Afghanistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia

Kabul is the capital of the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan as well as the largest city of Afghanistan, located in the eastern
section of Afghanistan.
The Afghani is the currency of Afghanistan. It is nominally subdivided into 100 pul, although there are no pul coins currently
in circulation.
Afghanistan is a multilingual country in which two languages – Pashto and Dari – are both official and most widely spoken.
Dari is the official name of the Persian language in Afghanistan; it is often referred to as the Afghan Persian.[2][3] Both
Pashto and Persian are Indo-European languages from the Iranian languages sub-family. Other regional languages, such
as Uzbek, Turkmen, Balochi, Pashayi and Nuristani are spoken by minority groups across the country.
Afghanistan is an Islamic Republic whose current leader is Chief Executive Hamid Karzai. The chief executive in Afghanistan
typically has a term length of 5 years. Afghanistan's Legislature has 249 seats, and the last legislative elections were in 2010.
Type of government- Islamic Republic
Dr. Ashraf Ghani Ahmadzai is the current President of Afghanistan and an anthropologist by education. He was elected on 21
September 2014, and previously served as Finance Minister and the chancellor of Kabul University.
Bhutan officially the Kingdom of Bhutan, is a landlocked country in South Asia at the eastern end of the Himalayas. It is
bordered to the north by China and to the south, east and west by India.
Thimphu formerly spelled Thimbu,[4][5] is the capital and largest city of Bhutan.[6][7] It is situated in the western central part of
Bhutan and the surrounding valley is one of Bhutan's dzongkhags, the Thimphu District. The city became the capital of
Bhutan in 1961.
Dzongkha, the national language, is the only language with a native literary tradition in Bhutan, though Lepcha and Nepali
are literary languages in other countries.
The ngultrum has been the currency of Bhutan since 1974. It is subdivided into 100 chhertum (called chetrums on coins until
Constitutional Monarchy


Short Message Service (SMS) is a text messaging service component of phone, Web, or mobile communication
systems. It uses standardized communications protocols to allow fixed line or mobile phone devices to exchange short text
WeChat is a free messaging & calling app that allows you to easily connect with family & friends across countries. It’s the allin-one communications app for free text (SMS/MMS), voice & video calls, moments, photo sharing, and games.
WhatsApp Messenger is a messaging app available for Android and other smartphones. WhatsApp uses your phone’s
Internet connection (4G/3G/2G/EDGE or Wi-Fi, as available) to message and call friends and family. Switch from SMS to
WhatsApp to send and receive messages, calls, photos, videos, and Voice Messages. First year FREE!* (WhatsApp may
charge thereafter, current price is $0.99 USD/year).
With Viber, everyone in the world can connect. Freely. More than 516 million Viber users text, make HD-quality phone and
video calls, and send photo and video messages worldwide over Wifi or 3G - for free.* Viber Out can be used to make calls
to non-Viber mobile and landline numbers at low rates. Viber is available for many smartphones and platforms.
Viber is compatible with and optimized for Android tablets! Use Viber on your tablet and phone simultaneously.
On Viber, your phone number is your ID. The app syncs with your mobile contact list, automatically detecting which of your
contacts have Viber.

Hike Messenger (stylized as hike messenger) is a cross-platform instant messaging service for smartphones that uses
the internet for communication. In addition to text messaging, users can send each other graphical stickers, emoticons,
images, videos, audios, files, voice messages, contacts and location
The Negative Effect of Social Media on Society and Individuals
by Brian Jung, Demand Media
Social networking allows users to easily meet and communicate.
Social networking sites like Facebook and MySpace allow you to find and connect with just about anyone, from a coworker in
a neighboring cube to the girl who played Emily in your high school production of "Our Town" thirty years ago. Browsing
these sites can make you feel connected to a larger community, but such easy, casual connection in an electronic
environment can also have its downside.
A False Sense of Connection
According to Cornell University's Steven Strogatz, social media sites can make it more difficult for us to distinguish between
the meaningful relationships we foster in the real world, and the numerous casual relationships formed through social media.
By focusing so much of our time and psychic energy on these less meaningful relationships, our most important connections,
he fears, will weaken.
The immediacy provided by social media is available to predators as well as friends. Kids especially are vulnerable to the
practice of cyber-bullying in which the perpetrators, anonymously or even posing as people their victims trust, terrorize
individuals in front of their peers. The devastation of these online attacks can leave deep mental scars. In several wellpublicized cases, victims have even been driven to suicide. The anonymity afforded online can bring out dark impulses that
might otherwise be suppressed. Cyber-bullying has spread widely among youth, with 42% reporting that they have been
victims, according to a 2010 CBS News report.
Decreased Productivity
While many businesses use social networking sites to find and communicate with clients, the sites can also prove a great
distraction to employees who may show more interest in what their friends are posting than in their work tasks.
posted two studies which demonstrated damage to productivity caused by social networking: Nucleus Research reported that
Facebook shaves 1.5% off office productivity while Morse claimed that British companies lost 2.2 billion a year to the social
phenomenon. New technology products have become available that allow social networks to be blocked, but their
effectiveness remains spotty.
Social networking sites encourage people to be more public about their personal lives. Because intimate details of our lives
can be posted so easily, users are prone to bypass the filters they might normally employ when talking about their private
lives. What's more, the things they post remain available indefinitely. While at one moment a photo of friends doing shots at a
party may seem harmless, the image may appear less attractive in the context of an employer doing a background check.
While most sites allow their users to control who sees the things they've posted, such limitations are often forgotten, can be
difficult to control or don't work as well as advertised.
The Tempest opens in the midst of a fierce storm. The location is a ship at sea, with a royal party on board. As the sailors
fight to save the ship, several of the royal passengers enter, and Alonso, the king, demands to know where the master
(captain) is to be found. The boatswain, worried that the passengers will interfere, orders them to go below deck. The king's
councilor, Gonzalo, reminds the boatswain that he is speaking to the king, but the boatswain points out that if the king really
has so much power, he should use it to quell the storm. If he lacks this power, the royal party should go below decks, as the
boatswain orders. The royal party exits, presumably to go below deck to seek shelter.
Within moments, however, Antonio, Sebastian, and Gonzalo have returned topside again, much to the boatswain's
annoyance. With Sebastian and Antonio cursing him, the boatswain continues in his efforts to save the ship. Soon, however,

