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Generators

Dr. John Mellor-Crummey

Department of Computer Science

Rice University

johnmc@cs.rice.edu

COMP 528 Lecture 22 12 April 2005

**Testing Random Number Generators
**

Does observed data satisfies a particular distribution?

•

•

•

•

•

•

•

**Chi-square test
**

Kolmogorov-Smirnov test

Serial correlation test

Two-level tests

K-distributivity

Serial test

Spectral test

2

k#1]. large samples General test: can be used for testing any distribution —uniform random number generators —random variate generators n (oi " ei ) 2 2 • The statistical test: # < $ [1" % .k"1] ? ei k=1 • • Components —k is the number of bins in the histogram —oi is the number of observed values in bin i in the histogram ! —ei is the number of expected values in bin i in the histogram The test 2 " —if the sum is less than [1#$ .Chi-Square Test • • Designed for testing discrete distributions. then the hypothesis that the observations come from the specified distribution cannot be rejected at a level of significance α ! 3 .

sample frequencies are normally distributed about the expected population value —distribution cannot be normal when expected population values are close to zero since frequencies cannot be negative —when expected frequencies are large. there is no problem with the assumption of normal distribution 4 .Chi-Square Constraints • • • • • • • Data must be a random sample of the population —to which you wish to generalize claims Data must be reported in raw frequencies (not percentages) Measured variables must be independent Values/categories on independent and dependent variables — must be mutually exclusive and exhaustive Observed frequencies cannot be too small Use Chi-square test only when observations are independent: —no category or response is influenced by another Chi-square is an approximate test of the probability of getting the frequencies you've actually observed if the null hypothesis were true —based on the expectation that within any category.

we can reject the null hypothesis that Matlab’s random number generator generates uniform random numbers with only 5% confidence.768 According to the result of the Chi-Square test.0 sum(power(n-e.30) bar(x.1) [n.900 2 2 " [.900 < " [.10.Chi-Square Test of Matlab’s U(0.29] = 17.n) e = 1000/30.708 < 17. 5 .x] = hist(rand(1000.29] = 19.05.2)/e) 17.1).

336 According to the result of the Chi-Square test.200.500. 6 .2)/e) 24.x] = hist(rand(10000.71 < " [.n) e = 10000/30.475 < 24.1) [n. we can reject the null hypothesis that Matlab’s random number generator generates uniform random numbers with only 20% confidence.30) bar(x.0 sum(power(n-e.29] = 28.Chi-Square Test of Matlab’s U(0.1).29] = 22.71 2 2 " [.

n ] .Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test • • Test if sample of n observations is from a continuous distribution Compare CDF Fo(x) (observed) and CDF Fe(x) (expected) — difference between CDF Fo(x) and CDF Fe(x) should be small Maximum deviations Fo (x i ) " Fe (x i ) —K+ above expected CDF K + = n max [Fo (x) " Fe (x)] x —K- expected ! below expected CDF Fe (x i+1 ) " Fo (x i ) " • K = n max [Fe (x) " Fo (x)] x Statistical test observed ! —if K+ and K. obervations said to come from expected distribution with α level of significance ! ! 7 .are smaller than K[1"# .

K. K. observations said to come from the same distribution at α level of significance 8 .1) • • • For uniform random numbers between 0 and 1 —expected CDF Fe(x) = x If x > j-1 observations in a sample of n observations —observed CDF Fo(x) = j/n To test whether a sample of n random numbers is from U(0.Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test of U(0.1) —sort n observations in increasing order —let the sorted numbers be {x1. xn-1≤ xn #j & K = n max % " x j ( ' j $n + # j "1& K = n max % x j " ( n ' j $ " • ! Compare resulting K+. x2. xn}.values with those in table —if K+.values less than K-S table K[1"# . ….n ] .

K-S Test vs. provided parameters of expected distribution known • Chi-square —based on differences between observed and hypothesized PMF or PDF —requires samples be grouped into small number of cells —approximate test. sensitive to cell size – no firm guidelines for choosing appropriate cell sizes 9 . Chi-Square Test • K-S test: designed for —small samples —continuous distribution • Chi-square test: designed for —large samples —discrete distribution • K-S —based on differences between observed and expected CDF —uses each sample without grouping —exact test.

1) 10 . converse not true. dependent.Serial Correlation Test • Test if 2 random variables are dependent —is their covariance non-zero? • – if so. Given a sequence of random numbers —autocovariance at lag k. k ≥ 1 1 n"k Rk = U i " 12 U i+k " 12 # n " k i=1 ( )( ) —for large n. Rk is normally distributed • – 0 mean – variance of 1/[144(n-k)] ! Confidence interval for autocovariance Rk ± z1"# / 2 / 12 n " k —if the interval does not include 0 • ( ) – sequence has a significant correlation For k = 0 ! —R0 is the variance of the sequence —expected to be 1/12 for IID U(0.

global tests may not apply locally • Two-level test —use Chi-square on n samples of size k each —use Chi-square test on set of n Chi-square statistics computed • • Called: chi-square-on-chi-square test Similarly: K-S-on-K-S test —has been used to identify non-random segment of otherwise random sequence 11 .Two-level Tests • If sample size too small —previous tests may apply locally but not globally —similarly.

