process, streamlined communication and transport services, automated information technology inventory management, and performed an as-is business process mapping exercise to determine which of OAS business processes could be further streamlined, automated, or otherwise made more efficient. OAS launched eTrip, a web-based online travel-planning facility, introduced new multifunctional

Researchers use the Phnom Penh Plan Learning Resource Center, ADB Cambodia Resident Mission

The Office of Administrative Services focused on equipping staff with upgraded management and technical skills, including international recertification of its environmental health and safety management system

printers, and rationalized the use of supplies. The role of the iLink information coordinators was strengthened, and the iLink Digest, a monthly bulletin of excerpts of sector-specific research, was launched. Finally, in October, eStar, the electronic repository system, celebrated its first anniversary and, by the end of the year, contained more than 200,000 documents. OAS adopted a pandemic crisis management plan for meeting health emergencies and demonstrated a high level of emergency response preparedness during several typhoons. OAS support to resident missions focused on office building, property, and vehicle insurance, safety, and security. Administrative policies affecting staff members posted to field offices were likewise streamlined. OAS continued its headquarters rehabilitation program by constructing a covered walkway and upgrading the cafeteria and kitchen. Approval to build the third atrium and a car park to meet expected space requirements was also obtained. The OAS events management unit organized more than 120 events since its inception in July 2008.

Finance and adminiStration

iNfoRMATioN sYsTeMs AND TeCHNoLoGY
During 2009, the Office of Information Systems and Technology (OIST) continued to implement application systems, and improve the ADB network, information technology (IT) processes, and governance. It also

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Resident mission officers and administrative staff, including in Bangladesh, will benefit from a new salary structure

Finance and adminiStration

passed the halfway mark in implementing the Information Systems and Technology Strategy II (ISTS II). As part of implementing ISTS II and Strategy 2020, OIST completed several IT infrastructure projects during the year. These included upgrading ADB’s e-mail service, payment gateway, data storage system, mainframe operating system, Oracle Enterprise Resource Planning platform, and infrastructure for the enterprise portal. Network bandwidth was likewise optimized to improve resident mission connectivity. OIST also focused on sustaining internal control over financial reporting. Security measures were tightened for resident mission servers and the ADB network, including more powerful antivirus software for all personal computers. Web application security software was procured to assess vulnerabilities in ADB’s online systems. Disaster recovery tests were conducted regularly, and remote access was provided for staff performing critical payment functions. Integrated business processes and access by staff to appropriate information were also key priorities. Business process modeling was introduced as a part of enterprise architecture initiatives for managing ADB’s business processes in a single repository.

Recruitment and staff management were automated. The accounting applications for 24 resident missions and payroll applications for 14 field offices were improved, paving the way for seamless integration of practices at resident missions and headquarters. Collaboration technology solutions were given high priority, with ADB’s first document repository system, eStar, being completed. Several projects captured business process information. The Operations Dashboard was launched to provide operations departments with a “one-stop shop” for online reports. The results management system was introduced. Consultant procurement and business travel processes were progressively automated, and a fund management system for the Treasury Department was completed. OIST continued to help users transition to new IT systems by conducting training workshops at headquarters and field offices, and it established an improved engagement model for handling business requests.

LoAN, GRANT, AND TeCHNiCAL AssisTANCe DisBURseMeNTs
The Controller’s Department (CTL) continued to improve its services. The business processes for loan, grant, and technical assistance disbursements were reviewed and streamlined, resulting in notable efficiency gains. CTL introduced a process of monitoring its disbursement performance against set benchmarks. The introduction of service level standards significantly increased CTL’s disbursement efficiency, resulting in an 8.2% decrease in the overall disbursement processing time (inclusive of time spent with the borrowers, executing agencies, operations departments, and resident missions) from the year before, despite an increase of 15.5% in transaction volume. By the end of the year, the disbursement processing function for loans had been delegated to seven resident missions. Seven other remote resident missions with a smaller portfolio also assisted in the initial review of borrowers’ disbursement requests, and helped expedite disbursement through electronic submission of withdrawal applications from the resident mission directly to CTL. The increased role of the resident missions in disbursement improved communication with borrowers and executing agencies.

The Operations Dashboard was launched to provide operations departments with a “one-stop shop” for online reports

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CTL strengthened its commitment to help build the capacity of developing member country borrowers and executing agencies, and of disbursement staff at the resident missions. CTL conducted 36 disbursement and loan accounting training seminars for over 1,000 borrowers and executing agency officials, and conducted consultative meetings with the regional departments to better understand their needs and improve coordination. CTL developed a financial tool for loan accounting and servicing (eC-LAS) to help borrowers, executing agencies, and ADB project teams process and administer loans. CTL started distributing the eC-LAS and training users in the People’s Republic of China, Pakistan, the Philippines, and Uzbekistan. CTL translated the eC-LAS into Chinese and started the Russian version. In addition to a website on loan disbursements, CTL started developing a website on loan accounting and servicing for borrowers, executing agencies, ADB staff, and other organizations concerned.

The increased role of the resident missions in disbursement improved communication with borrowers and executing agencies
together with the staff development group, strengthened staff training on IFRS. CTL facilitated Management’s assertion and the external auditor’s attestation on internal controls for financial reporting, which ADB started in fiscal year 2008, for better corporate governance. The assertion and attestation for fiscal year 2009 was accomplished with an unqualified opinion from the external auditor, Deloitte & Touche. This initiative strengthened staff awareness of internal controls. Training on internal controls, risk assessments, and testing skills was strengthened. CTL, with the assistance of OIST, implemented the financial and management accounting system for resident missions to improve work efficiency, data reliability, and internal controls. As of 31 December, 24 of the 27 resident missions and regional offices were using the system. CTL provided accounting support for new trust funds, including the Asia Pacific Carbon Fund, the Future Carbon Fund, the Financing Partnership Facilities, and the Climate Change Fund, to ensure that ADB meets its fiduciary responsibility as the custodian of the funds it administers.

fiNANCiAL RePoRTiNG
CTL revised its accounting policies, especially with regard to market valuation of financial instruments. CTL also started a preliminary study on the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), considering a possible transition to IFRS from the United States generally accepted accounting principles (US GAAP)–based standards. CTL,

Finance and adminiStration

Systems were improved for managing distribution of staff among job levels

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Chapter 14

APPENDIXES
appendiX 1 appendiX 2 appendiX 3 appendiX 4 appendiX 5 appendiX 6 appendiX 7 appendiX 8 appendiX 9 appendiX 10 appendiX 11 appendiX 12 appendiX 13 appendiX 14 appendiX 15 memBerS, capital Stock, and voting poWer reSolutionS oF the Board oF governorS adopted in 2009 Selected policy, Strategy, and Financial paperS diScuSSed By the Board in 2009 Board oF governorS Board oF directorS and voting groupS committeeS oF the Board oF directorS adB inStitute adviSory council organizational Structure Former adB preSidentS and vice-preSidentS Summary oF internal adminiStrative eXpenSeS – 2009 and Budget For 2010 management and StaFF repreSentation oF adB memBerS numBer oF authorized poSitionS in reSident miSSionS groWth in reSident miSSionS (rms) and authorized StaFF poSitionS at rms Selected knoWledge productS oF adB evaluation reSultS For Sovereign operationS 99 100 100 101 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 118

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APPeNdIX 1 Members, Capital Stock, and Voting Power
(as of 31 december 2009)

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Member REGIONAL Afghanistan Armenia Australia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei darussalam cambodia china, People's Republic of cook Islands Fiji Islands Georgia hong Kong, china India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Kiribati Korea, Republic of Kyrgyz Republic Lao People's democratic Republic Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia, Federated States of Mongolia Myanmar Nauru Nepal New Zealand Pakistan Palau Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa Singapore Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Taipei,china Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Tonga Turkmenistan

Year of Membership 1966 2005 1966 1999 1973 1982 2006 1966 1986 1976 1970 2007 1969 1966 1966 1966 1994 1974 1966 1994 1966 1966 1978 1990 1990 1991 1973 1991 1966 1966 1966 2003 1971 1966 1966 1966 1973 1966 1966 1998 1966 2002 1972 2000

Subscribed Capitala (% of total) 0.031 0.271 5.264 0.405 2.787 0.006 0.320 0.045 5.862 0.002 0.062 0.311 0.495 5.760 4.955 14.198 0.734 0.004 4.583 0.272 0.013 2.477 0.004 0.002 0.004 0.014 0.495 0.004 0.134 1.397 5.945 0.003 0.085 2.168 0.003 0.310 0.006 0.528 0.991 0.782 3.716 0.009 0.004 0.230

Voting Powerb (% of total) 0.323 0.516 4.510 0.622 2.528 0.303 0.555 0.334 4.988 0.300 0.348 0.547 0.695 4.906 4.262 11.657 0.885 0.301 3.965 0.516 0.309 2.280 0.301 0.300 0.301 0.309 0.695 0.301 0.406 1.416 5.055 0.301 0.367 2.033 0.301 0.546 0.303 0.721 1.091 0.924 3.271 0.306 0.301 0.483

Member Tuvalu Uzbekistan Vanuatu Viet Nam Subtotal NONREGIONAL Austria Belgium canada denmark Finland France Germany Ireland Italy Luxembourg The Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States Subtotal TOTAL

Year of Membership 1993 1995 1981 1966

Subscribed Capitala (% of total) 0.001 0.613 0.006 0.310 66.619

Voting Powerb (% of total) 0.300 0.789 0.303 0.547 67.623 0.546 0.546 4.106 0.546 0.546 1.992 3.447 0.546 1.614 0.546 1.045 0.546 0.546 0.546 0.546 0.723 0.546 1.785 11.657 32.377 100.000

1966 1966 1966 1966 1966 1970 1966 2006 1966 2003 1966 1966 2002 1986 1966 1967 1991 1966 1966

0.310 0.310 4.759 0.310 0.310 2.117 3.936 0.310 1.644 0.310 0.933 0.310 0.310 0.310 0.310 0.531 0.310 1.858 14.198 33.381 100.000

Notes: Figures may not add up because of rounding. For other details, see tables on pages 52 and 53, Volume 2 of 2009 Annual Report. Subscription to the fifth general capital increase are ongoing; shareholding and voting power of members will change from time to time during the subscription period. a Subscribed capital refers to a member’s subscription to shares of the capital stock of AdB. b The total voting power of each member consists of the sum of its basic votes and proportional votes. The basic votes of each member consist of such number of votes as results from the equal distribution among all members of 20% of the aggregate sum of the basic votes and proportional votes of all members. The number of proportional votes of each member is equal to the number of shares of the capital stock of AdB held by that member.

