Art. 1291.

Obligations may be ______ by:
(1) ____ their object or ____ conditions;
(2) ____ the person of the ___;
(3) ____ a ___ person in the ___ of the ___.
Art. 1292. In order that an obligation may be
extinguished by another which _____ the
same, it is ____ that it be so _____ in _____
terms, or that the old and the new
obligations be on every point ______ with
each other.
Art. 1293. ____ which consists in substituting
a ____ debtor in the place of the original one,
may be made even without the _____ or
against the will of the latter, but not without
the _____ of the ____. _____ by the new debtor
gives him the ____ mentioned in Articles
1236 and 1237. (1205a)
Art. 1294. If the ____ is without the
knowledge or against the will of the ____, the
new debtor's ______ or ________ of the
obligations shall not give rise to any ______
on the part of the ________ debtor. (n)
Art. 1295. The ________ of the new debtor,
who has been _______ by the original debtor
and accepted by the creditor, shall not ______
the action of the latter against the original
obligor, except when said insolvency was
already ______ and of _____ ______, or known
to the debtor, when he __________ his debt.
Art. 1296. When the _______ obligation is
extinguished in ________ of a novation,
_________ obligations may ______ only insofar
as they may ______ third persons who did not
give their consent. (1207)
Art. 1297. If the new obligation is ____, the
original one shall _____, unless the parties
______ that the _______ relation should be
_________ in any event. (n)
Art. 1298. The novation is ____ if the original
obligation was _____, except when _______
may be claimed only by the _____ or when

________ _________ acts which are _______.
(1208a)
Art. 1299. If the original obligation was
subject to a _____ or ______ condition, the
new obligation shall be under the ___
condition, unless it is otherwise ______.
Art. 1300. Subrogation of a third person in
the rights of the creditor is either ____ or
____. The former is not ____, except in cases
________ mentioned in this Code; the latter
must be ______ established in order that it
may take effect.
Art. 1301. _______ subrogation of a third
person requires the ______ of the _____
parties and of the third person.
Art. 1302. It is _____ that there is legal
subrogation:
(1) When a creditor pays another creditor
who is _____, even without the debtor's
______;
(2) When a third person, not interested in the
obligation, pays with the ____ or ____ _____ of
the ___;
(3) When, even without the knowledge of the
debtor, a person interested in the ____ of the
obligation pays, without prejudice to the
effects of ____ as to the latter's ____.
Art. 1303. Subrogation ____ to the persons
subrogated the ___ with all the rights thereto
appertaining, either against the debtor or
against third person, be they ____ or ____ of
_____, subject to stipulation in a _____
subrogation.
Art. 1304. A creditor, to whom ___ payment
has been made, may exercise his right for
the ___, and he shall be ___ to the person
who has been subrogated in his place in
_____ of the partial payment of the same
credit.
Title II. - CONTRACTS

Art. (n) Art. Art. expressly or impliedly. (1261) Art. (n) Art. 1309. (n) Art. pledge and Commodatum. Creditors are ______ in cases of contracts intended to ____ them. _____ made by letter or telegram does not bind the offerer except from the time it came to his ____. he may ___ its fulfillment provided he ____ his ____ to the ___ before its ____. such as deposit. No one may ____ in the ____ of another without being ____ by the latter. In contracts ___ ___ rights. or unless he has by law a right to _____ him. by the provisions of Titles I and II of this Book. 1319. Contracts are ___ by mere ___. their ___ and ___. Contracts take ___ only between the parties. The determination shall not be ___ if it is ___ ___. . Art. may be in keeping with ___ ___. A ___ acceptance constitutes a ______. (2) ____ ___ which is the subject matter of the contract. in such a case. 1315. ____ contracts shall be _____ by the ____ of the parties. 1306. 1305. third persons who come into _____ of the ___ of the contract are bound thereby. 1311. by the person on whose behalf it has been executed. There is no contract unless the following requisites ____: If a contract should contain some stipulation in ___ of a third person. shall be ____. with ___ to the other. A contract entered into in the name of another by one who has no ____ or legal ___. The ___ parties may ____ such stipulations. whose ___ shall not be ___ until it has been made ___ to both contracting parties. Any third person who ___ another to ___ his contract shall be liable for damages to the other contracting party. ____. (n) (1) ___ of the contracting parties. provided they are not contrary to law. A contract is a ___ between two persons whereby one ___ himself. Consent is ____ by the meeting of the _____ and the ____ upon the thing and the cause which are to ____ the contract. its ___ or ___ cannot be left to the __ of one of them. except in case where the rights and obligations arising from the contract are not ___ by their ___. (n) Art. is . ___ and ____. 1308.Consent Art. (1257a) (3) ___ of the obligation which is established. 1307. 1314. are not perfected until the ____ of the ___ of the obligation. The offer must be ___ and the acceptance ___. and from that moment the parties are bound not only to the fulfillment of what has been ___ stipulated but also to all the ____ which. ___ contracts. ___. or who has acted beyond his powers. to ___ something or to ___ some ____. subject to the provisions of the ______ Law and the ___ ___ Laws. 1316. 1313. or ____. A mere ___ benefit or ___ of a person is not ___. unless it is ____. (n) Art. Art. Art. Art. by the rules governing the most ___ nominate contracts. before it is ___ by the other contracting party. SECTION 1. 1318. The heir is not liable ___ the value of the property he __ from the ___. terms and conditions as they may deem ___. ___. In such case. according to their nature. Art. The contract must ___ both contracting parties. or by ____ or by ___ of law. The ___ of the performance may be left to a ___ person. (n) Art. and by the ____ of the place. the ___ shall decide what is ____ under the circumstances. The contracting parties must have ____ and ____ conferred a favor upon a third person. 1312. 1317. The contract. ___. 1310.

