Artigo

© All Rights Reserved

13 views

Artigo

© All Rights Reserved

- Steel Beams Analysis
- deep beam paper.pdf
- UBC+steel
- Concrete Strength Testing
- Flexural Analysis and Design of Beamns
- A Simple Strut-And-Tie Model for Prediction of Ultimate Shear Strength of RC Deep Beams
- Suc Chiu Tai Coc UST
- Sikacrete 114
- Desain Angkur Bolt
- Hollow Core Finland Techn
- Holistic Design
- S03AnnexureTier1AssessmentofShearinConcreteShortSpanBridgestoAS5100AS3600
- Numerical Modelling of Masonry Wall Response to Blast Loads
- steel and timber
- Salonikios_1999 (1)
- Two-Direction Cracking Shear-Friction Membrane Model for Finite E
- 1111
- Concrete Deck Computation
- Design Instructions
- M-25

You are on page 1of 14

www.elsevier.com/locate/engstruct

reinforcement ratio on the flexural behavior of fibrous concrete

beams

Samir A. Ashour *, Faisal F. Wafa, Mohmd I. Kamal

Civil Engineering Department King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Received 18 January 1999; received in revised form 22 April 1999; accepted 4 June 1999

Abstract

Twenty seven reinforced concrete beams were tested to study the effects of steel fibers, longitudinal tensile reinforcement ratio

and concrete compressive strength on the flexural behavior of reinforced concrete beams.

Concrete compressive strengths of 49, 79 and 102 MPa and tensile reinforcement ratios of 1.18, 1.77 and 2.37% were used. The

fiber contents were 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0% by volume. The results show that the additional moment strength provided by fibers was not

affected by the amount of tensile reinforcement ratio. However, the concrete compressive strength influenced the fiber contribution

significantly. The flexural rigidity increases as the concrete compressive strength and steel fiber content increases. The transition

of effective moment of inertia from uncracked to fully cracked sections depends strongly on the considered variables. A previously

proposed formula in the literature for the estimation of the effective moment of inertia is modified to consider the effect of reinforcement ratio and concrete compressive strength as well as fiber content. 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Beams (supports); Compressive strength; Cracking; Deflection; Flexural strength; Flexural rigidity; High-strength concrete; Moment of

inertia; Reinforced concrete; Steel fibers; Tensile reinforcement ratio

1. Introduction

The maximum potentiality of high-strength concrete

(HSC) cannot be realized fully in structures due to the

brittleness of the material and the serviceability problems associated with the resulting reduced cross-sectional dimension. Addition of fibers to high-strength concrete converts its brittleness into a more ductile behavior.

When concrete cracks, the randomly oriented fibers

arrest both microcracking and its propagation, thus

improving strength and ductility. Addition of fibers only

slightly influences the ascending portion of the stressstrain curve but leads to a noticeable increase in the peak

strain (strain at peak stress) and a significant increase in

ductility [1,2].

Researches conducted on the flexural behavior of fiber

reinforced concrete (FRC) beams have been concen-

E-mail address: sashour@kaau.edu.sa (S.A. Ashour).

and the load deformation behavior in terms of various

material parameters [315]. Less attention was given to

the flexural rigidity of FRC beams in the service load

range. Several methods have been proposed for calculating the deflections of reinforced concrete flexural members subjected to short and long-term loadings [1620],

however, those methods deal mainly with nonfibrous

concrete, and differences may exist for FRC beams.

The determination of short-term deflection requires

the estimation of the moment of inertia, I, of the beam

which depends on the degree of cracking that has taken

place in the member. For loads below the cracking load,

computation of deflection may be based on the gross

concrete section, Ig. However, as the load increases

above the cracking load, the member will crack at discrete intervals because the tensile strength of the concrete has been exceeded, and all tensile stress is carried

by the steel reinforcement. The neutral axis will fluctuate

between cracks causing variation of the curvatures along

the member length and reducing the flexural rigidity of

the section. The value of I changes along the beam span

0141-0296/00/$ - see front matter 2000 Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.

