# r

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Functions
And Graphs
2 fungsi dan grafik

2-1 FUNCTIONS
Physical chemistry, like all the physical sciences, is concerned with the dependence
of one or more variables of a system upon other variables of the system. For example,
suppose we wished to know how the volume of a gas varies with temperature. With a little
experimentation in the laboratory, we would find that the volume of a gas varies with
temperature in a very specific way. Careful measurements would show that the volume of a
gas V1 at any temperature t on the Celsius scale obeys the specific law
V1 = V0 (1 + αt)

(2-1)

2 - 1 fungsi
kimia fisik, sukai semua ilmu eksakta,mempunyai kaitan dengan ketergantungan
dari satu atau lebih variabel dari satu sistem pada saat variabel lain dari sistem. antara lain,
seandainya kita mengingin untuk mengetahui bagaimana volume dari satu gas membedakan
dengan suhu. dengan cecah percobaan pada Laboratoria, kita akan menemukan bahwa
volume dari satu gas membedakan dengan suhu pada satu sangat spesifik cara. pengukuran
saksama akan memperlihatkan bahwa volume dari satu gas V1 di apapun temperatur t pada
celcius menskalakan mematuhi hukum spesifik
Where V0 is the volume of the gas at 0˚C and α is a constant known as the
coefficient of expansion the gas. This equation predicts that there is a one to one
correspondence between the volume of a gas and its temperature. That is, for every value of
value of t substituted into equation (2.1), there is a corresponding value for V1

. so we see that our collection of numbers. can be represented by a series of points on a two dimensional . since Vt is a function of t.v4. where Vt = f(t)...the above expression can be written f : t → f(t). each member of the set called an element.2) A function..) dan volume sesuai sebagai setelan lain v = {v1. then this association is said to constitute a function from T to V.. kita dapat tulis (2 . masing-masing anggota dari dipanggil yang cocok satu elemen. the value of V depends on the value of t.V2. Itu adalah. If there is associated with each element of set T at least one element in the other set V. sejak v1 adalah satu fungsi dari t yang adalah. Sebuah fungsi.v2. masingmasing anggota dari dipanggil yang cocok satu elemen.}. is defined as a correspondence between elements of two mathematical sets. Satu setelan matematis didefinisikan sebagai satu koleksi angka. fungsi mengambil tiap-tiap elemen di setelan t ke dalam elemen sesuai di setelan V. then. hence. 1 ).. remember that f(t). di mana V1=f (t )... .that is. bagi setiap nilai berharga t mengganti ke dalam penyamaan (2. bacaan "f t. terdapat sebuah nilai sesuai untuk V1." tidak berarti f diperbanyak oleh t. read "f of t.V4.t3..}. A mathematical set is defined as a collection of numbers.t2.t4.V3..t3. but that f(t) is the value of V0(1+ α t)at t. kemudian." does not mean f is multiplied by t. Let us define a collection of temperatures as a mathematical set T = (t1. written f : t → V1.1) puaskan kondisi ini. we can write f(t) = V1 ( 1 + αt ) (2-2) Mari kita mendefinisikan satu koleksi suhu sebagai satu setelan matematis t = (t1. sehingga kita melihat bahwa koleksi kita dari angka. kemudian asosiasi ini dikatakan untuk mendasari satu fungsi dari t ke v. didefinisikan sebagai satu penyesuaian di antara unsur dua setelan matematis. kita melihat penyamaan (2 . each member of the set called an element.) and The corresponding volumes as another set V = {V1... In the above example. nilai dari v bergantung kepada nilai dari t ekspresi di atas dapat ditulis f:t -> f ( t). kalau di situ dihubungkan dengan masing-masing elemen setelan t paling tidak sesuatu unsur di yang lain menyetel v. tapi itu f (t ) adalah nilai dari V0 (1 + di)di t.t2. ditulis f:t -> V1. bahwa adalah. the function takes every element in set T into the corresponding element in set V. V1 was considered to be a function of only a single variable t. we see the equation (2-1) satisfies this condition . such an equation .v3. V1 = f(t). so we see that our collection of temperatures and volumes satisfies this definition.t4.di mana V0 adalah volume dari gas di dalam memasuki ' c dan satu adalah satu telah tetap dikenal sebagai koefisien muai gas. that is. ingat bahwa f (t ). sehingga kita melihat bahwa koleksi kita dari suhu dan volume memuaskan definisi ini. maka. penyamaan ini meramalkan yang terdapat sebuah sesuatu ke satu penyesuaian di antara volume dari satu gas dan ini temperatur.