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APPeNdIX 2 Resolutions of the Board of Governors Adopted in 2009

RESOLUTION NO. 334 335 336 337

SUBJECT decisions Relating to Section 5 of the By-Laws Amendment to Section 7(B) (a) of the By-Laws Increase in Authorized capital Stock and Subscriptions Thereto Financial Statements, Management’s Report on Internal control over Financial Reporting and Independent Auditors’ Reports Allocation of Net Income Place and date of Forty-Third Annual Meeting (2010) Procedures for the election of directors establishing the Legal Framework for the Use of Asian development Fund Resources for Grants

DATE ADOPTED 9 February 9 February 29 April

338 339 340 341

5 May 5 May 5 May 16 May 10 June

APPeNdIX 3 Selected Policy, Strategy, and Financial Papers Discussed by the Board in 2009

SUBJECT comprehensive Review of the human Resources Strategy, 2005–2007 Review of AdB’s ordinary capital Resource Requirements General Review of Salaries and Benefits for headquarters National officers and Administrative Staff The Fifth General capital Increase of the Asian development Bank Annual Financial Statements Review of the Asian development Bank’s Loan charges and Allocation of 2008 Net Income enhancing AdB’s Response to the Global economic crisis—establishing the countercyclical Support Facility crisis Response of Asian development Fund—Allocation of Additional Liquidity energy Policy Review of the Asian development Bank’s exposure Limits on Nonsovereign operations 2008 development effectiveness Review Safeguard Policy Statement Work Program and Budget Framework, 2010–2012 AdB’s Approach to operations in Sri Lanka in the New Post-conflict environment Review of AdB’s exposure Limits on Nonsovereign operations Annual Review of Salaries and Benefits for Professional Staff AdB’s Approach to Assisting the Pacific, 2010–2014 Borrowing Program for 2010 Budget of the Asian development Bank for 2010 Asian development Bank Institute—Three-Year Rolling Work Program, 2010–2012 and Budget for 2010 Special capital expenditure Budget Proposal: expansion of AdB headquarters Building and Selected Resident Missions

DATE 20 January 3 February 4 March 6 April 7 April 7 April 16 June 16 June 18 June 19 June 14 July 20 July 21 September 28 September 7 october 20 october 19 November 10 december 17 december 17 december 17 december

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Annual Report 2009
APPENDIX 4 Board of Governors
(as of 2 February 2010) Rustam Azimov, Uzbekistan (Chair) Patrick Pruaitch, MP, Papua New Guinea (Vice Chair) MEMBER Afghanistan Armenia Australia Austria Azerbaijan Bangladesh Belgium Bhutan Brunei Darussalam Cambodia Canada China, People’s Republic of Cook Islands Denmark Fiji Islands Finland France Germany Georgia Hong Kong, China India Indonesia Ireland Italy Japan Kazakhstan Kiribati Korea, Republic of Kyrgyz Republic Lao People’s Democratic Republic Luxembourg Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia, Federated States of Mongolia Myanmar Nauru Nepal The Netherlands GOVERNOR Omar Zakhilwal Nerses Yeritsyan Wayne Swan, MP Josef Pröll Samir Sharifov Abul Maal A. Muhith Didier Reynders Wangdi Norbu Pehin Dato Abdul Rahman Ibrahim Keat Chhon Lawrence Cannon Xie Xuren Wilkie Rasmussen Susan Ulbæk Josaia Voreqe Bainimarama Ritva Koukku-Ronde Christine Lagarde Gudrun Kopp Kakha Baindurashvili John Tsang Chun-wah Pranab Mukherjee Sri Mulyani Indrawati Brian Lenihan, T.D. Mario Draghi Naoto Kan Bakhyt Turlyhanovich Sultanov Natan Teewe Jeung-Hyun Yoon Marat Abdyrazakovich Sultanov Somdy Douangdy Luc Frieden Dato’ Sri Mohd Najib Bin Tun Haji Abdul Razak Ali Hashim Jack J. Ading Finley S. Perman Bayartsogt Sangajav Hla Tun Kieren Keke, MP Surendra Pandey Vacant

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Elena Salgado Méndez, Spain (Vice Chair) ALTERNATE GOVERNOR Abdul Qadeer Fitrat Musegh Tumasyan Bob McMullan MP Günther Schönleitner Shahin Mustafayev Md. Musharraf Hossain Bhuiyan Gino Alzetta Nim Dorji Mohd Roselan Mohd Daud Aun Porn Moniroth James A. Haley Li Yong Kevin Carr Martin Bille Hermann Sada Sivan Reddy Pasi Hellman Ramon Fernandez Rolf Wenzel Zurab Pololikashvili Norman Chan Ashok Chawla Armida Alisjahbana Michael J. McGrath Carlo Monticelli Masaaki Shirakawa Ruslan Erbolatovich Dalenov Atanteora Beiatau Seongtae Lee Kanat Kubatovich Asangulov Somphao Phaysith Arsène Jacoby Tan Sri Dr. Wan Abdul Aziz bin Wan Abdullah Ahmed As-ad Amon Tibon Lorin Robert Purevdorj Lkhasuren Daw Myo Nwe Tim Drown Rameshore Prasad Khanal Yoka Brandt

Appendixes

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MEMBER New Zealand Norway Pakistan Palau Papua New Guinea Philippines Portugal Samoa Singapore Solomon Islands Spain Sri Lanka Sweden Switzerland Taipei,china Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Tonga Turkey Turkmenistan Tuvalu United Kingdom United States Uzbekistan Vanuatu Viet Nam

GOVERNOR Bill english Ingrid Fiskaa Shaukat Tarin Kerai Mariur Patrick Pruaitch, MP Margarito B. Teves Fernando Teixeira dos Santos Nickel Lee-hang Tharman Shanmugaratnam Snyder Rini elena Salgado Méndez Mahinda Rajapaksa Joakim Stymne Beatrice Maser Mallor Fai-nan Perng Matlubkhon S. davlatov Korn chatikavanij emilia Pires Feleti Vaka’uta Sevele İbrahim h. Çanakcı Guvanchmurad Geoklenov Lotoala Metia douglas Alexander Timothy Geithner Rustam Azimov Sela Molisa Nguyen Van Giau

ALTERNATE GOVERNOR John Whitehead henrik harboe Sibtain Fazal halim Marino Rechesengel Simon Tosali Amando M. Tetangco, Jr. carlos costa Pina Tupaimatuna lulai Lavea Peter ong Boon Kwee Shadrach Fanega José Manuel campa Fernández P.B. Jayasundera Anders Bengtcén Jurg Benz Ming-chung Tseng Kh.Kh Tagoimurodov Sathit Limpongpan Joao Mendes Goncalves Aisake eke Memduh Aslan Akçay Muhammetgeldi Atayev Minute Alapati Taupo Michael Foster Robert d. hormats Galina Saidova George Singara Maniuri Nguyen Van Binh

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APPeNdIX 5 Board of Directors and Voting Groups
(as of 2 February 2010)

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Executive Directors Phil Bowen

Alternate Directors dereck Rooken-Smith

Members Represented Australia; Azerbaijan; cambodia; Federated States of Micronesia; Georgia; hong Kong, china; Kiribati; Nauru; Palau; Solomon Islands; Tuvalu canada, denmark, Finland, Ireland, The Netherlands, Norway, Sweden United States cook Islands, Fiji Islands, Indonesia, Kyrgyz Republic, New Zealand, Samoa, Tonga Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Lao People’s democratic Republic, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan Belgium, France, Italy, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland Japan Kazakhstan, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Pakistan, Philippines, Timor-Leste Republic of Korea; Papua New Guinea; Sri Lanka; Taipei,china; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Viet Nam Brunei darussalam, Malaysia, Myanmar, Nepal, Singapore, Thailand Austria, Germany, Luxembourg, Turkey, United Kingdom
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howard Brown

Torben Bellers

curtis S. chin Marwanto harjowiryono1

Paul W. curry c.J. (Stan) Vandersyp

Ashok K. Lahiri

Md. Aminul Islam Bhuiyan

Michele Miari Fulcis Masakazu Sakaguchi Siraj S. Shamsuddin3

Jose Miguel cortes2 Yasuto Watanabe Marita Magpili-Jimenez4

Jaejung Song5

Vacant

chaiyuth Sudthitanakorn6

Govinda Bahadur Thapa7

eduard Westreicher8

Richard edwards

Yingming Yang9
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Xiuzhen Guan10

People’s Republic of china

Marwanto harjowiryono succeeded ceppie K. Sumadilaga in August 2009. Jose Miguel cortes succeeded João Simoes de Almeida in August 2009. Siraj S. Shamsuddin succeeded Marita Magpili-Jimenez in July 2009. Marita Magpili-Jimenez succeeded Siraj S. Shamsuddin in July 2009. Jaejung Song succeeded Kyung-hoh Kim in February 2010. chaiyuth Sudthitanakorn succeeded Md. Saad hashim in November 2009. Govinda Bahadur Thapa succeeded Siew Juan Aw in August 2009. eduard Westreicher succeeded Sebastian Paust in February 2009. Yingming Yang succeeded Wencai Zhang in September 2009. Xiuzhen Guan succeeded Fangyu Liu in August 2009.

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APPeNdIX 6 Committees of the Board of Directors

Audit Committee Kyung-hoh Kim (Chair) curtis chin chaiyuth Sudthitanakorn Michele Miari Fulcis dereck Rooken-Smith c. J. Vandersyp Budget Review Committee Yingming Yang (Chair) Phil Bowen Masakazu Sakaguchi Marwanto harjowiryono Jose Miguel cortes Paul curry Compliance Review Committee eduard Westreicher (Chair) howard Brown Siraj Shamsuddin chaiyuth Sudthitanakorn Md. Aminul Islam Bhuiyan Tsuen-hua (James) Shih

Development Effectiveness Committee Ashok K. Lahiri (Chair) eduard Westreicher Torben Bellers Marita Magpili-Jimenez Govinda Bahadur Thapa Yasuto Watanabe Ethics Committee Marwanto harjowiryono (Chair) Phil Bowen howard Brown Ashok Lahiri Yingming Yang Human Resources Committee Siraj Shamsuddin (Chair) curtis chin Kyung-hoh Kim Masakazu Sakaguchi Richard edwards Xiuzhen Guan

Working Group on the Annual Report for 2009 Richard edwards (Chair) Md. Aminul Islam Bhuiyan Paul W. curry Xiuzhen Guan dereck Rooken-Smith Yasuto Watanabe
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APPeNdIX 7 ADB Institute Advisory Council (as of 31 december 2009)

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Masahiko Aoki K.M. chandrasekhar Gang Fan Victor h. Frank, Jr. eric Girardin Andrew MacIntyre Jong-Wha Lee

President, International economic Association, Japan cabinet Secretary, Government of India director, National economic Research Institute, People’s Republic of china President, Asian Programs Foundation, United States Professor of economics, Université de la Méditerranée, Aix-Marseille, France director, crawford School of economics and Government, Australian National University, Australia chief economist, Asian development Bank

ADB Institute Dean
Masahiro Kawai (January 2007–present) Peter Mccawley (January 2003–January 2007) Masaru Yoshitomi (January 1999–January 2003) Jesus P. estanislao (december 1997–January 1999)

Masahiro Kawai (January 2007–present) Peter Mccawley (January 2003–January 2007) Masaru Yoshitomi (January 1999–January 2003) Jesus P. estanislao (december 1997–January 1999)

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APPeNdIX 8 Organizational Structure1
(as of 28 February 2010)

BoARd oF GoVeRNoRS

BoARd oF dIRecToRS oFFIce oF The coMPLIANce ReVIeW PANeL2 B. Purdue, Secretary INdePeNdeNT eVALUATIoN dePARTMeNT3 h.S. Rao, director General

PReSIdeNT h. Kuroda

MANAGING dIRecToR GeNeRAL R. Nag VIce-PReSIdeNT (Knowledge Management and Sustainable development) U. Schäfer-Preuss

ASIAN deVeLoPMeNT BANK INSTITUTe M. Kawai, dean

VIce-PReSIdeNT (operations 1) X. Zhao

VIce-PReSIdeNT (operations 2) c. Lawrence Greenwood, Jr.