PII: S 0 1 4 1 - 0 2 9 6 ( 9 9 ) 0 0 0 5 2 - 8

1134

Nomenclature

a

Shear span

Area of longitudinal tension reinforcement

As

b

Width of beam section

c

Neutral axis depth from the top surface of the beam

d

Effective depth

h

Thickness of beam section

Ec

Modulus of elasticity of concrete

Modulus of elasticity of concrete (with steel fibers)

Ecf

Modulus of elasticity of steel reinforcement

Es

(Ec.Icr)exp Experimental flexural rigidity of the cracked section

Compressive strength of concrete (at 28 days)

fc

Modulus of ruputre of concrete

fr

fsp

Splitting tensile strength of concrete

Icr(exp) Experimental moment of inertia of cracked transformed section

Effective moment of inertia

Ie

Iexp

Experimental moment of inertia

Moment of inertia of gross concrete section ignoring reinforcement

Ig

Iut

Moment of inertia of untracked transformed section

l

Clear span of beam

m

Power in Bransons equation

Ma

Maximum bending moment in the span

Mcr(exp) Experimental cracking moment

My(exp) Experimental yield moment

Mu(exp) Experimental ultimate moment carried by the section

Steel fiber content

Vf

Distance from tensile fibers to neutral axis

yt

r

Tension reinforcement ratio=As/bd

section to a minimum value of Icr for the fully cracked

(transformed) section. This variation of I along the span

length makes the deflection calculation lengthy and tedious and makes the accurate determination of deformation from the moment-curvaturerelationships in the

elastic range difficult. Hence, in a cracked member, it is

desirable to consider an effective moment of inertia, Ie,

that will have a value between those derived by cracked

and untracked sections.

To provide a smooth transition between the moments

of inertia Ig and Icr, the ACI Building Code [21] has

adopted since 1971, the expression developed by Branson [18] for the computation of the effective moment of

inertia Ie over the entire length of a simply supported

beam. ACI 318-95 [22] recommends the use of the following expression for the effective moment of inertia

Ie

Mcr 3

Mcr

Ig 1

Ma

Ma

Icr

(1)

deflection is computed, kN.m; Mcr=cracking moment of

beam=frIg/yt, kN.m; fr=modulus of rupture; yt=neutral

The effective moment of inertia Ie is estimated using Eq.

(1) when MaMcr; otherwise Ie=Ig.

The effect of concrete compressive strength, fc, and

tensile reinforcement ratio, r on the flexural behaviour

of reinforced concrete beams has been investigated by

Ashour [23]. It has been found that flexural rigidity

increases as fc increase. The exponent in Bransons equation Eq. (1) also increases as fc increases. This yields

a faster decay rate of the effective moment of inertia, Ie,

from the untracked transformed moment of inertia, Iut,

to the fully cracked section, Icr, as Ma/Mcr increases

above one.

The inclusion of steel fibers in high-strength concrete

beams enhances the arresting mechanism of crack propagation and consequently enhances the effective moment

of inertia to be used in the deflection calculation. The

effect of steel fibers on the serviceability and ultimate

strength of reinforced high-strength concrete beam has

been reported by Ashour et al. [24]. The exponent in

Bransons equation was related to the amount of fiber

content, and the exponent decreases as Vf increases.

The objective of this research is to investigate the

Fig. 1.

1135

1136

Table 1

Concrete mix proportioning

Mix

Mix

Designation Proportion

C:FA:CA

(1)

(2)

W/C

Ratio

N

M

H

1:1:2

1:1.2:1.8

1:1:2

Silica

Fume

(%)

(5)

fc

(MPa)

(3)

Superplasticizer

(%)

(4)

0.37

0.24

0.23

2

6

6

0

0

20

49

79

102

(6)

Table 2

Experimental modulus of elasticity, Ec (MPa)

Vf(%)

Fig. 3.

0.0

(2)

0.5

(3)

1.0

(4)

N

M

H

24612

35443

38423

26823

37169

40241

30131

38247

41889

2. Experimental program

reinforcement ratio and steel fiber content on the deflection and strength of reinforced concrete beams. Modifications to a previously proposed formula for the effective moment of inertia are presented.

Fig. 2.

Twenty seven fiber reinforced concrete beams were

tested in this investigation. All beams were singly

reinforced and provided with shear reinforcement except

at the constant moment zone. The variables were the

concrete compressive strength, fc, the steel fiber content,

Vf, and the longitudinal tensile reinforcement ratio, r.

The compressive strengths used were 49, 79 and 102

MPa, the fiber contents were 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0% by vol-

1137

Table 3

Mechanical properties of test beams

Beam (1)

As (2)

r (%) (3)

Vf (%) (4)

fc (MPa) (5)

fr (MPa) (6)