Physicochemical system.T4. equation (2-3) implies that there is a one-to-one correspondence between three sets of numbers: a set of volumes. usually depend on more than one variable.. the volume of a gas not only a function of temperature.. and a set of pressure.. V = {V1. V4. 2-2 GRAPHICAL REPRESENTATION OF FUNCTION As we saw above.. and the graphs that result give an immediate visual representation of the behaviour. and the equation are called first-degree equations because all the variables in these equations are raised only to the first power. however. We begin with functions that describe a linear dependence between the variables. T along a second axis.. Persamaan yang mendefinisikan fungsi ketergantungan sebuah garis lurus diantara variabel yang dikenal dengan tingkat satu dari sebuah persamaan.P3.V2.T3.}. Thus. Careful measurements in the laboratory will show that for most gases at or around room temperature and one atmosphere pressure the law relating the volume of a gas simultaneously to the temperature and the pressure of a gas is the wellknown ideal gas law V= RT P = f (T.P4.V3. These function describe a dependence commonly called the direct proportion. we find experimentally that the volume of a gas will vary with temperature according to equation (2-2) only if the pressure of the gas is held constant. First degree equations have the general form f (x) = mx + b (2-4) Persamaan tingkat satu. Thus.}. or first-degree equation . In this section we shall explore several types of graphical representation of function. For example. but also is a function of pressure... P = {P1.}. Equation that define functions showing a linear dependence between variables are known as equations of the first degree. T = {T1.. one of the most convenient ways to represent the functional dependence of the variables of the system is by the use of coordinate system.P) (2-3) Where R is a constant.P2. Equations of the First Degree. and T commonly are called Phase diagrams.Cartesian coordinate system. a set of temperatures on the absolute temperature scale. This is because each set of numbers is easily represented by a coordinate axis. P along the third axis. it is necessary to extend the definition of function given above to include function of more than one variable. V. Fungsi ini mendeskripsikan ketergantungan yang . These three sets can be represented graphically on a threedimensional coordinate system by plotting V along one axis.T2. Such graphs of P. atau persamaan tingkat satu..

2-1 this familiar equation describes the temperature of a system on the Fahrenheit scale and its relationship to the temperature on the Celsius temperature scale. Note that. dan persamaan ini disebut persamaan tingkat satu karena semua variabel di persamaan ini dinaikkan hanya untuk pangkat pertama. consider the 9 equation ˚F = 5 ˚C + 32. b = 32. From the graph we can determine the significance of the constant m and b in Equation (2-4). and is known as the zero of the function. and thus b is called the yintercept. let us consider the latter. We can see that the line crosses the ˚F-axis at the point where 9 the value of ˚C is zero . Rearranging equation (2-4) gives b m 0 = mx + b or x = - 24 ˚F (2-5) . It also may be of interest to consider the value of ˚C for which ˚F = f(˚C) = 0.biasanya disebut proporsi langsung.b) are the coordinates of the point where the line crosses the ˚F-or y-axis. this point represents the point where the line crosses the ˚C-or x-axis.4) Where m and b are constants. indeed. we obtain ˚F = 32. (0. Persamaan tingkat pertama punya bentuk umum f(x)=mx+b (2 . But this is just the value of b in the equation. Illustrated in fig. Hence. If we substitute zero for ˚C into the equation ˚F = 5 ˚C + 32. As an example of a first-degree equation. the equation is that of a straight line.