VIce-PReSIdeNT (Finance and Administration) B. Lohani

oFFIce oF The AUdIToR GeNeRAL K. Moktan, Auditor General

ReGIoNAL ANd SUSTAINABLe deVeLoPMeNT dePARTMeNT X. Yao,4 director General

SoUTh ASIA dePARTMeNT S. h. Rahman, director General

eAST ASIA dePARTMeNT K. Gerhaeusser, director General

oFFIce oF The SecReTARY R. L. T. dawson, The Secretary

Special Senior Advisor (Infrastructure and Water) A. Thapan oFFIce oF ANTIcoRRUPTIoN, ANd INTeGRITY P. Pedersen, head STRATeGY ANd PoLIcY dePARTMeNT K. Sakai, director General

ecoNoMIcS ANd ReSeARch dePARTMeNT J. W. Lee, chief economist

BANGLAdeSh ReSIdeNT MISSIoN P. heytens, country director INdIA ReSIdeNT MISSIoN h. Kim, country director

PRc ReSIdeNT MISSIoN R. Wihtol, country director MoNGoLIA ReSIdeNT MISSIoN A. Ruthenberg, country director

oFFIce oF The GeNeRAL coUNSeL J. hovland, General counsel

oFFIce oF coFINANcING oPeRATIoNS T. Kondo, head

NePAL ReSIdeNT MISSIoN B. hitchcock, country director SRI LANKA ReSIdeNT MISSIoN R. Vokes, country director

SoUTheAST ASIA dePARTMeNT K. Senga, director General cAMBodIA ReSIdeNT MISSIoN P. Kamayana, country director INdoNeSIA ReSIdeNT MISSIoN J. Nugent, country director LAo PdR ReSIdeNT MISSIoN (vacant), country director PhILIPPINeS coUNTRY oFFIce N. Jain, country director ThAILANd ReSIdeNT MISSIoN J. Verbiest, country director VIeT NAM ReSIdeNT MISSIoN A. Konishi, country director

BUdGeT, PeRSoNNeL ANd MANAGeMeNT SYSTeMS dePARTMeNT M. Tamagawa, director General

oFFIce oF ReGIoNAL ecoNoMIc INTeGRATIoN (vacant), head

oFFIce oF AdMINISTRATIVe SeRVIceS c. Rajendran, Principal director

oFFIce oF The SPecIAL PRoJecT FAcILITAToR R. May, Special Project Facilitator

ceNTRAL ANd WeST ASIA dePARTMeNT J. Miranda, director General AFGhANISTAN ReSIdeNT MISSIoN c. Steffensen, country director AZeRBAIJAN ReSIdeNT MISSIoN (vacant), country director KAZAKhSTAN ReSIdeNT MISSIoN G. Li, country director KYRGYZ ReSIdeNT MISSIoN L. Wu, country director PAKISTAN ReSIdeNT MISSIoN R. Stroem, country director TAJIKISTAN ReSIdeNT MISSIoN M. ojiro, country director UZBeKISTAN ReSIdeNT MISSIoN K. higuchi, country director

coNTRoLLeR’S dePARTMeNT h. Jung, controller

oFFIce oF RISK MANAGeMeNT J. Limandibrata, head

TReASURY dePARTMeNT M. Kashiwagi, Treasurer

dePARTMeNT oF eXTeRNAL ReLATIoNS A. Quon, Principal director eURoPeAN RePReSeNTATIVe oFFIce A. A. Monari Resident director General

oFFIce oF INFoRMATIoN SYSTeMS ANd TechNoLoGY S. chander, Principal director

appendiXeS

JAPANeSe RePReSeNTATIVe oFFIce K. Nakamori Resident director General

PAcIFIc dePARTMeNT (vacant), director General

NoRTh AMeRIcAN RePReSeNTATIVe oFFIce c. W. Maccormac Resident director General

PAcIFIc LIAISoN ANd cooRdINATIoN oFFIce e. Zhukov, Regional director PAcIFIc SUBReGIoNAL oFFIce R. K. Leonard, Regional director PAPUA NeW GUINeA ReSIdeNT MISSIoN c. Andrews, country director SPecIAL LIAISoN oFFIce IN TIMoR-LeSTe L. Pochard, Resident Representative

PRIVATe SecToR oPeRATIoNS dePARTMeNT P. erquiaga, director General

1 For a list of management and senior staff go to www.adb.org/About/ management.asp 2 The compliance Review Panel reports to the Board of directors. 3 The Independent evaluation department reports to the Board of directors through the development effectiveness committee. 4 concurrent chief compliance officer

ceNTRAL oPeRATIoNS SeRVIceS oFFIce h. Sharif, Principal director

annual report 2009
APPeNdIX 9 Former ADB Presidents and Vice-Presidents (as of 31 december 2009)
PRESIDENTS Takeshi Watanabe Shiro Inoue Taroichi Yoshida Masao Fujioka Kimimasa Tarumizu Mitsuo Sato Tadao chino VICE-PRESIDENTS c.S. Krishna Moorthi A.T. Bambawale M. Narasimham S. Stanley Katz In Yong chung William R. Thomson Günther G. Schulz Bong-Suh Lee Pierre Uhel Peter h. Sullivan Myoung-ho Shin John Lintjer Joseph B. eichenberger Geert h.P.B van der Linden Khempheng Pholsena Liqun Jin

107

24 November 1966–24 November 1972 25 November 1972–23 November 1976 24 November 1976–23 November 1981 24 November 1981–23 November 1989 24 November 1989–23 November 1993 24 November 1993–15 January 1999 16 January 1999–31 January 2005

19 december 1966–31 March 1978 1 April 1978–28 october 1985 1 November 1985–31 July 1988 1 April 1978–28 September 1990 1 August 1988–31 July 1993 1 october 1990–30 June 1994 1 April 1983–30 June 1995 1 August 1993–31 July 1998 1 July 1995–24 November 1998 6 July 1994–20 September 2000 1 August 1998–31 July 2003 18 January 1999–16 January 2004 15 december 2000–23 december 2005 1 September 2003–31 August 2006 5 April 2004–4 April 2007 1 August 2003–18 July 2008

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APPeNdIX 10 Summary of Internal Administrative Expenses – 2009 and Budget for 2010 ($ thousand)
2009 Item A. Board of Governors B. Board of Directors offices of the directors Accountability Mechanism Independent evaluation C. Operational Expenses Salaries Benefits Staff development Relocation consultants Business Travel Representation D. Administrative Expenses communications office occupancy Library office Supplies equipment/Maintenance and Support contractual Services Insurance depreciation Miscellaneous E. Total Before General Contingency F. General Contingency Net IAE H. Carryover of IAE Budget I. Net IAE after Carryover G. Less: Reimbursements from Trust Funds Budget 1,629 25,140 14,850 2,328 7,962 295,474 150,541 88,103 4,400 6,544 21,629 23,883 374 67,896 6,479 19,047 1,150 1,708 5,683 15,502 3,037 14,597 693 390,139 3,901 (5,172) 388,868

After Transfersa 1,629 25,140 14,850 2,328 7,962 295,474 145,869 92,232 4,639 6,346 22,131 23,883 374 67,896 6,479 17,587 1,150 1,708 5,897 14,808 3,272 16,302 693 390,139 3,901 (5,172) 388,868

Actual 1,300 24,226 14,540 2,103 7,583 292,418 145,869 92,232 4,639 4,754 22,131 22,439 354 67,040 6,066 17,587 1,097 1,505 5,897 14,728 3,272 16,302 584 384,984 0 (5,981)c 379,003 7,700 386,703
e b

Budget 2010 2,250 25,952 14,847 2,742 8,363 336,383 168,388 100,240 5,330 7,813 25,630 28,540 442 77,230 7,906 20,372 1,235 1,584 7,172 17,719 3,572 16,934 736 441,815 4,418 (6,745) 439,488d

388,868

388,868

439,488

– = no data available or not calculated, “0” = magnitude zero, ( ) = negative, IAe = internal administrative expenses.

Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding. a Transfers were made between budget items without exceeding the original amount of each category to meet overruns within the same budget category. b Includes $1,509,000 in expenses associated with Japan Special Fund ($1,426,000) and Japan Scholarship Program ($83,000). excludes the following adjustments incorporated in the financial statements to comply with the generally accepted accounting principles, and recording and reporting requirements: (i) postretirement medical benefits ($5,083,000); (ii) actuarial assessment of costs associated with pension benefit obligations ($18,195,000); (iii) expenses charged to the budget carryover ($4,622,000); (iv) accumulated compensated absences ($1,854,000); (v) accrued resettlement and repatriation allowances ($2,578,000) and severance payments ($605,000); and (vi) other miscellaneous adjustments ($186,000). Total adjusted administrative expenses of $418,108,000 reflected in the financial statements is allocated as ocR, $193,638,000 ($216,035,000 less $22,397,000 of front-end fee); AdF, $200,564,000, and Japan Special Fund and Japan Scholarship Program, $1,509,000. c This amount ($5,981,000) reflects the estimated total expenses apportioned for administering the trust funds during the year. d Net IAe budget for 2010 consist of $8,363,000 for the Independent evaluation department (Ied) and $431,125,000 for AdB excluding Ied. e In 2006, the Board approved introduction of a budget carryover of up to 2% of net IAe budget to the next year, beginning with the 2007 budget. Accordingly, $7.7 million (about 2% of the 2009 net IAe budget) has been carried over to 2010.

