By: Nadia Corinna Raissa



• Background
• Purpose of the work:
• To result the subsurface marine seismic section with
sign of multiple reduction using SRME and radon filter
before the interpretation level.
• To acknowledge the difference between SRME and
radon filter in multiple reduction of seismic shallow water
data and to understand which one is better in this case.

A FEW CALCULATIONS FOR GEOMETRY TARGET To put the trace of seismic data at the right position and elevation NEAR TRACE GROUP 1 / TRACE 1 FAR TRACE GROUP n GROUP INTERVAL Source NEAR TRACE OFFSET (NTO) Total ‘active’ streamer length (centre near group-------------------------------------centre far group) FAR TRACE OFFSET (FTO) ((Number of groups -1) x Group interval) + Near Trace Offset Number of fold = (Number of Channel / 2) x (Channel Interval / Shot Point Interval) Number of shot = SP EOL (End of Line) – SP SOL (Start of Line) – 1 (to calculate interval) Streamer Azimuth 138 + 180 = 318 Streamer length Number of channel Channel interval Shot point interval SP EOL = = = = = 4050 meter 324 12.5 meter 25 meter 1001 Number of fold Number of shot Sampling interval Length of records SP SOL = = = = = 81 623 2 milliseconds 7 milliseconds 1623 .

Amplitude Correction Influenced factors of seismic amplitude: • • • • • • • • • Source Power Spherical Divergence Variation of reflection coefficient to offset and incident angle Attenuation and Absorption Multiple Diffraction Interference and Superposition Geophone Sensitivity Instrument Balance .

spherical divergence and other effects by adjusting the amplitude of the data.TAR (True Amplitude Recovery) Steps in seismic processing to compensate for attenuation. TARGET Recover decreasing amplitude due to the bellow factors during seismic waves travel through the earth Simply said as: A Tool to Recover The Amplitude .

Noises on 2D Marine Data Direct wave Low frequency Noise Unmigrated reflector Multiples Diffraction .

Noise Attenuation .

DECONVOLUTION Spiking/Predictive Decon Dekonvolusi adalah suatu proses untuk menghilangkan wavelet seismik sehingga yang tersisa hanya estimasi dari reflektifitas lapisan bumi atau dengan kata lain adalah suatu proses untuk meniadakan konvolusi Metoda Decon RECORDED SEISMIC TRACE WAVELET Deterministik Statistik Spiking Decon Predictive Decon Filter Wiener Predictive Filter * .

MULTIPLES Various Type of Multiples Water-bottom multiples S R S R Free-surface multiples S R S a Peg-leg multiples S R c Peg-leg multiples S R R b S Intrabed multiples R S R d c S Interbed multiples R S R e .

VELOCITY ANALYSIS TARGET The main purpose of velocity analysis is to get the optimum seismic velocity for each layer. Velocity in seismic processing is very important because focusing of seismic subsurface imaging is depend on this parameter Near Trace Cable Far Trace Layer of rock With interval velocity= Vi Raw uncorrected 2264 m/s velocity correct 2000 m/s 2500 m/s Overcorrected Undercorrected velocity too slow velocity too fast .

… . … . Vn2 t n  Vn21t n 1 2 Vi  t n  t n 1 Kecepatan semu Va (apparent velocity) adalah laju gelombang yang merambat sepanjang bentang perekaman. . t2. V2. ditulis sebagai z dz V  lim  t 0 t dt Kecepatan interval Vi (interval velocity) adalah laju rata-rata antara dua titik yang diukur tegak lurus terhadap kecepatan lapisan yang dianggap sejajar.VELOCITY ANALYSIS Beberapa pengertian kecepatan di dalam istilah seismik Kecepatan sesaat V (instantaneous velocity) adalah laju gelombang yang merambat melalui satu titik dan diukur pada arah rambatan gelombang. misal pada sistem lapisan miring (ξ). ditulis Vi  z t atau menurut rumusan Dix. ditulis f V f t f f z f V    t f  t f f f Kecepatan RMS adalah kecepatan total dari sistem perlapisan horisontal dalam bentuk akar kuadrat pukul rata. maka V1 Va  sin  c    c = sudut kritis V1 = kecepatan sebenarnya Kecepatan rata-rata adalah perbandingan jarak vertikal zf terhadap waktu perambatan gelombang tf yang menjalar dari sumber ke kedalaman tersebut. 2  x   T  T   V  NMO  velocity) Kecepatan migrasi (migration 2 x 2 o adalah nilai kecepatan empiris yang memberikan hasil terbaik ketika digunakan dalam perhitungan migrasi. Apabila waktu rambat vertikal t1. maka kecepatan rms-nya untuk n lapisan adalah n Vrms  V k 1 2 k  t k n  t k 1 Kecepatan stacking (stacking velocity atau VNMO) adalah nilai kecepatan empiris yang memenuhi dengan tepat hubungan antara Tx dengan To pada persamaan NMO. Vn. tn dan kecepatan masing-masing lapisan V1.

.MULTIPLE SUPPRESSION (RADON FILTER) TARGET To remove the water bottom multiple from seismic data especially for marine data at the   p domain Radon Filter is most commonly used for suppression of multiples.

RADON FILTER A A’ P=0 +p B’ C C’ B Hyperbola in T-X map to ellipses in -p Linear events in TX map to single points in  . The larger the dip of an event in the X-T domain the higher its P value in the TAU-P domain. Flat events (our primaries) appear around P=0 in the Tau-P domain .p Plane wave  = t . P represents dip.px Tau represents intercept time at zero offset.

SRME TARGET To remove the multiple energy including those energies that techniques such as radon and Tau-P fail to address • SRME is a powerful demultiple tool because it requires no velocity information. and an iterative scheme permits its use in shallow and deep water settings. • Its ability to handle all of the energy generated from the free surface allows us to remove even the most complex diffraction multiples with SRME. to help improve preliminary velocity analysis. . and prior to radon demultiple. we are able to use SRME with onboard processing.

Y) .Stack Principal OFFSET deconvolution migration TIME CMP (X.

MIGRATION Migration Principal Migrasi Antiklin Before After Migrasi Sinklin Before After .

MIGRATION Which Migration to use? .


Modul Radon .

Radon Picking Multiple (before interactive radon analysis) .

Radon Picking Multiple (after interactive radon analysis) .

Data Shot Gather Koreksi NMO preprocessing Koreksi NMO filter radon .

Modul SRME .

Near Match Filter .

Middle Match Filter .

Far Match Filter .

Semblance Velocity Analysis Preprocessing Radon SRME .

Stack Preprocessing .

Stack Radon .

Stack SRME .

Stack Radon dan SRME .

sedangkan SRME pada near offset. • Pada pengolahannya.CONCLUSION • Pada data seismik laut dangkal ini. • Filter radon lebih baik dalam menghilangkan multipel pada far offset. . metode radon lebih praktis daripada metode SRME. metode filter radon lebih menunjukkan reduksi multipel yang lebih signifikan dibandingkan dengan metode SRME.