Misalnya pada persamaan tingkat satu. Melihat hal itu. Dari grafik kita bisa menentukan arti dari nilai m dan b dalam persamaan (2-4). Titik ini menggambarkan titik dimana persilangan garis ˚C atau sumbu x. bahwasannya. dijelaskan dalam gambar 2. persamaan adalah sebagai suatu garis lurus. Mari kita perhatikan yang terakhir.1. (0.b) adalah kordinat dari titik dimana persilangan garis ˚F atau sumbu y dan demikian b disebut intercept y. pertimbangkan persamaan ˚F=9/5˚C+32. b=32. dan hal itu dikenal sebagai fungsi nol. kita memperoleh ˚F=32. Susunan ulang persamaan (2-4) yang diberikan 0 = mx + b atau x = - 24 ˚F b m (2-5) .(Figure 2-1) Graph of ˚F = 9 5 ˚C+32 Dimana m dan b konstan. Apabila kita membagi nol untuk ˚C dalam persamaan ˚F=9/5˚C+32. Karenanya. Persamaan yang sudah lazim ini menjelaskan temperatur dari suatu sistem dalam skala Fahrenheit dan hubungannya dengan skala Celcius dalam skala temperatur. Kita dapat melihat persilangan garis sumbu ˚F pada titik dimana harga ˚C adalah nol. Itu juga mungkin menarik untuk mempertimbangkan nilai dari ˚C yang mana ˚F = f(˚C) = 0. Tapi ini hanyalah nilai dari b dalam persamaan.

6 0.8 1.8 0.4 0. dividing both sides of the equation by a and rearranging the equation gives x2 + b a x=- c a (2-11) .2 0.6 1.6 Figure 2-4 Variation of slope as a function of x.4 1. For the value of x.2 0 0.3 0 0 0.8 0.8 1 1.4 0.2 1.8 1.(Gambar 2-1) Grafik dari ˚F = 9 5 ˚C+32 y 2 1.6 0.4 1.2 1 0.

Next. For example. can be determined by the factoring method. Sometimes the zero’s of the equation. consider the equation x2 – 3x + 2 = 0 (2-15) Which can be factored into the terms (x – 1) ( x – 2) = 0 (2-16) The roots of the equation now can be found by solving the equations (x – 1) = 0 and (x – 2) = 0 (2-17) . adding (b2/4a2) to both sides of the equation to complete the square gives x2 + b a x+ b2 4a2 = b2 4a2 - c a (2-12) Or ( b x+ 2a 2 ) = b 2 – 4 ac 4 a2 Taking the square root of both sides of the equation gives ( x+ b 2a ) = ± √ b2−4 ac 2a (2-13) or −b ± √ b2−4 ac x= 2a (2-14) Which is well known quadratic formula. called the roots.

Kc . If we assume that at equilibrium the concentration at C is (1+x).3 and x 0. in cases where the equation defining a particular physical situation is a second -degree equation (or even one of higher order). If choose x = 1. equation (2-14). in cases where both roots are not the same. we must decide. and 1. Suppose we wish to determine the equilibrium concentration of A.(1 .75. respectively.C.B. which root correctly represents physical situation.25M.75. then the equilibrium concentration of A. respectively. 0.75M.x). We know must decide which value of x is physically correct. and D : 0.25M. molar. b =-3. We see. and D must be (1 . and (1 + x) molar.1. even though both are mathematically correct. b=-102. there arises a problem that is not present when one simply considers the pure mathematics.3. Thus. Substituting a =1. consider the equilibrium equation A+B=C+D Assume that initially the concentrations of A. and D given that the equilibrium constant in terms of molar concentration.B.75M. and c =49 into equation (2-14) yields the two solutions x = 1.C. then. which physically does not make sense. as we have done above.B. and c = 2 into the quadratic formula.C. the physically correct value for x must be 0. only one root made sense physically.Which gives x = 1 and x = 2. yields the same results.C. that although both roots were mathematically correct.x). equals 50. giving for the equilibrium concentration of A. Substituting these values into the equilibrium constant equation We have (C)( D) Kc = ( A )(B) 50 = ( 1+ x )( 1+ x ) ( 1−x )( 1−x) (2-18) Rearranging Equation (2-18) gives the quadratic equation 49x2 – 102x + 49 = 0 (2-19) Substituting the values a = 49. the equilibrium concentration of A and B will be negative numbers. Since quadratic equations necessarily have two roots.B.and D are each 1 molar. .

