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Lecture 5

**Rings, Paths, and Cayley Graphs
**

Daniel A. Spielman

September 16, 2014

Disclaimer

These notes are not necessarily an accurate representation of what happened in class. The notes

written before class say what I think I should say. I sometimes edit the notes after class to make

them way what I wish I had said.

There may be small mistakes, so I recommend that you check any mathematically precise statement

before using it in your own work.

These notes were last revised on September 16, 2015.

5.1

Overview

This lecture is devoted to an examination of some special graphs and their eigenvalues.

5.2

The Ring Graph

**The ring graph on n vertices, Rn , may be viewed as having a vertex set corresponding to the
**

integers modulo n. In this case, we view the vertices as the numbers 0 through n − 1, with edges

(i, i + 1), computed modulo n.

Lemma 5.2.1. The Laplacian of Rn has eigenvectors

x k (u) = cos(2πku/n), and

y k (u) = sin(2πku/n),

for 0 ≤ k ≤ n/2, ignoring y 0 which is the all-zero vector, and for even n ignoring y n/2 for the

same reason. Eigenvectors x k and y k have eigenvalue 2 − 2 cos(2πk/n).

Note that x 0 is the all-ones vector. When n is even, we only have x n/2 , which alternates ±1.

Proof. We will first see that x 1 and y 1 are eigenvectors by drawing the ring graph on the unit

circle in the natural way: plot vertex u at point (cos(2πu/n), sin(2πu/n)).

5-1

2 0. Alternatively. 5. excluding 2.2 0.4 0.4 0. (LRn x k ) (u) = 2x k (u) − x k (u + 1) − x k (u − 1) = 2 cos(2πku/n) − cos(2πk(u + 1)/n) − cos(2πk(u − 1)/n) = 2 cos(2πku/n) − cos(2πku/n) cos(2πk/n) + sin(2πku/n) sin(2πk/n) − cos(2πku/n) cos(2πk/n) − sin(2πku/n) sin(2πk/n) = 2 cos(2πku/n) − cos(2πku/n) cos(2πk/n) − cos(2πku/n) cos(2πk/n) = (2 − 2 cos(2πk/n)) cos(2πku/n) = (2 − cos(2πk/n))x k (u).2 0 0. The computation for y k follows similarly. and eigenvectors v k (u) = cos(πku/n − πk/2n). Pn has eigenvalues namely 2(1 − cos(πk/n)). −0.6 −0.2 0 0.Lecture 5: September 16. That is.8 0. for 0 ≤ k < n .8 −0. To begin. . I will number the vertices of the ring a little differently.4 −0. .4 0. we can verify that these are eigenvectors by a simple computation.4 0.6 0.2 0. This should make it obvious that both the x and y coordinates in this figure are eigenvectors of the same eigenvalue. n} and E = {(i.3 The Path Graph We will derive the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the path graph from those of the ring graph.2 −0. i + 1) : 1 ≤ i < n}. Lemma 5. . 2014 5-2 1 1 0.1: You can see that the average of the neighbors of a vertex is a vector pointing in the same direction as the vector associated with that vertex.6 −0.8 −1 −1 1 (a) The ring graph on 9 vertices.4 −0. Let Pn = (V.8 −0. as in Figure 5.6 0.6 0.8 1 (b) The eigenvectors for k = 2.6 0.4 −0.6 −0.8 −0. . E) where V = {1.8 0.4 −0.6 −0.2 −0.1. Figure 5. The Laplacian of Pn has the same eigenvalues as R2n .8 −1 −1 −0.3.2 0 0 −0. The same holds for all k.2.

