Heat Transfer Engineering

ISSN: 0145-7632 (Print) 1521-0537 (Online) Journal homepage: http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/uhte20

Heat Transfer in Nanofluids—A Review
Sarit Kumar Das , Stephen U. S. Choi & Hrishikesh E. Patel
To cite this article: Sarit Kumar Das , Stephen U. S. Choi & Hrishikesh E. Patel (2006)
Heat Transfer in Nanofluids—A Review, Heat Transfer Engineering, 27:10, 3-19, DOI:
10.1080/01457630600904593
To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01457630600904593

Published online: 23 Feb 2007.

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Date: 22 January 2016, At: 00:17

139. material synthesis. The increasing power of these devices with decreasing size also calls for innovative cooling technology. The advent of nanotechnology and Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) has only intensified this need. [2]. USA HRISHIKESH E. and communication devices. Address correspondence to Prof. The enhanced thermal conductivity of these fluids with small-particle concentration was surprising and could not be explained by existing theories. and Thome et al. However. CHOI Downloaded by [14. Department of Mechanical Engineering. Large devices (such as transportation trucks) and new energy technology (such as fuel cells) also require more efficient cooling systems with greater cooling capacities and decreased sizes. physics. IIT Madras. all of these texts indicate that the conventional fin-and-microchannel technology [3] appears to be inadequate for the new generation of electronic and optical devices. Bergles et al. 2006 C Taylor and Francis Group. However. [6]. This article presents an exhaustive review of these studies and suggests a direction for future developments. also indicates the need for an alternative way to cool micro-size devices. and enhancing the heat transfer The last few decades of the twentieth century have seen unprecedented growth in electronics. Chennai. called nanofluids. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. and computing technologies. Microscale heat transfer is an area of research This work is supported by the Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO). Sarit Kumar Das. Argonne. India. Micrometer-sized particle-fluid suspensions exhibit no such dramatic enhancement.229] at 00:17 22 January 2016 Energy Technology Division.com 3 . high-power xrays. E-mail: sarit das@hotmail. LLC Copyright  ISSN: 0145-7632 print / 1521-0537 online DOI: 10. such as microchannels and miniature cryodevices. the Department of Science and Technology (DST) of India. Lasers. such as those by Kandlikar and Grande [5]. An increasing number of studies on microchannel boiling. it is important to note that miniaturized devices are not alone in looking for innovative cooling technology. Office of FreedomCar and Vehicle Technologies and Office of Basic Energy Sciences. scientific measurement. Chennai 600 036. Argonne National Laboratory. Indian Institute of Technology Madras. This difference has led to studies of other modes of heat transfer and efforts to develop a comprehensive theory. Heat Transfer and Thermal Power Laboratory. Illinois. including heat transfer.Heat Transfer Engineering. communication. new and enhanced cooling technology is the need of the hour. Thus. Choi et al. S. and optical fibers are integral parts of today’s computation. have been the subject of intensive study worldwide since pioneering researchers recently discovered the anomalous thermal behavior of these fluids. material science. INTRODUCTION that has been adequately reviewed by texts such as those by Duncan and Peterson [1] and Majumdar et al. 27(10):3–19. and it is likely to continue unabated into the present century. Chennai.S. Department of Energy.181. The review and suggestions could be useful because the literature in this area is spread over a wide range of disciplines. medicine. big or small. material processing. Another important area that has experienced a similar problem in thermal management is the area of optical devices. and the U. under contract W-31-109-Eng-38. chemical engineering and synthetic chemistry. [7].1080/01457630600904593 Heat Transfer in Nanofluids — A Review SARIT KUMAR DAS Department of Mechanical Engineering. India STEPHEN U. asking for a revolution in cooling technology to keep pace with the new revolution in device technology. This need must be met in two ways: introducing new designs for cooling devices. India Suspended nanoparticles in conventional fluids. PATEL Department of Mechanical Engineering. [4] have shown that power densities of 2000 W/cm2 can be managed by microchannel heat exchangers that use subcooled liquid nitrogen. The exponential growth of these technologies and their devices through miniaturization and an enhanced rate of operation and storage of data has brought about serious problems in the thermal management of these devices.

229] at 00:17 22 January 2016 THE RATIONALE BEHIND NANOFLUIDS It is obvious from a survey of thermal properties that all liquid coolants used today as heat transfer fluids exhibit extremely poor thermal conductivity (with the exception of liquid metal. making them instantaneously available for thermal interaction. the settling of particles. This cannot be attained with meso. and such suspensions bear the following major disadvantages. It must be kept in mind that biologists have been using the term nanofluid for different types of particles. and optical properties. increasing area. increases rapidly. electrical. capability of the fluid itself. such as DNA. pipelines. the greater the enhancement—and greater the problems. This reduced sedimentation can overcome one of the major drawbacks of suspensions. attributable to the tiny size. However. The micro-convection and increased heat transfer may also increase dispersion of heat in the fluid at a faster rate. From a purist’s point of view. The pressure drop in the fluid increases considerably. less particle momentum. 3. If the circulation rate of the fluid is increased. For example. The large size of the particles tends to clog the flow channels. or fluids contained in nanopores [13–15]. Maxwell [8] was a pioneer in this area who presented a theoretical basis for calculating the effective thermal conductivity of suspension. and organic coolants. which cannot be used at most of the pertinent useful temperature ranges). it is worth first examining the rationale behind the idea of nanofluids. Thus. Because the particles are small. Using the suspension of solids is an option that came to mind more than a century ago. particularly if the cooling channels are narrow. etc. The present review deals with the second option. lubricants. RNA. the route of suspending particles in liquid was a wellknown but rejected option for heat transfer applications. To increase the heat transfer of conventional fluid by a factor of two. this designation may not be acceptable—every fluid is “nano” because of its molecular chains—but the term has been accepted and become popular in the scientific community. The particles settle rapidly. and make the nanofluids more stable. Another advantage is the mobility of the particles. but the erosion of the heat transfer devices. Higher heat conduction. starting from copper. which at room temperature exhibit 20. Reduction in pumping power. they weigh less. It can be shown that vol. 3.. K. When the particles are properly dispersed. 5. Nanoparticles are very small. The large surface area of nanoparticles allows for more heat transfer. 10 2006 . forming a layer on the surface and reducing the heat transfer capacity of the fluid. sedimentation is reduced. However. and the momentum they can impart to a solid wall is much smaller. nanofluid technology coupled with new heat-transfer-related studies on microchannel flow [11] has provided a new option of revisiting suspensions of nanoparticles. all of these studies were limited to the suspension of micro. these features of nanofluids are expected to give the following benefits: 1. the greater the particle volume fraction is. His efforts were followed by numerous theoretical and experimental studies. Stability. one can go up to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs). will be limited by the inherent restriction of the thermal conductivity of the fluid. water is roughly three orders of magnitude poorer in heat conduction than copper—as is the case with engine coolants. Nanofluids will not only be a better medium for heat transfer in general. The suspension of nanoparticles in conventional fluids are usually called nanofluids. 4. as indicated in 1–4 above). Reduced chances of erosion. Thus. 5. It goes without saying that all of the efforts to increase heat transfer by creating turbulence. Downloaded by [14. and high mobility. 1. which may bring about micro-convection of fluid and hence increased heat transfer. Before going into the details of nanofluids and their potential in cooling technology. pipelines and pumps. are orders of magnitude smaller than the microchannels. The attractive features which made nanoparticles probable candidates for suspension in fluids are a large surface area. it is logical that efforts will be made to increase the thermal conduction behavior of cooling fluids. Nanoparticles. With respect to conductivity enhancement. etc.. conductivity enhancement based on particle concentration is achieved (i.000 times greater conductivity than engine oil [16].139.to macro-sized particles. but they will also be ideal for microchannel applications where high heat loads are encountered. Thus. The first proposition in this area was heat transfer engineering from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) through the seminal work of Choi [12].181.. DAS ET AL. such as those by Hamilton-Crosser [9] and Wasp [10]. This reduced momentum reduces the chances of erosion of components. These models work very well in predicting the thermal conductivity of slurries. which are only a few hundreds or thousands of atoms. which may be attributed to the above reasons. such as heat exchangers. 2. thermal.e. 27 no. proteins. who designated the nanoparticle suspension a nanofluid. the emergence of nanofluids helped stimulate the reexamination of this option. Finally. The combination of microchannels and nanofluids will provide both highly conducting fluids and a large heat transfer area. Microchannel cooling without clogging. 4. Particles finer than 20 nm carry 20% of their atoms on their surface. It is already found that the thermal conductivity of nanofluids increases significantly with a rise in temperature [17].or micro-particles because they clog microchannels. pumping power must usually be increased by a factor of ten.4 S. Modern materials technology provided the opportunity to produce nanometer-sized particles which are quite different from the parent material in mechanical. 2. and the chances of sedimentation are also less.