Exponential and Logarithmic Functions. 2-6." the physical significance of the constant e will be discussed in chapter 3. Exponential functions are functions whose defining equation is written in the general form f(x) = ax (2-20) Where a > 0. since loga 1 = 0 for any a.. 7183 as x approaches 0. An important exponential function that is used extensively in physical chemistry. 2-5. ( 1+ x ) e = lim x→ 0 1 x =1+ 1 1! + 1 2! + 1 3! + .. There is a direct relationship between exponential functions and logarithmic function. = 2. and is read "in the limit that x approaches zero. y . since the lim 0 function approaches zero as x approaches -∞. 1) is common to all logarithmic functions. 7183 This function is illustrated in fig. logarithms have many useful properties and are an important tool in the study of physical chemistry. The power of exponent to which the constant a is raised in the equation y = axis called the logarithm of y to the base a and is written loga y = x (2-22) The logarithmic function log2 y = x is illustrated in fig. Note.. as in the case of exponential functions. For this reason the general properties of logarithms are reviewed in chapter 3.. note that all exponentials have the point (0.1) in common. that the point (0. non-repeating decimal having the value. also note that there are no zero’s to the function. to five significant figures. and indeed in the physical sciences as a whole. since a˚=1 for any a. is the function f(x) = ex (2-21) Where the constant e is a non-terminating.. The expression x→ means that (1+x)1/x approaches a value of 2.

x Figure 2-5 graph of y = ex Section 2-2 Graphical Representation of Functions y x Figure 2-6 graph of log2 y = x .

866A 0.500A Ө (degree) 135 150 180 210 225 240 r -0. 2-7.000A -0. Circles are described by the equation (x . which is the ratio of y (x. Consider.000A To x.500A Ө (degree) 270 300 315 330 360 r 0 0. in linear coordinates (coordinates in which Ө is plotted along one axis) to those in plane polar coordinates.y).y) Figure 2-7 Graph of the unit circle x2 + y2 = 1 TABLE 2-1 DEPENDENCE OF r ON Ө FOR THE FUNCTION r = A cos Ө Ө (degree) 0 30 45 60 90 120 r 1.Circular Functions. such as sin Ө and cos Ө.866A 1.707A -0.b)2 = r2 (2-23) Where a and b are the coordinates of the center of the circle (the fixed point) and r is the radius. Let us define three functions: sine (abbreviated sin). x2 + y2 = 1 (2-24) Consider.707A 0.707A -0. cosine (abbreviated cos).707A 0.000A 0. Note that equations (2-25) are just the transformation equations (1-4) with r =1. A circle is defined as the locus off all points in a plane that are at a constant distance from a fixed point. sin Ө = y cos Ө = x tan Ө = y x sinӨ cos Ө (2-25) These functions are called circular or trigonometric functions.500A 0.866A -0. the triangle inscribed in the unit circle shown in fig. which takes the angle (Ө) into the xcoordinate of the point (x. now.500A 0 -0. A unit circle is one with its center at the origin and a radius equal to unity. Thus. It is interesting to compare the graphs of functions. which takes the angle (Ө) into the ycoordinate of a point (x.y).a)2 + (y .866A -1. and tangent (abbreviated tan). for example the .

2-8(b)].707A 0.707A -0. Ketergantungan fungsional dari r pada Ө dapat dilihat dalam Tabel 2-1. dimana A adalah tetap. Sangat menarik untuk membandingkan grafik dari fungsi. It is important to note that both graphs are equivalent. On the other hand. Saat r banding Ө direncanakan dalam koordinat garis lurus (ditunjukkan dalam Gambar 2-8 (a)).000A -0.000A 0. TABEL 2-1 KETERGANTUNGAN DARI r PADA Ө UNTUK FUNGSI r = A cos Ө Ө (degree) 0 30 45 60 90 120 r 1. When r versus Ө is plotted in linear coordinates [shown in fig. dalam koordinat garis lurus (koordinat yang mana Ө direncanakan sepanjang satu sumbu) untuk itu dalam koordinat polar pesawat.707A 0. sin Ө = y cos Ө = x tan Ө = y x sinӨ cos Ө (2-25) Fungsi ini disebut sirkuler (bundar) atau fungsi trigonometri. 2-8(a)].866A 0.500A 0 -0. Persamaan tersebut bisa digunakan untuk menjelaskan sifat gelombang dari orbital p atom sejenis pada dua dimensi. Pertimbangkan. the functional dependence of r upon Ө can be seen in table 2-1.866A 1. Melihat persamaan itu (2-25) hanyalah persamaan transformasi (1-4) dengan r = 1. ketika r banding Ө .866A -1.866A -0. the typical cosine curve results. antara lain pesamaan r = A cos Ө . seperti sin Ө dan cos Ө .500A 0. the shapes of the curves depending merely on the choice of coordinate system.707A -0. Dengan demikian. when r versus 0 is plotted in polar coordinates [shown in fig.equation r = A cos Ө. hasil kurva kosinus membelok. Di sisi lain. Such an equation can be used to describe the wave properties of p-type atomic orbitals in two dimensions.500A Ө (degree) 270 300 315 330 360 r 0 0.500A Ө (degree) 135 150 180 210 225 240 r -0.000A ke x. the more familiar shape of the p-orbital can be seen. where A is a constant.

