CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 EVALUATION OF RURAL WATER SUPPLY SCHEMES IN
SELECTED COMMUNITIES IN OKE-OGUN AREA, OYO STATE,
NIGERIA:
GLOBAL JOURNAL OF SCIENCE FRONTIER RESEARCH
11 ISSUE 9 VERSION 1.0 DECEMBER, 2011

VOLUME
TYPE: DOUBLE BLIND

PEER REVIEWED INTERNATIONAL RESEARCH JOURNAL
PUBLISHER: GLOBAL JOURNALS INC. (USA)
BY TOYOBO A.E., TANIMOWO N.B
2.1.1. INTRODUCTION:
Successful community management requires that clear ownership of the water
systems be defined. Ownership issues lie at the heart of the seeming paradox that
communities with long histories of internal water resource management for natural system
such as irrigation systems are often not successful at managing water supply systems
(Schouten and Moriarty, 2003; Renold,1992). Such is the case in Madagascar, where small
streams used for irrigation of lowland rice fields have been sustainably shared amongst
communities for food production but most improved water sources have fallen into a state of
disrepair. Common to the management of all property resources should be tied to a sense of
communal ownership are the inclusion of rules and regulation needed to regulate the
behaviour of water users and a guide for water committees. Enforcement of rules and
regulations is usually the responsibility of the water committees, through the levying of some
sort of social sanction of fine (Schouten and Moriarty, 2003; Parry Jones, Reed and Skinner
2001). Operation and maintenance agreements ensures the longevity and proper running of
rural water infrastructure and this could be attained with community. However, in order to
ensure proper maintenance of community water supply schemes, there should be trained local
technicians who should have access to tools and spare parts needed to fix water. Systems
(Lockwood, 2004; UNICEF and WHO, 2000; Narayan 1994; Pretty 1995 and UNDP 2005).
The aim of the study is to assess water supply schemes in selected rural communities in oke-

b) Methods of data collections: The study area was grouped into four contiguous zones. educational qualifications. Kajola and Iseyin. and respondents were selected on systematic sampling. Irepo. nongovernmental . This was based on the reconnaissance survey. The people in the study area are mostly Yorubas. a total of 450 respondents were interviewed for the study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: a) Brief of the study area: The study was conducted in ten local governments in Oke-Ogun area in Oyo state. Oyo State. a return visit was made to get in touch with him or her. In the process. streams. T he study area is Oke-Ogun rural settlements in Oyo state. Abare. It is bounded in the west by Republic of Benin. age. Olorunsogo. The Yoruba who formed majority of the rural community were interviewed with some few ethnic groups such as Hausa. Respondents were household heads. and Iwere-ile village.1. The specific objectives of the study are to: (i). Where the respondent was not available at the first visit. The samples frame consists of the following rural settlement namely: Igbope. and ponds and those provided by government. Igbo and Ibariba. Ogbooro. and (ii) assess the management of water supply schemes in Abare. examine socio-economic characteristics of respondents in the study area. to the east by Osun State.5% sample size of the household heads were chosen for the purpose of questionnaire administration. Igbope. Iwajowa.Itesiwaju. ethnicity. Information on the sources and characteristics of water supply in the study area was obtained from respondents and confirmed through direct observations and frequency counts of the water sources and schemes in the communities sampled. Oke-Ogun is located on latitude 6° 081 north of the equator and 3°001 east of Greenwich meridian. marital status. a random sampling technique was adopted to select one village. Within each zone. occupation and income of respondents in the study area. Data on socio-economic characteristics were obtained in the first part of the questionnaire raising questions about gender. Oke-Ogun area consist often local government namely: Oorelope. A 2. Atisbo.ogun area. Saki East and West . Oyo state is located in the south western geo-political zone of Nigeria. to the north by Kwara State. 2. The sources were mainly the natural ones such as rivers. Iwere-ile communities in the study area.2. One household was selected from every five housing units. Ogbooro.

percentages and tables to affirm the level of operation and repairs of water facilities in the study area.6%) and are subsistence farmers cultivating maize.000 naira with the highest being 21. 12.7%.organizations.7% and others 2. Hausa constituted about 14.9% mostly businessmen and women and other tribes of 1. A greater proportion of the population in the study area were Yoruba (79. craft men and other informal jobs.000 naira-10.1% respondent having one form of formal education or the other.1%).6%. For instance 53. Majority of the respondents were Christians 59. 13.1% respondents income fell between 6.7% civil servant. Igala. The income level of respondents was very low for them to contribute in community development programme in the study area.most of the respondents engaged in farming and trading as their major and minor occupations respectively. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: a) Socio-economic characteristics of the respondents: It reveals the socio-economic characteristics of respondents in the study area.000 naira and above (11. 18. c) Methods of data analysis: Data were collected from the field and analyzed using descriptive statistic such as frequency count.9%) were higher than male respondent (47. cassava and millet. The latter focused upon are the ones regarded as schemes.4% were farmers. Fulani and Ghanaians most of who are artisan.3% such as Ibariba. Literacy rate was average among the respondents with only 49. yams. the Igbos 4. hand pump and dam in villages where they are available. Production is low because most farmers used traditional tools of hand hoe.9% Artisan.9% traders and others (1.7%). Available water supply facilities in each community was exhaustively enumerated and recorded during the research survey. For instance about 42. b) Assessment of sampled communities in the management of water supply schemes: One rural community was chosen from each of the sampled zones of the study area to assess the management strategies employed for borehole. Idoma. Female respondents (52. community efforts and inter-aids. Traditional herbalist 4.8% and are businessmen and women. Muslims 36.0%.1%). . Assessment was based on a random sampling of a community in each of the zones included in the study area. III.

