AutoGroundDesign: An Overview

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AutoGroundDesign: An Overview
AutoGroundDesign is the only fully automated software package that can analyze and design grounding / earthing systems without the intervention of the user between various phases of the design thanks to its intelligent database driven algorithms. It offers powerful and intelligent functions that help electrical engineers design safe grounding installations quickly and efficiently.

A multiple-step approach is used for the automated grounding system design.

First, a grounding system consisting of a buried metallic plate is used as a reference. This gives the minimum ground impedance achievable with a grid of a given size, and determines whether the desired ground impedance and safety limits can be achieved with a solid plate. If not, then the whole process is stopped and the user is informed that the design process is impossible without additional mitigation
measures.

Second, a grounding system consisting of a minimum number of conductors, for example, the conductors along the grid periphery with or without a few conductors inside the grid is analyzed to see whether the desired ground impedance and safety limits can be achieved with a sparse grid. If yes, the design process is completed quickly without the need to refer to the reference design database and smart
iterative techniques.

Third, an appropriate preliminary grid design is selected based on SES reference database and other intelligent rules or as specified manually by the user. The use of the reference database is based on the input data provided by the user, such as the size and the geometrical proportions of the grid, the soil structure type, the fault current injected, and the required safety criteria.

Finally, the initial design is refined recursively using rule-based techniques and smart algorithms to improve its performance and meet safety constraints, while reducing the overall cost of the grid.

Practicing electrical engineers are often faced with the necessity of having to design a grounding grid to meet certain protection objectives with regards to personnel safety or to equipment around electrical installations. The design procedure often starts with a preliminary grid which is usually determined based on practical considerations and engineering experience. This grid is then submitted to the
grounding engineering module to determine if all design requirements are met. If not, then the grid is refined and analyzed again until a satisfactory grid is obtained.

The design of grounding systems is often based on rough guidelines, derived from engineering experience. A grounding system design requires several iterations before obtaining a safe configuration. Therefore, it and can be quite time consuming. It is difficult to account for the large number of variables (topology and dimensions of the grounding system, burial depth, type and characteristics of the soil
structure and material used for the grid’s conductors (horizontal wires and grounding rods, etc. ) that can affect the grounding system performance. Thus, AutoGroundDesign uses a database and rule-based automated grounding system design method to meet design requirements (such as ground potential rise, touch voltage, step voltage, and ground resistance limits), given the soil structure, dimensions of
the grid area, characteristics of conductors, configuration of the grid, and fault current discharged by the grid. The ultimate objective is to complete a grid design that meets the mentioned design requirements.

The goal of AutoGroundDesign is to allow researchers and engineers to quickly and accurately find out which grid (if any) can satisfy the provided constraints. AutoGroundDesign has unique features that set it apart from previous implementations:       

Generates grounding system designs based on a simple description of the substation site. The data entry requirements are reduced to a minimum: environment settings, soil data, grounding grid zone, fault current in the grid, safety related data, and automated design parameters & controls.
Models grounding systems and evaluates their performance; it is suited to analyze and design a grounding grid as long as the longitudinal impedances of the ground conductors can be neglected.
Analyzes and designs horizontal arbitrary grounding grids consisting of horizontal and vertical arrangements of bare conductors buried in uniform and multilayered soils.
Carries out automated design with several procedures, such as Automatic, Midpoint, Linear, and User-Defined methods. These procedures will specify the performance and progress of the automated design process appropriately and use ground grid databases, smart search algorithms and techniques, and user-supplied criteria and constraints more efficiently.
Allows users to specify if ground rods are to be used in the design of the final grid and ground rod characteristics. If yes, the rods can be distributed along the edges of the grid or over the whole grid area, as desired.
Computes earth potentials at specific soil locations called observation points that may be determined automatically by the program or user-defined.
Offers three other modes of operations, namely, the Estimator, Configuration and Dimension Predictor modes that allow users to quickly and accurately estimate the resistance of various grounding systems (such as grids, plates array of rods, star electrodes, circular rings, etc.) or predict the size (dimension) or configuration of the grounding system that meets that resistance. Please see the topic
entitled Using the Grounding System Estimator and Predictor modes for details.

Please refer to Program Development History for more information on AutoGroundDesign.

Automated System Design Structure
The automated grounding system design software integrates the following modules.

Automated System Design Central Module. This core and controlling module has a simple interface that allows a user to establish an automated grounding system design quickly and efficiently. The ultimate objective of this module is to manage and coordinate input data, safety criteria and progress decisions in order to obtain a grid design that meets all requirements. The overall automated design
parameters are controlled by this module to select the methodology used to obtain the initial design of the grounding systems, specify which grid database methodology is to be used for the automated design, and specify the maximum number of design iterations as well as the rate at which the design of the grid evolves.

Grounding Analysis Module. The main mode of operation of this module is used to analyze power system ground networks subjected to DC or AC currents discharged into soil. It computes the safety performance of the grounding grid, in terms of GPR, touch and step voltages. Furthermore, the Estimator, Configuration and Dimension Predictor modes allow users to quickly and accurately estimate the
resistance of various grounding systems (grids, plates array of rods, star and hemispherical electrodes, circular rings, etc.) or determine the size (dimension) or configuration that meets a target resistance value.

Soil Analysis Module. This module is dedicated to the development of equivalent earth structure models based on measured soil resistivity data. It can generate models with many horizontal layers, as well as vertically and exponentially layered soil models.

Fault Current Distribution and Line Parameter Analysis Module. This module calculates the fault current distribution in multiple terminals, transmission lines and distribution feeders using minimum information and a simple set of data concerning the network. It provides the actual fault current flowing into a grounding grid, as well as currents in the shield wires, tower structures and cable sheaths.
Self and mutual impedances of shield wires and cable sheaths are also computed by a built-in line constant module.

Safety Module. This module generates safety threshold values based on IEEE Standard 80, IEC Standard 479, user’s own standard or a hybrid combination of these standards. The computed safety voltage limits are used to decide whether to stop or continue the design process. The safety voltage limits are: fault clearing time, earth surface covering layer (e.g., crushed rock) resistivity, earth surface
covering layer thickness, equivalent subsurface layer resistivity (this is the resistivity of the soil beneath the earth surface covering layer), body resistance, optionally specified foot resistance and resistance of protective wear, such as gloves or boots, and fibrillation current threshold computation method.

View, Plot and Report Tools. A CAD-based module is used to view or edit three-dimensional grounding grids consisting of straight-line segments. The line segments represent either metallic conductors or observation profiles. They can be viewed from any direction, in a variety of ways. A powerful and flexible report and graphics module serves as an integrated output processor to display the
computation results in various graphical or print formats. This module also has the capability to view the input data and even launch the grounding analysis module.

Documentation Road Map
The following topics are available for more information.           

Getting Help and Support during your input session.
Selecting your Regional, Environment and Preferences default settings and Using the Windows Interface.
Defining your Working Directory, Job ID and Input data files.
Selecting your System of Units and Reference Database Methodology.
Describing the Grounding Grid Zone in terms of its horizontal shape and depth.
Defining a Soil Model that best fits the soil in which the grid is buried.
Specifying the fault current discharged into the grounding system or defining the Electric Network that applies to determine fault current distribution in multiple terminal transmission and distribution electric line networks.
Specifying the frequency and Computation settings for the observation points.
Specifying the Safety Criteria that apply to determine if the grid performance meets the applicable standards for safe touch and step voltages.
Defining the Parameters and Controls that govern the automated design process.
Viewing the final report and related computation plots pertaining to the grid design and displaying the final grid configuration that was designed and applying changes to it, if appropriate.

Getting Help and Support
You can get help in several ways in AutoGroundDesign.

1. First, you can use the Help | Help Topics menu item to load the help file.

2. You can get context sensitive help from almost anywhere in the program by pressing the F1 key. This will bring up a help topic describing the part of the program that currently has the focus.
3. The status bar of the input screen displays helpful messages and the input text color will change based on the validity of the entered data (black if the data is sound, red if the data is not of the expected type, i.e., numeric or integer and dark red if the data is simply invalid). Out of range data brings a suitable message box indicating the acceptable range.
4. You can also obtain help on the SES Input Command language by selecting the Help | Command Mode Help menu item. This help document is useful to advanced users who are familiar with the SES SICL Commands and prefer to edit directly the input files
5. You can also go to the SES Web site at www.sestech.com. This web site offers a discussion group for grounding-related topics and a lot more information.

You can contact SES?support staff quickly and efficiently by:
1. Access the menu item Help | About AutoGroundDesign ... that provide basic information on the AutoGroundDesign software and contact information (web site, toll free phone, phone, or fax numbers).

2. You can also contact SES by phone or fax using the coordinates available on the Web site at www.sestech.com/SES/coordinates.asp.

A Typical AutoGroundDesign Session
This section describes briefly what can be done with AutoGroundDesign and how to get started with it. Three sample examples are available to help you get familiar with the AutoGroundDesign program. The associated files are located in the folder "Examples\AutoGroundDesign" in your SESSoftware installation folder.

The main steps of a typical AutoGroundDesign session are summarized below:

1. Starting AutoGroundDesign. To start the program, simply double-click the AutoGroundDesign icon in the tools of the SES Software Program Group.
2. Specifying Your Input Data. One single Windows screen consisting of three tabbed regions allows you to define all the input data and parameters controlling the program's behavior as a whole. These are regrouped in the following categories. 