But how do we find the roots to equations that are not linear or quadratic? Before the age of computers this was not a simple task.direncanakan dalam koordinat polar (ditunjukkan dalam Gambar 2-8 (b)). nilai negatif dari r tidak punya arti.or second-degree equations. 2-3 ROOTS TO POLYNOMIAL EQUATIONS We saw in the previous sections that the zeroes of the function (the roots) can be found easily if the equations are first. 1 Penting untuk dicatat bahwa kedua grafik yang ekuivalen.pertimbangkan persamaan y = x4 + x3 – 3x2 – x + 1 Di koordinat polar. Tapi bagaimana kita menemukan akar untuk persamaan yang tidak berupa garis lurus atau persaman kuadrat? Sebelum masa komputer. One standard way to find the roots of polynomial equation without using a computer is to graph the function. Satu standar cara untuk menemukan akar dari persamaan polinomial tanpa mengunakan komputer adalah membuat grafik fungsi. bentuk dari kurva hanya bergantung pada pemilihan sistem koordinat. sehingga kita sebenarnya merencanakan |r|= A cos Ө Section 2-3 Roots to Polynomial Equations . Antara lain. consider the equation y = x4 + x3 – 3x2 – x + 1 In polar coordinates. For example. ini bukanlah tugas sederhana. negative values of r have no meaning. yang lebih dikenal dengan bentuk dari orbital p dapat dilihat. so we are actually plotting |r|= A cos Ө 2-3 AKAR PERSAMAAN POLINOMIAL Kita melihat pada bab sebelumnya bahwa fungsi dari nol (akar) dapat ditemukan dengan mudah apabila pada persamaan tingkat satu atau dua.

2-9 Graph of y = x4 + x3 – 3x2 – x + 1. or the points on graph where the graph crosses the x-axis. 2-9. GERALD L. SUGGESTED READINGS 1. If we plot this function from x = -3 to x = +3. Careful examination of the graph will show that the roots are x = -2. And SMITH.. KARI.8 Graphs of r = A cos Ө plotted in (a) linear coordinates and (b) polar coordinates.. and x = + 1. 2. J.36.09.74. Prentice-Hall.47. Upper Saddle River. . BRADLEY. Calculus. we obtain the graph shown in fig. Inc. NJ. x = -0. Chapter 11 we shall discuss numerical methods of finding roots to polynomial equations using a computer. The roots to the equation are the values of x for which y = 0. 1995. In Fig.(a) (b) Figure 2. x = + 0.

order process In which the concentration of the radioactive material C is related to time r by the equation C= C0e-kt Where Co and k are constants (e is the Exponential). Plot the following functions choosing suitable coordinate axes: a b c d e f 5.. PROBLEMS 1. Plot the following functions in Cartesian coordinates: a b c d 4. Plot the following functions in plane polar coordinates from 0 to 2 (phi) (remeber that in polar coordinates.3... Evaluate . negative Values of r have no meaning): a b c 3... 4. Plot the functions in problem 4 choosing coordinates so that a straight line results. Radioactive decay is a first . Given the following data. determine the values of Co and k by . 6. for the following: a b 7. Determine the zero’s of the following functions: a b c d e 2..

8.plotting the data in such a way that a straight line result. determine the a b c d roots of the following equations: . Using the graphical method.