Nanofluids have been reported to be stable over months using a stabilizing agent [18. Particles size dependence. The major problem with this method is its tendency to form agglomerates and its unsuitability to produce pure metallic nanopowders. The required increase in the pumping power will be very moderate unless there is a sharp increase in fluid viscosity. stabilizing agents are also used during dispersion. 19]. physics. with the expectation that these fluids will play an important role in developing the next generation of cooling technology. The nanoparticles that are used can be broadly divided into three groups: ceramic particles. SYNTHESIS AND PREPARATION OF NANOPARTICLES Various methods have been tried to produce different kinds of nanoparticles and nanosuspensions. Gleiter [20] provides a good overview of the synthesis methods. Another method is the LASER vapor deposition technique used to produce SiC nanoparticles from SiH4 and C2 H4 [25]. In general. hence. In the literature. Even though this method has limitations of low vapor-pressure fluids and oxidation of pure metals. Thus. Stability. the enhancement of conductivity was found to depend not only on particle concentration but also on particle size. primarily because they were easy to produce and chemically stable in solution. The enhancement of the thermal conductivity of nanofluids over that of the base fluid is often a few times better than what would have been given by micrometer-sized suspensions. Thus. it is necessary to say that this field of research is interdisciplinary. Large enhancement of conductivity was achieved with a very small concentration of particles that completely maintained the Newtonian behavior of the fluid. Downloaded by [14. and toluene. [27]. 2. it provides excellent control over particle size and produces particles for stable nanofluids without surfactant or electrostatic stabilizers. nanofluids are produced directly. Various investigators have produced Al2 O3 and CuO nanopowder by an heat transfer engineering 5 inert-gas condensation (IGC) process [18. Recently. the best way to produce them may be by a single-step method where. The multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) used for this purpose can be produced through the chemical vapor deposition technique by using xylene as a carbon source and ferrocene as the catalyst [26].181. instead of nanoparticles. ethylene glycol. chemical. a very large savings in pumping power can be achieved if a large thermal conductivity increase can be brought about with a small volume fraction of particles. 10 2006 . Henry Becquerel thought uranium ore absorbs sunlight and then radiates it back until discovering radioactivity. far beyond expectations and much higher than any theory could predict. the base fluids used include water. an increase in enhancement was observed. and carbon nanotubes (CNTs). In some cases [19.229] at 00:17 22 January 2016 Often. which radiates without any absorption of sunlight. The rise in viscosity was nominal.S. transformer oil. the particles should be dispersed with no or very little agglomeration. the heat transfer in the same apparatus doubles [12]. 1. pressure drop was increased only marginally. Zhu et al. will classify them mainly by the type of particles. However. The DEC method is a modification of the IGC process that has been adopted at ANL [22–24]. vol. Two of the methods by which nanofluids are made directly are described by Patel et al. This study. The four unique features observed are listed below. the task to characterize and disperse them in fluid remains. Small concentration and Newtonian behavior. thus reducing the chance of agglomeration. 21] that produced 2–200 nm-sized particles. and material science. The first materials tried for nanofluids were oxide particles.139. and LASER-based methods are available for the production of the nanoparticles required for nanofluids. The most important feature observed in nanofluids was an abnormal rise in thermal conductivity. Similarly. To achieve a stable nanofluid that exhibits true “nano” behavior. 4. K. Different combinations of the above particles and fluids give different nanofluids. including electrical. the commonly used dispersion techniques use an ultrasonic or stator rotor method [17]. Recently. mechanical and chemical engineering. DAS ET AL. Unlike the situation with microslurries. carbon nanotubes were used to produce nanofluids. 22]. with decreasing particle size. 27 no. THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY ENHANCEMENT IN NANOFLUIDS The thermal conductivity of nanofluids is much improved when compared with usual suspensions. pure metallic particles. a variety of physical. it is worth going into the details of not only applications but also synthesis and characterization. 3. Pure chemical synthesis is another option for producing nanoparticles known as metal clusters. So far. if one can multiply the conductivity by a factor of three. However. [28] prepared nanofluids of metallic Cu nanoparticles dispersed in ethylene glycol by a one-step chemical method. The above potentials provided the thrust necessary to begin research in nanofluids. or chemical. hence. This can be done through various methods. however. The problem of agglomeration can be reduced to a good extent by using a direct evaporation condensation (DEC) method. Abnormal enhancement of thermal conductivity. physical. with inputs from chemistry. nature proves to be more exciting than imagination. Before exploring how many of these dreams have been attained by the early results. the first test with nanofluids gave more encouraging features [18] than they were thought to possess. The result can be a highly conducting and stable nanofluid with exciting newer applications in the future.