the sailors enter with laments that the ship is lost. Fearing that they will all soon die, Antonio, Sebastian, and Gonzalo elect to
join the rest of the royal party below decks, where they will pray for their survival.
The opening confrontation between Gonzalo and the boatswain reveals one of the most important themes in The Tempest:
class conflict, the discord between those who seize and hold power and those who are often the unwilling victims of power.
When confronted by members of the royal party, the boatswain orders that they return below deck. He is performing his job,
and to stop in response to Alonso's request for the master would be foolish. The boatswain cares little for Alonso's rank as
king and asks, "What cares these roarers for the name of king?" (15 — 16). The king has no protection from the storm simply
because of his rank, because the storm has little care for a man's social or political position. In response, Gonzalo urges the
boatswain to remember that the king and his party are the passengers. The implication is that the boatswain should also
remember that his social rank makes him subservient to the royal party, regardless of the circumstances. Gonzalo's words
are a clear reminder that even in the midst of a storm, class or status remains an important part of life. However, the
boatswain is not intimidated and responds that the royal party should "use your authority," to stop the storm (20-21). As far as
the boatswain is concerned, all men are equal in a storm and all equally at risk.
Alonso seems to understand that the captain is the ship's final authority, at least initially. His original request for the master
reflects his belief that the master is in charge of the ship, and that, as passengers, he (as king) and his retinue fall under the
captain's authority. But alarm at the severity of the storm and frustration at the boatswain's order to go below decks causes
the king's party to fall back on the rules of land — the king is the final authority. The boatswain's telling Gonzalo that the king
should use his authority to stop the storm is a reminder that the king has no authority under these circumstances. Although
he can control men (although not always with absolute certainty), even the king cannot control nature.
The storm and the subsequent rebellion on ship is a metaphor for the rebellion occurring in English society. In the
Elizabethan and Jacobean world, English society was defined by its class system, in which individuals were born into specific
classes by divine right. In the natural order of things (that is, the order defined by God), therefore, the aristocracy is superior.
Although the characters of The Tempest are depicted as Italian in origin, their experiences and conflicts are English. Indeed,
the passengers, who never forget that they are socially superior to the crew, need to be reminded that, during a storm, the
captain of the ship is the final authority.
Furthermore, in the period just prior to the composition of The Tempest, English society had been rocked by political, social,
and religious conflicts. The Gunpowder Plot (1605), for example, serves as an illustration of the conflict between the
Protestant James and his Catholic subjects. The goal of the Roman Catholic conspirators was to murder James and kill the
members of both houses of Parliament; fortunately for James, the plot failed. The social unrest in England, however, was
exacerbated by James' extravagant spending on court entertainment, especially the lavishly staged masques, and the
contrast between the poor and the rich became even more evident. Although James subjects lived in severe poverty, their
burden was increased as they were taxed to pay for the king's masques. In response, unrest grew and would erupt several
years later into revolution.
There are many tempests to be explored during the course of The Tempest. In addition to class conflict, there are also
explorations into colonialism (English explorers had been colonizing the Americas) and a desire to find or create a utopian
society. The storm scene that opens The Tempest establishes nature as an important element of the play and emphasizes
the role of nature in society. Other tempests will be revealed in subsequent scenes, such as the emotional tempests that
familial conflict creates (consider the conflict between Antonio and Prospero, and the coming conflict between Sebastian and
Alonso); the tempests of discord (consider Caliban's dissatisfaction and desire for revenge) and of forbidden love (consider

the romance between Miranda and Ferdinand). Finally, there are the tempests caused by the inherent conflict between
generations. So, although The Tempest might correctly be called a romantic comedy, the title and the opening scene portend
an exploration of conflicts more complex than romantic.