or ____ is ____. (n) Art. except when the ____ is ___ upon a ____. ___ or ___ affecting the object of the contract. 1324. 1333. The following cannot give consent to a contract: (1) ____ minors. (n) Art. Art. place. Art. Art. Art. _____. 1326. 1329. (n) Art. descendants or ascendants. the person enforcing the contract must show that the terms thereof have been ____ _______ to the former. 1327. ___ error as to the legal effect of an agreement when the real purpose of the parties is ___. To determine the ___ of intimidation. A contract where consent is given through ___. 1321. Art. An offer made through an ___ is accepted from the time acceptance is ____ to him. and is understood to be without prejudice to ____ ______ established in the laws. or to those conditions which have principally ___ one or both parties to enter into the contract. 1323. Art. 1336. Contracts agreed to in a state of ______ or during a _____ ____ are ________. When one of the parties is unable to ___. ___. may ____ consent. (2) Insane or ___ persons. An offer becomes ____ upon the ___. (n) Art. it should refer to the ___ of the thing which is the object of the contract. if the claim is ___ or ___. ____ or ____ force is ____. 1328. the offer may be ____ at any time before acceptance by communicating such _______. although it may have been ___ by a third person who did not take ____ in the contract. insanity. ____. and mistake or fraud is ____. and the _____ is not bound to ____ the highest or lowest bidder. When the ____ has allowed the offeree a certain period to ____. as something ___ or _____. Contracts entered into during a ____ ___ are ___. _____ ____ of things for sale are not ___ offers. Art. Art. There is no mistake if the party alleging it ___ the ___. and ___ who do not know how to ____. (1268) . all of which must be ___ with. 1322. (n) Art. 1334. to give his ____. The person making the offer may fix the ___. In order that ____ may ____ consent. A ___ to ___ one's claim through ____ authority. 1330. An ____ may be express or ____. ___ and ____ of the person shall be borne in mind. 1320. 1325. the ___. 1331. (n) Art. There is ___ when one of the contracting parties is ____ by a ____ and ____ fear of an ____ and ___ ___ upon his person or property. or insolvency of either party ____ acceptance is _____. A simple mistake of ___ shall give rise to its _____. ___ or ___ shall ____ the obligation. Art. There is ____ when in order to ___ consent. or if the contract is in a _____ not understood by him. and ____ of _____. 1335.presumed to have been ____ into in the place where the offer was made. does not vitiate consent. (n) Art. Advertisements for ___ are simply ___ to make ____. unless the contrary appears. ____. but mere ____ to make an offer. The ______ declared in Article 1327 is subject to the _____ determined by law. Art. or upon the person or property of his ___. Mistake as to the ___ or ___ of one of the parties will ___ consent only when such identity or qualifications have been the ___ ____ of the contract. 1332. Unless it appears otherwise.

1341. the other is induced to ___ into a Art. are not in themselves ______. ___ the latter of a ___ ___ of ___. The usual _______ in trade. without them. unless made by an ____ and the other party has _____ on the former's ____ _____. 1340. constitutes ____. (n) Art. through ____ words or ____ of one of the contracting parties. when the other party had an opportunity to know the facts. (1269) Art. as when the parties are bound by ____ relations. There is ___ ___ when a person takes ___ advantage of his ___ over the will of another. or was ___ or in ____ ____. ___ to ___ facts. (n) . There is ___ when. A mere ___ of an ___ does not signify fraud. 1338. ____ and other relations between the parties. ___.Art. (n) Art. or the fact that the person alleged to have been ____ influenced was suffering from mental ____. The following circumstances shall be considered: the ___. 1339. 1337. contract which. he would not have ____ to. when there is a ___ to ___ them.