which was improved in 1962 [9] to include the effect of particle shape. [21] also measured the thermal conductivity of CuO–water and Al2 O3 –water nanofluids. and φ = volume fraction of nanoparticles. (Figure 1 shows the original publication’s measurements [18]. [18]. vol. The original Maxwell model reads as follows: keff 3(k p /k f − 1) φ =1+ kf (k p /k f + 2) − (k p /k f − 1)φ conductivity of solid particles.139. Conductivity was measured by the traditional transient hot-wire (THW) method. with 12% enhancement at 3.181. An enhancement of 20% was observed at 4% volume fraction of CuO. Wang et al. They used volume fractions of only 1– 5%. k/ko denotes the ratio of thermal conductivity of nanofluid to that of the base fluid. and predicted by the Hamilton-Crosser model for (a) Al2 O3 /water nanofluids and (b) CuO/water nanofluids [18]. heat transfer engineering Figure 2 Increase of the thermal conductivity ratio obtained by Lee et al. but their particle size was smaller (23 nm for CuO and 28 nm for Al2 O3 ). for cylinder = 6).6 S. These models predict the effective thermal conductivity as essentially a weighted average of solid and liquid conductivity derived from a point source method. keff = effective thermal conductivity of suspension. k/ko denotes the ratio of thermal conductivity of nanofluid to that of the base fluid. They also (1) whereas the Hamilton-Crosser [9] model reads as keff k p + (n − 1)k f − (n − 1)φ(k f − k p ) = kf k p + (n − 1)k f + φ(k f − k p ) (2) In both models. Downloaded by [14. DAS ET AL. n = shape factor (for sphere = 3. The first major publication in this area [18] presented conductivity measurements on fluids that contained Al2 O3 and CuO nanoparticles in water and ethylene glycol.) These results were high when compared with the model for suspensions proposed by Maxwell [8]. k f = thermal conductivity of liquid.229] at 00:17 22 January 2016 Ceramic Nanofluids Ceramic nanofluids were the first type of nanofluid investigated by the ANL group. 27 no. k p = thermal Figure 1 Enhanced thermal conductivity of oxide nanofluids systems as measured by Lee et al. [18] and those predicted by the Hamilton-Crosser [9] model for Al2 O3 –water and CuO–water nanofluids.5% CuO. respectively. The enhancement was higher when ethylene glycol was the base fluid. The results clearly indicated that the thermal conductivity enhancement of the Al2 O3 and CuO nanofluids were high. The enhancement when water was the base fluid was lower but still substantial. 10 2006 . and 10% enhancement with 4% Al2 O3 . K. Figures 2a and 2b show the measurements of Lee et al.

a plot of the enhancement of thermal conductivity of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)–engine oil (among other nanofluids) vs. They also used a transient hot wire method for measuring thermal conductivity. which themselves do not exhibit very high thermal conductivity. the enhancement was far more than that predicted by the Hamilton-Crosser model. Xuan and Li [19] were the first to try copper particle-based nanofluids of transformer oil. pump oil. The enhancement was greater with water-based nanofluids because bare particles were used. Carbon and Polymer Nanotube Nanofluids The greatest enhancement of thermal conductivity was observed in a subsequent study performed at ANL [33]. 27 no. [29] measured the thermal conductivity of aqueous Al2 O3 nanofluids with even smaller particles (1. k/ko denotes the ratio of thermal conductivity of nanofluid to that of the base fluid. Fig. the conductivity of toluene-gold nanofluid was enhanced by 3–7% for a volume fraction of only 0. which was used to prevent agglomeration.2–302 nm). 10 2006 . Figure 3 shows the measured values of thermal conductivity for Cu–ethylene glycol nanofluids.139. found that 15 nm-sized spherical particles show slightly less enhancement than 10 × 40 nm rods. This finding indicates that particle size can override the particle conductivity or concentration effects.3% concentration of 10 nm-sized copper particles suspended in ethylene glycol [22]. [32] achieved an enormous increase in the thermal conductivity of nanofluids of 10 nm-sized Fe nanoparticles suspended in ethylene glycol.2–5% for a vanishingly small concentration of 0. This sudden jump in enhancement is interesting. [27] used gold and silver for the first time to prepare nanofluids.Downloaded by [14. shows a phenomenal 150% increase in thermal conductivity with just 1% volume fraction of the nanotubes. The main reason for such an enhancement was the small size (∼10–20 nm) of the particles. it provided less enhancement because its size was relatively larger (∼60–80 nm). and glycerol-water mixture.005–0. the real breakthrough came when the ANL group reported a 40% enhancement of conductivity with only 0. K. whereas the enhancement for water–gold nanofluid was 3. Patel et al.0026% volume fraction.229] at 00:17 22 January 2016 S. Metallic Nanofluids Even though the potential of nanofluids was evident from ceramic nanofluids. Xie et al. They obtained an enhancement of 18% with just 0. It was reported that at room temperature. In another study. and was lower for toluene-based nanofluids where the nanoparticles were protected by a layer of thiolate coating. Hong et al. it has been generally found that oxide ceramic particles. 4. the enhancement reported was 55% with 5% volume fraction.0013–0.011%. The reason for the abnormal rise vol. Murshed et al. ethylene glycol. [30]. These investigators studied nano-sized α-Al2 O3 dispersed in deionized water. The measurements showed a clear effect of the particle size and method of dispersion. the emergence of metallic particle-based nanofluids was a big step forward. The main reason for the many studies on oxide particle-based nanofluids is the availability of oxide nanoparticles. [34]. It was found that thermal conductivity ratios decrease with the increased thermal conductivity of the base fluid. indirectly proving the effect of particle size on the thermal conductivity of nanofluid. glycerol. who measured the thermal conductivity of aqueous solutions of spherical and cylindrically shaped TiO2 nanoparticles. However. Thus. This report clearly showed the particle size effect and the potential of nanofluids with smaller particles. The nanofluids were stabilized with thioglycolic acid. Xie et al.55% volume fraction. nanotube volume fraction.181. They also showed that the sonication of the nanofluid has an important effect on the thermal conductivity of nanofluid. Reprinted with permission from the American Institute of Physics. a similar enhancement was reported by Biercuk et al. can enhance the thermal conductivity of fluids in nanosuspensions. It clearly showed that even though silver is higher in conductivity. They also observed the effect of particle size in addition to the effect of the base solution. Another feature brought out in this work was the nonlinear dependence of enhancement in thermal conductivity on particle concentration at lower volume fractions. With polymer nanotubes. DAS ET AL. which showed an enhancement of 33% for a volume fraction of 5%. measured the nanofluids with ethylene glycol and engine oil (Pennzoil 10W-30) as the base fluids. However. ethylene glycol-water mixture. The most important observation in their study was a perceptible enhancement in thermal conductivity for vanishingly small concentrations. Though they used much larger (∼100 nm) particles. 7 Figure 3 Thermal conductivity enhancement for various nanofluids [22]. [31] studied the dependency of thermal conductivity of nanoparticle–fluid mixtures on the base fluid. Another important observation of their study was the relatively lower conductivity of water– heat transfer engineering silver nanofluids.