Input session environment, system of units and reference database 

Grounding system data 

Soil structure data 

Electric network data 

Computation settings

file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231.htm

13/02/2016

. selections and settings to the pertinent files or locations. there is a corresponding menu item that can be accessed from the menu bar. The data is specified in feet or inches. Two options are possible. It is an editable file. you can choose whether all appropriate values are converted or not.. it is strongly recommended that you avoid editing this file if you are not familiar with the SES Input Command Language (SICL) environment. you can recover your original data by loading or editing the contents of this file. the data is first converted to the user-specified system of units. Please consult the CDEGS or AutoGrid Pro documentation for further details. the starting point of any automated design and cover most practical and reasonable grids that are often designed in practice. This is because MALT assumes that all metallic conductors are perfect.htm 13/02/2016 . Viewing the Computations Results and the Final Grid Design. This list will be updated automatically whenever there is any change made by the user in the input data. For example. In this case. 4. If no error or warning is detected. You can use any CDEGS or AutoGrid Pro tools or programs to do this. substations or transmission towers. Using the AutoGroundDesign Windows Interface Once you have successfully started a new session or loaded a previous one.: This button allows you to browse and select any folder path that you wish to specify as your Working Directory path. output and database results files are produced. It contains a processed input file that is identical to the contents of your input data file.F05. 2. This is sometimes useful to enable buttons or fields that are otherwise inaccessible.F05: This is the AutoGroundDesign command input file that is produced by your input session and that will be used to start the automated design process... They are identical to what is produced when you use the CDEGS or AutoGrid Pro software packages and can be accessed using the same tools and methods. The grounding grid constitutes an equipotential structure (i. selecting this button or the corresponding menu item will load the SESCAD tool and you will be able to view and modify the final version of the grid design. MALT is used to analyze and design grounding systems for HVAC and HVDC power stations.  Imperial: This option selects the Imperial (old British) units. click the Exit button. the list is empty.. Extensive collections of predefined grids have been analyzed. all conductors are at the same potential called Ground Potential Rise or GPR). or Electrode Prediction.  View Plots and Reports: Pressing this button or selecting this menu item launches the GRSERVER graphics viewer that will allow you to display the computation results as dedicated plots or as specialized reports. or prediction analyses can begin.F09: This is the AutoGroundDesign Summary results file that is produced by the automated design process. When you have finished entering all the necessary input data. output and database files are the following: 1. When using the British system of units. That can be opened by any text browser such as Notepad or WordPad. MT_JobID. The following describes the role or function of each button or menu item.  Folder. MT_JobID.F21: These are the corresponding MALT input. All options will be set to their default values. Among these are the collections shown in the Complete and Basic reference databases. When data is displayed as text (in a dialog or any other place). spherically. The program will then refine this grid automatically. or Folder. / Open Input File: This button or menu item allows you to browse to and load any existing AutoGroundDesign input session file. simply press this button or select the corresponding menu item. the automated grounding design.  Save Session / Save Session Input File: Pressing this button or selecting this menu item will immediately save all your input session data. For example the most relevant input.  Open. FCDIST. Job Identification (JobID): This is a text string identifying uniquely the various output files produced by the AutoGroundDesign engineering program run.. More. just press this button or select the corresponding menu item. 5. the Specify Soil Characteristics option where you must specify the structure and characteristics of the soil directly and the Determine Soil Characteristics option where you specify the measured apparent soil resistivity (or resistance) values in order to determine the equivalent soil structure model and characteristics file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231. there are five remaining issues in the above list: two input errors and three warnings.e. Electrode Estimation. Other files that are normally produced when the MALT.  Basic: This option selects the uniform and equivalent two-layer soil grid database. SES FileView utility can be used by pressing the View Design Summary File button. estimation. When the system of units is changed. AD_ JobID..  Start Design / Start Automated Design: If all your data are valid.. The radius can be specified in centimeters (cm) when using the metric system. and RESAP engineering modules are used. You can define the working directory by entering or choosing through the Open. GRServer and FileView utilities.AutoGroundDesign: An Overview  Safety criteria selection  Automated design parameters and controls Page 2 of 15 3.  Grounding System  Soil Data. the following two new input fields become enabled and should be defined in the Initial Number of Conductors along Zone panel:  Length  Width Remaining Issue List The following Remaining Issue List window provides more detailed remaining issues found in the input data. (for a new session) button to select the directory of your choice in the Working Directory field. as indicated in the screen. This option uses the extended two-layer soil grid database. horizontally. However. Working Directory Path Specification: The Working Directory is the location where these input. This is particularly convenient when the path name is long and you are starting a new session (i.  View Designed Grid: The preceding button will change to this one as shown above if the run is successfully launched. i.  Reset Session: This button will clear all warning and error flags and will force the session status to become valid although errors are still present.  Restore Default Data: If you wish to populate your input data fields with default values and select default options. It can also account for the presence of arbitrarily shaped regions of varying resistivities embedded in uniform and two-layer soils. To quit the application and terminate the AutoGroundDesign session. Grounding System Design Parameters AutoGroundDesign uses the computation power of the MALT engineering module to analyze power system grounding systems.  View Messages: Some error or warning messages that were issued during your session will be stored and can be accessed by pressing this button or by selecting the corresponding menu item from the File drop down menu bar. simply double-click the AutoGroundDesign icon in the SES Software Program Group. If for any reasons you modify and save the data.  None / Manual (User-Defined Initial Grid): The method provides further flexibility to a user that wishes to define an initial grid design based on the number of conductors along the grid sides. A complete specification of the data related to a grounding grid requires the following data. Starting AutoGroundDesign To start the program. Three options are available:  Complete: This is the default and recommended option. Typically.. optionally. The rich text box editor is loaded to allow you to edit these comment lines.F09. This is a very useful feature that allows a user to start where a previous automated design was interrupted or failed rather than starting all over again . the overhead shield/neutral wire characteristics will be converted in any case. the radius can be specified in inches. 3. Processing the Grid Design. you cannot browse to an existing input file). The program saves the data in the user-specified system of units. Select the first item in the list and double click on it..  Metric: This is the default choice. results and database files that are produced by the automated design process. MT_JobID. It will bring you to the location where the error or warning happens if you double click on an item in the list. Ending an AutoGroundDesign Session. This string will be appended to the name of the file just before its extension and will be printed on every plot and report. lossless.e.  New / New Session: If you wish to start a new session. Note that you must specify a valid Job Id and Working directory before you can save and submit your input session for processing. In fact for every command button. More. The user will need to clear all errors/warnings before the design can be started. MALT can analyze complex ground networks consisting of arbitrary arrangements of bare conductors buried in vertically.  View Edit Comments / View and Edit Comment Lines: This button or menu item is normally used to view or edit comment lines that you wish to insert in your input session file for future reference. or cylindrically layered soils. The information and data necessary to define the design automation process are described in section entitled Specifying Input Data.. This will bring you to the location where the input error happens. For example. This radio button option specifies which grid database is to be used for the automated design. The plots and reports are displayed using the SESCAD. AD_ JobID_Backup. This will clear the Job ID and Working Directory path and will populate all data fields with default values. 5.. as indicated in the screen.F05: This is a backup copy of the input data file that was loaded at the beginning of your session. updated and are enhanced regularly. 4. output and database files that are related to the problem being investigated. The automated design process can use two different database reference files. the button will be enabled and by selecting the button or the menu item. you may need to modify or define new options and input data and start or respond to various events during your input session. Reference Database Methodology The AutoGroundDesign databases are. the automated design computation process will be launched. However. The data is specified in meters (m) or centimeters (cm).e.. The required information is listed below. System of Units AutoGroundDesign stores all data internally using the metric (SI) system of units. some error or warning messages that were issued during your session will be stored and can be accessed by pressing the View Message button or by selecting it from the File menu item. AD_ JobID.  View Design Summary File / View Design Summary Output File: This button or menu item will start a file viewer that displays the most relevant design computation information and results. Double click on the right bottom of the status bar on the AutoGroundDesign main screen to open this window... This is a simplified database that can be used for comparison purposes or in some rare and unusual cases where the Complete database is unable to find a suitable initial grid. When this option is selected. Environment and Input Data Files The following information is required in order to define location of all input. Choose between the Metric or Imperial System of units. It is an editable file. characteristics of the conductors and rods.

in cm or inches. This value must be positive and must be larger than the radius of the ground rod.  Design and Control Parameters The type of automated analysis and the type of grounding system design should be determined first before any grounding system specifications. of the grounding zone. Grounding Zone Specification: The available grounding system area or grounding zone (typically the fenced area and the outer ground loop connected to the fence if any) where it is possible to install the grounding grid that is going to be built must be specified. This dimension is assumed to be along the Z axis. or you can simply select the Determine Grounding System Current option to calculate the appropriate current based on the fault current distribution in the multiple terminal electric network connected to the target grounding system. in m or feet. Conductor Radius: This is the radius of the grid conductor. This field is unavailable when the Type of Automated Analysis selected is Ground Resistance Estimator. button. Ground Rod Specification and Options    Length: This is the length of the ground rod in m or feet.u. This area is specified as follows.AutoGroundDesign: An Overview Page 3 of 15  Fault Current Contribution Data. More information on the above screen is available in the Horizontal Arbitrary Shape Grid Vertex Definitions topic. A compression ratio of 1 gives linearly spaced conductors (or rods). However. in m or feet. Radius: This is the radius of the ground rod in cm or inches.htm 13/02/2016 . surface layer data.): Factor multiplying the spacing between conductors (or rods) when moving away from the center of the zone. This value must be positive. some data may be inapplicable depending on the type of grounding system selected. you need to specify the following parameters:     Length: This is the length. (Initial) Number of Rods along Zone: This defines the (initial) number of rods along both zone directions of  Length file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231. (Initial) Number of Conductors along Zone: This defines the (initial) number of conductors along both zone directions of  Length  Width Compression Ratio along Zone (p.  Computations  Safety Criteria. Width: This is the width. or Electrode Dimension Predictor or when the Determine Grounding System Current is selected from the Electric Network tab. the Specify Safe Voltages option where you must specify the Touch Voltage and Step Voltage and the Determine Safe Voltages option where you specify the network fault. and equivalent human circuit safety thresholds to compute touch and step voltages. The types of automated analyses include:  Automated Grounding Design  Ground Resistance Estimator  Electrode Configuration Predictor  Electrode Dimension Predictor The types of automated grounding designs include:  Horizontal Arbitrary Shape Grid and Vertical Ground Rods  Horizontal Rectangular Grid and Vertical Ground Rods The types of grounding system used in Estimator and Predictor include:  Horizontal Rectangular Grid and Vertical Ground Rods  Horizontal Arbitrary Shape Grid and Vertical Ground Rods  One Horizontal Wire  Array of Horizontal Parallel Wires (2 or more)  Array of Horizontal Radial Wires (2 or more)  One Ground Rod (vertical wire)  Linear Array of Ground Rods (2 or more)  Rectangular Array of Ground Rods (vertical wires)  Circular Array of Ground Rods  Horizontal Rectangular Plate (approximation)  Vertical Rectangular Plate (approximation)  Horizontal Rectangular Plate  Vertical Rectangular Plate  Circular Ring (approximation)  Circular Plate (approximation)  Hemispherical Electrode (approximation) Grounding System Specifications A complete specification of the data related to a grounding grid includes the following data. Two options are possible. Depth: This is the depth. in m or feet. This value must be positive and must be smaller than the radius of the ground rod.. If a Horizontal Arbitrary Shape Grid and Vertical Ground Rods is to be analyzed. This dimension is assumed to be along the X axis. They can be defined along both zone directions:  Length  Width Add Rods: This option specifies if ground rods are to be used in the design of the final grid and if required. Depth: This is the depth of the ground rod in m or feet. the grounding zone vertices are specified on the following screen by clicking on the Define . The available options are: n No j k l m n Yes j k l m If Yes is selected. It excludes any current carried away by alternate metallic paths such as overhead ground and shield wires and cable shields and armors. of the grounding zone. Electrode Configuration Predictor. you can specify the magnitude of this current in amperes by selecting the option Specify Grounding System Current. of the grounding grid in that zone.  Main Grounding System Specification  Ground Rod Specification and Options Main Grounding System Specification Earth Current Flowing from Grounding System (A): This field specifies the fault current discharged by the grid. This dimension is assumed to be along the Y axis. You must specify the magnitude of this current in amperes. For other selections of analysis and grounding grid types. A compression factor smaller than 1 yields a grid with a progressively smaller mesh size or an array of ground rods with progressively smaller spacings as we move towards the edge. Two options are possible. the way they will be distributed over the whole grid area.. then the following Rod Placement and Distribution and Rod Specification and Options are available in the Ground Rod Specification and Options tab.

For the Horizontal Rectangular Grid and Vertical Ground Rods option:   Place at Conductor Intersections: The rods will be placed at the intersection of two grid conductors. Z_VertexCoordinate: <Real value>. to have the Illustrate Model button enabled). The required data are as follows:  Resistivity: This is the resistivity value of the specified layer or region (ohm-meters). the available soil options are:  Uniform: This model consists of two semi-infinite regions of constant electrical properties: the air and a soil layer. (This option is available only when Automated Grounding Design and Horizontal Arbitrary Shape Grid and Vertical Ground Rods options are selected from the Type of Automated Analysis and the Type of Grounding System Design lists respectively).  MultiLayer (4 Layers): The soil model consists of four horizontal layers of soil with constant electrical properties. The data graphics refreshes with each new entry in the grid. (This option is not available when Automated Grounding Design and Horizontal Arbitrary Shape Grid and Vertical Ground Rods options are selected). However. and   Distribute over Entire Zone: The rods will be distributed over the whole grid area.  MultiLayer (any number): Presently. the vertex on the graphic can be dragged easily to change its position and the data is updated immediately in the data grid. then the scale is showing. Also. If a zero value is specified. default = 0>. a total number of rods approximately equal to the number specified in the text field are created.  Central: This represents one of the central layers if the soil is horizontally layered. For the Horizontal Arbitrary Shape Grid and Vertical Ground Rods option:   Place at Conductor Intersections: The rods will be placed at the intersection of two grid conductors. a central layer and the bottom soil layer. This value cannot exceed the program capacity (depends on the released version) during the iteration of design process.htm 13/02/2016 . the (Initial) Number of Rods along Zone values always take precedence over this restriction even if the total value is less than the Minimum Rod spacing. However. the input screen interface restricts the number of central layers to two. The Define Initial Values of Soil Characteristics will be enable and the available soil options are file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231. To display the dynamic graphic. Minimum Rod Spacing: This spacing represents the minimum allowable spacing between rods (in m or feet). the drawing is updated dynamically. Presently. Click the Refresh button to redraw the grounding grid zone. 2. Rods are created so that the maximum spacing between two consecutive rods created on a given grid is as close as possible but never exceeds the value defined in the text field during the iteration of design process.  Two-Layer: This model consists of three horizontal regions of constant electrical properties: the air. default = 0>. Hint: 1. the Determine Soil Characteristics could be selected to interpret measured apparent earth resistivity (or resistance) data to determine an equivalent earth structure model which can be used to analyze grounding systems. Distribute along Zone Periphery: The rods will be placed along the grid periphery. This value must be positive. This value must be zero or positive. The following naming conventions are used to define each horizontal layer.  Thickness: This value represents the thickness of the specified layer in m or feet (no value is available or required for the uniform soil resistivity or the bottom layer one). Note that if the vertex coordinate is greater than 10E+6. This value must be positive. The vertices can be defined easily by filling in the data in the data grid and when the data is filled.  Top: This represents the top soil layer if the soil is horizontally layered.  Bottom: This represents the infinite bottom layer if the soil is horizontally layered. However. When entering values in the data grid.. This static illustration can be displayed by clicking the Illustrate Model button. Approximate Maximum Number of Rods: This number restricts the total number of ground rods that can be added to the grounding grid during the design process iterations. Define Soil Structure Characteristics Define Soil Characteristics Use the Soil Characteristics section to specify the type of soil structure and its characteristics that apply to the soil where the grounding grid is to be installed by select the option of Specify Soil Characteristics.e. Vertex Coordinate: X_VertexCoordinate: <Real value. This value must be positive. the top soil and the bottom soil layers. Y_VertexCoordinate: <Real value. you must click the Show Data. X-coordinate of vertex (meters or feet). the input screen interface restricts the number of soil layers to five. The actual number of generated rods will normally be somewhat larger than the specified number. Y-coordinate of vertex (meters or feet).. Place anywhere along Conductors: The rods will be placed anywhere along conductors. it is better to have the Show Data (i.. The vertex can be selected more easily by clicking on the data grid than by clicking on the display picture. the program will determine a suitable one. Horizontal Arbitrary Shape Grid Vertex Definitions The Define . If the grounding grid has a horizontal arbitrary shape.AutoGroundDesign: An Overview  Page 4 of 15 Width Rod Specification and Options Maximum Rod Spacing: This spacing represents the maximum spacing between rods (in m or feet). This value cannot exceed the program capacity (depends on the released version). Two types of graphics can be displayed in the above screen:  Illustrate Model  Show Data The first type of graphics consists of a static illustration of the grounding grid zone to help visually relate the items that are being edited. Z-coordinate of vertex (meters or feet). If the Determine Soil Characteristics is selected. button in Main Grounding System Specification tab introduces the Horizontal Arbitrary Shape Grid Vertex screen that is used to specify the horizontal arbitrary grounding grid zone. The second type of graphics is the data graphics that gives a dynamic two dimensional (2D) visual representation of the horizontal arbitrary shape grid vertices. the top soil layer. the (Initial) Number of Rods along Zone values always take precedence over this restriction even if it exceeds this value.  MultiLayer (5 Layers): The soil model consists of five horizontal layers of soil with constant electrical properties. Rod Placement and Distribution These options allow you to select among different techniques to distribute the ground rods. Place anywhere within Grid: The rods will be placed anywhere within the grid area. If the Specify Soil Characteristics is selected.  Three-Layer: This model consists of four horizontal regions of constant electrical properties: the air.