Igbope Village: Igbope village is in Oorelope local government with a population of seven thousand. At the time of data collection. There are two types of water facilities in the village hand-pumps and boreholes. one borehole was functioning in the village and this is owned by an affluent family in the village. ponds and earth dam along streams/rivers course in the area. there was no any move by the community to contribute financially for the repair of the hand-pump water facility in Abare village. An interview with the opinion leaders in the area revealed that non involvement of rural community members in planning and implementation of water schemes had necessitated the negligence of non repairs. Ogbooro Village: Ogbooro is located in Saki east local government area of Oyo state with a population of five thousand and ten people. Abare Village: Abare is located in Itesiwaju local government area in Oyo State with a population of six hundred and eighty people. The two boreholes had broken down due to negligence by the donor agencies to repair them. iii. Accessibility to the community is through tarred road which is fairly well maintained. The villagers therefore depend on alternative sources of water supply in the area such as rivers. Hand-pumps and boreholes water supply facilities were found in the village.i. the hand -pump were not functioning because of the failure of the local government to repair the faulty hand-pump. The village is about one kilometres to Igboho town. six hundred and forty-eight people. The village is accessible by a good tarred road which is about fifteen (15) kilometres from Igbojaye. The community however did not make any attempt to repair the same due to lack of fund. However. The hand-pumps wells were constructed by the local government while one of the boreholes were constructed by UNICEF Assisted Water and Sanitation Project (WATSAN) by Oyo state government and two others by private individual for profit making. There was no village caretaker committee to monitor the repair and maintenance of the boreholes and hand-pump water supply facilities donated by WATSAN. At the time of field survey. ii. The hand-pumps were constructed by the local government in the area but the boreholes were donated by WATSAN to the community in order to assist the primary health care centre which is in . Hand-pump water supply in the village was constructed in 1994 by the local government in the area.

community members were satisfied with the quality of water supplied from hand pump since water from the pump look pure. animal waste. There were three boreholes in the settlement and only one was functioning. high demand for water supply on the only hand-pump available in Igbope Nevertheless. Also about seven hand pumps were constructed in the area. free from insects. Three of the hand-pump wells were out of use due to the failure of the local government authority to put all the necessary machinery to repair the water supply systems. The villagers in the area depended on Igboho dam which is about half a kilometre to the village. sticks or leaves and does not smell or taste bad. This has hindered regular supply of water consumption by the community members. a bore hole what in not use due to non pair of the damaged parts by the community and donor agency. Lack of treatment of dam water of this nature can cause ill-health to people. There were no caretaker committee at the village level to oversee the management of water supply facilities in the village. purification. iv.operation in the village. However. three of them were functioning at the time of field survey was conducted in the area. Water obtain from dam by the rural community of Igbope was used for domestic purpose without any treatment. WHO(2000). There was therefore. debris. One of the boreholes was out of use due to non repairs. At the village level. . Iwere-Ile Village Iwere-Ile is located in Iwajowa local government area of Oyo State with population of nine thousand and twenty-four people. sedimentation and other stages of treatment before it is acceptable for usage by community members. States that water must undergo some processes of chlorination. This corroborates UNDP (2005) findings on community water supply that people are thirsty of clean water. At the time of field survey. there was no caretaker committee to take care of proper repairs and maintenance of the hand-pumps provided by the local government authority. Water obtained from the hand pump is free from rubbish and does not smell or taste bad.