suspended in water. the nanotubes have a very high aspect ratio (∼2000). which was 20% for 1% volume of CNTs. the enhancement is far smaller than that achieved by Choi et al. These results have revolutionized the concept of nanofluids from the application point of view because they indicate a much larger thermal conductivity in the heated state. However.139. [37] have also obtained similar results for MWCNT suspensions in water as well as ethylene glycol. as shown in Figures 5 and 6. of enhancement and the nonlinear behavior is yet to be explained. 10 2006 . contrary to what was observed at room temperature [18]. It was found that there was more enhancement for same volume fraction in the fluid that has a lower thermal conductivity. Using the temperature oscillation technique. First. [18]. second.8 S. volume fraction [75]. and decene. ke /k f denotes the ratio of thermal conductivity of nanofluid to that of the base fluid. [35] have measured thermal conductivity of MWCNTs with a 15 nm average diameter and 30 µm length. Assael et al. Downloaded by [14. Thermal conductivity of MWCNTs of around a 130 nm average diameter and 40 µm average length was found to be 34% for 0. It is important to note that. The suspensions in water and ethylene glycol were without any surfactant but coated with oxygen-containing functional groups. Figure 5 Enhancement in the thermal conductivity of copper oxide-water nanofluid with temperature [17]. ethylene glycol.4% in the thermal conductivity of CNT suspension in ethylene glycol for 1% volume fraction and 30% enhancement in the CNT suspension in synthetic oil for 2% volume fraction. the results for both Al2 O3 and CuO do not agree with predictions of the Hamilton-Crosser [13] model because the model is not sensitive to temperature over this temperature range. [36] measured thermal conductivity of multiwalled as well as double-walled CNTs. K. [38] measured thermal conductivity of MWCNTs 20–50 nm in diameter and observed an increase of 12.229] at 00:17 22 January 2016 Temperature Effect Figure 4 Enhancement of the thermal conductivity of MWNT vs. the thermal conductivity of carbon nanotubes is very high (∼3000 W/mK). The agreement of the Al2 O3 –water nanofluid results with the Hamilton-Crosser model at room temperature was purely accidental because of its larger particle size. Maximum enhancement in thermal conductivity was found in decene. The results revealed an almost threefold increase in conductivity enhancement (i. heat transfer engineering One important contribution on nanofluids was the discovery [17] of a very strong temperature dependence of nanofluids with the same Al2 O3 and CuO particles as those used by Lee et al. Also it was found to be increasing linearly with volume fraction. vol. Those suspended in decene had the help of oleylamine as a surfactant. they measured the thermal conductivity of oxide nanofluids over the temperature range of 21–50◦ C. but one can look at two facts.. whereas that of double walled CNTs was found to be 8% for 1% volume suspension in water. Liu et al. Xie et al. respectively. [33]. Hwang et al. 10% became ∼30%) for copper oxide and alumina nanofluids.e. DAS ET AL. They also indicate that some kind of particle movement that dramatically changes with temperature must be taking place within the fluid.181. The article will indicate the implications of the aspect ratio of the nanotubes when the possible theories of thermal conductivity of nanofluids are considered. λ/λwater denotes the ratio of thermal conductivity of nanofluid to that of the base fluid.6% volume. 27 no.

27 no. they included a surface adsorption and particle conductivity approach. even though the Brownian motion appears to be a probable mechanism. The model utilizes field factor approach. [21] attributed the enhancement to particle motion. Hence. 10 2006 . [21] also showed that Brownian motion is not a significant contributor. They also showed the inverse dependence of particle size on the thermal conductivity enhancement with three sizes of alumina nanoparticles suspended in water. Patel et al. A similar model that does not consider the liquid layering was proposed by the same author [55] for the prediction of thermal conductivities of CNTs. [18] and Chon et al. [39] and confirmed the temperature effect obtained by Das et al. Yu and Choi [47] used the liquid layer around particles to find effective vol. with a depolarization factor and an effective dielectric constant. nonequilibrium conduction rather than enhancement. The transport at nanoscale is obviously to be modeled with the relevant theories. Maxwell’s method works well for a low thermal conductivity ratio (∼10) between the solid and the fluid. a model [56] that considers only temperature distribution function and liquid layering was presented by the same author for the prediction of the thermal conductivities of nanoparticle suspensions. many propositions have been tested.229] at 00:17 22 January 2016 S. The model is found to be working fairly well in predicting the thermal conductivities of CNT suspensions. Figure 6 Enhancement in the thermal conductivity of aluminum oxide-water nanofluid with temperature [17]. this effort of modeling the nanofluid behavior has intensified. K. the solution of BTE with nano-particles in a host medium by Chen [50] indicates a lowering of effective conductivity for nonlocal. 40–42] explained the thermal conductivity enhancement of usual slurries and suspensions quite extensively. A very novel approach in the modeling of nanofluids was taken by Xue [54]. surface action. The failure of the classical theories to predict nanofluid behavior gave rise to hypotheses about the mechanism of heat transfer in nanofluids. particle interactions [43–47]. but it uses an adjustable parameter of the thickness of the liquid layer. [17]. The model predicts the thermal conductivities of CuO particle suspensions in water as well as ethylene glycol. it appears that the truth is still to be revealed. the thickness and conductivity value of the liquid layer). however. The model is essentially based on liquid layering theory. A serious look at the various possible enhancement mechanisms was the focus of Keblinski et al. In the same vein. but it underpredicts the enhancement in the absence of adsorption.e. The basic model of Maxwell [8] was extended by the investigators who included the effect of shape [9]. which is actually an extension of the MaxwellGarnett [52] model.g. however. Starting from simple Brownian motion to complicated fractals. a continuous effort has ensued to look for the causes of the so-called anomalous increase in thermal conductivity of nanofluids. in contrast to the bulk conductivity used by other models. Traditional theories [e. such microscopic treatments also fail to predict the observed enhancement in nanofluid conduction.181. With two adjustable parameters (i. The studies of Wang et al. 8–10. and particle distribution [48]. the fractal model shows good promise when adsorption is included in the analysis. and electro-kinetic effects.. [51] approached the theory from the standpoint of fractal geometry.Downloaded by [14. The mechanism of ballistic heat transport gains significance because the phonon mean free path is of the order of nano-particle dimensions. [49] showed that liquid layering around the particle could give a path for rapid conduction. Wang et al. however. results of a time scale study led to its rejection. [27] reconfirmed the findings of Lee et al. Wang et al. Following up on the approach of Pitchumani et al. the theory matches the measured value. The nanoscale modeling using Boltzmann transport equation (BTE) appears to be appropriate. both of the above models carry the same drawbacks as the original [54].139. The results indicate that. THEORIES ON NANOFLUIDS Since Choi [12] proposed his theory on nanofluids. Keblinski et al. During the last three years. The Bruggeman model [40] has a similar nature plus the advantage of being heat transfer engineering 9 valid for a wide range of concentrations. The hydrodynamic force in the form of micro-convection can also be a cause of the enhancement. Liquid layering theory was shown to be promising. λ/λwater denotes the ratio of thermal conductivity of nanofluid to that of the base fluid. In general. At first sight. DAS ET AL. [53] to fibrous composites.. for CuO–water nanofluids. [49].