This can be helpful if difficult field conditions make it impractical to respect the symmetrical electrode positions required by the Wenner and Schlumberger methods. three or more distinct horizontal layers of earth. Presently. The Concept of Earth Resistivity The purpose of the earth resistivity test related to power system design is to assist in the determination of an appropriate soil model which can be used to predict the effect of the underlying soil characteristics on the performance of a grounding system or a power delivery system. however. Wenner has developed an equation that takes into account the depth of a point source.1415926.. default = 0. d = spacing between potential electrodes (inner electrodes: d = Si in the figure). the potential value is increased and the sensitivity limitations encountered using the Wenner method may be overcome. Considering electrode penetration depth to be small compared to electrode spacing. On the other hand. Indicates that soil data will be specified as apparent resistance measurements. For Wenner measurements. This method circumvents a shortcoming of the Wenner method often encountered at large probe spacings whereby the magnitude of the potential between the potential probes becomes too small to give reliable measurements. The preceding equation is not valid for short electrode spacings that are comparable to electrode lengths. Possible options: Wenner: <Preset and default value>. except that the distance between the inner potential probes need not be the same as the distance between each potential probe and its adjacent current injection electrode. The initial thickness of the layer n which will be used in the interpretation of measured apparent earth resistivity (or resistance). the program determines an equivalent horizontal layered earth. Enter into the Measurements grid. For Wenner measurements.) >. it is rare that you will need to specify any parameters other than the soil type (i. The distance between the current dipole and the potential dipole (the C1 .283.htm 13/02/2016 . The program will use an exact equation if the lengths of the current and/or potential electrodes are specified. R = measured apparent resistance. Apparent Resistance or Resistivity: <Real value. Convert to General: Click this button to convert measurements specified using the Wenner. In this case the apparent measured resistivity is: Rho=2(pi)aR where Rho = apparent soil resistivity.. default = 0. The electrode configuration consists of two outer current injection electrodes and two inner potential probes. Schlumberger or Unipolar method into equivalent measurements specified with the General method. In such cases. and one potential probe.. only none of the inter-pin spacings need to be equal. The current electrodes therefore form an electric dipole.AutoGroundDesign: An Overview       Page 5 of 15 Uniform Two-Layer Three-Layer MultiLayer (4 Layers) MultiLayer (5 Layers) Automatic The last option Automatic indicates that the total number of layers in a horizontally layered soil is determined by the program based on the measured apparent resistances/resistivities.. Physically. Types of Earth Structures The earth structures that can be analyzed include soils with horizontal layers. Spacing P2-C2: Distance between potential electrode P2 and adjacent current probe C2 (in meters or feet).. Measurement Methods The measurement configuration most widely used in the electric power industry is a four-electrode (probe) method developed by Wenner. normally stopping halfway between C1 and P2. pi = 3.. and Se2 can all be unequal. the greater the electrode spacing. As shown in the figure below. Spacing C1-C2: Distance between the two current electrodes C1 and C2 (in meters or feet). It is important to note that the equation is valid for electrode spacings much larger than electrode length (or burial depth. For more information on this method. R = ratio of measured voltage to test current. C1. valid range of values = [0. For Wenner measurements. the user can sometimes guide the program to a more satisfactory solution. as many rows of data as necessary to specify all earth resistivity data for a full traverse. General invokes the multilayer computation algorithm. Sometimes. Required only for Unipolar and Dipole-Dipole measurements. you may specify not only the type of soil model. but also the number of layers and even the initial resistivities and thicknesses of any layers that the user believes are close to those that should be obtained in the computed soil model.) >. Notes: 1. soils with vertical layers.1/C2P1). Uniform Soil Type This option instructs AutoGroundDesign to best match the measured apparent resistances/resistivities with a uniform soil type. the electrical characteristics of the earth are sufficiently uniform over horizontal distances to permit the assumption that the soil beneath typical sites is uniform over horizontal dimensions. this is the distance between any pair of adjacent pins. Dipole-Dipole: In this configuration. Resistivity: Indicates that soil data will be specified as apparent resistivity measurements. For large probe spacings. the greater depth of earth involved in the measurement. Si. and soils having resistivities that vary exponentially with depth as illustrated hereafter. For limited-layer soil types. The program offers a General method which can interpret measurements made with completely arbitrary electrode spacings: i. The initial values of soil characteristics can be specified in the Resistivity and Thickness fields:  Resistivity of Layer n: <Real value. The distance between the current electrodes is normally small. Measured apparent resistivity (in ohm-m) or apparent resistance (in ohms) depending on the Type option selected. The apparent resistance is the voltage difference between the potential probes divided by the injection current. in meters (a = Se1 = Si = Se2 in the figure).  Thickness of Layer n: <Real value. the moving potential electrode P1 starts near C1 (the starting current electrode) and moves towards P2. the values to be filled in the Measurements grid are:      Spacing C1-P1: Distance between current electrode C1 and adjacent potential probe P1 (in meters or feet). A uniform soil model is shown in the following figure. pi = 3. resulting in one apparent resistivity or resistance value per electrode spacing. and P2. the preceding equation effectively describes the variation in measured resistivity as a function of electrode separation a. P1.. Possible settings for Data Type options:   Resistance: <Default value>. and CiPj is the distance (in meters) between current electrode i and potential probe j. in ohms. 2. In AutoGroundDesign. When selecting this option. (i.. The program will automatically select the initial resistivity of layer n if a zero value is assigned to this variable. but is not applicable to spikes that are commonly used as electrodes. is the unequal-spaced symmetrical or Schlumberger arrangement. four electrodes (probes) are used.. the electrodes follow the sequence C2. In such instances.e. the horizontal variations in resistivity can often be modelled by two or more distinct vertical layers of earth. The initial resistivity of the layer n which will be used in the interpretation of measured apparent earth resistivity (or resistance). file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231. V/I is the apparent resistance (in ohms). AutoGroundDesign supports only horizontally layered soil models. From the resistivity measurement data. see the topic entitled Automatic Determination of Total Number of Layers in Horizontally Layered Soils. In order to provide complete flexibility to the user. with the outer pair being used as current input probes and the inner pair as potential references. valid range of values = [0 . and kept fixed. the greater the volume of earth encompassed by the test current in its traverse from C1 to C2 and hence. Unipolar: The electrode configuration consists of three fixed electrodes (the two outer current injection electrodes.. in ohm-meters. In a measurement traverse.P1 distance) varies with each measurement.e. Four-Probe Earth Resistivity Measurement Test Set The Wenner geometry uses equally-spaced probes. An important variation of the equal-spaced four probe method. Se1. Specifying Soil Resistivity Measurement Data The Determine Soil Characteristics screen is used to specify whether the user will enter apparent resistance or apparent resistivity values as the soil resistivity data and to select the module in which the soil resistivity measurement data is specified. all collinear. vertical variations in resistivity can often be described by one. This eccentricity is usually very small in most geophysical resistivity soundings carried out based on the Schlumberger configuration. C1 and C2. earth resistivity variations over horizontal dimensions are significant and can therefore not be neglected. P2) and one moving potential probe (P1). For more information. Schlumberger: Similar to Wenner. The apparent resistivity can be calculated from the following general formula: R = (K*V/I)/(1/C1P1 + 1/C2P2 . By moving the potential wires closer to the outer current electrodes... two or more frequently.. all collinear and all equally spaced apart.. In this way. obtained using arbitrarily spaced 4 electrode configuration methods (including Wenner or Schlumberger methods).]>. Horizontally Layered Soils versus Exponential Soils versus Vertically layered Soils ) and the number of layers desired in the computed soil model. this is the distance between any pair of adjacent pins.. the distance between the potential electrodes is normally small. this is the distance between any pair of adjacent pins. where R is the apparent resistivity (in ohm-m).1415926. which is widely used in geophysical prospecting. and kept fixed. 2 pi). Probe Spacing Considerations Select Determine Soil Characteristics to specify the measured earth resistivity data for electrode spacing. in general.. refer to: The Concept of Earth Resistivity Measurement Methods Types of Earth Structures Preparing Input Data for the Soil Measurements Resistivity Measurement Configuration Use the Resistivity Measurement Configuration options to specify the method that was used to measure the earth's resistivity. The program will optionally use an exact equation that takes the lengths of the probes into consideration. valid range of values = [0. Usually.1/C1P2 .. This is the standard Wenner 4-pin method. Soil Characteristics Analysis In AutoGroundDesign you can specify directly the soil structure model and its characteristics or you can let AutoGroundDesign interpret directly the measured apparent earth resistivity (or resistance) data to determine an equivalent earth structure model which can be used to analyze grounding systems. the apparent resistivity according to the Schlumberger method is given by: Rho=(pi)Rc(c+d)/d where c = spacing between adjacent potential and current electrodes (inner and outer electrodes: c = Se1 = Se2 in the figure). Only one traverse or set of measurements should be specified per run. Note that this operation is not reversible. a = electrode spacing. Spacing P1-P2: Distance between potential electrode P1 and adjacent potential probe P2 (in meters or feet). Note that the ratio d/(c+d) is often referred to by geophysicists as the eccentricity of the symmetrical traverse configuration. K is 6.e. Likewise. if spherical sources are used). . The program will automatically select the initial thickness of layer n if a zero value is assigned to this variable. General: Similar to Wenner.