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annual report 2009

109

APPeNdIX 11 Management and Staff Representation of ADB Members (as of 31 december 2009)
National Officer/ Administrative Staff 11 5 7 4 46 0 0 21 40 0 11 5 0 44 37 4 7 0 1 8 14 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 27 0 39 0 7 1,231 0 0 0 21 0 9 9 3 0 0 1 16 0 26 1,665 National Officer/ Administrative Staff 0 0 0 0 1 0 2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 5 1,670

Member REGIONAL Afghanistan Armenia Australia Azerbaijan Bangladesh Bhutan Brunei darussalam cambodia china, People's Republic of cooks Islands Fiji Islands Georgia hong Kong, china India Indonesia Japan Kazakhstan Kiribati Korea, Republic of Kyrgyz Republic Lao People's democratic Republic Malaysia Maldives Marshall Islands Micronesia, Federated States of Mongolia Myanmar Nauru Nepal New Zealand Pakistan Palau Papua New Guinea Philippines Samoa Singapore Solomon Islands Sri Lanka Taipei,china Tajikistan Thailand Timor-Leste Tonga Turkmenistan Tuvalu Uzbekistan Vanuatu Viet Nam Subtotal

Management 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 3

Professional Staff 0 0 52 0 8 3 0 0 59 0 2 1 5 69 36 130 5 0 41 5 1 27 0 0 0 3 2 0 6 15 22 1 1 31 1 8 0 11 5 2 10 1 3 0 0 5 1 5 577

Total 11 5 59 4 54 3 0 21 100 0 13 6 5 113 73 135 12 0 42 13 15 27 0 0 0 14 2 0 34 15 61 1 8 1,262 1 8 0 32 5 11 19 4 3 0 1 21 1 31 2,245

Member NONREGIONAL Austria Belgium canada denmark Finland France Germany Ireland Italy Luxembourg The Netherlands Norway Portugal Spain Sweden Switzerland Turkey United Kingdom United States Subtotal Total

Management 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 2 5

Professional Staff 8 6 43 6 5 28 35 1 16 2 15 4 3 8 9 5 5 32 119 350 927

Total 8 6 43 6 6 28 38 1 16 2 15 4 3 8 9 5 5 32 122 357 2,602

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APPeNdIX 12 Number of Authorized Positions in Resident Missionsa (2009)
Analysts and Administrative Staff 23 24 12 8 7 1 6 3 20 6 7 3 3 3 – 21 4 7 16 5 4 3 10 4 8 5 1 214

Country Resident Missions Bangladesh India Nepal Sri Lanka Afghanistan Azerbaijan Kazakhstan Kyrgyz Republic Pakistan Tajikistan Uzbekistan Armenia Georgia Turkmenistan Turkey china, People’s Republic of Mongolia cambodia Indonesia Lao, People’s democratic Republic Philippines Thailand Viet Nam Pacific Liaison and coordination office in Sydneyb Pacific Subregional office in Fiji Islandsc Papua New Guinea Special Liaison office in Timor-Leste Subtotal Resident Offices europe Japan North America Subtotal headquartersd appendiXeS TOTAL
a b c d Includes outposted positions. covers Nauru, Solomon Islands, and Vanuatu. covers the cook Islands, the Fiji Islands, Kiribati, Samoa, Tonga, and Tuvalu. excluding Young Professionals and Board of directors.

Professional Staff 8 14 3 4 7 1 3 2 10 3 3 – – – – 11 4 5 12 4 4 7 12 3 5 3 2 130

National Officers 15 21 13 12 7 4 5 5 18 5 5 2 2 1 19 6 9 15 8 3 5 14 5 4 4 2 209

Total 46 59 28 24 21 6 14 10 48 14 15 5 5 3 1 51 14 21 43 17 11 15 36 12 17 12 5 553

2 2 2 6 756 892

1 1 1 3 314 526

2 2 2 6 912 1,132

5 5 5 15 1,982 2,550

annual report 2009
APPeNdIX 13 Growth in Resident Missions (RMs) and Authorized Staff Positions at RMs
Number of Resident Missions and Authorized Positions 2001 Number of Resident Missions (RMs) Total Authorized Positions at RM Professional Staff (PS) and National Officers (NO) Positions at RM Professional Staffc National officers Administrative Staff Total Authorized Positions at ADB PS and NO positions at ADB Professional Staffd National officerse Administrative Staff % of Authorized Positions at RM to Total Authorized Positions at ADB % of PS and NO Positions at RMs to Total PS and NO Positions at ADB Professional Staff National officers Administrative Staff 17 279 2002 18
a

111

2003 20
b

2004 22 389

2005 23 437

2006 23 448

2007 23 490

2008 24 520

2009 25 553

317

361

169 65 104 110

190 72 118 127

223 80 143 138

240 87 153 149

270 107 163 167

267 96 171 181

300 112 188 190

321 119 202 199

339 130 209 214 2,550 1,418 892 526 1,132

2,055 2,116 2,187 2,229 1,020 1,071 1,153 1,189 729 759 791 797 291 312 362 392 1,035 1,045 1,034 1,040

2,310 2,340 2,381 2,498 1,253 1,271 1,304 1,378 824 824 836 875 429 447 468 503 1,057 1,069 1,077 1,120

13.6

15.0

16.5

17.5

18.9

19.1

20.6

20.8

21.7

16.6 8.9 35.7 10.6

17.7 9.5 37.8 12.2

19.3 10.1 39.5 13.3

20.2 10.9 39.0 14.3

21.5 13.0 38.0 15.8

21.0 11.7 38.3 16.9

23.0 13.4 40.2 17.6

23.3 13.6 40.2 17.8

23.9 14.6 39.7 18.9

a Includes Special office in Timor-Leste, but excludes Thailand Resident Mission (TRM). b excludes Thailand Resident Mission (TRM); Azerbaijan Resident Mission (AZRM); Pacific Subregional office in Fiji Islands (SPSo); and Pacific Liaison and coordination office (PLco) in Sydney, Australia. c Includes outposted positions. d excludes Young Professionals and Board of directors. e classification of national officers and administrative staff started only in 2003.

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APPeNdIX 14 Selected Knowledge Products of ADB
AdB produced many knowledge products during 2009 with operational departments producing numerous studies and building knowledge into operations. In addition, large numbers of technical assistance and regional technical assistance reports generated and disseminated knowledge. In addition to that extensive work, the four designated knowledge departments—Asian development Bank Institute, economics and Research department, office of Regional economic Integration, and Regional and Sustainable development department—together with the Independent evaluation department, the department of external Relations, and four regional departments—central and West Asia department, east Asia department, Pacific department, and Southeast Asia department—produced the following products in 2009.

ASIAN DEVELOPMENT BANK INSTITUTE Books AdB and AdBI. Infrastructure for a Seamless Asia. Tokyo: AdBI. AdBI. AdBI: Year in Review. Tokyo: AdBI. Brooks, d. h., and d. hummels (eds). Infrastructure’s Role for Lowering Trade costs: Building for Trade. cheltenham, United Kingdom: edward elgar. Kawai, M., and S. Stone (eds.). Asia’s contribution to World economic Growth and Stability. Tokyo: AdBI. Working Papers Adhikari, Bhim. Market-Based Approaches to environmental Management: A Review of Lessons from Payment for environmental Services in Asia. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 134. March. Athukorala, Prema-chandra and Archanun Kohpaiboon. Intra-Regional Trade in east Asia: The decoupling Fallacy, crisis, and Policy challenges. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 177. december. Basir, Amir Akmar. Payment Systems in Malaysia: Recent developments and Issues. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 151. September. Batten, Jonathan A., Warren P. hogan, and Peter G. Szilagyi. Foreign Bond Markets and Financial Market development: International Perspectives. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 173. december. Bhattacharyay, Biswa and Prabir de. Restoring the Asian Silk Route: Toward an Integrated Asia. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 140. June. Bhattacharyay, Biswa. Infrastructure development for ASeAN economic Integration. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 138. May. Börsch-Supan, Axel and Alexander Ludwig. old europe Ages. can it Still Prosper? AdBI Working Paper Series No. 168. November. Bosworth,Barry and Aaron Flaaen. America’s Financial crisis: The end of an era. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 142. July. Bown, chad and Rachel Mcculloch. US-Japan and US-PRc Trade conflict: export Growth, Reciprocity, and the International Trading System. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 158. November. cheong, Inkyo and Jungran cho. The Impact of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs) on Business in the Republic of Korea. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 156. october. cho, dong chul. The Republic of Korea’s economy in the Swirl of Global crisis. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 147. August. das, Ram Upendra. Imperatives of Regional economic Integration in Asia in the context of developmental Asymmetries: Some Policy Suggestions. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 172. december. dean, Judith M., Mary e. Lovely, and Jesse Mora. decomposing PRc-Japan-US Trade: Vertical Specialization, ownership, and organizational Form. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 159. November. eichengreen, Barry. Lessons of the crisis for emerging Markets. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 179. december. Greaney, Theresa M. and Yao Li. Assessing Foreign direct Investment Relationships Between Japan, the People’s Republic of china, and the United States. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 161. November. Gupta, Souvik and Jacques Miniane. Recessions and Recoveries in Asia: What can the Past Teach Us about the Present Recession? AdBI Working Paper Series No. 150. September. habito, cielito F. Patterns of Inclusive Growth in developing Asia: Insights from an enhanced Growth-Poverty elasticity Analysis. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 145. August. hiratsuka, daisuke, hitoshi Sato, and Ikumo Isono. Impacts of Free Trade Agreements on Business Activity in Asia: The case of Japan. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 143. July. Jitsuchon, Somchai and chalongphob Sussangkarn. Thailand’s Growth Rebalancing. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 154. october.