B-0.0-N2

B-0.5-N2

B-1.0-N2

B-0.0-N3

B-0.5-N3

B-1.0-N3

B-0.0-N4

B-0.5-N4

B-1.0-N4

B-0.0-M2

B-0.5-M2

B-1.0-M2

B-0.0-M3

B-0.5-M3

B-1.0-M3

B-0.0-M4

B-0.5-M4

B-1.0-M4

B-0.0-H2

B-0.5-H2

B-1.0-H2

B-0.0-H3

B-0.5-H3

B-1.0-H3

B-0.0-H4

B-0.5-H4

B-1.0-H4

218

218

218

318

318

318

418

418

418

218

218

218

318

318

318

418

418

418

218

218

218

318

318

318

418

418

418

1.18

1.18

1.18

1.77

1.77

1.77

2.37

2.37

2.37

1.18

1.18

1.18

1.77

1.77

1.77

2.37

2.37

2.37

1.18

1.18

1.18

1.77

1.77

1.77

2.37

2.37

2.37

0.0

0.5

1.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

0.0

0.5

1.0

48.61

55.82

65.16

48.61

55.82

65.16

48.61

55.82

65.16

78.50

81.99

87.37

78.50

81.99

87.37

78.50

81.99

87.37

102.40

106.93

111.44

102.40

106.91

111.44

102.40

106.93

111.44

5.64

5.88

7.95

5.64

5.88

7.95

5.64

5.88

7.95

7.04

7.24

9.75

7.04

7.24

9.75

7.04

7.24

9.75

9.36

10.13

11.23

9.36

10.13

11.23

9.36

10.13

11.23

3.69

4.67

6.72

3.69

4.67

6.72

3.69

4.67

6.72

5.05

6.01

7.69

5.05

6.01

7.69

5.05

6.01

7.69

5.59

6.53

8.13

5.59

6.53

8.13

5.59

6.53

8.13

used were 1.18, 1.77 and 2.37%.

Fig. 1 presents the detailed testing program. Each

beam is designated to indicate the fiber content, compressive strength level and amount of longitudinal

reinforcement. Thus, Beam B-1, 0-M3 represents a beam

with 1.0% fiber content, medium compressive strength

of approximately 79 MPa, and three 18 mm diameter

steel bars that provide a reinforcement ratio of 1.77%.

2.2. Materials

Deformed steel bars having yield strength of 530 MPa

(76 800 psi) were used as flexural reinforcements. Three

concrete mix proportions were used to provide the

required compressive strengths as presented in Table 1

Ordinary Portland cement (Type-I), desert sand with

a fineness modules of 3.1, and coarse aggregate (crushed

basalt) of 10 mm (3/8 in.) maximum size were used.

Light gray densified microsilica (20% by weight of

cement) with a specific gravity of 2.2, a bulk density of

6.0 kN/m3 (37.4 lb/ft3) and a specific surface of 2.3 m2/g

was used for the high-strength concrete mix (H).

Hooked-ends mild carbon steel fibers with average

length of 60 mm (2.36 in.), nominal diameter of 0.8 mm

(0.03 in.), aspect ratio of 75 and yield strength of 1100

MPa (159 500 psi) were used. A superplasticizer was

uniform mixing of concrete without any segregation.

Six 150300 mm (612 in.) cylinders were cast to

determine the concrete compressive and splitting tensile

strengths. Additionally, three 150150530 mm

(6621 in.) prisms were cast to determine the modulus

of rupture of the concrete used. The concrete was placed

in three layers and was vibrated internally and externally

immediately afterward. All beams and control specimens

were cast and cured under similar conditions. The beams

and specimens were kept covered with polyethylene

sheets for 28 days until 24 hours before testing.

2.3. Test procedure

The test beams were simply supported and were subjected to two-point loads as shown in Fig. 1. The distance between the two loading points was kept constant

at 500 mm (20 in.). The beam midspan deflection and the

end rotation were measured with the help of transducers.

Strains in the tensile steel were measured by electrical

foil-type strain gages. Compressive strains at the center

of the top surface of the concrete at three locations were

measured with electrical resistance wire-type strain

gages. These gages were located in the constant moment

zone at midspan. The load was applied in 25 to 35

increments up to failure by means of a 400 kN (90 kips)

1138

increment, observations and measurements were

recorded for the midspan deflection, end rotation, strain

gage readings, and crack development and propagation

on the beam surfaces.

3. Experimental results

3.1. Compressive stress-strain diagram

Fig. 2 shows the stress-strain diagram of 150300

concrete cylinder tested in compression. The effect of

steel fibers is obvious on the stress-strain diagram

especially for the lower strength concrete (fc=49 MPa).

As the fiber content increases the maximum compressive

strength increases slightly, and the slope of the ascending portion increases accordingly. The ascending part of

the high-strength concrete (fc=102 MPa) is almost a

straight line up to the maximum compressive strength.

The concrete secant modulus, Ec, was evaluated at a

stress level of 0.5 fc and is given in Table 2 and Fig.

3. The secant modulus of concrete, Ec, is increased as

Vf and fc increase. The increase of the fiber contents

from 0.0 to 1.0% increases Ec by 22.4, 7.9 and 9.0% for

concrete with fc of 49, 79 and 102 MPa, respectively.