AutoGroundDesign: An Overview Page 6 of 15 In the process of soil measurement interpretation. Figure 4 and Printouts 1 to 4 better illustrate these properties (in particular No. It is obvious that for a given set of soil resistivity measurement. the measured data should be entered as apparent resistivities. Di: Is the average length. The reason is very simple: the measured apparent resistivities corresponding to any layers between the top and bottom layers are influenced by the top and bottom layer resistivities during the measurement (assuming a 4-pin electrode method). If this data is omitted or values are set to 0.. the apparent resistance values should be entered. Se1: Spacing between a current (outer) electrode C1 and its adjacent potential (inner) electrode P1 (see above figure).. AutoGroundDesign will adjust the characteristics (resistivity) of the uniform soil so that the computed apparent resistivity curve matches the measured apparent resistivities. and so on. For the Dipole-Dipole method. Si. while Figure 4 exhibits one peak and two valleys which leads to a five-layer soil model. If this field is blank or zero. For a three-layer soil shown in Figure 2. A horizontally layered soil model is shown in the following figure. the following properties are generally observed [1...)>. continues to rise for nearly two logarithmic cycles. 2. When the RESISTIVITY setting is specified in the Measurements module. if any. simply because the top and bottom layer resistivities are lower. the computation results from MALT or MALZ should be very similar. The maximum change in apparent resistivity always occurs at an electrode spacing that is larger than the depth at which the corresponding change in true resistivity occurs. For example. Do: Is the average length of current electrodes (meters or feet). (2piV/I) (1/C1P1+1/C2P2-1/C1P2-1/C2P1) with all spacings specified in meters). If this field is blank or zero. (4)). R. To make the analysis of the soil resistivity data more efficient. then the program determines suitable initial values based on the measurement data. Se. The program will then optimize the soil layer characteristics of the target equivalent soil model. the maximum change in apparent resistivity is approximately equal to the net change in true resistivity.e. If this value is not specified (default setting). This is particularly evident for layers whose thickness increases logarithmically with depth. three-layer.n) containing the following values:  S. Printouts 1 to 4 provide their corresponding soil models that are obtained by the program. For the convenience of the reader. this is the spacing between the inner current and potential electrodes (C1 and P1). Figure 1: Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for a Limited-Layer (Two-Layer) Soil Model file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231. AutoGroundDesign will adjust the characteristics (resistivities and thicknesses) of horizontally layered soils so that the computed apparent resistivity curve matches the measured apparent resistivities. Di. Otherwise. R: Apparent soil resistance in ohms (i. Furthermore. Figure 1 to Figure 4 show four typical measured resistivity points (dots) superposed with the resulting computed apparent resistivity curve (line) which corresponds to horizontal two-layer. the properties in [1] are included as follows: 1. This is a sounding curve is "out of phase" with the resistivity-depth curve and is always shifted to the right of the resistivity-depth curve (delayed effects). Se2 (General Method)  Se1. For instance. Furthermore. Si: Spacing between two potential (inner) electrodes (see figure above). In a multilayer model. This value is an initial estimate of the resistivity of the uniform soil (ohm-meters). When the RESISTANCE setting or no setting is specified. Se2 (Unipolar Method)  Se1. Possible settings: Air: <Inactive>. Do.. Do. this is the spacing between the current electrodes (C1 and C2). are being specified. Figure 1 shows a two-layer soil model in which the soil resistivities vary from high to low. then the program assumes a negligible length of the current electrodes) to compute the apparent resistivity. while the asymptotical value at larger spacings corresponds truly to the bottom layer resistivity. or the general 4-electrode configurations as shown in the following figures. Di. the user must specify how many layers the target equivalent (or reconstructed) soil model should have and optionally an initial estimate of the characteristics of each layer. Computed apparent resistivity are always positive.. R = V / I) or apparent soil resistivity in ohm-m corresponding to the electrode spacings (i. it will compute the apparent resistivity based on a more accurate formulation for handling cylindrical spikes. the true middle layer resistivity is always lower than the measured apparent resistivity data if a High-Low-High three-layer soil type is encountered. C1-C2: Spacing between the two current electrodes C1 and C2. of potential electrodes (meters or feet). 3. Unipolar Method 5. Figure 1. The asymptotical value at smaller spacings corresponds truly to the top layer resistivity. Properties of the apparent resistivity curve and correspondence between the total number of layers and measured resistivity data Based on the study of theoretical resistivity curves (also known as sounding curves) of Wenner or Schlumberger configuration. For the Dipole-Dipole method. As the true resistivity increase (or decrease) with greater depth. a minimum total number of layers can be obtained by counting the number of extreme (maximum or minimum) on the measured apparent resistivity curve. there exists great uncertainties on the sounding curve for the top and bottom layer resistivity. Automatic Determination of Total Number of Layers in Horizontally Layered Soils A user usually does not know the total number of layers before the computed apparent resistivity curve versus the measured resistivity data is obtained by the program. Di. Top: <Default value>. respectively. Otherwise. Schlumberger Method 3. the apparent resistivity increase (or decrease) with greater electrode spacing. valid range of values = [0. this is the spacing between the two potential electrodes (P1 and P2). If the automatic determination of the number of soil layers is selected.e. an improvement was introduced to determine the total number of layers in horizontally layered soils if a user does not explicitly specify a horizontally layered soil model. Initial thickness of the layer specified (meters or feet). the resistivity is best averaged by the program based on the measured apparent resistances / resistivities. Do. For the same reason. R.)>. If the real earth structure can be approximated by a multilayer soil model then the total number of layers of the target multiplayer soil and. Preparing Input Data for the Soil Measurements The main input data required by the Determine Soil Characteristics consists of the electrode spacings and apparent earth resistance or resistivity values obtained using the Wenner.. Besides.. there are a number of electrically equivalent soil models. optionally. Schlumberger. The amplitude of a sounding curve is always less than or equal to the amplitude of the true resistivity-depth curve. then the initial guessed values of the layer characteristics are also automatically performed by the program. regardless of the number of layers or resistivity distribution with depth. a five-layer or six-layer soil models would also fit the measured data in Figure 3. That is. R. The main block of data consists of a sequence of n data lines (j=1. Horizontal Soil Type This option instructs AutoGroundDesign to best match the measured apparent resistances/resistivities with a horizontal layered soil type. Di (Wenner Method)  Se. initial guesses of the soil layer characteristics must be specified unless the Automatic layer selection option is selected to determine automatically the most appropriate values. valid range of values = [0. Thickness: <Real value.. The form of a sounding (measured) resistivity curve follows the form of the true resistivity-depth curve. However. since they are all electrically equivalent. Wenner Method 2. Di. the middle layer soil resistivity 792 W-m (see Printout 2) is slightly higher than the highest measured apparent resistivity data 780 W-m. are not measured. respectively. the apparent resistivity along a corresponding segment of the sounding curve also changes accordingly. .htm 13/02/2016 . Bottom: The characteristics of the bottom layer (which extends to infinite depth) are being specified.)>. Do. An incomplete sounding curve is one in which the left and (or) right asymptotes to the resistivity of the top and (or) bottom layer. a smaller number of layers will consume usually less computation time in MALT or MALZ. 5. Such one-to-one correspondence does not apply to any other layers between the top and bottom layers.2]. it will compute the apparent resistivity based on a more accurate formulation for handling cylindrical spikes. The characteristics of the air above the earth's surface are being specified. A severe K-type (three-layer horizontal soil) sounding curves ( ) is a curve that rises steeply at an angle of nearly 45 degrees. Si. the lengths of the current and potential electrodes may also be specified. forms a somewhat sharp maximum. 1. Do. Figure 3 is a four-layer soil since the data exhibit one peak and one valley. General Method 4. R. then the program assumes a negligible length and will use appropriate formulas (depending on the length of the potential electrodes) to compute the apparent resistivity. R. 4. if the true resistivity of a thick layer is changed. then falls to low resistivity values. Therefore.. For the Dipole-Dipole method. C1-C2. Initial resistivity of the specified layer (ohm-meters). Si (Schlumberger Method)  Se1. for a given set of soil measurements. Se2: Spacing between the remaining (outer) electrode C2 and its adjacent potential (inner) electrode (see figure). The variables are as follows: Resistivity: <Real value. Dipole-Dipole Method Optionally. Otherwise. Se2 (Dipole-Dipole Method) where S. then the program determines suitable initial values based on the measurement data. Central: The characteristics of one of the central earth layers. The characteristics of the surface earth layer are being specified. valid range of values = [0. we should look for the electrically equivalent soil model with the least number of layers possible. Such effects are even more pronounced in Figure 3 and Figure 4 and their corresponding soil models in Printouts 3 and 4. 7. If this data is omitted or values are set to 0. 6. The apparent resistivity asymptotically approaches the true resistivity at electrode spacings that are very small with respect to the thickness of the first layer or very large with respect to the depth to an infinitely thick last layer. In the process of soil measurement interpretation. four-layer and five-layer soil models. Resistivity: <Real value.

it is much easier to gather and prepare the input data.9487 2 212. Geophysics. Teukolsky. It excludes any current carried away by alternate metallic paths such as overhead ground. AutoGroundDesign makes a computer model of the electric line network incorporating a single faulted phase (which can be used to represent one or any number of phases). The model created by the program.9404 3 429. Although this approach is not as flexible or as powerful as the complete circuit model approach taken by SPLITS . The key point of the method is thus to determine the number of extreme or bents on the measured resistivity curve which always contains noise on the data points.8638 2 792.2624 3239.3849 114. or you simply select the Determine Grounding System Current option to calculate the appropriate current based on the fault current distribution in the multiple terminal electric network connected to the target grounding system. By using a single phase and a single ground (or neutral or static) wire group. A. W. 1997 3.4890 3 269.245-253. A. The original measurement data is still used to obtain the final soil model. and accounts for the grounding of all structures along the transmission line.. and constant parameters for all sections. Flannery. W.76699 - Thickness (Meters) 0. Cambridge. 62.179909 7. the basis of the method lies in a fact that the total number of layers is best reflected by the number of extreme or bends on measured apparent resistivity curves. Structure ground impedances are assumed to be equal for all structures in any arm of the network.htm 13/02/2016 . pp. To overcome this difficulty. Esparza. As demonstrated in the preceding section. J.. 1989 Electric Network Analysis AutoGroundDesign calculates fault current distribution in multiple terminal transmission and distribution electric line networks. file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231.562907 Infinite Printout 3: Four-Layer Soil Model Figure 4: Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for a Five-Layer Soil Model Layer Resistivity (ohmNumber m) 1 612. This model accounts for coupling between the phase wire and the ground (or neutral or static) wire.0868 Thickness (Feet) 2. Cambridge University Press. the amount of necessary input data is maintained at a relatively low and easily manageable level. 1989 2. and a single ground wire group (which can represent one or more ground or neutral or static wires). and also the inductive coupling between the phase wire and the ground (or neutral or static) wires groups.013675 5.584 Thickness (Meters) 1. No. 2.317178 - - Printout 2: Three-Layer Soil Model Figure 3: Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for a Four-Layer Soil Mode Layer Number 1 2 3 4 Resistivity (ohm-m) 206. and Vetterling. References 1. Numerical Recipes. Zohdy. S. 54.1724-1729.708103 19. Note that the smoothed data is only used to determine the total number of layers. The transmission line parameters are assumed to be the same in all the spans in any given arm of the transmission line network.AutoGroundDesign: An Overview Layer Number 1 2 - Page 7 of 15 Resistivity (ohm-m) 364.9847 5 1555. "A new method for the automatic interpretation of Schlumberger and Wenner sounding curves"..6672840 Infinite - Printout 1: Two-Layer Soil Model Figure 2: Computed Versus Measured Resistivities for a Three-Layer Soil Model Layer Number 1 Resistivity (ohm-m) 273. Using the smoothed data. and assigns unique ground impedances to the central site and terminal stations along the transmission line. the number of extremes is then obtained using the modified Brent's method [3]. Fault current distribution is determined by the grounding of the various sections of the electric line and associated substations. R.253 67. Vol.99847 582. 6. takes into consideration all the key elements necessary to calculate fault current distribution accurately..4607 Infinite - Thickness (Feet) 2. a data-smoothing step is carried out first using a Windows Median technique [3]. For more information. and cable shields and armors.. You must specify the magnitude of this current in amperes by selecting the option Specify Grounding System Current.22168 Infinite Printout 4: Five-Layer Soil Model Basis of Method The task of the automatic determination of the total number of layers is to determine the total number of layers based on measured resistivity data. No.806843 2. Geophysics.4193 4 119. F. Press. which accounts for inductive coupling.78955 36. H. Vol. The properties of sounding curves listed in the preceding section have also been incorporated as guidelines in both the data smoothing and the second step that determines the number of extremes. B. shield wires. P. T. A. refer to: Representation of an Electric Network Conductor Data Required by Electric Network Currents Sources Specification Define Electric Network Define Electric Network Use the Electric Network section to specify the fault current discharged by the grounding system.. "1-D inversion of resistivity and induced polarization data for the least number of layers". AutoGroundDesign uses a simple set of data concerning the network and has been implemented with ease of use as an important design criterion.5703 63. pp.

