# TABLE OF CONTENT

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Title
Table of content
Abstract / Summary
Introduction
Aims /objective
Theory
Apparatus
Procedure
Result
Calculation
Discussion
Conclusion
Recommendation
References
Appendices

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SUMMARY

Reynolds number is a dimensionless quantity that gives a measure of the ratio of inertial
forces to viscous forces especially in fluid mechanics and heat transfer. The objectives of the

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the average flow and the Reynolds number is 4251. The average flow rate and Reynolds numbers for laminar flow are 19. From the values that have been compute.0 ×10 rate is s m3 s and 3028.3 respectively. This experiment is conducted by controlling the inlet valve for fluid to flow and the dye was injected into the head tank and flow into the observation tube. and turbulent flow. and to compute the range for the laminar and turbulent flow. transition. INTRODUCTION 2 . transition. For turbulent flow. or turbulent flow by measuring the Reynolds number and the behavior of the flow.0 ×10−6 3 −6 m 46.experiment are to study the characteristics of the fluid flow in a pipe. and also to justify that the Reynolds numbers is dimensionless.4 ×10−6 numbers are 3 m s and 1878.4 respectively while for transition the average flow and Reynolds 35. which may be laminar.8. we can conclude that the higher the velocity of fluid will result in higher Reynolds number. The dye pattern was observed to distinguish between laminar.

Fluid flow can be classified into three types which is laminar. Reynolds number frequently used when performing dimensional analysis of fluid dynamics and heat transfer problem where it can be used to determine the dynamic similitude between different experimental cases. Turbulent flow occurs when the liquid is moving fast with mixing between layers. Reynolds number between 2000 and 4000 is called transition where it is also known as critical Reynolds number. For flow in a pipe or sphere where fluid is flowed the diameter is used. Generally. the 3 . Reynolds number below 2000 is laminar flow while Reynolds number higher than 4000 is turbulent flow. and turbulent flow. Laminar flow occurs when the fluid flows in parallel layers. In order to characterize the flow of fluid in the pipelines. This dimension usually interrelated where radius or diameter is valid only for spheres or circles. no critical velocity is found because theoretically the flow is stable [3]. Consequently. with no mixing between the layers where the center part of the pipe flow the fastest and the cylinder touching the pipe isn’t moving at all. with turbulence flow in the center of the pipe and laminar flow near the edges of the pipe. Reynolds number is a dimensionless that gives a measure of the ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces especially in fluid mechanics and heat transfer. transitional. velocity and characteristic length or dimension is being taken into consideration. In most laminar flow. Transitional flow is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow. This experiment is to show the critical velocity based on the two modes of flow which are laminar and turbulent. The speed of the fluid at a point is continuously undergoing changes in both magnitude and direction. Critical velocity occurs when the streamlines of fluid change from straight and parallel to waver and diffused pattern due to increase of velocity [4]. Each of these flows behave in different manners in terms of their frictional energy loss while flowing and have different equations that predict their behavior. properties of fluid are included in this definition where density. a concept known as Reynolds number (Re) is introduced by George Gabriel Stokes in 1851 but the equation is named after Osborne Reynolds which he study the conditions of the fluid flow [1]. viscosity. When velocity is greater than the critical regime. it quantifies the importance of relations between these two types of forces at any given flow conditions [2].

flow is turbulent where there is irregular motion of fluid particles transverse to the direction of main flow. From the experiment. transition. 4 . transition(2100<Re<4100). came the dimensionless name Reynolds number in reference [5]. This experiment is applied usually in the pipeline where to avoid damaging the pipeline such as to prevent cavitation’s and erosions. which may be laminar. or turbulent flow by computing the Reynolds number and the behavior of the flow  To evaluate the range for the laminar (Re<2100). OBJECTIVES  To study the physical characteristics of the fluid flow in a pipe. and turbulent flow (Re>4100)  To vindicate that the Reynolds number is dimensionless by using the formula: ℜ= ρvd μ THEORY The condition of the flow of fluid pipes transitioned from laminar to turbulent flow was studied by Reynolds. The type of flow can be distinguished by observing the pattern of the flow.