The government thus made a strong commitment to high service standards and to high levels of investment subsidies to achieve those standards. strong linkages between water supply and sanitation on the one hand and water resources management on the other hand through these Water Boards. PASHAN. or if it would be granted to all water users. around 75% of all free water benefits . through cross-subsidies from other users or local taxes.5bn Rand or 0. Some important features that distinguish water policies and institutions in South Africa from most other countries in the world are. According to Nkululeko Gmuede. Making the subsidy available to the poorest users is a challenge. the country has made satisfactory progress with regard to improving access to water supply: It reached universal access to an improved water source in urban areas. electricity and solid waste collection. Municipalities would decide if free basic water would be made available only to the poor. and a policy of free basic water and sanitation. BY: AMITA KAUSHIK The South African water policy and law reform process has certain lessons for the Indian law makers.15% of GDP. INDIA.2 LESSONS FROM SOUTH AFRICA: FORUM FOR POLICY DIALOGUE ON WATER CONFLICTS IN INDIA SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING PARTICIPATIVE ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT (SOPPECOM) 16. but gradually and within the means of each municipality. KALE PARK. The Water supply and sanitation in South Africa is characterized by both achievements and challenges. the existence of water institutions between the national and local government in the form of Water Boards. newly elected government inherited huge services backlogs with respect to access to water. As part of that policy. After the end of apartheid. Since then. The policy was not to be implemented immediately. including water. SOMESHWARWADI ROAD. and how the poor would be defined and identified.e. and in rural areas the share of those with access increased from 62% to 82% from 1990 to 2006. PUNE 411 008 MAHARASHTRA. every eligible household receives the first 6 cubic meters per month for free. a former official at the Department of Water Affairs. The subsidy is to be financed either through subsidies from the national government from the "equitable share" automatic transfers. The cost of the policy has been estimated at 1.2. About 15 million people were without safe water supply and over 20 million without adequate sanitation services. i. free water per month (40 litre/capita/day for a family of five or 25 litre/capita/day for a family of eight). South Africa has introduced a policy of free basic services.

This is one of the reasons why the government is reviewing its implementation strategy for free basic water. As in India with the sector reforms. In terms of water policy. AAPNI YOJNA’ MULTI-VILLAGE WATER SUPPLY SCHEME. and limited water infrastructure. KFW) ON 12 FEB 2001) A huge multi-village water supply scheme is currently nearing completion in the districts of Churu and Shri Hanumangarh in Rajasthan. Technical and financial assistance from the German development bank (KFW) and the Government of Rajasthan has been used . RAJASTHAN: PERSONAL COMMUNICATION FROM PETER HILLIGES (PROJECT MANAGER. World Bank and International Monetary Fund. South Africa has adopted a progressive law and policy framework for water which is based upon the constitutional recognition of the right of access to water. The focus basically is on the promotion of cost recovery and other market principles often at the detriment of more human rightsoriented considerations. substantive improvements for the majority of the poorest citizens. possibly through registers of poor users. INDIA DIVISION. mostly as a legacy from the apartheid regime but also as the result of the application of an economic approach to water policy. While on the one hand the implementation of the right to water has resulted in the development of a policy of free entitlement to water for consumption and domestic use.people who can pay for it. This creates tensions that underpin the management of water resources at the national level. there remain today huge disparities in access to basic water services and allocation of water. The policy is more successful in wealthier municipalities than in low-income rural areas. South Africa too has adopted the policy of full cost recovery of the maintenance and operation costs which is basically again driven by International donors. it seems therefore that radical legal change has not translated into significant. The integration of such concepts as cost recovery and privatization in water policy have contributed to maintain the poorest segments of the population with little or no access to water for household needs and sanitation. (Gualtieri. 2007) 3. In South Africa water services are either owned or operated by the local government but are restructured following market principles in order to increase their efficiency or the management of state-owned water services is delegated to private corporations.

and a community participation unit (CPU) comprising an association of five local NGOs. there are already signs that the current PMC does not have the capacity to manage the entire scheme. The stand posts are being well maintained by the WUAs. with no capital cost contribution from the communities. These new organizations have worked with international technical consultants and communities to design and implement a scheme that will eventually cover 400 villages and 2 towns.to establish a project management cell (PMC) in the State PHED. The scheme has been implemented using an ‘unbundled management’ model. so no house connections have been provided. KFW suggest that this reduction results from an increasing familiarity with the progressive tariff. except to comment that the approach seems promising. KFW report that the scheme is operating well. in which the community share is scheduled to increase from 35% to 100% over five years. and supply water to about 800.000 people. . The scheme was planned using a ‘top down’ approach based on technical criteria. but each village has a water user association (WUA) and manages its local system separately. It is too early to make a meaningful judgement about the sustainability of the Churu scheme. water consumption appears to have declined. and 100 villages are now connected. The scheme has been designed to provide continuous supply. The bulk water system is managed by the PMC. Rajasthan suffers acute water shortages. and bulk water charges are made monthly according to a progressive tariff. and KFW are currently investigating more sustainable management models36. Bulk water meters measure the supply to each village. Key issues appear to be their success in providing a reliable service. Supply started in March 2000. A phased program is being used for O&M cost sharing. from about 60 lpcd initially to 40 lpcd today. using the bulk water meters (which are can be read by anyone) to monitor aggregate consumption35. and in the creation of transparent and straightforward mechanisms for cost recovery. Interestingly. and note that WUAs are now actively managing demand. However. with 100% billing and 98% collection claimed from the villages currently connected34. with a dedicated power system that allows 16-20 hours pumping per day (the balance of supply being provided by storage tanks). and the system has been designed to provide 30 lpcd through public stand posts.

. e. a case study.g. to the global initiative on multi-village schemes being run by WSP in Washington D.Note: Further research on this scheme would provide a useful basis for future WSP-SA work on multi-village schemes.C. and could provide the basis for a practical contribution.