Jonung, Lars. Financial crisis and crisis Management in Sweden. Lessons for Today. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 165. November. Katada, Saori N. Political economy of east Asian Regional Integration and cooperation. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 170. december. Kawai, Masahiro and Fan Zhai. The People’s Republic of china-Japan-United States Integration Amid Global Rebalancing: A computable General equilibrium Analysis. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 152. october. Kawai, Masahiro and Ganeshan Wignaraja. Asian FTAs: Trends and challenges. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 144. August. Kawai, Masahiro and Ganeshan Wignaraja. The Asian “Noodle Bowl”: Is It Serious for Business? AdBI Working Paper Series No. 136. April. Kawai, Masahiro and Shinji Takagi. Why Was Japan hit So hard by the Global Financial crisis? AdBI Working Paper Series No. 153. october. Kawai, Masahiro, Peter Petri, and elif Sisli-ciamarra. Asia in Global Governance: A case for decentralized Institutions. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 157. october. Kawai, Masahiro. Reform of the International Financial Architecture: An Asian Perspective. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 167. November. Kawai,Masahiro and Fan Zhai. PRc-Latin America economic cooperation: Going beyond Resource and Manufacturing complementarity. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 137. April. Kim, Soyoung and doo Yong Yang. International Monetary Transmission and exchange Rate Regimes: Floaters vs. Non-Floaters. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 181. december. Kumar, Rajiv and Pankaj Vashisht. The Global economic crisis: Impact on India and Policy Responses. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 164. November. Liu, Xiangfeng. Impacts of the Global Financial crisis on Small and Medium enterprises in the People’s Republic of china. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 180. december. Lu, Ming and hong Gao. When Globalization Meets Urbanization: Labor Market Reform, Income Inequality, and economic Growth in the People’s Republic of china. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 162. November. Ma, Alyson, Ari Van Assche, and chang hong. Global Production Networks and the People’s Republic of china’s Processing Trade. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 175. december. Mondeil, Marie and Sununtar Setboonsarng. enhancing Biodiversity Through Market-Based Strategy: organic Agriculture. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 155. october. Moon, hyungpyo. demographic changes and Pension Reform in the Republic of Korea. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 135. April. Morgan, Peter. The Role and effectiveness of Unconventional Monetary Policy. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 163. November. Nambiar, Shankaran. Malaysia and the Global crisis: Impact, Response, Rebalancing Strategies. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 148. August. Padoan, Pier carlo. Fiscal Policy in the crisis: Impact, Sustainability, and LongTerm Implications. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 178. december. Pomerleano, Michael. What Is the Impact of the Global Financial crisis on the Banking System in east Asia? Working Paper 146. August. Reside, Jr., Renato e. Global determinants of Stress and Risk in Public-Private Partnerships (PPP) in Infrastructure. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 133. March. Setboonsarng, Sununtar, Jun Sakai, and Lucia Vancura. Food Safety and IcT Traceability Systems: Lessons from Japan for developing countries. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 139. May. Spiegel, Mark M. developing Asian Local currency Bond Markets: Why and how? AdBI Working Paper Series No. 182. december. Staples, Brian Rankin and Jeremy harris. origin and Beyond: Trade Facilitation disaster or Trade Facilitation opportunity? AdBI Working Paper Series No. 171. december.

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annual report 2009
Stone, Susan and Ginalyn Komoto. determining Poverty Impacts on Lao People’s democratic Republic and cambodia: Reconciling household and GTAP data. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 141. July. Strutt, Anna and Susan Stone. Transport Infrastructure and Trade Facilitation in the Greater Mekong Subregion. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 130. January. Thorbecke, Willem. An empirical Analysis of ASeAN’s Labor-Intensive exports. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 166. November. Thorbecke, Willem. An empirical Analysis of east Asian computer exports. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 160. November. Titiheruw, Ira S. and Raymond Atje. Malaysia and the Global crisis: Impact, Response, Rebalancing Strategies. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 149. August. Todo, Yasuyuki, Weiying Zhang, and Li-An Zhou. Knowledge Spillovers from FdI in the People’s Republic of china: The Role of educated Labor in Multinational enterprises. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 174. december. Tsai, Ying Yi. Strategic choice of Freight Mode and Investments in Transport Infrastructure within Production Networks. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 132. March. Uchikawa, Shuji. Small and Medium enterprises in Japan: Surviving the LongTerm Recession. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 169. November. Wall, Larry d. Prudential discipline for Financial Firms: Micro, Macro, and Market Structures. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 176. december. Zhuang, Juzhong and Fan Zhai. Agricultural Impact of climate change: A General equilibrium Analysis with Special Reference to Southeast Asia. AdBI Working Paper Series No. 131. February. Research Policy Briefs Morgan, Peter. Unregulated entities, Products, and Markets: challenges for Monitoring and Regulation. Research Policy Brief 30. August. Park, Yung chul. The Global economic crisis and Rebalancing Growth in east Asia. Research Policy Brief 31. december. Takagi, Shinji. The Global Financial crisis and Macroeconomic Policy Issues in Asia. Research Policy Brief 32. december. Research Papers Rocha, Bruno. At different Speeds: Policy complementarities and the Recovery from the Asian crisis. Research Paper 74. July. CD-ROM AdBI. Mainstreaming climate change Adaptation into developmental Planning. CENTRAL AND WEST ASIA DEPARTMENT Awareness-Raising and Multimedia Materials cARec Notes February 2009, Issue No. 3. Lessons for central Asia: experience with Regional economic cooperation. cARec Transport and Trade Facilitation: Partnership for Prosperity energy is Life: Bringing Power to Afghanistan DEPARTMENT OF EXTERNAL RELATIONS Awareness-Raising Multimedia Materials AdB corporate Brochure AdB experts Video Interviews – 31 AdB Review – 12 issues country Fact Sheets – 67 development Asia In Focus Series Multimedia Features – 7 News Feature Videos on AdB Impact Stories – 71 Photo essays – 26 Workers – Public Service Announcement Reports 2008 Annual Report PcP Annual Assessment Report 2009 EAST ASIA DEPARTMENT

113

ADB Briefs Fan Zhai, Tun Lin, enerelt Byambadorj. A General equilibrium Analysis of the Impact of climate change on Agriculture in the People’s Republic of china. Awareness-Raising Materials 2008 east Asia department Knowledge Management Initiatives Impact of the Massive carbon Intensity cut Knowledge Showcase: Addressing energy efficiency with Virtual Power Plans PRc Response to the crisis The economic crisis and china’s human Resource challenge Understanding Urban Water Tariff in the PRc What Lies Ahead Policy Briefs country Gender Assessment observations and Suggestions on Improving environment Management in the PRc: environmental Impact Assessment of development Plans observations and Suggestions on Low-Income housing Policies: Lessons from International experience observations and Suggestions on Managing International capital Flow to PRc observations and Suggestions on Rebalancing Growth in PRc: Macroeconomic Policy Recommendations observations and Suggestions on Rebalancing Growth in PRc: Services Sector development observations and Suggestions on Social Assistance for Migrant Workers displaced by the economic downturn: Providing a Safety Net and Foundation for A Strong Recovery Policy Note on comprehensive Agricultural development: opportunities from the current economic crisis Policy Note on the Impact of the economic Slowdown on the Public Provision of Social Services Policy Note on TVeT Financing and Management (formerly Policy Note on TVeT development—Guangdong and hunan Province, PRc) Promoting Urban Water Security in the PRc (formerly Policy Paper on Managing Water Shortages in Urban Areas) Reports Biofuels in Asia Green Benches: What can the People’s Republic of china Learn from environment courts of other countries? Investing for the Future: education for All in the People’s Republic of china Mongolia: country Poverty Assessment Mongolia: Private Sector Assessment PRc Quarterly economic Reports Working Paper Series Walker, George, Tun Lin, and Yoshiaki Kobayashi. Is Flood Insurance Feasible? experiences from the People’s Republic of china. AdB Sustainable development Working Paper Series No. 5. Zifa Wang, Tun Lin, and George Walker. earthquake Risk and earthquake catastrophe Insurance for the PRc. AdB Sustainble development Working Paper Series No. 7. ECONOMIC AND RESEARCH DEPARTMENT Flagship Publications Asian development outlook 2009 Asian development outlook Update 2009 Key Indicators for Asia and the Pacific 2009 Working Paper Series Adams, c., and d. Park. causes and consequences of Global Imbalances: Perspective from developing Asia. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 157. April.

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Multiple Growth Paths. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 149. March. Maligalig, d., S. cuevas, and A. Rosario. Informal employment in Bangladesh. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 155. April. Niimi, Y. Gender equality and Inclusive Growth in developing Asia. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 186. december. Park, d. Aging Asia’s Looming Pension crisis. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 165. July. Park, d. and G. estrada. Are developing Asia’s Foreign exchange Reserves excessive? An empirical examination. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 170. September. Park, d. and G. estrada. developing Asia’s Sovereign Wealth Funds and outward Foreign direct Investment. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 169. August. Park, d. and K. Shin. can Trade with the People’s Republic of china be an engine of Growth for developing Asia? AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 172. october. Park, d. and K. Shin. Saving, Investment, and current Account Surplus in developing Asia. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 158. May. Park, d. and K. Shin. The People’s Republic of china as an engine of Growth for developing Asia?: evidence from Vector Autoregression Models. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 175. November. Park, d. and Q. Xiao. housing Prices and the Role of Speculation: The case of Seoul. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 146. January. Park, d., K. Shin, and J. Jongwanich. The decline of Investment in east Asia since the Asian Financial crisis: An overview and empirical examination. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 187. december. Raihan, S., B. Khondker, G. Sugiyarto, and S. Jha. Remittances and household Welfare: A case Study of Bangladesh. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 189. december. Sim, B., M. de castro, and M. Pascua. An Analysis of Revisions to Annual GdP estimates of Six AdB Regional Members. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 184. december. Son, h. A cross-country Analysis of Achievements and Inequities in economic Growth and Standards of Living. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 159. May. Son, h. and e. San Andres. how has Asia Fared in the Global crisis? A Tale of Three countries: Republic of Korea, Philippines, and Thailand. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 174. october. Son, h. equity in health and health care in the Philippines. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 171. october. Terada-hagiwara, Akiko. explaining Filipino households’ declining Saving Rate. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 178. November. Vargas-Silva, c., S. Jha, and G. Sugiyarto. Remittances in Asia: Implications for the Fight against Poverty and the Pursuit of economic Growth. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 182. december. Zhuang, J., h. Gunatilake, Y. Niimi, M. Khan, Y. Jiang, R. hasan, N. Khor, A. Lagman-Martin, P. Bracey, and B. huang. Financial Sector development, economic Growth, and Poverty Reduction: A Literature Review. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 173. october. Journals Asian development Review Vol. 26 No. 2. december. Asian development Review Vol. 26 No. 1. June. Special Studies diagnosing the Philippine economy. September. Nepal: critical development constraints. July. The economics of climate change in Southeast Asia: A Regional Review. April. INDEPENDENT EVALUATION DEPARTMENT Reports/Reports Series evaluation Information Brief: Lessons from Processing and ongoing Implementation of Loan 2273-VIe(SF): emergency Rehabilitation of calamity damage Project evaluation Information Brief: Lessons from the Asian development Bank’s Responses to Financial crises evaluation Knowledge Brief: Greenhouse Gas Implications of AdB’s energy Sector operations Impact evaluation Study: Impact of Rural Water Supply and Sanitation in Punjab, Pakistan

