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**Frequency Response, Bode
**

Plots, and Resonance

1. State the fundamental concepts of Fourier

analysis.

2. Determine the output of a filter for a given

input consisting of sinusoidal components

using the filter’s transfer function.

ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING

Principles and

Applications

SE OND EDITION

Chapter 6

Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance

**3. Use circuit analysis to determine the
**

transfer functions of simple circuits.

4. Draw first-order lowpass or highpass filter

circuits and sketch their transfer functions.

5. Understand decibels, logarithmic frequency

scales, and Bode plots.

ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING

Principles and

Applications

SE OND EDITION

Chapter 6

Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance

**6. Draw the Bode plots for transfer functions of
**

first-order filters.

ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING

Principles and

Applications

SE OND EDITION

Chapter 6

Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance

ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING

Principles and

Applications

SE OND EDITION

Chapter 6

Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance . and phases.Fourier Analysis All real-world signals are sums of sinusoidal components having various frequencies. Bode Plots. amplitudes.

and Resonance . Bode Plots.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response.

and Resonance . Bode Plots.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response.

the goal of the filter is to retain the components in certain frequency ranges and to reject components in other ranges.Filters Filters process the sinusoid components of an input signal differently depending of the frequency of each component. Bode Plots. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance . Often.

and Resonance . Bode Plots.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response.

Transfer Functions The transfer function H(f ) of the two-port filter is defined to be the ratio of the phasor output voltage to the phasor input voltage as a function of frequency: Vout H(f )= Vin ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. Bode Plots. and Resonance .

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance . the phase of the transfer function shows how the phase of each frequency component is affected by the filter.Vout H(f )= Vin The magnitude of the transfer function shows how the amplitude of each frequency component is affected by the filter. Similarly. Bode Plots.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance . Bode Plots.

Bode Plots.Determining the output of a filter for an input with multiple components: 1. 2. Determine the frequency and phasor representation for each input component. and Resonance . Determine the (complex) value of the transfer function for each component. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response.

Bode Plots. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. 4. Convert the phasors for the output components into time functions of various frequencies. Add these time functions to produce the output. Obtain the phasor for each output component by multiplying the phasor for each input component by the corresponding transfer-function value.3. and Resonance .

2. Bode Plots. 3. Separate the input signal into components having various frequencies.Linear circuits behave as if they: 1. Alter the amplitude and phase of each component depending on its frequency. and Resonance . Add the altered components to produce the output signal. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response.

Bode Plots. and Resonance .ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response.

Bode Plots.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance .

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. Bode Plots. and Resonance .

Bode Plots. and Resonance .FIRST-ORDER LOWPASS FILTERS 1 fB = 2πRC H(f ) = 1 1 + ( f fB ) 2 f 1 ∠H ( f ) = − arctan H(f )= 1 + j( f f B ) fB ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response.

H(f ) = 1 1 + ( f fB ) 2 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance . Bode Plots.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. Bode Plots. and Resonance .

Bode Plots.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance .

AND LOGARITHMIC FREQUENCY SCALES H ( f ) dB = 20 log H ( f ) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response.DECIBELS. and Resonance . THE CASCADE CONNECTION. Bode Plots.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. Bode Plots. and Resonance .

Bode Plots. and Resonance .ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response.

Cascaded Two-Port Networks H ( f ) = H1 ( f )× H 2 ( f ) H ( f ) dB = H 1 ( f ) dB + H 2 ( f ) dB ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance . Bode Plots.

Bode Plots.ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance .

the variable is multiplied by a given factor for equal increments of length along the axis. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. Bode Plots. and Resonance .Logarithmic Frequency Scales On a logarithmic scale.

Bode Plots. f2 number of decades = log f1 An octave is a two-to-one change in frequency.A decade is a range of frequencies for which the ratio of the highest frequency to the lowest is 10. and Resonance . f 2 log( f 2 f1 ) number of octaves = log 2 = f1 log(2 ) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response.

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance . Bode Plots.

Bode Plots. 1 H(f )= 1 + j( f f B ) H ( f ) dB ELECTRICAL f 2 = −10 log 1 + f B ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response.BODE PLOTS A Bode plot shows the magnitude of a network function in decibels versus frequency using a logarithmic scale for frequency. and Resonance .

ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance . Bode Plots.

A sloping line from zero phase at fB /10 to –90° at 10fB. and Resonance . A horizontal line at –90° for f > 10fB. 2. 3. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. A horizontal line at zero for f < fB /10. Bode Plots.1.

FIRST-ORDER HIGHPASS FILTERS Vout j( f f B ) = H(f )= Vin 1 + j ( f f B ) 1 fB = 2πRC ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance . Bode Plots.

and Resonance .ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. Bode Plots.

Bode Plots. and Resonance .ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response.

and Resonance .ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. Bode Plots.

SERIES RESONANCE Resonance is a phenomenon that can be observed in mechanical systems and electrical circuits. Bode Plots. ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance .

f0 = 1 2π LC 2πf 0 L Qs = R 1 Qs = 2πf 0CR f f 0 Z s ( f ) = R 1 + jQs − f f0 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance . Bode Plots.

and Resonance .Series Resonant Circuit as a Bandpass Filter VR 1 = Vs 1 + jQs ( f f 0 − f 0 f ) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. Bode Plots.

B = fH − fL B f H ≅ f0 + 2 f0 B= Qs B f L ≅ f0 − 2 ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. Bode Plots. and Resonance .

and Resonance .ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. Bode Plots.

and Resonance .PARALLEL RESONANCE 1 Zp = (1 R ) + j 2πfC − j (1 2πfL) f0 = 1 2π LC R Qp = 2πf 0 L Q p = 2πf 0CR R Zp = 1 + jQ p ( f f 0 − f 0 f ) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. Bode Plots.

and Resonance . Bode Plots.Ideal Filters ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response.

Bode Plots.Second-Order Lowpass Filter − jQ s ( f 0 f ) Vout H(f )= = Vin 1 + jQ s ( f f 0 − f 0 f ) ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance .

Bode Plots.DIGITAL SIGNAL PROCESSING ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. and Resonance .

ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING

Principles and

Applications

SE OND EDITION

Chapter 6

Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance

**Conversion of Signals from
**

Analog to Digital Form

If a signal contains no components with

frequencies higher than fH, the signal can be

exactly reconstructed from its samples, provided

that the sampling rate fs is selected to be more

than twice fH.

ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING

Principles and

Applications

SE OND EDITION

Chapter 6

Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance

ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING

Principles and

Applications

SE OND EDITION

Chapter 6

Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance

ELECTRICAL

ENGINEERING

Principles and

Applications

SE OND EDITION

Chapter 6

Frequency Response, Bode Plots, and Resonance

Digital Lowpass Filter y (n ) = ay (n − 1) + (1 − a )x (n ) τ T a= 1+τ T ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING Principles and Applications SE OND EDITION Chapter 6 Frequency Response. Bode Plots. and Resonance .

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