The Brownian motion velocity considered is based on the equi-partition theorem. accurate model. a collision between nanoparticles due to Brownian motion. because in gases. who considered kinetic theory-based micro-convection and liquid layering in addition to liquid and particle conduction. Using molecular dynamics simulation. K. the Brownian motion part is temperature-dependent and was proposed to be proportional to square root of temperature. and that the thermal conductivity of the liquid layer is taken to be as high as the thermal conductivity of the solid. The only experimental proof of a liquid layer shows that it is only a few (three) atomic diameters thick [59]. they considered four modes of energy transport: heat transfer engineering collisions between base fluid molecules (i. 27 no. whereas the velocities of particles considered for modeling the thermal conductivity of nanoparticles is phonon velocity. which also considered a fixed nanolayer thickness of 2 nm. Using a drift velocity model.139. More recently. it does shed light on a very possible mechanism and. This model proved to be very weak when compared with experimental results [17]. random motion becomes larger.. Naturally. Even though it has been stated earlier that Brownian motion alone cannot account for this enhancement. The authors even pointed out the possibility of a Soret effect [63]. Kapitza resistance at particle surfaces. Xue et al. and convection-like effects become dominant. The stationary particle model accounts for the geometrical effect of an increase in surface area per unit volume with decreasing particle size. Recently. As particle size is decreased. tries to model the phenomenon on fundamental physics without adjustable parameters. A similar approach was adopted by Ren et al. they have shown that the effect of high surface energies on nanoparticles and the interactions between the solid and liquid molecules cannot affect the properties of the surrounding liquid for more than five atomic distances. the direct dependence of thermal conductivity enhancement on volume fraction and the inverse dependence of thermal conductivity enhancement on particle diameter have been suggested. However. The proposed model has two aspects. particle concentration. was neglected. and calculated as indicated by Schwartz [57].181. semiempirical approach. Predictions from the combined model agree with experimentally observed values of conductivity enhancement of nanofluids with a vanishingly small particle concentration. concentration. In deriving their thermal conductivity model. and thermal interaction of dynamic nanoparticles with the base fluid. This is quite logical. Xuan et al. Yu et al. With a specific example of copper particles in ethylene glycol. [63] have shown that the collision of particles and the drift velocity can account for a very small part of the enhancement. Here. the constant used is empirical and varies over several orders of magnitude for different combinations of the particle-fluid mixture. They modeled the thermal conductivity of solid particles from the kinetic theory of gases and incorporated the contribution of Brownian motion-based convection to total heat transport in the effective medium approach-based thermal conductivity equation. [64] have presented another model that primarily combines the concept of fractals and Brownian motion.Downloaded by [14. The model is working well for ceramic particle suspensions. They also showed. and the other through the nanoparticles. But they too have validated it against only a few experimental results. This model was able to predict a particle size. The whole process has been assumed to have two additive parts: the usual static theory of suspension and the Brownian motiondominated dynamic. [58] have modeled the thermal conductivity of the liquid layer and incorporated it in effective thermal conductivity of nanofluid. which by orderof-magnitude analysis. Kumar et al. they showed that at least the order of the enhancement could be guessed if nano-convection in the space between the particles is assumed. [60] have confirmed this finding from a fundamental point of view. High enhancements are attributed to the increase in the specific surface area and Brownian motion-based vol. Brownian motion produced convection-like effects at nanoscale. The major drawbacks of work that tries to explain effective thermal conductivity of nanofluids only through liquid layering are that the size of layer is assumed to be very high. in the Jang and Choi [65] and Kumar et al. For the first time. they considered the effect of multiparticle convection. another approach has gained momentum in explaining the thermal conductivity enhancement—the incorporation of particle motion. only a void is present between the particles (molecules). [66] models. by order-of-magnitude analysis. whereas in nanofluids. a new look at Brownian motion [61. They also considered a fixed nanolayer thickness of 2 nm and determined the thermal conductivity of the nanolayer as the volume-averaged thermal conductivity of the base liquid and particles. Xie et al. although the nanolayer thickness may be expected to be different for different combinations of liquid and solid. Prasher et al. [69] have modeled the thermal conductivity of nanofluid empirically with a new. thermal diffusion in nanoparticles. Also in a numerical work. It assumes two parallel paths of heat flow through the suspension. more importantly. one through the liquid particles. 10 2006 . A more realistic idea of enhancement as well as temperature effect was modeled recently by two groups that essentially used the Brownian motion concept. that the value of the constant c. [67]. [68] have presented another model in the same vein. is consistent with that predicted by kinetic theory. [66] presented a model that accounts for the dependence of thermal conductivity on particle size. a fluid will be participating in a nano-convection that may even be set by electrical dipole. thermal conductance of fluid). and temperature.and temperature-dependent conductivity accurately.e. DAS ET AL. In the moving particle model. which is used in the modeling of effective thermal conductivity of particles. the effective thermal conductivity of particles is modeled by drawing a parallel to the kinetic theory of gases. and convection. Although this work does not present a complete. Patel et al. The model is working well for ceramic particle-based nanofluids for particular values of constants used in modeling. The model of Jang and Choi [65] is based on conduction. an assumption that hasn’t been experimentally validated.229] at 00:17 22 January 2016 10 S. 62] has been presented.