default = 35>: Z-coordinate of the neutral/ground/shield wire. Section (Span) Shunt: each section (or span) of the transmission line has a ground shunt impedance located at its extremity which is furthest away from the central site. The Copy Terminal button will copy the chosen one of the existing terminals to the new terminal. in meters or feet. Data entered by the user is given below:    Faulted Phase: the location of the faulted phase is specified in terms of its cross-sectional location in the right-of-way. Alternatively. The Editing Terminal screen is used to introduce a terminal whose data is to be specified. and the data required by the program to specify them.  Number of conductors in the ground wire group (see Note 1). in meters or feet.htm 13/02/2016 . the user can specify this parameter in terms of the conductor dc resistance or the conductor ac resistance (the option selected depends on the setting of a flag specified by the user). Fault Current specification: Active or Magnitude <Real value. It can be composed of several conductors regularly arranged on the perimeter of a circle. Each source is connected to the transmission line ground (or neutral or static) wire group through a switch that can be opened or closed. default = 0>: Y-coordinate of the geometric center of the neutral/ground/shield wire(s).. source. in meters or feet. This value is specified in the Safety specification tab. you may type new terminal name in the New Terminal Name and choose the type for this new terminal from the following terminals:  Distribution Line (DL) with 1 Neutral  Overhead Transmission Line (or DL) with 1 Shield Wire  Overhead Transmission Line (or DL) with 2 Shield Wires  Overhead Transmission Line (or DL) with a Bundle of Shield Wires  Above Ground or Buried Power Cable The Add Terminal button is used to create the new terminal. Zp <Real value>: Z-coordinate of the center of the phase conductor bundle.. This improves the accuracy of the calculation of the currents in the central site and in each tower. the current flowing in the phase conductor is specified as the total vector sum of the three phase currents. 1.e. the coordinates must be specified in order to calculate the mutual impedance between the faulted phase and the ground wire group. This is a node that connects to all arms of the network. Sources: each arm of the network is energized by a current source whose current can be specified with a user-defined magnitude and phase angle (or as a complex number) relative to the current sources of the other terminals. The user must specify the central site ground impedance (i.e. in meters or feet. This value can be retrieved automatically from a conductor database (see Note 2). Only one central site can exist in a given circuit run. default = 0>: Y-coordinate of the second neutral/ground/shield wire. Distribution Line (DL) with 1 Neutral or Overhead Transmission Line (or DL) with 1 Shield Wire Ys <Real value. Each transmission line or cable is made up of sections (i. Starting Angle S (Degrees) <Real value. default = 0. 2. terminal stations may exist in each circuit model. 3. To fully describe the transmission line network. When the impedances are specified directly. Distribution Line (DL) with 2 Neutral Wires Y1s <Real value. ground wire group.  Internal radius of the members of the ground wire group.AutoGroundDesign: An Overview  Specify Grounding System Current  Determine Grounding System Current Page 8 of 15 For each new terminal. shunt impedance). the span length is not required. Z1s <Real value. click the Delete Terminal button. spans) that are all of the same length. default = 0>: Y-coordinate of the first neutral/ground/shield wire. Z2s <Real value.  External radius of members of the ground wire group. at the vertices of a regular polygon). conductor center (if only one) or midpoint between conductors (if two) or bundle center (if one bundle). A uniform soil model is used. This represents the ground impedance of the transmission line towers (or cable man holes) connected to the ground wire group (or sheath and armour group). Zc <Real value. The Edit Terminal button is used to input or edit the characteristics of the terminal. the program uses the Cartesian notation. This ground shunt is a complex-valued quantity which is the same for all structures in a given arm of the transmission line network. in meters or feet. More details are provided in the conductor-data help topic. in meters or feet. The ground wire group has a series impedance and a mutual impedance with respect to the faulted phase that can be calculated by the program or specified by the user. default = 0>: Real part or magnitude (depending on the radio button selection) of the current (in amperes) in the phase wire. In order to erase all data you have entered for the terminal currently being displayed and start over. default = 0>: Y-coordinate of the neutral/ground/shield wire.]>: Number of neutral or shield or overhead ground conductors. section and phase parameters must be specified separately for each transmission line arm. The user must also specify the power system frequency. and possibly several. This value can be retrieved automatically from a conductor database (see Note 2). i. Shield Wire Coordinates: There are four ways of defining the Metallic path conductors that carry back the fault current to the source. and the position of the first conductor. you can not select an arbitrary ground impedance for the terminal. These elements.. All members of a ground wire group must be identical and arranged along the perimeter of a circle at regular intervals (i. Note: Specify the external (re) and internal (ri) radii of each individual neutral or shield or overhead ground wire conductor.e. for each specified terminal. Zs <Real value. Angle is always positive and is measured counterclockwise from the positive y-axis. Conductor Data Required by Electric Network Required Network Data: The span (section) length is the same for all sections in a given arm of the transmission line (or power cable) network. 4. specify 0. Each span is terminated by a ground shunt connected to the ground wire group. in meters or feet. The user must also specify the span length and the total length of all spans in each transmission line arm. Its location is specified in terms of the position of the group's center and the number of conductors. At least one.. Ground (or Neutral or Static) Wire Group: the circuit model also includes a single ground (or neutral or static) wire group.. in meters or feet. For a solid conductor. Typically this site represents a faulted substation or transmission line structure and the shunt impedance is set equal to the ground impedance (resistance) of the faulted site. Number of Wires (N) <Integer value. Overhead Transmission Line (or DL) with a Bundle of Shield Wires Yc <Real value. in meters or feet. Representation of an Electric Network AutoGroundDesign can create circuit models to represent a transmission line network with an arbitrary number of terminal substations (arms) connected to a transmission line emanating from a Central Substation (Site) where the phase-to ground fault (involving one or more phases) occurs as illustrated in the following figure.  Starting angle of the first conductor in the ground wire group. Current Sources Specification The Fault Current field is used to specify the current flowing in the equivalent faulted phase wire. Further Details The user must specify the magnitude and phase angle of the power source current energizing each terminal (arm) of the transmission line network. and iii) transmission lines connecting the central site to the terminal stations. The circuit model of a transmission line network consists of three basic elements: i) a central site. The terminal station consists of a ground impedance representing the impedance of the terminating station ground network and a current source that energizes the transmission line. valid range of values = [1. The data specified by the user are as follows:   Terminals: each arm of the transmission line ends in a terminal section. valid range of values = [0. i... This value can be retrieved automatically from a conductor database (see Note 2). 2. valid range of values = [0.e. This value can be retrieved automatically from a conductor database (see Note 2). In this version. in the case of hollow conductors (this is 0 for solid conductors). Polar: Indicates that the current specified is in polar form. default = 1.. in meters or feet.  Relative resistivity of members of the ground wire group. In this version this connection can not have a user-defined mutual impedance with respect to the phase wire (the default value of the mutual is set to 0 ohm). Notes: 1. Each section of the ground wire group has a series impedance and mutual impedance with respect to the faulted phase.. These values are automatically retrieved when the wire is selected from the conductor database. This new terminal will automatically inherit the characteristics of the former. Required data for the faulted phase: For the faulted phase. Possible Selections: Cartesian <Default value>: Indicates that the current specified is in Cartesian form. Required data for the ground wire group (or bundle):  X-coordinate of the center of the ground wire group. Reactive or Angle <Real value. Network Configuration The Shield Wire Coordinates and Phase Wire Coordinates are used to specify the characteristics of neutral (or ground or shield) and phase conductors belonging to a given terminal.]>: Distance of neutral or shield or overhead ground conductors from their geometric center. Y2s <Real value. If the currents in the non-faulted phases are not negligible. are explained in more detail below: Central Site. Note that terminal. this value can also be specified as the geometric mean radius or the 60 hertz reactance at 1 foot spacing of the conductor (the option selected depends on the setting of a flag specified by the user). default = 0>: Imaginary part or angle (depending on the radio button selection) of the current (in amperes or degrees) in the phase wire. The program accepts source currents in Cartesian or Polar notation. it is also necessary to specify the electrical characteristics (resistivity and permeability) of the soil in which the network is located. Transmission Lines or Power Cables. By default. default = 35>: Z-coordinate of the second neutral/ground/shield wire. Typically. default = 0.  Y-coordinate of the center of the ground wire group.360]>: Angle (in degrees) between the positive y-axis and a ray traced from the geometric center of the neutral/shield overhead ground conductors to one of these conductors.  Distance between the ground wire group center to the center of each ground wire. in meters or feet.  Relative permeability of members of the ground wire group. ii) terminal stations. The transmission line is modeled as a single faulted phase and a single ground (or neutral or static) wire group. default = 35>: Z-coordinate of the first neutral/ground/shield wire. default = 35>: Z-coordinate of the geometric center of the neutral/ground/shield wire(s). Alternatively. Bundle Radius <Real value. Only a small or very large value can be selected by opening or closing a switch. a new database can be used to add the conductor data for subsequent use. If the conductor does not exist in the supplied default databases. Terminal Stations.. Above Ground or Buried Power Cable file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231. this value represents the current in the faulted phase. You must create the terminal by specifying the terminal name. Phase Wire Coordinates: Yp <Real value>: Y-coordinate of the center of the phase conductor bundle. The section shunt represents the ground impedance of the transmission line structures.e.

0. The required data are shown as follows.free space) <default value is 1> 2. 2. No data are required to specify these points.  Preferred Point Spacing for Final Results: Defines the preferred spacing between the points in the potential profiles for the final computation (meters or feet). The units are in meters or feet depending on the Units selected in the Main screen. The following options are used to select the observation point settings:  Automatic: Instructs the program to select the most appropriate observation point settings.  Default Value (based on X/R=20): The decrement factor is automatically calculated on the assumption that the system X/R ratio equals 20. The Maximum acceptable GPR must be specified directly by typing the applicable value if it is relevant in the context of the automated design session. This value must be positive. These values must be positive.e. The first group of observation points is within the horizontal arbitrary grounding zone and is placed along one horizontal direction. More .2566 E-06 henries/meter . The automated design process requires the following three values in order to decide if a specific grid design meets the target safety criteria. The units are in meters or feet depending on the Units selected in the Main screen.. Maximum acceptable GPR: This is the maximum acceptable ground potential rise of the grid in volts.. 1. Sections Total Line Length (Dt) <Real value. Click the Define. some fields or options may not be accessible for editing. Design Horizontal Rectangular Grid The observation points are determined automatically. It allows you to select which quantities should be analyzed. i. During the iterations. Relative permeability (relative to 1. Tower Ground Impedance or Power Cable Man Hole Ground Impedance (Ohms): Rt <Real value. Notes: Efficient and intelligent techniques have been developed to generate different types of observation points in order to accurately carry out computations and at the same time minimize the computation time during the iterative design steps and the final results computation steps. This provides a complete set of observation points that produces conventional rectangular 3D and spot 2D plots that are useful to explore the computation results.  Preferred Point Spacing during Iteration: Defines the preferred spacing between the points in the potential profiles during iterations (meters or feet). the y-axis to be at ground level. rather than being typed in. Note that the above data can be automatically imported from the built-in database. This value must be positive. the smallest rectangle that completely encloses the horizontal arbitrary grounding system zone). Within Grid: This indicates the resistivity and thickness (in cm or inches) of the surface layer within the substation area. file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231. The last two values.htm 13/02/2016 . button to do so. three different groups of observation points have been created. valid range of values = [0. Design Horizontal Arbitrary Shape Grid During the iterations. Network Fault Data: The parameters in this panel represents data used to calculate the asymmetrical magnitude of the fault current. Step Voltages within and outside Grid: These are the maximum allowable safe step voltages within the substation area and outside where the surface insulating material (crushed rock or asphalt). default = 0>: Y-coordinate of the cable shield center.)>: Section or span length.. this value represents the structure ground resistance. Section Length (Ds) <Real value. Computations The Computations tabbed region specifies the frequency and settings for a group of equally spaced observation points where earth potentials are to be computed.  User-Defined: The observation point preferred settings are defined by users. The AC resistance should only be used for frequencies below 2 kHz.e. The second group of observation points is along the edge of the grid and inside the zone.annealed copper) <default value is 1> 2. In the final results. This value must be positive. the region where they should be analyzed and the values that are considered safe for these quantities. earth surface covering layer) to protect the assumed bare-footed person.7241 E-08 ohm-meters . default = 35>: Z-coordinate of cable shield center. 2. Frequency: The system frequency in Hertz is used for calculating the electric line parameters. Observation Points: Specific soil locations where the program carries out earth potential calculations.AutoGroundDesign: An Overview Page 9 of 15 Yc <Real value.e. namely the allowable touch and step voltages can be specified directly as well or can be determined based on the IEEE or IEC standards. 1. The available fields are described hereafter. In the final results..  User Defined: The decrement factor specified by the user. . This provides a complete set of observation points that produces conventional rectangular 3D and spot 2D plots that are useful to explore the computation results. the automatically generated surface of observation points is sufficiently large to cover a quarter of the entire symmetric grounding grid or simply a profile located from the grid center to the outside of the grid through the grid corner. The default value is 60 Hertz. Typically. the observation points occupy a rectangular area covering the bounding box of the horizontal arbitrary grounding system (i. Sections or Spans Specification The section portion of the System screen is used to specify the number of spans or sections in the radial power line associated with the terminal (arm).. This resistance value should correspond to the specified power system frequency. Further Details The shunt impedance is modeled as a lumped impedance at one end of each section (at the end furthest away from the central station).. AC resistance (in ohms/mile or ohms/km). Depending on the options that are specified. Internal Reactance (select and enter one of the three following values): 1. Line Cross Section Line Cross Section The following parameters for the characteristics of the neutral conductors must also be defined or imported automatically from the conductor database. Zc <Real value. Relative resistivity (relative to 1. 3. default = 10>: Resistive component of the (average) shunt impedance to earth of the neutral (or shield or overhead ground) wires per section (in ohms). valid range of values = [0. 60 hertz reactance at 1 foot spacing (in ohms/mile or ohms/km) Internal Resistance (select and enter one of the three following values): 1. It is also used to calculate the Decrement Factor at the corresponding fault duration. The last group of observation points is outside the zone occupied by the grounding system and is placed along its edge. which accounts for the asymmetrical current component.. the observation points occupy a rectangular area covering the entire grounding system.)>: Total line length of the power line associated with the terminal. Touch Voltage: This is the maximum allowable safe touch voltage within the grid zone in volts. There are two ways to create observation points.  Depth of Profile: Defines the Z-coordinate of the point (meters or feet)..... The applicable data fields are: Resistivity: This is the surface layer resistivity (ohm-m) that will be used to determine the safe voltage values. Further Details The coordinate system used assumes the z-axis to be vertical. in meters or feet. Thickness: This is the surface layer thickness (cm or inches) that will be used to determine the safe voltage values.  Computed from X/R Ratio: The decrement factor is automatically calculated based on the specified system X/R ratio. This is a constant (average) value for all sections.. They must be equally spaced and lying on the same line profile. default = 1000. This option is available only for horizontal arbitrary shape Grid. Surface Layer Data: The resistivity and thickness (in cm or inches) of the layer covering the soil surface above the grid is specified in this panel. DC resistance (in ohms/mile or ohms/km) 3. and the y-z plane to be such that the transmission line conductors pierce it at right angles.. This high resistivity material is used to provide a semi-insulating layer (i. The two options are: i Determine j k l m n j Specify k l m n Safe Voltages Safe Voltages Network Fault and Surface Layer Data The following voltage safety criteria are available when the Determine Safe Voltages radio option is selected. conductor center (if only one) or midpoint between conductors (if two) or bundle center (if one bundle). Safety Criteria Use the Safety Criteria Specification tabbed section to define the data that control the safety analysis carried out by the program. The default value is 5000 V. The user should specify a very large value for any of these parameters if they are not to be used during the automated design process. along with the length of these spans and the tower or pole ground impedance in each line. accounting for the grid border offsets for touch and step voltages. Geometric mean radius (in feet or meters) 3. Outside Grid: This indicates the resistivity and thickness (in cm or inches) of the surface layer outside the substation area (where it may be an insulating material like crushed rock or asphalt). in meters or feet. This value must be positive.