Table 3 and Fig. 4 present the mechanical properties

of the FRC used in the test beams. The increase of the

fiber contents from 0.0 to 1.0% increases the compressive strength by 34.0, 11.3 and 8.8%, increases the modulus of rupture by 41.0, 38.5 and 20.0%, and increases

the splitting tensile strength by 82.1, 52.3 and 45.4% for

concrete with 49, 79 and 102 MPa compressive

strengths, respectively.

3.2. Flexural behavior

strength, fc; (b) Modulus of rupture, fr; (c) Splitting tensile strength,

fsp.

beams exhibited vertical flexural cracks in the constantmoment region before final failure of the beams due to

crushing of concrete. The presence of fibers reduced the

crack width, increased the number of cracks, increased

the ductility, and delayed the final crushing of concrete.

The effectiveness of steel fibers in arresting cracks is

related to the average spacing of fibers inside the matrix.

The spatial distribution and orientation of fibers in FRC

beams are random, however, boundary conditions such

as edges constrain the fiber orientation in a uni-directional alignment.

Fig. 5 shows the load versus deflection relationships

for all test beams. The test results clearly show the fibers

contribution on the stiffnesses and strengths of all

beams. The fibers have a clear enhancement of the post

cracking stiffness and ductility (area under P- curve)

for all beams.

Table 4 presents the experimental cracking moment,

Mcr(exp), the moment at first yielding of the flexural

reinforcement, My(exp), and the ultimate moment, Mu(exp),

of the test beams. Test results show that the increase of

Vf increase Mcr(exp), My(exp), and Mu(exp), for all test beams

irrespective to the fc and r values. However, the

increase due to the presence of fibers is reduced as r

increases.

Fig. 5.

due to the presence of steel fiber, Mf, can be estimated

as the difference between the ultimate moments of

beams with Vf of 0.0 and 1.0%, and are shown in Table

5 and Fig. 6. The figure shows that the increase of fc

increases Mf, however, a lower rate of increase is noticed

when fc increases from 79 to 102 MPa. Fig. 6 also

shows that the value of r has no effect on Mf. The

enhancement of the flexural capacities varies between

7.52 and 26.43%.

3.3. Cracking moment

The analytical evaluation of deflection depends greatly on the cracking moment of the beam. The theoretical

cracking moment Mcr(th) is estimated as:

frIg

Mcr(th)

yt

1139

(2)

The use of the untracked transformed moment of inertia, Iut, instead of Ig in Eq. (2) will give a better prediction of Mcr(th), Fig. 7 shows the variation of Mcr(exp)/Mcr(th)

ratio as a function of fiber content and concrete com-

The figure shows that the experimental cracking

moments are about 55 to 85% of the theoretical cracking

moments calculated using the modulus of rupture values.

Thus, the use of fr, to calculate the cracking moment Eq.

(2) overestimated the experimental cracking moments,

and this overestimation increases as the concrete compressive strength increases. This is attributed to the size

effect phenomena. For normal and medium concrete

strengths, the value of Mcr(exp)/Mcr(th) ratio increases as

Vf increases from 0.0 to 0.5%, and thereafter decreases

as Vf increases to 1.0%.

3.4. Neutral axis depth

The experimental neutral axis depth, c, of the test

beams is obtained from the experimentally measured

strain values in the concrete and the tensile reinforcement. The variation of the ratio of c to the effective depth

of the section, d, in the constant moment zone is shown

in Fig. 8. For loading levels below the cracking load,

Ma/Mcr=1, the c/d ratio is about 0.6. When cracks

occurred, the neutral axis shifted upward and the c/d

value drops to a value of about 0.4 and remains constant

1140

Table 4

Experimental and theoretical results of test beams

Beam (1)

m) (2)

m) (3)

m) (4)

(mm4103)

(5)