Aizenman, J., M. chinn, and h. Ito. Surfing the Waves of Globalization: Asia and Financial Globalization in the context of the Trilemma. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 180. december. Alba, J., d. Park, and P. Wang. corporate Governance and Merger and Acquisition Foreign direct Investment: Firm-level evidence from Japanese Foreign direct Investment into the US. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 147. February. Alba, J., d. Park, and P. Wang. The Impact of exchange Rate on FdI and the Interdependence of FdI over Time. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 164. July. Alessandrini, M. Alessandrini, B. Fattouh, B. Ferrarini, and P. Scaramozzino. Tariff Liberalization and Trade Specialization in India. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 177. November. Ang, A., G. Sugiyarto, and S. Jha. Remittances and household Behavior in the Philippines. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 188. december. Bjornestad, L. Bjornestad. Fiscal decentralization, Fiscal Incentives, and ProPoor outcomes: evidence from Viet Nam. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 168. August. cuevas, S., c. Mina, M. Barcenas, and A. Rosario. Informal employment in Indonesia. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 156. April. deolalikar, A., R. hasan, and R. Somanathan. Public Goods Access and Juvenile Sex Ratios in Rural India: evidence from the 1991 and 2001 Village census data. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 167. July. Felipe, J., J. S. L. Mccombie, and K. Naqvi. Is Pakistan’s Growth Rate Balanceof-Payments constrained? Policies and Implications for development and Growth. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 160. May. ha, J., Y. Kim, and J. Lee. The optimal Structure of Technology Adoption and creation: Basic Research vs. development in the Presence of distance to Frontier. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 163. June. hasan, R. and K. Jandoc. Quality of Jobs in the Philippines: comparing Selfemployment with Wage employment. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 148. March. hasan, R., R. Magsombol, and J. cain. Poverty Impact of the economic Slowdown in developing Asia: Some Scenarios. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 153. April. hong, K., J. Lee, and h. Tang. crises in Asia: historical Perspectives and Implications. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 152. April. Ito, h., J. Jongwanich, and A. Terada-hagiwara. What Makes developing Asia Resilient in a Financially Globalized World? AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 181. december. James, W. US International Trade and the Global economic crisis. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 179. November. Jha, S., G. Sugiyarto, and c. Vargas-Silva. The Global crisis and the Impact on Remittances to developing Asia. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 185. december. Jha, S., Jha, e. Prasad, and A. Terada-hagiwara. Saving in Asia: Issues for Rebalancing Growth. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 162. June. Jha, S., P. Quising, and S. camingue. Macroeconomic Uncertainties, oil Subsidies, and Fiscal Sustainability in Asia. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 150. April. Jongwanich, J. and N. Magtibay-Ramos. determinants of Structural changes of Food exports from developing countries. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 166. July. Jongwanich, J. equilibrium Real exchange Rate, Misalignment, and export Performance in developing Asia. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 151. March. Jongwanich, J. Impact of Food Safety Standards on Processed Food exports from developing countries. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 154. April. Jongwanich, J., W. James, P. Minor, and A. Greenbaum. Trade Structure and the Transmission of economic distress in the high-Income oecd countries to developing Asia. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 161. May. Joshi, K., R. hasan, and G. Amoranto. Surveys of Informal Sector enterprises— Some Measurement Issues. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 183. december. Khor, N. and I. Sebastian. exports and the Global crisis: Still Alive, though Not Quite Kicking Yet. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 190. december. Kim, S., d. Park, and J. Park. Productivity Growth in different Firm Sizes in the Malaysian Manufacturing Sector: An empirical Investigation. AdB economics Working Paper Series No. 176. November. Kim, Y. Jin and J. Lee. Technological change, human capital Structure, and

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Special evaluation Study: AdB Assistance for Public–Private Partnerships in Infrastructure development Special evaluation Study: Asian development Bank’s contribution to Inclusive development through Assistance for Rural Roads Special evaluation Study: AdB Support for Public Sector Reforms in the Pacific: enhance Results Through ownership, capacity, and continuity Special evaluation Study: AdB Technical Assistance for Justice Reform in developing Member countries Special evaluation Study: The Asian development Bank’s Support to Gender and development, Phase 1: Relevance, Responsiveness and Results to date OFFICE OF ADMINISTRATIVE SERVICES Awareness-Raising and Multimedia Materials iLink digest iLink Monthly Summaries for education, environment, finance, infrastructure, and regional cooperation Law Link (weekly summaries on publications on law) Mobile abstraction of TA consultants reports on energy to serve the needs of the energy coPs New acquisitions list Operational Reports eStar 1-year milestone report citing accomplishments and financial savings derived Process improvements actions in vital records management programs OFFICE OF REGIONAL AND ECONOMIC INTEGRATION Books India 2039: An Affluent Society in one Generation (prepared by centennial Group) National Strategies for Regional Integration: South and east Asian case Studies Pan-Asian Integration: Linking east and South Asia Awareness-Raising and Multimedia Materials Institutions for Regionalism: enhancing economic cooperation and Integration in Asia and the Pacific–A Booklet Reports/Report Series Asia Bond Monitor (February, June, September, and November) Asia capital Markets Monitor (April) Asia economic Monitor (July and december) comparative Perspectives on Trans-Pacific Trade, Integration, and development (with IAdB) Training and Instructive Materials Aid for Trade in Asia and the Pacific: An Update Trade Facilitation handbook: Bridging the Gap Between Policy and Practice in Asia and the Pacific (with UNeScAP) Working Papers Ando, Mitsuyo, Antoni estevadeordal, and christian Volpe Martincus. complements or Substitutes? Preferential and Multilateral Trade Liberalization at the Sectoral Level. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 39. capannelli, Giovanni and carlo Filippini. east Asian and european economic Integration: A comparative Analysis. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 29. capannelli, Giovanni, Jong-Wha Lee, and Peter Petri. developing Indicators for Regional economic Integration and cooperation. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 33. hamanaka, Shintaro. Re-considering Asian Financial Regionalism in the 1990s. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 26. hamanaka, Shintaro. The Building Block versus Stumbling Block debate of Regionalism: From the Perspective of Service Trade Liberalization in Asia. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 28. Kim, Soyoung, Jong-Wha Lee, and cyn-Young Park. emerging Asia: decoupling or Recoupling. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 31.

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Kumar, Rajiv and Manjeeta Singh. India’s Role in South Asia Trade and Investment Integration. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 32. Lee, chee Sung and cyn-Young Park. Beyond the crisis: Financial Regulatory Reform in emerging Asia. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 34. Lee, Jong-Wha and Ju hyun Pyun. does Trade Integration contribute to Peace? AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 24. Madhur, Srinivasa, Ganeshan Wignaraja,and Peter darjes. Roads for Asian Integration: Measuring AdB’s contribution to the Asian highway Network. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 37. McKibbin, Warwick J. and Waranya Pim chanthapun. exchange Rate Regimes in the Asia-Pacific Region and the Global Financial crisis. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 36. Menon, Jayant and Anna Melendez-Nakamura. Aging in Asia: Trends, Impacts, and Responses. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 25. Menon, Jayant. Managing Success in Viet Nam: Macroeconomic consequences of Large capital Inflows with Limited Policy Tools. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 27. Rao, M. Govinda. Promoting Trade and Investment in India’s Northeastern Region. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 30. Rigg, Robert and Lotte Schou-Zibell. The Financial crisis and Money Markets in emerging Asia. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 38. Warr, Peter, Jayant Menon, and Arief Anshory Yusuf. Regional economic Impacts of cross-Border Infrastructure: A General equilibrium Application to Thailand and Lao PdR. AdB Working Paper Series on Regional economic Integration No. 35. PACIFIC DEPARTMENT Awareness-Raising and Multimedia Materials Profiles of Progress: Papua New Guinea Policy Briefs Taking the helm: A Policy Brief on a Response to the Global economic crisis Reports/Report Series capacity development Series: A Tale of Two cds—capacity development and community development in the Waste, Water, and Sanitation Sector in Kiribati capacity development Series: Building capacity Through Participation—Nauru National Sustainable development Strategy capacity development Series: Making Things Simpler?— harmonizing Aid delivery in the cook Islands capacity development Series: Reconstructing A Fragile State—Institutional Strengthening of the Ministry of Infrastructure development capacity development Series: The community Justice Liaison Unit—Bridging the State-Society Gap capacity development Series: Vanuatu Legal Sector Strengthening Program Finding Balance: Making State-owned enterprises Work in Fiji, Samoa, and Tonga Kiribati Social and economic Report 2008 Kiribati’s Political economy and capacity development Pacific economic Monitor (May, August, November issues) Private Sector development Initiative Annual Report Strengthening Pacific Fragile States–The Marshall Islands example Sustaining Growth: A Private Sector Assessment for Vanuatu What Works? Better Policies and Practices for a Better Pacific REGIONAL AND SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT DEPARTMENT Awareness-Raising and Multimedia Materials AdB/oecd Asia-Pacific Newsletter No. 12 AdB Regional climate change Responses: directions for Action, Invitations for Partnerships Annual Report on the Governance cooperation Fund Beyond: Stories and Sounds from AdB’s Region

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Operational Reports AdB operational Plan for Sustainable Food Security operational Plan for Improving health Access and outcomes under Strategy 2020 Reports/Reports Series 2009 Sustainability Report AdB cooperation with civil Society—2008 Annual Report AdB: Reflections and Beyond A Review of community-Based Urban development Programs in India Avian Influenza Project Progress Report Building climate Resilience in the Agriculture Sector climate change in Asia and the Pacific: Implications for Food, Fuel, and People community-Based development in Water and Sanitation Projects country Gender Assessment—Pakistan country Gender Assessment—Sri Lanka environment Program: Progress and Prospects Improving energy Security and Reducing carbon Intensity in Asia and the Pacific Intersections: Gender, hIV, and Infrastructure operations International conference on community-driven development and Rural Poverty Alleviation: Summary of Proceedings Institutionalizing Gender equality: The experience of the Bangladesh Resident Mission Learning for change in AdB Legal empowerment for Women and disadvantaged Groups Natural catastrophe Risk Insurance Mechanisms for Asia and the Pacific Nature + Nurture: A vignette and a photo essay of the PeP subproject in PNG, Innovative Actions for community-Based Water Management and education Poverty and human development in Sri Lanka, with References to conflictAffected Areas Support to corporate-level MdG monitoring (under development effectiveness Review) Technical Note on Social Analysis in the Multitranche Financing Facility The Impact of community-driven development on Infrastructure Project corruption, cost, and Quality Strategy, Policy, and Administrative Documents 2009 energy Policy Safeguard Policy Statement (2009) Training and Instructive Materials civil Society concerns—Briefing Paper for the 42nd Annual Meeting Financial due diligence—A Methodology Note Good Practice in cost Sharing and Financing in higher education Good Practice in IcT for education Good Practice in the development of Technical–Vocational Skills Interacting with Workers’ organizations: A Primer for AdB Staff Knowledge Solutions Asking effective Questions Assessing effectiveness of Assistance in capacity development Building a Learning organization Building Institutional capacity for development Building Networks of Practice Building Trust in the Workplace coaching and Mentoring collaborating with Wikis conducting effective Meetings conducting effective Presentations dimensions of the Learning organization disseminating Knowledge Products distributing Leadership drawing Learning charters drawing Mind Maps enhancing Knowledge Management Strategies exercising Servant Leadership