In and In In In LR2n ψ = 2λφ. Then. we get one such a vector. for 1 ≤ k < n. if we can find such a vector ψ. As you’ve probably guessed. then the corresponding φ is an eigenvector of Pn of eigenvalue λ.2. for 1 ≤ u ≤ n. You should check that In I n I n LR2n = 2LPn . I’ve drawn one in Figure 5. is zero. In In LR2n φ = λψ. then the above equation gives us a way to turn this into an eigenvector of Pn : Let φ ∈ IRn be the vector for which φ(u) = ψ(u). For each of the two-dimensional eigenspaces of R2n . The last.2: The ring on 8 vertices. we now know n − 1 distinct eigenvalues. We derive the eigenvectors and eigenvalues by treating Pn as a quotient of R2n : we will identify vertex u of Pn with vertices u and u + n of R2n (under the new numbering of R2n ). In So. These provide eigenvectors of eigenvalue 2(1 − cos(πk/n)). we can find such vectors ψ. Thus. numbered differently Proof. Let I n be the n-dimensional identity matrix. 2014 5-3 3 2 4 1 8 5 7 6 Figure 5. These are pairs of vertices that are above each other in the figure that I drew. of course. In φ = ψ. . In If there is an eigenvector ψ of R2n with eigenvalue λ for which ψ(u) = ψ(u + n) for 1 ≤ u ≤ n.Lecture 5: September 16.

This set is closed under inverse. 5. we obtain an eigenspace of dimension greater than 1. 1}d that have a 1 in exactly one position. then s−1 ∈ S. like the integers modulo n. 1}d under addition modulo 2. and the characters just depend upon the group. g k . the generators are {1.6 Generalizing Hypercubes To generalize the hypercube. In the case of the ring. and note that G has edge set (x . We will now check that the eigenvectors of Hd that I described in Lecture 3 are eigenvectors of G as well. this would usually be written u + s = v. is a Cayley graph over the additive group (Z/2Z)d : that is the set of vectors in {0. . modulo 2. The generators are given by the vectors in {0. To guarantee that the graph is undirected. In the case of Abelian groups. We have seen at least one other: the hybercube. I set V = {0. . if s ∈ S. 5. These eigenspaces do depend upon the choice of generators. Knowing these will make it easy to describe the eigenvalues.Lecture 5: September 16. the vertices of a Cayley graph are the elements of some group Γ. the group is the set of integers modulo n. . we will consider this same group. 1}d . x + g j ) : x ∈ V. 2014 5. because every element of this group is its own inverse. 1 ≤ j ≤ k . where ◦ is the group operation. . but with a general set of generators. In the case of the ring graph. That is. In general. 1 More precisely. which are called the generators of the Cayley graph. Let G be the Cayley graph with these generators. v ∈ Γ are connected by an edge if there is an s ∈ S such that u ◦ s = v. Vertices u. we must insist that the inverse of every s ∈ S also appear in S. The set of generators must be closed under inverse. The edges of a Cayley graph are specified by a set S ⊂ Γ. Knowing the eigenvectors makes it much easier to compute the eigenvalues. 1}d .5 The Hypercube The d-dimensional hypercube.4 5-4 Cayley Graphs The ring graph is a type of Cayley graph. and remember that each is a vector in {0. the characters always form an orthonromal set of eigenvectors. Many of the most interesting graphs are Cayley graphs. To be concrete. We will call then g 1 . Hd . When two different characters have the same eigenvalue. They just depend on the group1 . Cayley graphs over Abeliean groups are particularly convenient because we can find an orthonormal basis of eigenvectors without knowing the set of generators. . −1}.

When I write b T x . we compute (Lψ b )(x ) = kψ b (x ) − = kψ b (x ) − k X i=1 k X ψ b (x + g i ) ψ b (x )ψ b (g i ) i=1 = ψ b (x ) k − k X ! ψ b (g i ) . 1}d . 1}d and any vertex x ∈ V . For each b ∈ {0. the eigenvectors of the adjacency and Laplacian matrices will be the same. We begin by observing that ψ b (x + y ) = (−1)b T (x +y ) = (−1)b T x (−1)b T y = ψ b (x )ψ b (y ). For any vector ψ b for b ∈ {0. you might wonder if I mean to take the sum over the reals or modulo 2. i=1 So. you get the same answer either way you do it. that is the wrong perspective. i=1 Proof of Theorem ??. Lemma 5. Let L be the Laplacian matrix of the graph. As this graph is k-regular. While it is natural to think of b as being a vertex.Lecture 5: September 16. The eigenvectors and eigenvalues of the graph are determined by the following theorem. ψ b is an eigenvector of eigenvalue k− k X i=1 ψ b (g i ) = k − k X i=1 (−1)b T gi .1.7 5-5 Analyzing the Eigenvectors and Eigenvalues For each b ∈ {0. . you should think of b as indexing a Fourier coefficient (if you don’t know what a Fourier coefficient is. Instead. just don’t think of it as a vertex). 1}d the vector ψ b is a Laplacian matrix eigenvector with eigenvalue k− k X (−1)b T gi .7. 1}-vectors. As both b and x are {0. define the function ψ b from V to the reals given by ψ b (x ) = (−1)b T x . 2014 5.