B-0.0-N2

B-0.5-N2

B-1.0-N2

B-0.0-N3

B-0.5-N3

B-1.0-N3

B-0.0-N4

B-0.5-N4

B-1.0-N4

B-0.0-M2

B-0.5-M2

B-1.0-M2

B-0.0-M3

B-0.5-M3

B-1.0-M3

B-0.0-M4

B-0.5-M4

B-1.0-M4

B-0.0-H2

B-0.5-H2

B-1.0-H2

B-0.0-H3

B-0.5-H3

B-1.0-H3

B-0.0-H4

B-0.5-H4

B-1.0-H4

8.02

9.39

9.61

8.64

9.92

11.51

9.82

11.29

11.51

8.97

9.82

11.51

9.81

10.97

11.82

10.56

12.56

13.67

9.18

10.77

11.82

10.35

11.54

13.20

11.82

12.77

14.78

50.29

54.47

60.27

74.40

74.85

86.35

94.06

101.22

105.04

49.51

56.58

65.13

75.16

80.97

86.77

97.44

109.36

113.48

48.56

58.27

68.93

77.48

84.35

91.31

100.91

107.78

113.38

58.17

60.17

64.50

77.08

83.8

87.72

98.37

103.98

105.77

55.27

63.34

69.88

80.86

89.62

92.05

103.77

113.59

115.70

55.89

62.60

69.25

82.76

89.84

95.64

108.10

114.96

120.61

103.14

94.84

98.22

126.78

117.67

119.38

153.08

135.30

96.48

77.09

76.38

78.90

86.91

98.85

105.22

108.81

114.80

104.79

75.21

70.75

73.49

82.71

91.00

85.67

100.31

108.84

107.81

Icr(th)

(mm4103)

(6)

(Ec.Icr)exp

(109Nmm2) (7)

m (8)

c/d(th) (9)

c/d(exp) (10)

110.81

104.14

95.34

147.51

139.07

128.25

178.28

168.67

135.16

84.23

81.09

79.40

114.15

110.30

108.73

138.94

135.54

132.74

82.48

77.08

73.96

109.12

104.01

100.96

132.31

128.07

124.48

2.54

2.54

2.96

3.12

3.16

3.60

3.77

3.63

2.91

2.73

2.84

3.02

3.08

3.67

4.02

3.86

4.27

4.01

2.89

2.85

3.08

3.18

3.66

3.59

3.85

4.38

4.52

1.96

1.97

1.49

1.55

1.56

1.10

1.19

1.34

0.88

2.36

2.37

1.61

2.14

2.03

1.34

1.72

1.52

1.19

3.23

2.5

1.96

2.13

2.43

1.84

1.85

1.52

1.91

0.355

0.343

0.328

0.415

0.402

0.385

0.460

0.447

0.428

0.307

0.301

0.298

0.361

0.355

0.351

0.403

0.396

0.392

0.297

0.292

0.287

0.350

0.344

0.338

0.391

0.385

0.379

0.290

0.331

0.326

0.359

0.392

0.390

0.384

0.423

0.441

0.246

0.247

0.355

0.312

0.348

0.380

0.362

0.385

0.402

0.226

0.259

0.292

0.308

0.348

0.333

0.344

0.356

0.338

Table 5

Moment enhancement due to fibers addition (%)

Concrete compression strength

r (%)

1.18

1.77

2.37

N

10.88

13.8

7.52

26.43

13.84

11.50

23.90

15.56

11.57

of the c/d values took place at low level of loading due

to the sensitivity of the strain gage readings specially

before cracking. It is noticed that the value of c does

not vary between the cracking and yielding levels. For

a specific level of loading, Ma/Mcr, the neutral axis depth

is larger for the lower compressive strength, irrespective

of the amount of flexural reinforcement. The c value

increases as Vf increases, and this is attributed to the

decrease in curvature of the beam, and also due to that

the fibers bridge the cracks and reduce crack width

which in turn reduce the strain in the tension zone. The

theoretical depth of the neutral axis can be obtained from

the statistical moment given by:

Fig. 6.

bc2

nAs(dc)20

2

(3)

for the tested beams. The theoretical values generally

underestimated the experimental values, however, for

beams with 1.0% fiber content the theoretical c/d values

overestimate slightly the experimental values.

1141

as a function of load level, therefore it is more appropriate to consider the effect of the fc, r and Vf on the flexural rigidity, (Ec.I)exp, of the beam rather than considering the experimental moment of inertia, Iexp, alone. Fig.

9 shows the variation of (Ec.I)exp obtained using Eq. (4)

as a function of level of loading, Ma/Mcr. In general, the

flexural rigidity increases with the increase of the fiber

content.

The effect of concrete strength on the experimental

flexural rigidity is shown in Fig. 10. For beams with no

fibers, fc has very little effect on (Ec.I)exp, however, for

beams with fibers, fc has a significant influence

especially for beams with high r, The test results show

that the higher the flexural reinforcement ratio, the

higher the flexural rigidity and the lesser the rate of transition of the flexural rigidity from the uncracked to fully

cracked section values. This suggests that the exponent

in Bransons equation Eq. (1) is inversely proportional

to r, which supports the conclusion by Al-Sheikh et al.

[26] that the exponent of 3 in Bransons equation should

be reduced as r increases.