the model is working extremely well over a wide range of nanofluid combinations and parameters. the success of these models has been very limited. even here. With that. [72] have presented a simple formula for thermal conductivity enhancement in CNT composites that is derived from the Maxwell-Garnett model [52] by the effective medium approach. vol. DAS ET AL. when micro-convection around particles is modeled. CONVECTION IN NANOFLUIDS It must be understood that thermal conductivity enhancement in nanofluids only creates a “necessary” condition for its usage. Recently. Similarly. which is difficult to get for different types of CNTs and their combinations with different solvents. Pak and Cho [74] presented the somewhat gloomy picture that in nanofluids. On the other hand. Wang et al. The same authors have also developed a new model [73] by incorporating interface thermal resistance with an effective medium approach. However.181. In this model. [70] also performed Brownian dynamics simulation to determine the effective conductivity of nanofluids. Heat transfer studies under convective conditions are rather scarce. [21] measured the viscosity of nanofluids by three methods and did not observe any non-Newtonian effects. Xuan and Yao [71] developed a Lattice Boltzmann model to investigate nanoparticle distribution and flow pattern and found that the main flow and rising temperature of the fluid can improve nanoparticle distribution. Choi et al. which may not be suitable for heat transfer engineering 11 Figure 7 Viscosity of Al2 O3 nanofluid at various temperatures and concentrations [76]. liquid layering. no evidence was presented in its support. They proposed thermal dispersion as a major mechanism of heat transfer in flowing fluid. K. fluids that contained acids or bases. They found a 30% increase in viscosity for the Al2 O3 -water nanofluid when compared with pure water at 3% volume concentration of the particles. what is the fluid mechanics of nanofluids? This is important because many colloidal and biological suspensions show strong non-Newtonian behavior. it was evident that the viscosity was independent of shear rate. [78] showed that natural convection in nanofluids deteriorated with particle concentration and was less than that in the pure fluid. micro-convection. The work of Putra et al. which is beneficial to energy transport enhancement of the nanofluids.Downloaded by [14. [75] indicated that the discrepancy may be due to the electrostatic repulsion technique used. Nan et al. [76] presented the viscosity at different particle concentrations that was measured by a rotating-disc method. [24] showed that with less than 1% volume fraction of CuO. Pak and Cho [74] measured the viscosity to be much higher. Xuan and Roetzel [77] were the first to indicate a mechanism for heat transfer in nanofluids. which clearly indicate that nanofluid behavior is perfectly Newtonian. Das et al. the model needs the thermal resistance value at the surface of CNTs. Bhattacharya et al. various models and mechanisms that depend on an extension of classical theory. The micro-convection is modeled with empiricism in the Nusselt number definition. a completely empirical model [39] provides a correlation for alumina nanofluids by fitting a curve through regression analysis to the existing experimental data. the heat transfer coefficient actually decreases by 3–12%. The simulation results were within 3% of experimental data for Al2 O3 –ethylene glycol and in nearly full agreement with Cu–ethylene glycol.229] at 00:17 22 January 2016 S. However. However. and particle movement have been developed in an effort to explain the nanofluid behavior. The first question that arises in the convection of nanofluids is. this may be due to the large increase in viscosity they observed. the mean free path of liquid molecules is considered as a characteristic length to derive the diffusive velocities of the particles. 27 no. However. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier. 10 2006 . which essentially means a dramatic decrease of pumping power for a given heat transfer. even though the Nusselt number increases. Eastman et al.139. and no clear picture has emerged until recently. Thus. along with the enhancement of nanofluid thermal conductivity. the convection heat transfer rate increased by more than 15% in water. the “sufficient” condition comes from the hard evidence of the performance of these fluids in convective environments. However. Choi [12] presented a theoretical background for the estimation of convection enhancement. The model overpredicts the enhancement in the thermal conductivity of CNT suspensions when calculated with typical values of CNT thermal conductivities. Figure 7 shows the results. particle aggregation. However.

K. [87] proposed the use of the Boussinesq equation for convection in nanofluids. The two graphite nanoparticle sources at the same particle loading gave different heat transfer coefficients. this deterioration increased with nanoparticle concentration. Khanafer et al. and the very high aspect ratio of CNTs are proposed as possible mechanisms of enhanced convective heat transfer. if not specially treated. or surface treatment were the cause of the difference. which led to a nonuniform distribution of thermal conductivity and viscosity field and reduced the thermal boundary layer thickness.5 wt. Distilled water was used as the host liquid. the viscosity of nanofluids increased with an increasing CNT concentration and decreasing temperature. µb = dynamic viscosity at bulk temperature. and modifications of the dispersion properties as possible reasons for the deterioration in heat transfer. Agglomerates that formed were broken by a high-shear homogenizer to produce stable nanofluids. which. It was also shown that the classical Shah equation [83] failed to predict the heat transfer behavior of nanofluids. and the increase was more pronounced at high CNT concentrations.181. All of the experimental data were used to develop a new heat transfer correlation for the prediction of the heat transfer coefficient of laminar-flow nanofluids in a more convenient form by modifying the Seider-Tate equation to incorporate two constants. Pr = Prandtl number. particle– surface and particle–particle interactions. The thermal developing length of nanofluids was greater than that of the pure base liquid and increased with an increase in particle concentration. Viscosity of the nanofluid was not measured and was assumed to follow the Einstein equation. Nu = Nusselt number. the local heat transfer coefficient at the entrance region was 41% higher than that at the base fluid with the same flow rate. because of a high enhancement rate. two series of nanofluids with different base fluids (commercial automatic transmission fluid and a mixture of base oil) were used. The presence of carbon nanotubes increased the convective heat transfer coefficient significantly. Laminar heat transfer in the entrance region of a tube flow that was using alumina water nanofluid was the focus of the work by Wen and Ding [82]. and TiO2 constituted the nanoparticles. they observed that the effective heat transfer engineering thermal conductivity increased with an increasing temperature and CNT concentration. It was observed that the enhancement is particularly significant in the entrance region and decreases with axial distance. However the experimental results do agree with the observations by Putra et al.229] at 00:17 22 January 2016 12 S.% CNTs clearly reveals that the enhancement of the convective heat transfer coefficient was much more dramatic than that purely due to the enhancement of effective thermal conductivity. The agglomerates may stick/sinter on the heating surface and generate a fouling effect. Nanoparticles from various sources were used in this study and focused on an aspect ratio (l/d) of ∼0. will form a layer on the surface that might significantly change surface properties.  = aReb where  = Nu · Pr−1/3  L D 1/3  (3) µb µw −0. [78]. and both transient and steady heat transfer coefficients were obtained for various concentrations of nanofluids under natural convective conditions. An observed maximum enhancement of 350% at Re = 800 for 0. Recently TiO2 –water nanofluids were prepared at pH = 3 by Wen and Ding [79] through the dispersive method. Particle rearrangement. DAS ET AL. require only a small volume fraction (< 1%) that will keep viscosity almost unaffected but increase the heat transfer. However.Downloaded by [14. [80] performed a numerical study of buoyancy-driven heat transfer vol.139. The experimental results illustrated that the heat transfer coefficient increased with the Reynolds number and the particle volume fraction and decreased with fluid temperature. seeking to use nanofluids for Rayleigh-Bernard convection and microwave irradiation in nanofluids.5. it appears that much of this enhancement has to do with the type of nanoparticles used. who also observed a decreased natural convective heat transfer coefficient for aqueous CuO and Al2 O3 nanofluids inside a horizontal cylinder. Here. L = channel length. The results differ from the numerical simulation by Khanafer et al. to give the form. [86]. A clear shear thinning was also observed at all concentrations. Particle migration [84] was proposed as a reason for the enhancement. They added that the nanoparticles. The enhancement of the experimental convective heat transfer coefficient of graphite nanoparticles dispersed in liquid for laminar flow in a horizontal tube heat exchanger was reported by Yang et al.6% nanoparticles by volume. and µw = dynamic viscosity at wall temperature. the authors suggest convection induced by concentration difference.02 (like a disc) because the addition of large-aspect-ratio particles into a fluid may dramatically increase viscosity when compared with the viscosity of single-phase fluids. In this study. The few available convective studies were performed with oxide nanoparticles that enhance conductivity only moderately while increasing the viscosity at the same time. At a given shear rate. 10 2006 . Goldstein et al. a reduction of the thermal boundary layer thickness due to the presence of nanoparticles. Convective heat transfer of suspensions of CNT nanofluids in a laminar regime with a constant heat flux wall boundary was investigated by the same authors [85]. shear-induced thermal conduction enhancement. D = channel hydraulic diameter. [80] for natural convective heat transfer behavior of nanofluids in a two-dimensional horizontal enclosure. For nanofluid that contained 1. When they measured the thermal conductivity of CNT. and with a significantly greater dependence of the conductivity on temperature. On the theoretical side. The real advantage is expected in metallic nanofluids. They asserted that the decrease was due to the effects of particle/fluid slip and sedimentation of nanoparticles. 27 no. It was observed that the convective heat transfer coefficient at pH = 6 was slightly higher than that at pH = 10.14 and Re = Reynolds number. Xuan and Li [81] found that heat transfer by forced convection is enhanced in nanofluids. morphology. The nanofluids were found to decrease the natural convective heat transfer coefficient. which suggested that particle shape. a and b.