∀ b1 > a1 2-distributivity: generalization in two dimensions —given real numbers a1. a2. 0 < a1< b1< 1 —P(a1≤ un< b1) = b1 . b2. i=1. b2 > a2 k-distributivity —P(a1≤ un ≤ b1 … ak≤ un+k-1 ≤ bk) = (b1 .a1) …(bk . ∀ b1 > a1.…k Properties —k-distributed sequence is always k-1 distributed (inverse not true) – sequence may be uniform in lower dimension.K-Distributivity • • • AKA k-dimensional uniformity Suppose un is the nth number in a random sequence U(0. but not higher 12 .a1) (b2 .1) 1-distributivity —given two real numbers a1 and b1. b1.2.a2) —∀ bi > ai.a1.a2). such that – 0 < a1< b1< 1 and 0 < a2< b2< 1 • • —P(a1≤ un-1 ≤ b1 and a2≤ un≤ b2) = (b1 .

p)-1. …. n = 1. 2. x2 = x(2:upper). upper = power(2. x1 = x(1:(upper-1)). end x(i) = n/upper.1). r = ones(1. x = zeros(upper. plot(x1.r] = tausworthe(r. 215-2 tw2d([15 1 0]) function [] = tw2d(polynomial) p = polynomial(1).x2. for bits = 1:p [b.'.polynomial).2D Visual Check of Overlapping Pairs • Example: —Tausworthe x15+x1+1 primitive polynomial —compute full period sequence of 215-1 points —plot (xn. 13 .').xn+1). end.p). n = 2 * n + b. for i =1:upper n = 0.

215-2 tw2d([15 1 0]) tw2d([15 4 0]) 14 . x15+x4+1 primitive polynomial compute full period sequence of 215-1 points —plot (xn.xn+1). …. 2. n = 1.2D Visual Check of Overlapping Pairs • Example: —Comparing two Tausworthe polynomials —x15+x1+1 primitive polynomial vs.

otherwise cell independence for Chi-square is violated • Can extend this to k dimensions —k-tuples of non-overlapping values 15 . (x3.xn) Count points in each of K2 cells —expect n/(2K2) per cell • Test deviation of actual counts from expected counts with Chi-square test —DOF=K2-1 —tuples must be non-overlapping. (xn-1. xn} between 0 and 1 Construct n/2 non-overlapping pairs (x1. x2.Serial Test • • • • • Check for uniformity in 2D or higher In 2D: divide space up into K2 cells of equal area Given n random numbers {x1. ….x4). ….x2).

1+floor(x1(j.1+floor(x2(j.1)*10)). top = upper -1 % top is even x1 = x(1:2:(top-1)). end bar3(y). r = ones(1. 16 . x2 = x(2:2:top).s2)+1.polynomial).p)-1.s2) = y(s1. for j = 1:top2 s1 = min(10.1)*10)). end.p). y = zeros(10. for bits = 1:p [b. end x(i) = n/upper. upper = power(2. y(s1. x = zeros(upper. s2 = min(10. n = 2 * n + b. top2 = top/2.10).Example: Serial Test • Tausworthe polynomial — x7+x1+1 function [] = tw3d(polynomial) p = polynomial(1).r]= tausworthe(r.1). for i =1:upper n = 0.

1+floor(x2(j. y(s1.1)*10)). top2 = top/2.10).1). x=rand(upper. y = zeros(10.s2)+1. for j = 1:top2 s1 = min(10. top = upper -1 % top is even x1 = x(1:2:(top-1).1). end bar3(y).Example: Serial Test on Matlab’s rand • Matlab rand — 215-1 elements function [] = rand3d(p) upper=power(2.1+floor(x1(j. 17 . s2 = min(10. x2 = x(2:2:top.1).p)-1.1)*10)).s2) = y(s1.

triples of adjacent numbers will lie on finite # planes • Marsaglia (1968) —shoed that successive k-tuples from an LCG fall on at most (k!m)1/k parallel hyperplanes for LCG with modulus m • The test —determine the maximum distance between adjacent hyperplanes —the greater the distance. the worse the generator 18 . pairs of adjacent numbers will lie on finite # lines —in 3D.Spectral Test • • Determine how densely k-tuples fill k-dimensional hyperplanes k-tuples from an LCG fall on a finite number of parallel hyperplanes —in 2D.

1.Spectral Test Intuition for LCGs LCG xn= 3xn-1 mod 31 LCG xn= 13xn-1 mod 31 All numbers lie on lines xn= 3xn-1 .….2 All numbers lie on lines xn= (-5/2)xn-1 .1. for k = 0.31k. for k = 0.(31/2)k.5 19 .

Computing the Spectral Test • Distance between two lines y = ax + c1 and y = ax + c2 is given by | c2 " c1 | / 1+ a 2 ! 20 .

2 | c 2 " c1 | / 1+ a 2 = 31/10 = 9.1.80 LCG xn= 13xn-1 mod 31 xn= (-5/2)xn-1 .1.(31/2)k. for k = 0.….76 $2' 21 .Spectral Test for LCGs LCG xn= 3xn-1 mod 31 xn= 3xn-1 . for k = 0.5 2 # & 5 | c 2 " c1 | / 1+ a 2 = (31/2) / 1+ % ( = 5.31k.

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