3.6. Cracked moment of inertia

The value of Iexp is assumed to approach Icr(exp) when

the applied moment approaches My, which is a realistic

assumption [25]. At that level of loading, the Mcr/Ma

ratio is quite small and the contribution of Ig in Eq. (1)

is negligible. The calculation of deflection during the

service stage of a structure depends mainly on the

cracked moment of inertia, Icr. The experimental cracked

moment of inertia is obtained by considering:

Pya(3l24a2)

Icr(exp)

48Ecexp

(5)

reinforcement.

The values of Icr(exp) and (EcIcr)exp, are calculated using

Eq. (5) and are presented in Table 4. The value of Icr(exp)

decreases as Vf increases, however, the value of (EcIcr)exp

increases as Vf increases.

3.5. Experimental moment of inertia

Based on the elastic deformation theory, the experimental moment of inertia of a simply supported beam

subjected to a two-points load is obtained as:

Iexp

Pa(3l24a2)

48Ecexp

(4)

beam; exp=experimental midspan deflection; Ec=experimental secant modulus of elasticity of concrete.

However, as shown in Fig. 2 the value of Ec varies

the determination of Mcr, Ec, and Icr, are the required

parameters in calculating Eq. (1). These parameters control the serviceability and deflection calculation.

Al-Sheikh et al. [26] proposed the following formula

to include the effect of reinforcement ratio in Bransons

equation [18]:

Ie

Mcr m

Mcr

I 1

Ma g

Ma

where m=30.8r.

Icr

(6)

1142

Fig. 8.

compressive strength. Ashour [23] showed that the transition rate of Ie from Ig to Icr drops quicker as fc

increases, and proposed a modification on Bransons

equation to consider the effect of fc as:

m30.8r

33

(7)

The experimental variation of the exponent m in Eq.

(6) as a function of the level of loading, Ma/Mcr, can be

evaluated by replacing Ie and Ig by the values of Iexp and

Iut respectively:

IexpIcr(exp)

log

IutIcr(exp)

m

Mcr(exp)

log

Ma

(8)

of Ma/Mcr, is shown in Fig. 11 for all test beams. In

general, the value of m increases as fc increases and Vf

and r decrease.

has an almost constant value for level of loadings Ma/Mcr

between 1.5 to 6.0. The experimental average value of

m obtained for each beam within this range of level of

loading is given in Table 4.

Based on the test results, a regression analysis is performed and an empirical formula that incorporates the

considered variables (r, fc and Vf) in the expression of

m is proposed as:

30.8r

m

33

c

1+0.4Vf

(9)

For beams with no fibers and with 33 MPa compressive strength, Eq. (9) is reduced to Eq. (6).

The deflection calculation requires the determination

of other factrors such as Mcr, Ec and Icr. The variations

of the secant modulus of concrete in terms of fc and Vf

are given in Fig. 12. Based on regression analysis, the

secant modulus of FRC, Ecf, in terms of the that of plain

concrete, Eco is given as:

Vf

EcfEco(1600( )2)

(10)

fc

Fig. 9.

Eco3200 fc6900

(11)

Eqs. (10) and (11) are presented in Fig. 12. The equations give good estimation of the experimental values,

however, the equations overestimate the value for normal strenth concrete. As discussed earlier and shown in

Fig. 7, the ratio of Mcr(exp)/Mcr(th) are about 55 to 85%.

Thus the use of fr to calculate the cracking moment Eq.

(2) overestimated the experimental values. Thus a

reduced value of fr should be used to predict with reasonable accuracy the beam deflection:

0.6frIg

Mcr(th)

Yt

(12)

Ashour [23] proposed an equation to predict the theoretical cracked moment of inertia and is given as:

Icr(th)Icr[1.1290.0011fc0.0133r]

(13)

given by:

bc3

Icr nAs(dc)2

3

1143

(14)

The predicted deflections of the test beams are evaluated in terms of m (Eq. (9)), Mcr (Eq. (12)) and Icr (Eq.

(13)), and the values are presented in Fig. 13. The figure

shows that the predicted deflections give good estimation

of the experimental values.

4. Conclusions

Based on the test results of twenty seven reinforced

concrete beams tested in flexure, the following conclusions are drawn:

1. The presence of steel fibers reduces the crack propagation in the tested beams.

2. The flexural rigidity increases as fc and Vf increases.

3. The increase of the fiber content increase the cracking, the yielding and the ultimate moments.

4. The predicted cracking moments estimated in terms

of the modulus of rupture overestimated the experimental values.

5. Additional moment strength due to the presence of

fibers is almost independent of the amount of

reinforcement, r. However, this additional moment is

proportional to concrete compressive strength, fc.

1144

Fig. 10.

Fig. 12.

inertia from the untracked transformed to a fully

cracked section is lower for beams with fibers than

that of beams with no fibers.

Vf increases, however, it increases as fc increases.