the prime cause of deterioration of boiling. The effective stagnant thermal conductivity [10] with an enhancement term due to thermal dispersion in porous media was used for the modeling. they used the Hamilton-Crosser model [9] to model the effective thermal conductivity of the nanofluid.15 µm) than on a smooth surface (Ra = 0. Encouraged by the enhancement of thermal conductivity. K. However. Recently. While investigating the reason for this. and a new correlation was developed that agreed with existing experimental results. The use of this model is highly questionable because the model does not bring in the anomalous thermal conductivity enhancement observed in experiments. heat transfer engineering 13 Figure 8 Pool boiling characteristic of nanofluids [76]. [91] conducted a numerical study of the turbulent heat transfer of nanofluids. both of which were considered: the viscous sublayer and the turbulent sublayer. vol. [88] analytically investigated convective instability driven by buoyancy and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids. and q is the input heat flux. They considered local thermal equilibrium and assumed that the nanofluid behaved as a conventional single-phase fluid with properties evaluated as functions of those of the constituents. In the model. You et al. The heat transfer enhancement was explained mainly by a reduction in viscosity within and the consequent thinning of the viscous sublayer. Vassallo et al.139.4 µm). They observed a two. Ra denotes the roughness parameter. the wall layer consisted of two regions. Daungthongsuk and Wongwises [89] summarized and reviewed the published articles that are pertinent to the forced convective heat transfer of the nanofluids of both experimental and numerical investigations. the investigators indicated that. the investigators found that the nanoparticles plugged the microsized surface cavities. This predicted practical application proved to be correct when Tsai et al. but the results were negative. The effect of nanofluids on boiling was deteriorating with oxide nanoparticles suspension. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier. Boungiorno et al. the convective motion in a nanofluid sets in easily. The results show that nanofluids behave more like a fluid than a conventional solid/fluid mixture. 27 no. [90] numerically investigated the forced convective heat transfer of nanofluids. [94] measured the critical heat flux (CHF) in the pool boiling of Al2 O3 –water nanofluids. as shown in Figure 10. [95] confirmed these results in similar studies on SiO2 nanoparticles.Downloaded by [14. Viscosity and particle volume fraction were less in the viscous sublayer. the nondimensional plot of boiling Reynolds number versus boiling Nusselt number shows that the deterioration is greater on a rough surface (Ra = 1. as shown in Figure 11. The results show that as the density and heat capacity of nanoparticles increase and the thermal conductivity and shape factor of nanoparticles decrease. DAS ET AL. enhancement in a two-dimensional enclosure.181. knowing their respective concentrations.to three-fold increase in CHF. They proposed a factor that describes the effect of nanoparticle addition on the convective instability and heat transfer characteristics of a base fluid. (T w − T s) is the wall superheat. In Figures 9a and 9b. a characteristic that may be important for heat treatment or material processing. In their analysis. [93] used nanofluids in heat pipes to delay a boiling limit. [76] used nanofluids for boiling applications. as shown in Figure 8. thus reducing the nucleation site density.229] at 00:17 22 January 2016 S. Kim et al. A wide range of numerical experiments with varying Grashof number and volume fraction were performed. the results of heat transfer studies are in the direction opposite to what intuition might suggest. nonhomogeneous equilibrium model for convective transport. In another study. using a two-component. BOILING IN NANOFLUIDS Often. In another recent study. The deterioration increased with reducing diameter of narrow tubes [92]. four-equation. the need to investigate whether suspended nanoparticles can act as nucleation sites to provide homogeneous nucleation in the situation when heating is done volumetrically with the help of sources such as microwaves or LASERs still remains. However. The average size of departing bubbles increased and the bubble frequency decreased significantly in nanofluids when compared with those in pure water. whereas conductivity in that region was greater. Maiga et al. They discovered an unprecedented phenomenon: a three-fold increase in CHF over that of pure water at the mass fraction O (10−5 ). even the deterioration can have a practical application in that it involves engineered fluids that will inhibit boiling or boil at a preassigned surface temperature. Das et al. 10 2006 .