0(Rfoot Cs Rhos + Rextra) where Rhos is the surface covering layer resistivity.  Salt-Water Wet: "Salt-Water Wet" contact surfaces.  IEEE Std.0 to calculate the foot resistance.  The fibrillation current threshold is calculated according to fibrillation current versus current flow duration curves published in IEC Report 479-1. When the IEEE Std. are not used by the grid performance computation modules. It is accessible only if User Defined is selected. A value of 100% corresponds to a hand-to-hand contact or a single-hand-to-single foot contact. By default.3 Ohm-m and pH from 7 to 9. Get Safety Threshold Limits The Get Safety Threshold Limits button is enabled when the Determine Safe Voltages option is selected. Six methods are available as well as a manual definition method as listed hereafter. Extra Resistance: It is possible to specify an additional resistance that is inserted in series with the body resistance and feet resistance to emulate the effects of gloves.htm 13/02/2016 . which are displayed on screen and stored to the report file. This value must be positive. and Rextra is an optional extra resistance which can be included. More information on the safety parameters related to the equivalent electrical model of a person and methods to determine this equivalent model is given hereafter. is used to calculate the fibrillation current threshold  The ANSI/IEEE Standard 80 alternative formula for 70 kg body weight. it assumes that the Cs factor is 1. It is accessible only if Computed from X/R Ratio is selected. a text box field. This value encompasses half of the population. Percentage. a value of 50% should be specified. IEC Options The following options are available when the Determine Safe Voltages option is selected and an IEC-based method is selected for the Fibrillation Current Calculation Method or the Body Resistance Data in the Equivalent Human Circuit Safety Thresholds tab. This value encompasses a minority of the population. The available options can be grouped in the following four categories:  The ANSI/IEEE Standard 80 formula suggested for 50 kg body weight. based on Dalziel's studies. This component of the person’s body current path is not proportional to the surface material. For example. When this option is selected. which account for the asymmetrical current component. (Default).  C3-IEC: This option selects the IEC (curve C3) method to calculate the fibrillation current. This option is useful to study problems involving a typical scenarios and environment conditions.36? crushed rock  Foot Resistance Calculation: IEEE 80 2000 (Exact Method)  Fibrillation Current: IEEE 80 (Dalziel formula 50 kg person)  Decrement Factor: Computed based on an X/R ratio of 20 file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231. Corresponds to normal indoor environmental conditions. Thus. Rfeet-touch is the parallel resistance of both feet for touch voltages. Depending on the options that are specified. This value must be positive. This is the default value that encompasses the majority of the population. The available percentage options are:  100% (hand-to-hand): This.  C1-IEC: This option selects the IEC (curve C1) method to calculate the fibrillation current. Corresponds to skin exposed for 1 minute to water of average resistivity 35 Ohm-m and pH from 7 to 9. surface layer thickness.  1994: The 1994 revision of the standard. Rfeet-step is the series resistance of two feet for step voltages. Please refer to the topic entitled Equivalent Human Circuit Safety Thresholds for more options. In other words. Body Resistance of 5% of Population Exceeds Curve. When this button is pressed. It varies normally between 1 and 2. Depending on the options that are specified. typically corresponds to a two-hand-to-two-foot contact  User Defined: This option allows you to specify any percentage that corresponds to your scenario. and equivalent subsurface layer resistivity. The C1 curve suggests a negligible probability of ventricular fibrillation to occur. the safety computation module generates maximum acceptable touch and step voltages. The more rigorous definition is that the probability of fibrillation between the C1 and C2 curves increases progressively from a very low value (about 0. This value is in ohms and must be greater or equal to zero. The C3 curve represents a 50 % probability of ventricular fibrillation to occur.  C2-IEC: This option selects the IEC (curve C2) method to calculate the fibrillation current. you will be able to specify the percentage of the hand-to-hand body resistance that is to be used in the calculation of the safe touch and step voltages. Fibrillation Current Calculation Method Body Resistance Data IEC Body Path Percentage Reduction Foot Resistance Calculation Method Fibrillation Current Calculation Method The fibrillation current threshold can be automatically determined by the program or you can specify its value directly. 80-2000 is selected.  50KG-IEEE: This is the default value.80-2000: This is the default method. This value must be greater than 1. The C2 curve represents the limit at which the probability of ventricular fibrillation reaches 5%. is enabled that allows you to enter the appropriate percentage value (in %) Foot Resistance Calculation Method Use the Foot Resistance Calculation Method dropdown box to select the foot resistance calculation method. The default value is 60 Hertz. Use the Fibrillation Current Calculation Method dropdown box to select the calculation method for the maximum acceptable current (typically the fibrillation current). Cs is a function of surface layer resistivity. the computed safety voltage limits.5(Rfoot Cs Rhos + Rextra)  Rfeet-step = 2. and subsurface earth resistivity. some fields or options may not be accessible for editing.  User-Defined: This option allows you to specify your own value of body resistance of the prospective victim. once C2 is reached. If you select the User-Defined option you must specify its value directly.80-1981 is selected. 3. Cs is calculated using an accurate expression of the foot resistance in a two-layer soil. difficulty in breathing and transient cardiac arrest without ventricular fibrillation. a textbox field is enabled to allow you to enter the applicable value in ohms.  B-IEC: This option selects the IEC (curve b) method to calculate the maximum body current for long fault exposures. Note that computed step voltage limits are based on this same body resistance percentage.  The User-Defined fibrillation current threshold. Three methods are available.  Dry (Default): Dry contact surfaces.  2005: The 2005 revision of the standard.  IEC 479 Method: This option selects the IEC 479 standard to select the suggested body resistance value of 1000 ohms. for example. this value may represent the resistance of insulating boot. Determine Body Resistance Based on The parameters in this panel represents data used to estimate the resistance of the body path subjected to the stress voltages. Note that when this option is selected. 80 Method: This default option selects the IEEE 80 Standard as the reference for calculating the body resistance. provide the resistance of one foot in a 1 ohm-m uniform soil (typically. The user selects one of the three following curves that encompass different proportions of the population. is used to calculate the fibrillation current threshold. When this selection is picked. In particular. based on the default or user-specified values for such quantities as fault duration. They are used to decide whether to stop or continue the design process until the maximum number of iteration steps is reached. then a value of 75% is assumed.  User-Defined: This option uses the user-defined fibrillation current (in A). values for the Foot Resistance R-1 (for a 1 ohm-m soil) and Surface Covering Layer Resistivity must be entered. The applicable body resistance as a function of the computed or estimated applied voltage is determined. When computed by the program. Note that the system frequency in Hertz is used for calculating the Decrement Factor at the corresponding fault duration. to model the resistance of a boot as explained hereafter. Cs is simply set to 1. which corresponds to a single-hand-to-two-foot contact. The safety module is independent from the rest of the software. at power system frequency. the touch and step voltage limits are computed based on the following parameter values:  Body Resistance: 1000 ohms  Fault Duration: 0.80-1981: This option selects the older IEEE Standard 80 (1981 edition) method that assumed a very thick layer of surface covering material. IEC Body Path Percentage Reduction When the body resistance calculation is selected based on IEC method.  IEEE Std.5 S  Surface Layer Resistivity: 1000 ohm-m  Surface Layer Thickness: 6 cm (2. Corresponds to skin exposed for 1 minute to water of average resistivity 0. If you specify the value. the IEC Body Percentage Reduction is enabled that allows you to select among a number of additional body path resistance reduction options that can affect the calculated safe voltage values.0). The foot resistance Rfoot value used in the safety criteria calculations is automatically determined if you select the first two options. Contact Moisture: Specifies the moisture level of the contact surfaces for the calculation of the body resistance using the 2005 revision of the IEC standard.AutoGroundDesign: An Overview Page 10 of 15 X/R Ratio: The computed decrement factor that derates the fibrillation current threshold to account for the asymmetrical current component associated with short duration faults is based on this ratio. the equivalent feet ground resistance is calculated as follows:  Rfeet-touch = 0.  IEEE Std.  Water Wet: "Water Wet" contact surfaces. IEC Standard Revision: Identifies the revision of the IEC standard to be used. Decrement Factor: This value represents the decrement factor used to derate the fibrillation current threshold to account for the asymmetrical current component associated with short duration faults is a computed value based on a user-specified X/R ratio. When the IEEE Std. If none is entered. This resistance is shown as Extra Resistance in the Safety panel. a text box (with the Current label) appears to let the user enter the desired value in amps. Body Resistance of 50% of Population Exceeds Curve.5% or less) to 5%. shoes or any insulated tool. 2. It selects the IEEE Standard 80 (2000 edition) method which uses an exact series expansion that calculates the foot resistance (and the Cs correction factor. The available fields are described hereafter.  User-Defined: This option uses the user-defined foot resistance in ohms (based on a 1 ohm-m infinitely thick surface covering layer) to estimate the foot resistance for the selected surface layer resistivity requested in the safety panel. typically corresponds to a hand-to-hand contact or a single-hand-to-single foot contact  75% (hand-to-2 feet): This typically corresponds to a single-hand-to-two-foot contact  50% (2 hands-to-2 feet): This. In this case. The "b" curve suggests a likelihood for muscular contractions. The decrement factors are automatically calculated on the basis of a user-specified system X/R Ratio (the default value is 20. including a manual definition method (user-defined option).  70KG-IEEE: This option selects the IEEE Standard 80 method for a 70 kg human to calculate the fibrillation current based on Dalziel’s formula. some fields or options may not be accessible for editing. 3 ohms). For a two-hand-to-two-foot contact. surface material resistivity and thickness. The body resistance is calculated according to stress voltage versus body resistance curves published in IEC Report 479-1. Body Resistance of 95% of Population Exceeds Curve. Cs is a reduction factor for derating the nominal value of surface layer resistivity. see the following for more information) based on a two-layer soil model consisting of the surface covering layer and the native top soil layer (assumed to be of infinite thickness). It selects the IEEE Standard 80 method for a 50 kg human to calculate the fibrillation current based on Dalziel’s formula. 1. based on Dalziel's studies. Equivalent Human Circuit Safety Thresholds The following voltage safety criteria are available when the Determine Safe Voltages radio option is selected.

Note that this number may be exceeded in some cases due to subdivision at nodes (i. This is the default option. Start the Automated Design Process  Select from menu item Run | Start Automated Design. (not active presently)  POLYNOMIAL: Select the POLYNOMIAL option to instruct the program to use a polynomial curve fit approximation to compute the mesh numbers of the next iteration.  BINOMIAL: Select the BINOMIAL option to instruct the program to use a binomial curve fit  approximation to compute the mesh numbers of the next iteration. The average length is also calculated sequentially. Start Automated Design When you have finished entering all the necessary input data the automated grounding design analysis can begin. All conductors are examined sequentially and if the [(conductor length/(average conductor length) + 0. when the grid and rods are confined to the bottom layers). then the advanced refinement process will proceed by removing or adding one conductor at a time based on the mesh size. you can do it by opening the “_backup?tagged file. the program will design a grounding system in an iterative manner: a grounding system will be elaborated by the program.5 + 0. Intermediate values indicate that both shallow depth layers and deep layers should be considered to a greater or lesser extent. warning or error messages regarding the progress of the computations. or according to user-specified presubdivision numbers associated with each conductor.0.. 2. In other words. you can 1.  LINEAR: Select the LINEAR option to instruct the program to use a simple linear curve fit approximation to compute the mesh numbers of the next iteration based on previous iterations. then the basic refinement process will proceed by removing or adding grid conductors based on the mesh growth factor. The following methods can be used:  AUTOMATIC: This option selects the most appropriate method that will be used to determine the mesh numbers in the next iteration. When the processing begins. the coefficient value should be 1.5 (TTopLayerThickness .htm 13/02/2016 . In most cases. If Basic is selected. locations where conductors contact each other).  MIDPOINT: Select the MIDPOINT option to instruct the program to use the midpoint of two previous iterations of the mesh numbers as the next mesh number for the next iteration. no design refinement will be applied to the automated design process. presently. when a grounding system is found to be unsatisfactory during an iteration cycle. (not active presently)  CUBIC: Select the CUBIC option to instruct the program to use a cubic curve fit approximation to compute the mesh numbers of the next iteration. For example. the design iteration process will stop if an acceptable grid is found and the difference between this acceptable grid and the one in the previous iteration is less than 50% of this mesh growth factor. Minimum Number of Grid Segments: The minimum total number of conductor segments desired in the Main-Ground electrode after subdivision has been performed. file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231. This upper limit was selected for practical reasons to guard against typing errors and is not based on any other considerations. In fact. They are described hereafter. Therefore. Design Evolution Method: This evolution method specifies the performance and progress of the automated design process. specifying a grid mesh growth factor of 50% means that a grid with 16 horizontal conductors in the current iteration will acquire 8 additional horizontal conductors in the next iteration. This upper limit was selected for practical reasons to guard against typing errors and is not based on any other considerations.  Automatic: The soil layer weighting coefficient is to be used for automated design is automatically selected by the software algorithms. It specifies the soil layer weighting coefficient to be used for the automated design that references the Basic database. Maximum Number of Design Iterations: The iterative process will continue until either a design is found which meets all of the safety criteria. for the main electrode and then by adding the total length of each additional electrode being considered. Soil Weighting Factor (Basic Database): This option is enabled only if the Basic reference database radio button option that specifies which grid database is to be used for the automated design has been selected. a small window (the Message Window) appears and displays information. the user must regroup the soil layers according to shallow or deep depth categories. To do this. The program uses either a user-specified or automatically calculated soil layer weighting coefficient to elaborate an initial grounding system design when a two-layer soil is involved. when only the top layers are to be considered. This value must be positive and should not exceed 100%. This is the default option. then the conductor is subdivided in two or more segments depending on the calculated (integer) value . Note also that if the program's arrays are completely filled at any time during the subdivision process. If the value specified is zero or is left blank. The Design Refinement Level specifies the type of design refinement process to apply.g..f05 if you have loaded a previously created session file named AD_jobid. See computation message window style for more information. If Advanced is selected. or  Simply click on the Start Design button Note that your input data will be saved automatically to AD_Jobid_backup. This approach should be made based on the equivalent two-layer soil that represents the best fit. this mesh growth factor should be based on economical considerations. or the maximum number of iterations is exceeded..e. the mesh growth factor is used only to proceed from one design to the next until either a design is found which meets all of the safety criteria. This variable is also used to control the number of horizontal conductors that need to be removed during the refinement procedure.AutoGroundDesign: An Overview  Page 11 of 15 Body Percentage for Touch Voltages: 100% Automation Design Parameters and Options The parameters and options that control the automated design process are defined in the Automation Design Parameters tabbed region of the screen.f05.  USER-DEFINED: The control parameters of the iteration process are defined by the user. then an automatic subdivision process may take place if the following condition is true. (not active presently) The Mesh Growth Factor controls the rate at which a given grid is enhanced to yield the next grid configuration to be analyzed in the following design iteration.  User Defined: The soil layer weighting coefficient is defined by entering the appropriate value in the prescribed field that has been enabled. first. the number of horizontal conductors is increased by this "mesh growth factor" to produce the grounding system to be modeled in the next iteration. Specification of this value is optional. The computation equation is as follows: FSoilWeightingFactor = 0. If None is selected. if for any reasons you need to recover your previous session data. at soil boundaries. or this maximum number of iterations is exceeded. no further subdivision takes place.DGridDepth) / LRodLength When the soil is multilayered. Using these parameters and options. It should represent the acceptable over design margin that can be tolerated as economically acceptable. tested for safety. When Processing Begins .0. This value must be positive and should not exceed 99. Two options are available. This coefficient indicates the relative importance (weight) to be given to each soil layer when estimating the performance of the initial design. The refinement process consists of removing or adding grid conductors in an efficient way as appropriate in order to avoid over designed grounding grids. When only the bottom layers are to be considered (e. More precisely. the coefficient value should be 0.75] is equal to or larger than two. and then rejected and improved for a new iteration if one or more safety criteria are not met.