The transitional flow is a mixture of laminar and turbulent flow with turbulence in the center of the pipe.Reynolds number formula : Re = UD V Re = Reynold’s Number U = Fluid velocity (m/s) D = Glass tube diameter (m) V = Kinematic viscosity (m²/s) If Re < 2100 the flow is laminar flow If 2100 < Re < 4000 the flow is transitional flow If Re > 4000 the flow is turbulent flow The viscosity of the apparatus also effect the flow of the fluid. The fluid that flow in the tube will contain friction factor. The laminar flow can be seen in the Osbourne Reynold’s experiment because of the dye is injected into the flow water. Different regimes have different friction factor in reference [6]. there is friction between the wall of the tube and the fluid flow. However. The 5 . The turbulent flow is unsteady flow condition. where the dye is disappear in the water because of high velocity of the fluid flow. If the viscosity is high the flow of the fluid will become turbulent. The water flow rate is measured using volumetric method where the water in the volumetric tank is measured. APPARATUS This experiment is carried out using the Osborne Reynold’s Demonstration apparatus with a visualization tube to observe the flow condition by flowing the dye in the water. viscosity is also depends on the temperature.

control valve. The water was allowed to settle for a few minutes. outflow and overflow pipes are connected to the hose. and dye injector are to determine and obtained the different required flow. 3. The dye injector was lowered until it is seen in the glass tube. 4. inlet and outlet valves. A small overflow spillage through the overflow tube was ensured to maintain a constant water level. The water inlet valve was opened and water was allowed to enter the stilling tank. 2. 6 . The inflow. Dye reservoir Dye Injector Head Tank Dye Control Valve Bell Mouth Observation Tube Overflow Valve Water Outlet Valve Water Inlet Valve Figure 1 : Unit Assembly of Osborne Reynold’s Demonstration PROCEDURE 1.

8 4220.1047 0. RESULTS Flow Laminar Transient Turbulent Volume (m3) Time (s) 194 200 220 350 330 310 460 460 470 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 10 Flow rate Velocity Reynolds’ (m3/s) 19. 6.2 3211.0 x 10-6 46.5.1 3028. The experiment was repeated by regulating the water inlet valve and outlet valve. The water flow was regulated using the inlet valve. and outlet valve until a straight indentified dye line was achieved indicating the flow was laminar.0 x 10-6 33.8 4220. 8. to produce transitional and turbulent flow.1623 0. The reading was taken 3 times to take its average value.1728 0.7 7 .2408 0.0 x 10-6 31.2 2019.2461 Number (Re) 1780.1016 0.0 x 10-6 47.0 x 10-6 22.2408 0. The dye control valve. The volume of water was collected at the outlet of outflow within 10 s.0 x 10-6 46.0 x 10-6 (m/s) 0. the volume was recorded.1832 0.9 2844. 9.8 4313.9 1835. was slowly adjusted until a slow flow with dye injection was achieved.0 x 10-6 35.1152 0.4 x 10-6 20. 7.

V = Q/A Laminar Flow: V = (19.0×10-6 m3/s) / (1.8 From the calculations.91× 10-4 m2 Diameter of observation tube. V=0.0156 m) / (0.0156 m Kinematic viscosity. the mean velocity is directly proportional to the flow rate.89×10-6 m2 ⁄ s).2408 m/s) (0.1832 m/s Re = (0. V=0. A = 1.89×10-6 m2 ⁄ s).9 + 2844.CALCULATIONS Area of observation tube.8 Average = (4220.9 Average = (1780.2408 m/s Re = (0.1016 m/s) (0. hence the velocity.1 + 3028.1832 m/s) (0.8) / 3 = 3028.3 Turbulence Flow: V = (46. D = 0.89×10-6 m2 ⁄ s).7) / 3 = 4251.9 + 1835.2) / 3 = 1878. Re = 3211.91×10-4 m2).91×10-4 m2).4 Transitional Flow: V = (35. V=0.1016 m/s Re = (0.2 + 2019.1 Average = (3211.4×10-6 m3/s) / (1. Re = 4220.8 + 4220. ν= 0.89×10-6 m2/s Reynolds’s number: Re = (V ×D)/ ν Q = AV. Re = 1780.0×10-6 m3/s) / (1.8 + 4313. 8 .0156 m) / (0.91×10-4 m2).0156 m) / (0.