changing course: A New Paradigm on Sustainable Transport community e-centers Brochure community-driven development on Infrastructure corruption (brochure) community-driven development in Water Supply and Sanitation (brochure) cSo Web Review – 12 issues (e-newsletter) GAcAP II Progress Report Improving Results, Improving Lives: AdB’s Water Financing Partnership Facility Information Note 1 – Recommendations for dealing with the Transition from disaster Response to Recovery Information Note 2 – International experiences and Suggestions on Postdisaster Rehabilitation and Reconstruction Investing in Sustainable Infrastructure—Improving Lives in Asian and the Pacific In the Pipeline: Water for the Poor—Investing in Small Piped Water Networks Knowledge Management and Learning in AdB Knowledge Showcases AdB’s Regional cooperation and Integration Today Addressing energy efficiency with Virtual Power Plants Better Air Quality Improves Quality of Life Beyond emergency Responses: ensuring the Legacy of Market-Based Microfinance expansion Bus Rapid Transit in the People’s Republic of china complaints from Beneficiaries: A Valuable Resource for Project Implementation Improving Regional cooperation in energy Today Institutionalizing Gender equality at AdB: The experience of the Bangladesh Resident Mission Mapping the Sea: Knowledge for Natural Resources Management Partnering with communities for Post-disaster Reconstruction in Aceh and Nias Island, North Sumatra, Indonesia Rebuilding Low-heritage Villages After disasters Rebuilding Traditional houses After disasters Restoring Pedestrian Accessibility in Indian cities Speeding Business Application Processes in the Philippines Tackling extreme Poverty Using a household-Based Approach Transforming Risk-Averse Banks into Microfinance champions in a Post-disaster and Post-conflict environment Using economic Instruments to Promote environmentally Sustainable Transportation in the People’s Republic of china When Size Matters—Improving Microfinance outreach in Aceh Through a Revitalized Provincial Rural Bank Network Making Sanitation everybody’s Business Management Brief: one Year of AdB Support to the extractive Industries Transparency Initiative Meeting the Water and climate change challenge Partnership Newsletter – 6 issues (e-newsletter) Partnership on Sustainable Low carbon Transport (brochure) Promoting Sustainable, Low carbon Transport in Asia (brochure) Powering the Poor: Projects to Increase Access to clean energy for All Quality, Knowledge, and Innovation for Inclusive and Sustainable development: Sector and Thematic Priorities Restoring Pedestrian Accessibility in Indian cities Revitalizing Asia’s Irrigation: To Sustainably Meet Tomorrow’s Food Needs Social Analysis in Private Sector Projects (brochure) Supporting the Fight Against corruption in Asia and the Pacific: AdB/oecd Anti-corruption Initiative Annual Report 2008 Under the Weather and the Rising Tide: Adapting to a changing climate in Asia and the Pacific Video clips from the Forum on community-driven development and Strategy 2020, 3 december 2008, AdB headquarters, Manila (4 video clips) Water for All #17: Water Rights and Water Allocation: Issues and challenges for Asia Water for All #18: India’s Sanitation for All: how to Make it happen Briefs Social Protection Project Briefs (21 briefs)

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Fast and effective change Management Five Whys Technique, The From Strategy to Practice Glossary of Knowledge Management Growing Managers, Not Bosses harnessing creativity and Innovation in the Workplace Improving Sector and Thematic Reporting Leading in the Workplace Learning and development for Management Learning from evaluation Learning in Strategic Alliances Learning Lessons with Knowledge Audits Managing by Walking Around Managing Virtual Teams Monthly Progress Notes Most Significant change Technique, The overcoming Roadblocks to Learning Primer on organizational culture, A Primer on organizational Learning, A Roots of an emerging discipline, The ScAMPeR Technique, The Social Network Analysis Staff Profile Pages Understanding and developing emotional Intelligence Understanding complexity Value cycles for development outcomes Wearing Six Thinking hats Working in Teams Writing Weblogs Knowledge Solutions compendium (Issues 1–38) overview of NGos/civil Society—Afghanistan overview of NGos/civil Society—India overview of NGos/civil Society—Pakistan Sector Governance Guidance Note: electricity Sector Risk Assessment Sector Governance Guidance Note: Urban Water Supply Sector Risk Assessment Sourcebook to Assist the Preparation of Governance Risk Assessments Strategies for Business, Government, and civil Society to Fight corruption in Asia and the Pacific Strengthening the Impact of Asia’s NGo community: Maternal, Newborn, and child health (MNch) Interventions—Immunization, Asia NGo Workshop Proceedings Working Paper Series Walker, George, Tun Lin, Yoshiaki Kobayashi. Is Flood Insurance Feasible? experiences from the People’s Republic of china. AdB Sustainable development Working Paper Series No. 5. April. Wan, Guanghua and Ruth Francisco. how is the Global Recession Impacting on Poverty and Social Spending: An ex Ante Assessment Methodology with Applications to developing Asia, AdB Sustainable development Working Paper Series No. 8. August. Wan, Guanghua and Ruth Francisco. Why is Access to Basic Services Not Inclusive? A Synthesis with a Special Focus on developing Asia. AdB Sustainable development Working Paper Series No. 6. April. Wang, Zifa, Tun Lin, and George Walker. earthquake Risk and earthquake catastrophe Insurance for the People’s Republic of china. AdB Sustainable development Working Paper Series No. 7. June. SOUTHEAST ASIA DEPARTMENT Awareness-Raising and Multimedia Materials corridor chronicles—Profiles of cross Border Activities in the Greater Mekong Subregion evaluating the Impact of Live entertainment Performances: Results from the 2007 hilltribe concert Knowledge Showcase: Rebuilding Low-heritage Villages After disasters Plotting the data and connecting the dots: The Role of GIS in hIV Prevention Radio drama as an educational Tool for ethnic Minority Groups: A 4-country evaluation

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Radio drama for hIV/AIdS Prevention Among ethnic Groups Across the GMS Southeast Asian Gender and development (SeAGeN WAVeS) Newsletter Journal Journal of Greater Mekong Subregion development Studies, Volume 4 Reports Background Note on the Justice Sector of the Philippines Building a Sustainable energy Future: The Greater Mekong Subregion Migration In the Greater Mekong Subregion: A Background Paper for the Fourth Greater Mekong Subregion development dialogue Poverty in the Philippines: causes, constraints, and opportunities Process Map on the criminal Prosecution of Tax evasion in the Philippines Protecting the World’s oceans: From Vision to Action Water: Vital for Viet Nam’s Future Strategy, Policy, and Administrative Documents Greater Mekong Subregion: energy Road Map for expanded cooperation in the energy Sector Greater Mekong Subregion: Transport Strategy for Railway Indonesia: Private–Public Partnership on Food Fortification Lao People’s democratic Republic: country Strategy and Program Midterm Review 2007–2011 Lao People’s democratic Republic: Governance Risk Assessment Viet Nam: country Strategy and Program 2007–2010 Midterm Review Training and Instructive Materials economics and Trade in Goods: An Introduction An AdB-ITd Training Module for the Greater Mekong Subregion Trade and Investment in Services: An AdB-ITd Training Module for the Greater Mekong Subregion World Trade organization Trade Remedies: A Tool Kit Working Papers Frielink, Barend and Mylene Buerano. The contribution of AdB to the ASeAN economic community Blueprint. AdB Southeast Asia Working Paper Series No. 3. october. Roland-holst, david and Barend Frielink. Trade and Growth horizons for Nusa Tenggara Timur and Timor-Leste. AdB Southeast Asia Working Paper Series No. 4. November. Trace, Keith, Barend Frielink, and denis hew. Air connectivity in Archipelagic Southeast Asia: An overview. AdB Southeast Asia Working Paper Series No. 2. September. Trace, Keith, Barend Frielink, and denis hew. Maritime connectivity in Archipelagic Southeast Asia: An overview. AdB Southeast Asia Working Paper Series No. 1. August.

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APPeNdIX 15 Evaluation Results for Sovereign Operations

Table A15.1 Evaluation Resultsa for Sovereign Operations by Country, Cumulative from Evaluation Year 1973–2009
Total Rated Projects and Programs (no.) HS/GS/S 100.0 100.0 58.5 84.6 85.7 86.6 65.1 63.3 62.5 82.4 69.0 64.9 80.0 68.2 63.6 57.3 46.0 53.8 34.2 47.1 56.8 88.9 89.1 50.0 82.1 86.9 63.4

Table A15.2 Evaluation Resultsa for Sovereign Operations by Sector, Cumulative from Evaluation Year 1973–2009
Total Rated Projects and Programs (no.) HS/GS/S

Country

Proportion (%) PS 0.0 0.0 33.0 7.7 14.3 8.5 27.9 29.8 37.5 17.6 26.2 29.8 10.0 27.3 27.3 33.3 35.0 37.1 57.9 36.1 36.5 11.1 10.9 37.5 15.4 11.5 28.6

US 0.0 0.0 8.5 7.7 0.0 4.9 7.0 6.9 0.0 0.0 4.8 5.3 10.0 4.5 9.1 9.3 19.0 9.1 7.9 16.8 6.8 0.0 0.0 12.5 2.6 1.6 8.0

Sector

Proportion (%) PS

US

Afghanistan 3 1 Azerbaijan Bangladesh 106 13 Bhutan cambodia 21 china, People’s Republic of 82 India 43 Indonesia 188 Kazakhstan 8 Kyrgyz Republic 17 Lao People’s democratic Republic 42 Malaysia 57 Maldives 10 Mongolia 22 Myanmar 11 Nepal 75 Pacific dMcs 100 Pakistan 143 Papua New Guinea 38 Philippines 119 Sri Lanka 74 Tajikistan 9 Thailand 64 Uzbekistan 8 Viet Nam 39 61 Graduate economiesb Total 1,354

Agriculture and Natural Resources 347 education 101 energy 194 Finance 144 health and Social Protection 44 Industry and Trade 61 Multisector 61 Public Sector Management 35 Transport and IcT 231 Water and other Municipal Infrastructure and Services 136 Total 1,354

44.7 73.3 79.9 52.1 52.3 60.7 75.4 51.4 82.7

40.9 24.8 18.0 37.5 43.2 27.9 18.0 42.9 11.7

14.4 2.0 2.1 10.4 4.5 11.5 6.6 5.7 5.6

62.5 63.4

30.9 28.6

6.6 8.0

GS = generally successful, hS = highly successful, PS = partly successful, US = unsuccessful; IcT = information and communication technology. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding. a Based on aggregate results of project/program completion reports (PcRs), PcR validation reports (PcRVRs) and project/program evaluation reports (PPeRs) using PcRVR or PPeR ratings in all cases where both PcR and PcRVR or PPeR ratings are available.

dMc = developing member country, GS = generally successful, hS = highly successful, PS = partly successful, US = unsuccessful. Note: Totals may not add up because of rounding. a Based on aggregate results of project/program completion reports (PcRs), PcR validation reports (PcRVRs) and project/program evaluation reports (PPeRs) using PcRVR or PPeR ratings in all cases where both PcR and PcRVR or PPeR ratings are available. b hong Kong, china; Republic of Korea; and Singapore.