To Redefine and Restart the Automated Design . Vertical Rectangular Plate (approximation) : This is a grounding system which consists of a large number of conductors forming a very dense vertical grid. Rectangular Horizontal Grid with or without Ground Rods : The grounding system is made of a number of horizontal conductors with or without rods forming a rectangular grid. see the topic entitled Using the AutoGroundDesign Windows Interface.. Enter the input data corresponding to the parameters that define the selected grounding system model. However. The View Designed Grid. One Ground Rod (vertical wire) : The grounding system is made of a single straight vertical conductor buried in the soil.. It prepares the plots and reports data that can be displayed by clicking on the appropriate button. It is almost equivalent to a metallic plate buried in the soil and having the same dimensions as the grounding system zone. Specify or determine the Soil Structure Characteristics. Choose the analysis options you wish to perform.. For example. When Processing is Finished . a software that produces a large variety of plots and reports based on AutoGroundDesign computation results. Electrode Dimension Predictor: This option computes the required dimensions of the selected grounding system model that exhibits the Expected Resistance or less. Once the processing is finished.. 3. The default uniform soil with a 100 ohm-m resistivity is assumed if none is specified. Array of Horizontal Radial Wires : This type of grounding system consists of a number of conductors originating from the same point and forming a star-shaped array of conductors. Linear Array of Ground Rods (2 or more) : This grounding system is made of vertical conductors or rods equally spaced from each other and distributed along a straight line. the Circular Ring (item 14) model can not be selected for the Electrode Configuration Predictor analysis mode. the grounding zone (dimensions) will not change but the total number of conductors will be determined in order to meet the expected ground resistance value. 4. the plots and reports data that can be displayed using the View Designed Grid. the grounding zone (dimensions) will be adjusted proportionally in order to meet the expected ground resistance value. Note that you can use these programs to examine the computation results and print selected reports. 3. Modify your input data.AutoGroundDesign: An Overview 3. Rectangular Array of Ground Rods (vertical wires) : This grounding system is made of regularly spaced vertical conductors or rods distributed over the specified rectangular zone. 6. This is because. The above analysis options are carried out as follows: 1. its dimension can change and therefore this model is available in the Electrode Dimension Predictor Analysis mode. Three analysis options are available: Ground Resistance Estimator: This option allows you to compute the ground resistance of the selected grounding system model based on the specified grounding system configuration and dimensions. 9. 5.htm 13/02/2016 .. 2. View Plots and Reports and View Design Summary File buttons are enabled. 3. One Horizontal Wire : The grounding system is made of a single straight horizontal conductor which is horizontally buried in the soil. 2. a circular ring has always the same configuration. Click on the Start Design button to start a new automated design process. Select one of the predefined Type of Grounding System Design. analyzes the grid design. The Start Design button will be reactivated. and verifies the grid performance according to your safety criteria. 1. 10. Once the computations are completed. 7. View Designed Summary File: Start FileView utilities. 4. the total number of conductors will not change. To do this: 1. However. the results are shown by clicking the View Designed Grid button and the View Designed Summary File Button. Click the Start Design button. Array of Horizontal Parallel Wires (2 or more) : The grounding system is made of an array of horizontal parallel conductors without any perpendicular horizontal conductors.. 2. For information on the role or function of each button on the interface. The program creates a copy of all reports in the working directory folder for the processed scenario. In this case. Note that some of the grounding system models shown below are not applicable to all three analysis options. In this case. file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231. Using the Grounding System Estimator and Predictor Modes The Grounding System Estimator and Predictor modes are accessible by clicking the Grounding System tab section as shown below. Horizontal Rectangular Plate (approximation) : This is a grounding system which consists of a large number of horizontal conductors forming a very dense grid. a graphical utility for the development of conductor networks. 11. The processing tasks include the following steps:  Saving the project’s data  Selecting an appropriate set of observation points in the safety zone where the analysis should be conducted (this is done automatically in this release. Electrode Configuration Predictor: This option determines the optimal configuration of the selected grounding system model that exhibits the Expected Resistance or less. See GRServer User Guide for more information on GRServer. 4. Click on the Reset Session button. See SESCAD Help File for more information on SESCAD. 6. Redefine and Restart Automated Design When the Start Automated Design Process is Completed . View Plots and Reports: This starts the GRServer program. Analyzing Plots and Reports Once the Automated Design Process is completed. View Design Summary File and View Plots and Reports buttons. Page 12 of 15 Processing Tasks and Steps The program computes all necessary quantities. Horizontal Arbitrary Rectangular with or without Ground Rods : The grounding system is made of a number of conductors with or without rods forming a horizontal arbitrary rectangular grid. Circular Array of Ground Rods : This is a grounding system made of vertical conductors or rods equally spaced from each other and distributed along a circle. 8. the plots and reports are accessible by pressing the following buttons: View Designed Grid: This starts the SESCAD program. 5. future releases will allow users to select arbitrary observation points)  Determining an initial and appropriate grid within the AutoGroundDesign grid database  Computing the grid resistance  Computing the earth potentials and grid GPR at the fault site  Computing the safety limits for the touch and step voltages  Examining and comparing the computed touch and step voltages against the safe values  Producing the required reports and plots 4. This CAD program uses an object-oriented approach to network development. It is almost equivalent to a metallic plate buried in the soil and having the same dimensions as the grounding system zone. Grounding System Selection A list of predefined grounding system models is available from the dropdown list of the Grounding System Data Specification section. You may need to modify or define new options and input data and restart your input session.

.. the maximum acceptable GPR is 5000 V and the maximum allowable safe touch within the grid area is 428.5 s.  Plate Thickness: The thickness of the grounding system. You access the Settings screens from the AutoGroundDesign drop down menu as shown below. The grid conductor is 4/0 copper (grid conductor radius is 0. The available settings are:   Environment Color Preferences Environment Preferences Settings The Environment Preferences Settings offers several options:  Frequency: This is a convenient setting that allows a user to always start a new input session with the most frequently used network frequency.  (Initial)Number of Conductors along Zone Width: This number determines the number of horizontal conductors along the grid zone width. you should select the option Yes. and information message. 15. CDEGS Style : This is exactly the type of window that is used by the CDEGS engineering modules such as RESAP or MALT.6 V. in cm or inches. 4. you will always start a new session file whenever you launch an AutoGroundDesign session. 4. Otherwise.  Maximum Number of Ground Rods: This number restricts the total number of ground rods that can be added to the grounding grid. located in the Two Layer Soil folder: It corresponds to a 100 m X 60 m grounding grid with four rods at the corners in a two-layer soil. The ground grid specification and safety criteria are described hereafter: Grid design specification and soil structure 1. If a zero value is specified. Selecting Regional. such as the error. in m or feet.  Units System: This is a convenient setting that allows a user to always start a new input session with the most frequently used units system. For a 0.AutoGroundDesign: An Overview 12. Otherwise.  Rod Radius: The radius of the ground rod. These three examples are described in greater detail in the remaining topics of this section. etc.  (Initial)Total Number of Radial Wires: This number determines the density of metal used to model the array of horizontal radial wires. remember to copy the file to another working directory.  Total number of Conductor Segments along Radial Direction: This number determines the density of metal used to model hemispherical electrodes or circular plates (approximation). The available area of the grounding grid to be constructed is 230 ft by 230 ft. rings. select the appropriate radio button. select the appropriate radio button. environment and various preferences settings before starting a new input data session.  (Initial)Number of Rods along Zone Length: This number determines the number of ground rods along zone length.  Display MessageBoxDialogues while Loading Data: If you wish to display each possible message. Safety Criteria 1. AD_Multiple Layer Soil.23 inch). located in the Uniform Soil folder: It corresponds to a 230 ft X 230 ft grounding grid in a uniform soil. hemispherical electrodes or circular plates (approximation). It is based on a Rich Text window that can be edited and saved to a file. Hemispherical (approximation) Electrode : The grounding system is made of a very dense circular electrode and a series of conductor rings with different ring radii buried at different depths as well as a large number of conductors connecting the rings together. button on the main screen and load the AD_Uniform Soil. 2. in cm or inches. you will always start a new session file whenever you launch an AutoGroundDesign session. such as hemispheres. The maximum acceptable safe step voltages in the substation and in an area extending 23 feet outside the substation grounding grid are 1469. The files are located in the folder "Examples\Tools\AutoGroundDesign" in your SESSoftware installation folder. Color Selection Settings The Color Selection Settings offers two Windows styles:  The Windows XP Style: In this mode you have no direct control on the background colors of several areas of the AutoGroundDesign interface (the controls will be disabled). Page 13 of 15 Horizontal Rectangular Plate: This is a horizontal metallic plate buried in the soil Vertical Rectangular Plate: This is a vertical metallic plate buried in the soil. you will always display all possible messages together within one page.  When Starting AutoGroundDesign: If you wish to load the last valid session file you were working on before you start a new AutoGroundDesign session file.  Minimum Rod Spacing: This spacing represents the minimum allowable spacing between rods (in m or feet). in m or feet. It is almost equivalent to a metallic plate with the same dimensions. The fault clearing time is 0. This dimension is assumed to be along the Y axis.  (Initial)Number of Rods along Zone Width: This number determines the number of ground rods along zone width. This value must be zero or positive. Otherwise. 16. Therefore. Circular Ring (approximation) : This type of grounding system approximates metallic circle buried in the soil. 13. 2. You can either enter the data yourself or simply click on the Open . 14. The safety criteria are determined based on the IEEE safety standard.  Conductor Radius: The radius of the grounding systems conductors. The selected settings will be stored in your permanent Settings file and will remain in effect from one session to the other until you change them again.  (Initial)Number of Rods along Zone Circumference: This number determines the number of ground rods along zone circumference. If you want to re-run the automated design process yourself with this file. Input Data: Grid in Uniform Soil The objective of this study is to design a safe grounding grid for a substation in a uniform soil with a resistivity of 100 ohm-m.  The Normal Style: In this mode you have a direct control on the background colors of several areas of the AutoGroundDesign interface as indicated in the above screen. warning. Grounding System Parameters The following input parameters are important to your analysis depending on the type (model) of your grounding system selection: Input parameters in the Grounding System tab section:  Zone Length: The length of the grounding system in m or feet.4 V.5 s fault clearing time.f05 file that was prepared in the "Example\Tools\AutoGroundDesign\Uniform Soil" folder of your SESSoftware installation folder. This dimension is assumed to be along the X axis.  Maximum Rod Spacing: This spacing represents the maximum allowable spacing between rods (in m or feet). 3. It will be applied only when your session is restarted. the text may be difficult to read if the background color does not have a good contrast with the font color. However. you file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231. in cm or inches. It is used to emulate an hemispherical volume made of metal.  Rod Depth: The depth of ground rods. Environment and Preferences Default Settings It is convenient to define your regional. This value should be at least four and cannot exceed the program capacity (depends on the released version). 2. However. The crushed rock surface layer that will cover the surface of the substation and an area extending 23 feet outside the substation grounding grid is 6 inches thick and has an estimated resistivity (when wet) of 3000 ohm-m.  Zone Depth: The depth of grounding systems conductors.F05. circular plates. The fault current is 3000 amperes. the program will determine a suitable value. Note that when you select this style. Sample Files Three sample files are available to help you get familiar with the AutoGroundDesign program. otherwise.  (Initial)Number of Conductors along Zone Length: This number determines the number of horizontal conductors along the grid zone length. located in the Multiple Layer Soil folder: It corresponds to a 23 m X 20 m grounding grid in a multi-layer (five-layer) soil. All these conductors form a hemispherical volume of dense metal buried in the soil. 3. The safety criteria are determined based on the IEEE safety standard. The safety criteria are determined based on the IEC safety standard.  Total number of Conductor Segments along Circumference: This number determines the density of metal used to model circular ring. Safety is determined according to the IEC safety standard.F05. individually. AGP (AutoGrid Pro) Style : This is a window style that is very similar to the one displayed while the AGP module is processing the computations. it will not be effective immediately. messages and information on the computation performance and progress are displayed in a window that can be one of the following two types: 1. The grid will be buried at a depth of 1. AD_Two Layer Soil. in m or feet. Or Radius of Electrode: This is the radius of circular ground electrodes.htm 13/02/2016 . you should experiment with the colors before committing your choices because the character font colors will not be changed automatically to match the selected colors.F05. The files are:    AD_Uniform Soil.  Zone Width: The width of the grounding system in m or feet.  Loading of Last Input Session File: If you wish to load the last input session file you were working on before you start a new AutoGroundDesign session file.  Rod Length: The length of ground rods.5 feet in a uniform soil with a resistivity of 100 ohm-m. Circular Plate (approximation) : This is a grounding system which consists of a large number of horizontal circular and radial conductors forming a very dense circular electrode. your interface will follow the style you have selected in your Windows XP environment settings.  Computation Message Window Style: When the AutoGroundDesign computation process is launched.