Fig. 13.

1145

1146

References

[1] Naaman AE, Homrich JR. Properties of high-strength fiber

reinforced concrete. In: High-Strength Concrete. Detroit: American Concrete Institute. 1985;SP87:23349.

[2] Wafa FF, Ashour SA. Mechanical properties of high-strength

fiber reinforced concrete. ACI Mat J 1992;89(5):44955.

[3] ACI Committee 544. State of the art report of fiber reinforced

concrete. Concrete Int Des Construct 1982;4(5):930.

[4] Rumualdi JP, Batson GB. Mechanics of crack arrest in concrete.

J Engng Mech Div ASCE 1983;89(6):14768.

[5] Craig R. Flexural behavior and design of reinforced fiber concrete

members. In: Fiber Reinforced Concrete Properties and Applications. Detroit: American Concrete Institute 1987;SP105:517

41.

[6] Wafa FF, Ashour SA, Hasanain GS. Flexural and Shear Behavior

of High-Strength Fiber Reinforced Concrete Beams. Final

Reports, Research No. 410/069, College of Engineering, King

Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia), 1991:107.

[7] ACI Committee 544, Design Considerations for Steel-Fiber

Reinforced Concrete (ACI 544,4R-88), Detroit: American Concrete Institute, 1988:18.

[8] Balaguru P, Ezeldin A. Behavior of partially prestressed beams

made with high-strength fiber reinforced concrete. In: Fiber

Reinforced Concrete Properties and Applications. Detroit: American Concrete Institute 1987;SP105:41936

[9] Swamy RN, Al-Noori KA. Flexural Behavior of Fiber Concrete

with Conventional Steel Reinforcement. In: Proceedings RILEM

Symposium on Fiber Reinforced Cement and Concrete, London,

Sept. 1975. Lancaster: Construction Press Limited, 1975:18796.

[10] Swamy RN, Al-Taan SA. Deformation and ultimate strength in

flexure of reinforced concrete beams made with steel fiber concrete. ACI J Proc 1981;78(5):395405.

[11] Swamy RN, Al-Taan S, Ali SAR. Steel fibers for controlling

cracking and deflection. Concrete Int Des Construct

1979;1(8):419.

[12] Henager CH. Ultimate Strength of Reinforced Steel Fibrous Concrete Beams. In: Proceedings Conference on Fiber Reinforced

Materials: Design and Engineering Applications, London, Mar.

1977. London: Institution of Civil Engineers, 1977:15160.

Reinforced Concrete Beams. In: ACI Fall Convention, Sept. 19

24, 1982, Detroit (Mich).

[14] Lim TY, Paramasivam P, Lee SL. Analytical model for tensile

behavior of steel fiber concrete. ACI Mat J 1987;84(4):28698.

[15] Lim TY, Paramasivam P, Lee SL. Bending behavior of steel-fiber

concrete beams. ACI Struct J 1987;84(6):52436.

[16] Al-Zaid RZ, Al-Shaikh AH, Abu-Hussain MM. Effect of loading

type on the effective moment of inertia of reinforced concrete

beams. ACI Struct J 1991;88(2):18490.

[17] Wei-Wen YU, George W. Instantaneous and long-time deflections of reinforced concrete beams under working loads. ACI J

Proc 1960;57(1):2950.

[18] Branson DE. Instantaneous and Time-Dependent Deflections of

Simple and Continuous Reinforced Concrete Beams. HPR Report

No. 7, Part 1, Alabama Highway Department, Bureau of Public

Roads, Aug. 1963 1965:178.

[19] Corley WG, Sozen MA. Time-dependent deflections of

reinforced concrete beams. ACI J Proc 1966;63(3):37386.

[20] ACI Committee 435. Deflections of reinforced concrete flexural

members. ACI J Proc 1966;63(6):63774.

[21] ACI Committee 318, Building Code Requirements for Reinforced

Concrete with Commentary (AC13 1889) (Revised 1992),

Detroit: American Concrete Institute, 1989:353.

[22] ACI Committee 3 18, Building Code Requirements for Structural

Concrete, Detroit: American Concrete Institute, 1995:369.

[23] Ashour SA. Effect of compressive strength and tensile reinforcement ratio on flexural behavior of high-strength concrete beams,

Engng Struct J 1998 (in press).

[24] Ashour SA, Wafa FF. Flexural behavior of high-strength fiber

reinforced concrete beams. ACI Struct J 1993;90(3):27987.

[25] Macgregor JG. Reinforced concrete mechanics and design. New

Jersey: Prentice-Hall International, 1988.