Laminar flow is fluid motion in which all the particles in the fluid are moving in a straight line. the average Reynolds number calculated for each flow regime is within the accepted intervals which is for laminar flow is 1874. Re = ρuD / µ = ud / ν = dimensionless parameter From the experiment. Re≥ 4000 As Reynolds number increase. characterized by whirlpool-like regions.8. and transitional flow becomes turbulent. transitional or turbulent flow. From the results above. whereas for transitional flow the liquid dye is in a straight line at the initial and quite wavy at the end. while for transitional flow is 3211. is that the results of the experiment are applicable to all Newtonian fluid flows in round pipes of all diameters. Re ≤ 2100 Transitional flow. 2100≤ Re≤ 4000 Turbulent flow. and turbulent flow is an irregular flow of particles. The particles of turbulent flow are in a state of chaos and some actually with opposite velocity vectors to each other. the inertial force grow relatively larger. the flow of liquid can be determined by observing the movement of injected dye which can be either laminar. the continuity equation for incompressible flows were used U = Vol / t. The advantage of using a critical Reynolds number instead of a critical velocity. The characteristics of the flow can also be obtained using Reynold’s number. 9 .1 and turbulent flow is 4251. Area u = velocity Vol = volume of water collected Area = cross sectional area of the pipe t = time required to collect the volume of water To find Re number. The Reynolds number experiment determines the critical Reynolds number at which laminar flow becomes transitional. and the flow gets destabilized into full blown turbulence.DISCUSSION To determine the average velocity from the measurement. Laminar flow.4.

Based on the Reynolds theory and Reynolds number obtained. it shows that the fluid is laminar flow because the Re < 2000.4. for laminar flow.CONCLUSION According to Osborne Reynolds experiment.8. The constant time which is 10 second been set to collect the fluid at the outlet valve during the experiment and the overall experiment succeeded in showing the result obtained for laminar flow is 1878. For transition flow. For turbulent.3. there is no unit because Reynolds number is a dimensionless number. transition or turbulent by measuring the Reynolds number and the behavior of the flow through the pipeline. we will discover the characteristics of fluids flow by determining whether it is laminar. It follows the theory of Reynolds number in order to determine the type of flow. it behave in chaotic and unsteady.in addition the velocity also high causing it to flow vigorously. While for the behavior of transition flow is it has the combination of laminar and turbulent flow. However. while for the turbulent flow the Reynolds number is 4251. For transition flow. the 2000 < Re < 4000 while for turbulent Re > 4000. 10 . From the observation. the behavior of the fluid is in straight line and steady mood. the Reynolds number is 3028.

RECOMMENDATION 1. Use the clean water to observe the pattern easily. Avoid inject too much of the dye into the liquid to prevent the hardest to get the stable 3. Open the pump slowly to prevent the high pressure that will be the water to splash out. of the fluid. REFERENCES 11 . Repeat several times when collecting the sample to get the best average of the result. 5. 2. Alert the water level in the tank to make sure the water level above the mouth bell. Place the bright or white paper behind the tube to observe easily. 6. 4.

Junaidah A. N.G. 2015 from [3] [4] http://geophysics.Heat and Mass Transfer. [6] NY:McGraw-Hill.ou. pp. 4th ed. & Aksel.Water Resources and Engineering Division Faculty of Civil Enginneering. Turahim A.php Yunus A. Page 14-17 Yunus A.. (2011) "Reynolds. University of [7] Cambridge.B.. Basic [8] hydraulics 2nd Edition.org/wiki/Reynolds_number Retrieved on November 2th... Fluid Mechanics: Springer. and Afshin J. A Cambridge Alumni Database. Suhaimi A. New York..com/pipe- valve-fitting-flow/flow-in- [5] pipes. pp.C. Retrieved on November 2th.Cengel. Osborne (RNLS863O)".. 6-5(365-366)(2006) 12 . Najib A. 3rd ed.edu/geol1114/notes/running_water/Reynolds_number. 385.H (2011).pipeflowcalculations. 2015 from [2] https://en.wikipedia. New York.[1] Retrieved on November 2th. A. (2008).html Spurk. J.NY : Mcgraw-Hill. 2015 from http://www. Hamidon.Heat and Mass Transfer.