The fault current is 9357 amperes. remember to copy the file to another working directory. The available area of the grounding grid to be constructed is 100 m by 60 m. To run the automated design process. The fault current is 1500 amperes.1 V and 429.663 cm).6741049 infinity The ground grid specification and safety criteria are described hereafter: Grid design specification and soil structure 1. 4.. The maximum rod spacing is 2 m. The grid conductor is 4/0 copper (grid conductor radius is 0. Grid Configuration Scalar Potentials Touch Voltages (2D Spot Plot) Step Voltages (2D Spot Plot) Input Data: Grid in a Multi-Layer Soil Objectives The objective here is to design a safe grounding grid for a substation in a multi-layer soil structure as shown hereafter: Layer Top Central 1 Central 2 Central 3 Bottom Resistivity (ohm-m) Thickness (m) 86 180 24 1083 62 0. A minimum of four ground rods are required at the 4 corners of the grid. 4. If you want to re-run the automated design process yourself with this file. The fibrillation current method assumes a 50 kg person. touch and step voltages throughout the grid.6 3. The grid will be buried at a depth of 0. scalar potentials. 3147 V and 557. The perimeter of the grid was defined such that the outermost conductors are located 1 m outside the edge of the fence to protect people standing outside the substation from excessive touch voltages. Results: Grid in Uniform Soil The automated design process resulted in a 230 ft by 230 ft grid. please refer to the topic entitled Start Automated Design. the maximum acceptable GPR of the grid is 5000 V. touch and step voltages throughout the grid as displayed using the GRServer plot and report program. 5.htm 13/02/2016 . The soil model is computed from the RESAP engineering module and has the following structure: Layer Top Bottom Resistivity (ohm-m) 297. The available area of the grounding grid to be constructed is 23 m by 20 m.f05 file that was prepared in the "Example\Tools\AutoGroundDesign\Two Layer Soil" folder of your SESSoftware installation folder.2 V respectively.0809 65.. button on the main screen and load the AD_Two Layer Soil. The fault clearing time is 0.5 m in a two-layer soil structure as indicated above. otherwise.84742 Thickness (m) 0. The rod length is 10 m.e.AutoGroundDesign: An Overview Page 14 of 15 will overwrite the existing reports and database files. 244.8 V. Safety Criteria 1. The following plots show the grid configuration. You can either enter the data yourself or simply click on the Open . 3. A snapshot of the computation process results progress screen is shown here . There are 9 equally spaced conductors that are placed parallel to the horizontal and the vertical directions along the grid.3 s fault clearing time. Grid Configuration Scalar Potentials Touch Voltages (2D Spot Plot) Touch Voltages (3D Plot) Step Voltages (2D Spot Plot) Step Voltages (3D Plot) Input Data: Grid in a Two-Layer Soil This example is similar to the case study described in the "HOW TO?Engineering Guide: A Simple Substation Grounding Grid Analysis Using AutoGrid Pro".5 V. Safety is determined according to the IEEE safety standard. 2. For a 0. The user defined automated design parameters are as follows: Automated Design Parameters 1.1 V respectively. 4. The program also created four 10 m long ground rods at the four corners of the grid. please refer to the topic entitled Start Automated Design. To run the automated design process.7 respectively based on the IEEE safety standard. 3.8 1. The grid will be buried at a depth of 0. The crushed rock surface layer that will cover the surface of the substation only is 15 cm thick and has an estimated resistivity (when wet) of 3000 ohm-m. The grid conductor is 4/0 copper (grid conductor radius is 0. 6. 897. The resulting grid configuration plot and the computed quantities such as scalar potential. 90.3 s. touch voltage and step voltage within and outside the grid are 3912. The rod radius is 1 cm. The following plots show the grid configuration. touch and safe step voltages values and plots are presented in the topic entitled Results: Grid in Two-Layer Soil. It will be interconnected to the rest of the network via three transmission lines terminating at three different substations. 2. 3. you will overwrite the existing reports and database files. The maximum GPR.. The allowable maximum touch and step voltages within the grid area (i.7 infinity The ground grid specification and safety criteria are described as follows: Grid design specification and soil structure 1. The perimeter of the grid was defined such that the outermost conductors are located 1 m outside the edge of the fence to protect people standing outside the substation from excessive touch voltages. Newhaven and Hudson respectively.29 V. The resulting grid configuration plot and the computed quantities such as scalar potential. the final design corresponds to a grid made of 24 equally spaced conductors along the horizontal direction and 15 equally spaced conductors along the vertical direction of a 100 m by 60 m grid. scalar potentials. 2. 5. The maximum GPR is 1999. 4. The system X/R ratio is 20. 3. A snapshot of the computation process results progress screen is shown here . touch and safe step voltages values and plots are presented in the topic entitled Results: Grid in Uniform Soil.7 1. Objectives A new 230 kV substation (named East Central) is planned. The objective of the analysis is to provide a new grid design for East Central Substation. file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231. and step voltages within and outside grid are 420. 5. This design is directly obtained from the grid database without any refinement. These values meet the safety requirements.6 V. 1 m outside the fence or less) and outside the grid are 933 V. 2. Results: Grid in Two-Layer Soil After several iterations. and 171. The maximum computed touch voltage. namely terminal Greenbay.09 V.6 cm).3 m in a multi-layer soil structure as indicated above.

geometrical proportions. IEEE. An intelligent rule-based strategy has been devised to conduct the design refinement steps. AutoGroundDesign was restricted to rectangular grids buried in multilayered soils. The initial grounding grid is then analyzed and evaluated from a safety viewpoint by the program: the GPR. Note that in the first version of the automated design. the soil resistivity measurement analysis. The maximum computed touch voltage. 4. and 650. since SES has developed a new and unique automated design method that promises to reduce considerably the time needed to determine an adequate design for grounding systems. 6. It had a character-based (DOS-based) menu interface and was called AutoGrid. In 2004. The resulting grid configuration plot and the computed quantities such as scalar potential. SES is pleased to announce that in 2012. the maximum acceptable GPR of the grid is 5000 V and the allowable maximum safe touch within the grid area is 754 V .5 s fault clearing time. remember to copy the file to another working directory.f05 file that was prepared in the "Example\Tools\AutoGroundDesign\Multiple Layer Soil" folder of your SESSoftware installation folder. The iterative process continues until either a grounding system satisfying the design criteria is found.e. The crushed rock surface layer that will cover the surface of the substation and an area extending 3 m outside the substation grounding grid is 18 cm thick and has an estimated resistivity (when wet) of 3000 ohm-m. SES developed the first version of a Windows-based specialized package called AutoGroundDesign. These steps were quite inconvenient. The fault clearing time is 0. The data includes:        Input session environment. while at the same time minimizing the size of the database. First. You can either enter the data yourself or simply click on the Open . maximum step voltage. since each design cycle can be computationally intensive. touch and step voltages throughout the grid. Safety is determined according to IEEE safety standard.5 s. The system X/R ratio is 20. This version didn’t have a soil resistivity measurement and fault current distribution analysis modules. touch and step voltages are computed and compared against the maximum values specified by the user. To run the automated design process.. touch and safe step voltages values and plots are presented in the topic entitled Results: Grid in Multiple Layer Soil. This initial design will be refined automatically and dynamically using appropriate techniques and algorithms and by varying the number of horizontal and vertical conductors in the grid in an attempt to improve its performance and meet the safety constraints.htm 13/02/2016 . Users' preference and regional settings. These predefined grids have been previously analyzed and stored in the supplied databases. A specially designed database has been created and a suitable sampling strategy has been devised to make sure that it is possible to quickly find the most appropriate grid using any of these indexes.. all horizontal conductors are parallel to the grid perimeter conductors while vertical conductors are placed in a symmetrical fashion along the horizontal conductors. The families of predefined grids whose dimensions are the closest to the rectangular user-specified perimeter are examined. modify and improve it progressively in order to provide a safe grid design and produce the appropriate reports and grid configuration that you can display online. the data entry requirements are reduced to a minimum. Finally. 2. The soil structure characteristics and grounding grid fault current had to be specified by the user. etc?. scalar potentials. AutoGroundDesign Functions and Procedures The following approach is used in the AutoGroundDesign engineering module.8 V. AutoGroundDesign was still restricted to rectangular grids.1 V respectively. system of units and reference database Grounding grid zone Soil data Fault current in the grid Computation settings Safety related data Automated design parameters and controls Once the input data is defined. such as the size and the geometrical proportions of the grid. simply click the Start Design/Automated Design button and let the program do the rest. i. based on the provided input data. then the AutoGroundDesign module adds horizontal or vertical conductors and performs a new analysis. the fault current injected. AutoGroundDesign can handle arbitrary shape horizontal grounding systems. These values meet the safety requirements. The maximum GPR is 3883. The data storage requirements for this database are unusual in that each grid is indexed by a large number of parameters (size. and step voltages within and outside grid are 748. the soil structure. A new iterative approach and improved observation point selection procedure that speed up computation time have been introduced into this package. while reducing the overall cost of the grid. The maximum acceptable safe step voltages in the substation and in an area extending 3 m outside the substation grounding grid are 2549 V based on the IEEE safety standard. Program Highlights With AutoGroundDesign. you will overwrite the existing reports and database files. soil structure. If any of the maximum values are exceeded. button on the main screen and load the AD_Multiple Layer Soil. A snapshot of the computation process results progress screen is shown here .1 V. fault current distribution analysis and safety computation assessment modules have been integrated into the AutoGroundDesign specialized package.. and the safety criteria. an appropriate preliminary grid design is retrieved from a database of predefined grids. Computation time was the main obstacle to the systematic use of this automated feature. The following plots show the grid configuration. Grid Configuration Scalar Potentials Touch Voltages (2D Spot Plot) Step Voltages (2D Spot Plot) Program Development History SES implemented the first automated grounding grid design software in the early 90’s. In the 2005 release of AutoGroundDesign. For a 0. 5. as appropriate. and the number of meshes in the grid with the most appropriate performance characteristics is chosen for the grid to be designed. However. file://C:\Users\aivanov\AppData\Local\Temp\~hh4231. maximum touch voltage.AutoGroundDesign: An Overview Page 15 of 15 Safety Criteria 1. Ground rods are placed uniformly throughout the grounding system to mitigate the effect of frozen soil (or dry soil) conditions on the electrode's performance in winter or summer conditions. analyze the grid design. 457. The multilayer soil is analyzed to obtain an equivalent twolayer soil that will be used to select the appropriate initial grid for the automated ground design. the final design corresponds to a grid made of 5 equally spaced conductors along the X axis and the Y axis.7 V. IEC standards or user-supplied thresholds. metallic plates have been introduced and a robust and flexible grid and rod creation procedure that allows the specification of unequally spaced grids and rods were added as well. Results: Grid in Multi-Layer Soil After a few iterations. It was restricted to rectangular grids buried in uniform and two-layer soils. However. If you want to re-run the automated design process yourself with this file. Moreover. or the maximum number of iterations or other restrictions specified by the user are reached. The fibrillation current method assumes a 50 kg person. 3. This was more pertinent. The program will compute everything that is necessary. please refer to the topic entitled Start Automated Design. otherwise.