[26] Al-Sheikh AH, Al-Zaid RZ. Effect of reinforcement ratio on the

effective moment of inertia of reinforced concrete beams. ACI

Struct J 1993;90(2):1449.

[27] Carrasquillo RL, Nilson AH, Slate FO. Properties of highstrength concrete subject to short term loads. ACI J Proc

1981;78(3):1718.

- Steel Beams AnalysisUploaded byWijayanto Bekasi
- deep beam paper.pdfUploaded byziyaurrahaman
- UBC+steelUploaded byDavid DShülz Shülz
- Concrete Strength TestingUploaded bySara Vera
- Flexural Analysis and Design of BeamnsUploaded byAdil Javed Chaudhary
- A Simple Strut-And-Tie Model for Prediction of Ultimate Shear Strength of RC Deep BeamsUploaded byAdrian Breban
- Suc Chiu Tai Coc USTUploaded byluongtuxdxf
- Sikacrete 114Uploaded byQazinadeem
- Desain Angkur BoltUploaded byWidyanto Tomi
- Hollow Core Finland TechnUploaded byMihajloDjurdjevic
- Holistic DesignUploaded bySiddhu Hari
- S03AnnexureTier1AssessmentofShearinConcreteShortSpanBridgestoAS5100AS3600Uploaded byw1000000
- Numerical Modelling of Masonry Wall Response to Blast LoadsUploaded byAnonymous BeOFDtMqW0
- steel and timberUploaded byAprilleJoyPascualJovita
- Salonikios_1999 (1)Uploaded byAhmad Naqi
- Two-Direction Cracking Shear-Friction Membrane Model for Finite EUploaded byrahul vaish
- 1111Uploaded byvinoraam
- Concrete Deck ComputationUploaded byjvdummy
- Design InstructionsUploaded byTonyWang
- M-25Uploaded byNamaku Anda
- Set 1 AnalysisUploaded byFlyNarutoFly
- EAT High Strength ConcreteUploaded bycibin anto
- ProcedureUploaded byKit Meng Lim
- Steel vs ConcreteUploaded byKushal MC
- 4005Uploaded byvergin12345
- 6Uploaded byMalith De Silva
- Beams for CompressionUploaded byShiela Sorino
- Durability_of_GRC_GRCA.pdfUploaded byLuis Martins
- Orijinal Fire SafetyUploaded byMerve Merve
- Thin-Walled Pressure VesselsUploaded byAdonis C. Bibat

- Blade DesignUploaded byquastard
- TroubleShootingGuide NewUploaded bySHAHID KAZI
- Chap 05Uploaded byMani Kumar
- Sustainable Development - Global to LocalUploaded bymethepeople
- szeberenyi___experiments_in_molecular_cell_biologyUploaded byKudumar
- Dental Management of the patient undergoing radiotherapy or chemoterapyUploaded byJenadi Binarto
- bylaw_1p2007Uploaded bySalsa_Picante_Baby
- A GUIDELINE FOR THE USE OF IMAGE COMPRESSION IN DIAGNOSTIC IMAGINGUploaded bymhfateen
- Hugh Nibley - Last Call, An Apocalyptic Warning From the Book of MormonUploaded bySyncOrSwim
- 1412PCDFCAUploaded byEmanuel Heráclio
- To Milk an AlmondUploaded byHundertWasse
- Tensei Shitara Slime Datta Ken - Volume 07 (WN Chapter 120-136) - Devil's Secret Maneuvers Arc.pdfUploaded byJung Jeon
- amelogenesisimperfecta-rahulcs-090826104454-phpapp01Uploaded byPeiter Gozali
- 12.Thermal Properties of MatterUploaded bysridevi73
- hw1Uploaded byaruntyagi000007
- Chemical OperatorUploaded byYousuf Hussain
- adam fuss-2Uploaded byapi-385683587
- Nbr6158 - Sistema de Tolerancia e AjusteUploaded byCarlos Lopes
- 2 1 the Chain of InfectionUploaded byRussel Christian Balino
- Wisdom of SolomonUploaded byMichael Vincent Montero
- PS12Uploaded byBryan Zheng
- ChE664 - Environmental indicators and indices, kyoto protocol.pdfUploaded bygallardo0121
- Guide to Carotenoid Analysis in FoodsUploaded bycaroldubi
- Read Me FirstUploaded bykokjos
- Bible ComparisonsUploaded byOzancan Demirışık
- "Defenestration" by Alphonso Lingis (Deleuze conference 2006)Uploaded byIan Burzynski
- Assignment5-2015Uploaded byAndrewJohnsonJensson
- 7207x1399Uploaded bydavid_ketch
- First Principles of FinanceUploaded byFrancis Kwame Owiredu
- Copd PresentationUploaded byAmir Farid