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Table A15.3 Percentage of Sovereign Operations (Projects/Programs) Deemed Successful by Source of Funds

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100 90 80 Success Rate (%) 70 60 50 40 30 20 10

1970

1971

1972

1973

1974

1975

1976

1977

1978

1979

1980

1981

1982

1983

1984

1985

1986

1987

1988

1989

1990

1991

1992

1993

1994

1995

1996

1997

1998

1999

2000

Year of Approval
Total Asian Development Fund Ordinary capital resources

Notes: Based on completed projects/programs evaluated from 1973 to 2009. Project/program implementation: 4–7 years. Completion report: 1–2 years after completion. Project/program evaluation: 3 years or more after completion. Data from 2002 are not included due to small sample size (less than 30). Figures for approval years 2000 to 2001 may change as additional projects/programs are completed and evaluated.

2001

0

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ADB CONTACT ADDRESSES
(as of 31 december 2009)
Afghanistan Resident Mission house No. 126, Street 2 haji Yaqub Roundabout, Shar-e-now Next to district 10 Police department P.o. Box 3070 Kabul, Afghanistan Tel +93 0 20 210 3602 www.adb.org/afrm AdB local 5535 Armenia Resident Mission erebuni Plaza Business centre Yerevan 0010, Vazgen Sargsyan 26/1 Armenia Tel +374 10 546371 to 73 Fax +374 10 546374 www.adb.org/armenia AdB local 5549 Azerbaijan Resident Mission 6 Bakikhanov street, Bridge Plaza 8th floor, AZ1022 Tel +994 12 437 3477 Fax +994 12 437 3475 adbazrm@adb.org www.adb.org/azrm AdB local 5588 Bangladesh Resident Mission Plot e 31, Sher-e Bangla Nagar dhaka 1207, Bangladesh GPo Box 2100, dhaka, Bangladesh Tel +880 2 815 6000 to 6008 +880 2 815 6009 to 6016 Fax +880 2 815 6018 to 6019 adbbrm@adb.org www.adb.org/brm AdB local 5512 Cambodia Resident Mission Asian development Bank 29 Suramarit Blvd. St. 268 Phnom Penh, cambodia Tel +855 23 215805 to 806 Fax +855 23 215807 adbcarm@adb.org www.adb.org/carm AdB local 5509 People’s Republic of China Resident Mission 7th Floor, Block d, Beijing china Merchants International Financial center 156 Fuxingmennei Ave., Beijing 100031 People’s Republic of china Tel +86 10 6642 6601 Fax +86 10 6642 6606 adbprcm@adb.org www.adb.org/prcm AdB local 5521 India Resident Mission 4 San Martin Marg, chanakyapuri New delhi 110 021, India Tel +91 11 2410 7200 Fax +91 11 2687 0955 adbinrm@adb.org www.adb.org/inrm AdB local 5514 Indonesia Resident Mission Gedung BRI II, 7th floor Jl. Jend. Sudirman Kav 44–46 Jakarta 10210, Indonesia P.o. Box 99 JKPSA Jakarta 10350A, Indonesia Tel +62 21 251 2721 Fax +62 21 251 2749 adbirm@adb.org www.adb.org/irm AdB local 5511 Kazakhstan Resident Mission Astana office 12 Samal Microdistrict Astana Tower Business center, 10th floor 010000 Astana, Kazakhstan Tel +7 7172 325053/325054/221619 Fax +7 7172 328343 adbkarm@adb.org www.adb.org/karm AdB local 5506 Almaty office 154 A, Nauryzbai batyr str. KABLAN Business center, 3rd floor 050013 Almaty, Kazakhstan Tel +7 727 3300 950 to 952 Fax +7 727 3300 954 adbkarm@adb.org www.adb.org/karm AdB local 5342 Kyrgyz Resident Mission 52 54 orozbekov Street, 720040 Bishkek, Kyrgyz Republic Tel +996 312 624195/624192 +996 312 900445/900447 Fax +996 312 624196 adbkyrm@adb.org www.adb.org/kyrm AdB local 5542 Lao People’s Democratic Republic Resident Mission corner of Lanexang Avenue and Samsenthai Road Vientiane, Lao PdR P.o. Box 9724 Tel +856 21 250444 Fax +856 21 250333 adblrm@adb.org www.adb.org/LaoPdR AdB local 5544 Mongolia Resident Mission McS Plaza Building, 2nd Floor Seoul Street 4, Ulaanbaatar Mongolia Tel +976 11 329836/313440/323507 Fax +976 11 311795 adbmnrm@adb.org www.adb.org/mnrm AdB local 5505 Nepal Resident Mission Srikunj, Kamaldi, Ward No. 31 P.o. Box 5017, Kathmandu, Nepal Tel +977 1 422 7779 Fax +977 1 422 5063 adbnrm@adb.org www.adb.org/nrm AdB local 5515 Pacific Liaison and Coordination Office Level 18, 1 Margaret Street Sydney, NSW 2000, Australia Tel +612 8270 9444 Fax +612 8270 9445 adbplco@adb.org www.adb.org/plco AdB local 5589 Pakistan Resident Mission Level 8, North Wing, Serena office complex Khayaban-e-Suhrawardy, G-5, Islamabad, Pakistan Tel +92 51 260 0351 to 69 Fax +92 51 260 0365 to 66 prm@adb.org www.adb.org/prm AdB local 5513 Papua New Guinea Resident Mission Level 13, deloitte Tower douglas Street P.o. Box 1992 Port Moresby, Ncd Papua New Guinea Tel +675 321 0400/0408 Fax +675 321 0407 adbpnrm@adb.org www.adb.org/pnrm AdB local 5565 South Pacific Subregional Office Asian development Bank Private Mail Bag or 91 Gordon Street, Suva, Fiji Islands Tel +679 331 8101 Fax +679 331 8074 adbspso@adb.org www.adb.org/spso AdB local 5522

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Sri Lanka Resident Mission 49/14 15 Galle Road colombo 3, Sri Lanka Tel +94 11 238 7055 Fax +94 11 238 6527 adbslrm@adb.org www.adb.org/slrm AdB local 5507/5533

Uzbekistan Resident Mission 1 A. Khodjaev Street Tashkent 100027, Uzbekistan Tel +998 71 140 1920/25 Fax +998 71 140 1976 adburm@adb.org www.adb.org AdB local 5508

North American Representative Office 815 connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 325 Washington, dc 20006, USA Tel +1 202 728 1500 Fax +1 202 728 1505 naro@adb.org www.adb.org/naro AdB local 5516 Asian Development Bank Institute Kasumigaseki Building 8F 3 2–5 Kasumigaseki chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-6008, Japan Tel +81 3 3593 5500 Fax +81 3 3593 5571 Info@adbi.org www.adbi.org AdB local 5503

Tajikistan Resident Mission 107-5, Nozim hikmat Street dushanbe 734001, Tajikistan Tel +992 372 271895/271897/210558 Fax +992 372 244900 adbtjrm@adb.org www.adb.org/tjrm AdB local 5539 Thailand Resident Mission 23rd Floor, The offices at central World 999/9 Rama 1 Road, Wangmai, Pathumwan Bangkok 10330, Thailand Tel +662 263 5300 Fax +662 263 5301 adbtrm@adb.org www.adb.org/trm AdB local 5526 Special Office in Timor-Leste AdB/World Bank/IFc Building Avenida dos direitos humanos, Lecidere dili, Timor-Leste Tel +670 332 4801 Fax +670 332 4132 lpochard@adb.org www.adb.org AdB local 5220

Viet Nam Resident Mission Units 701–706, Sun Red River Building 23 Phan chu Trinh Street hoan Kiem district ha Noi, Viet Nam Tel +84 4 3933 1374 to 76 Fax +84 4 3933 1373 adbvrm@adb.org www.adb.org/vrm AdB local 5519 European Representative Office Rahmhofstrasse 2 60313 Frankfurt am Main, Germany Tel +49 69 2193 6400 Fax +49 69 2193 6444 adbero@adb.org www.adb.org/ero AdB local 5517

Japanese Representative Office Asian development Bank Kasumigaseki Building 8F 3-2-5 Kasumigaseki, chiyoda-ku Tokyo 100-6008, Japan Tel +81 3 3504 3160 Fax +81 3 3504 3165 adbjron@adb.org www.adb.org/jro adbjro@adb.org AdB local 5518

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asian development Bank

GLOSSARY B-loan. A tranche of a direct loan nominally advanced by AdB, subject to eligible financial institutions’ taking funded risk participations within such a tranche and without recourse to AdB. It complements an A-loan funded by AdB. Direct value-added cofinancing. cofinancing with active coordination and formal agreements among financing partners that bring about defined client benefits, including contractual commitments by AdB (such as for credit enhancement, syndication, or financial administration) to facilitate mobilization, administration, or participation in cofinancing. Multitranche financing facility. A debt-financing facility to target discrete, sequential components of large standalone projects; slices (or tranches) of sector investment programs over a longer time frame than the current norm; financial intermediary credit lines; and guarantees. Sovereign, nonsovereign. AdB lending is classified as sovereign or nonsovereign. A sovereign loan is guaranteed by the national government, while a nonsovereign loan is not guaranteed by the national government. Nonsovereign operations. Refer to an AdB-financed transaction with a subsovereign, state-owned enterprise, other public private entity, or private sector entity as obligor or investee, normally without direct sovereign indemnity.

ABBREVIATIONS AdB AdF coP cTL GMS IcT Ied oAI oAS ocR oIST PSod – – – – – – – – – – – – Asian development Bank Asian development Fund community of practice controller’s department Greater Mekong Subregion information and communication technology Independent evaluation department office of Anticorruption and Integrity office of Administrative Services ordinary capital resources office of Information Systems and Technology Private Sector operations department

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