. b T g modulo 2 is uniformly distributed in {0. i=1 The right-hand part is a sum of independent. uniformly chosen ±1 random variables. and for g chosen uniformly at random from {0. . I will not use the strongest. . the eigenvalue corresponding to the eigenvector ψ b is def λb = k − k X (−1)b T gi . then we obtain a graph that is a good approximation of the complete graph. So.8. 1}d . g k independently and uniformly from {0. Let x1 . all the eigenvalues of the Laplacian will be close to k. That is. for k some constant multiple of the dimension. . . 1}d but not all zero.1. Think of c = 2 or c = 10. . 2014 5. xk be independent ±1 random variables. but which will give us results that are qualitatively correct. . 1}. we use a Chernoff bound. So. 1}d . There are many forms of Chernoff bounds. .Lecture 5: September 16. if we pick g 1 . Then. . For b ∈ {0. for all h > 0. we know it is concentrated around 0. To determine how concentrated the sum actually is. and thus λb will be concentrated around k. Theorem 5. I will set k = cd. for some c > 1. and so (−1)b T g is uniformly distributed in ±1.8 5-6 A random set of generators We will now show that if we choose the set of generators uniformly at random.

".

# .

X .

2 .

.

Pr .

xi .

. ≥ h ≤ 2e−h /2k .

.

for every nonzero b.b6=0d which is always less than 1 and goes to zero exponentially quickly as d grows. In fact.8.1}d . With high probability.2. Then. Proof. it becomes so small that it is unlikely that any eigenvalue deviates from k by more than h. the probability that there is some b for which λb violates these bounds is at most the sum of these terms: X Pr [∃b : |k − λb | ≥ h] ≤ Pr [|k − λb | ≥ h] ≤ (2d − 1)2e−d . Let h = k p 2/c. Theorem 5. all of the nonzero eigenvalues of the generalized hypercube differ from k by at most r 2 k . 2 /2k Pr [|k − λb | ≥ h] ≤ 2e−h ≤ 2e−k/c = 2e−d . b∈{0. i This becomes very small when h is a constant fraction of k. . c where k = cd. Now.

This allows us to use it for many applications that require us to implicitly deal with a very large graph.Lecture 5: September 16. we obtain a graph with all nonzero Laplacian eigenvalues between p p n(1 − 2/c) and n(1 + 2/c). but with no dependence on n in their degrees. Expanders are infinite families of graphs like this.10 Acknowledgment I thank Zeyuan Allen Zhu for pointing out a mistake in my 2009 lecture notes on the path graph. But. . p Thus. A few weeks from now. we need to sharpen the analysis. One other useful property of this generalized hypercube is that it has a very compact description. A naive sharpening will work down to c = 2 ln 2. we will see how to use such graphs to construct pseudo-random generators. and we now multiply the weight of every edge by n/k. 2014 5-7 I initially suggested thinking of c = 2 or c = 10. If we let n be the number of vertices. The number of bits needed to describe its generators is cd2 . this is a 2/c approximation of the complete graph on n vertices. 5. The above bound works for c = 10.9 Conclusion We have now seen that a random generalize hypercube probably has all non-zero Laplacian eigenvalues between p p k(1 − 2/c) and k(1 + 2/c). 5. the degree of every vertex is only c log2 n. despite the fact that it has 2d vertices. To get a useful bound for c = 2. you need a stronger Chernoff bound. To go lower than that.

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