27 no. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier. 10 2006 . Bang and Chang [97] found Figure 11 Critical heat-flux increase in nanofluids [95]. heat transfer engineering boiling heat transfer coefficients appeared to be approximately the same. vol. DAS ET AL. Later. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier. however.229] at 00:17 22 January 2016 14 S.139. (T w − T s) denotes the wall superheat and q is the input heat flux. Bang and Chang [96] observed similar phenomena during their pool boiling studies with water–alumina nanofluid.181.Downloaded by [14. Reprinted with permission from Elsevier. the nucleate Figure 10 q − T curves for nanofluids in tubes of various diameters [92]. In yet another experimental study on a smooth horizontal surface with alumina–water nanofluid. Ra denotes the roughness parameter. Figure 9 Nusselt number (Nu)–Reynolds number (Re) plots for nanofluids on (a) smoother heater and (b) roughened heater [76]. K. The measured pool boiling curves of nanofluids saturated at 60◦ C demonstrated that the CHF increased dramatically (a 200% increase) when compared with pure water.

Gosselin and Silva [99] explored the optimization of particle fraction for maximizing the thermal performance of nanofluid flows under appropriate constraints. DAS ET AL. Oxide nanoparticle-based nanofluids are relatively less promising in the enhancement of thermal conductivity of fluids. that the heat transfer performance of these nanofluids is poor when compared with pure water in natural convection and nucleate boiling. Using nanofluids as coolants. Liquid layering vol. under the similar conditions. 10 2006 . This competition reveals a trade-off opportunity to maximize the heat transfer rate at constant pumping power by selecting the appropriate amount of particles.. Many attempts to identify and model this mechanism have been carried out with only very limited success.Downloaded by [14. Thus. major attention should be given to the acquisition of extensive data with controlled parameter variation. with very large enhancement at very low volume fraction. [98] studied the effect of nanofluids when used as engine coolants. accordingly. the best heat transfer effect. Suggested possible reasons for this finding were that the nanofluids and heated surface geometries used were different. and Ag) have been studied in differing concentration ranges. On the other hand. they found that performance was greatly improved when nanofluids were used as the coolant. only few ceramics (Al2 O3 . or a higher superheat of the boiling surface is needed for boiling. On the other hand. REMARKS AND FUTURE DIRECTION The present review gives a comprehensive overview of the fascinating research progress made in the area of nanofluids.4% wt) and Al2 O3 (4. However. particles with a dielectric constant close to that of the base fluid and a wall material such that particle–wall attraction is minimized should be selected. particle size must be studied. the future direction should be to first standardize a technology to measure the conductivity of nanofluids. CuO. From the theoretical perspective.4% wt) nanoparticles and antifoam were individually mixed with automatic transmission oil. the number of papers published in the area of nanofluids has increased exponentially. This finding opens the prospect of increasing thermal conductivity enhancement without making large changes in viscosity. This finding is consistent with the observations of Das et al. In addition. CuO nanospheres at low volume concentrations in water and in ethylene glycol). antifoam–oil provided the highest temperature distribution in rotary blade coupling and. The experimental platform was a real-time four-wheel-drive (4WD) transmission system. The experimental results showed that. they observed that the presence of nanoparticles in the fluid did not produce any extra presheat transfer engineering 15 sure drop because of small particle size and low particle volume fraction. maximum enhancement (∼160%) with 1% volume fraction was observed with multi-walled carbon nanotubes dispersed in engine oil. The enhancement of the observed CHF is much lower than that observed by Vassallo et al. in recent times. SiC. However. the natural convection stage continues relatively longer and nucleate boiling is delayed. Alumina nanofluid was used as a colored fluid to distinguish between the liquid phase and the vapor phase in a complex boiling environment.139. the heat transfer rate that is achieved is small. Fe. Next. Chein and Huang [100] numerically considered silicon microchannel heat sink performance.e. Bang and Chang [97] conducted experiments that confirmed the existence of a liquid film that separated a vapor bubble from the heated solid surface. they suggested that high Prandtl number fluids and thermal conductivity nanoparticles be used to attain better microchannel heat transfer. The effect of Brownian motion on the effective fluid viscosity was considered and found to be less significant than that on the effective thermal conductivity.229] at 00:17 22 January 2016 S. The change of CHF was proposed to be due to a possible surface coating effect that would change the nucleation site density. which can erode the gain in convective conditions. TiO2 . CuO (4. the mechanism of thermal conductivity enhancement is still unclear. accordingly. Metallic nanoparticles seem to enhance thermal conductivity anomalously. Tzeng et al. 27 no. besides addressing the issues about thermal conductivity and other properties of nanofluids. [76]. Based on the studies. and a clearer picture about the future direction of research in this area can be depicted at this point of time. which grow and depart continuously from the heated surface. They suggested that to minimize particle–particle and particle–wall interactions. Also the enhancement diminishes rapidly with the increase in particle size. They argued that when few particles are present. This type of nanofluid shows unexplained nonlinear enhancement. APPLICATIONS OF NANOFLUIDS While applying nanofluids for commercial cooling. They showed that a liquid film under a massive vapor bubble adheres to a heated solid surface and observed that the liquid film gets trapped in a dynamic coalescence environment of nucleate bubbles. The first major conclusion that can be drawn from the reviewed studies is that nanofluids show great promise for use in cooling and related technologies. so far. Due to the increased thermal conductivity and thermal dispersion effects. who reported that in the case of nanofluids. whereas too many particles lead to large shear stresses and large required pumping power. no study on boiling of metallic nanofluids or flow boiling of nanofluids is available. [102] gives a good idea about nanotubes and role of the contact resistance in the thermal transport of nanofluids. and SiO2 ) and a few metallic particles (Cu. Most importantly. The nanofluid was a mixture of pure water and nanoscale Cu particles at various volume fractions. The previous review by Eastman et al. [94]. the worst heat transfer effect. CHF has been enhanced in not only horizontal but also vertical pool boiling. Au. Quite a few studies analyze the same type of particle clustering by fractal dimensions. and CuO–oil provided the lowest temperature distribution both at high and low rotating speed and. K. Until now.181. Koo and Kleinstreuer [101] numerically investigated the conjugate heat transfer problem for microheat sinks considering two types of nanofluids (i.

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all in mechanical engineering. He is author or co-author of more than 100 technical publications and holds three U. vol. 2004. T. he is working on the experimental and theoretical analysis of the thermal behavior of nanofluids. from the University of Texas at Austin. [100] Chein. 13. J. and D’Amico.. [95] Vassallo. Hamburg and University of Lund. I. 219–246. no.. T. and Ph. and Keblinski. Luh. pp. He received his M. J. 2005. M. 2004. C. Aurangabad. S. C. 2004. He received his B. Analysis of Microchannel Heat Sink Performance Using Nanofluids.. International Journal of Multiphase Flow. 86..D. K. and Chang. pp. 3104–3114. vol. in 1986 and 1994. DAS ET AL. he was a staff scientist at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.. vol.. Boiling Heat Transfer Performance and Phenomena of Al2 O3 –Water Nano-Fluids from a Plain Surface in a Pool.. no. vol. and his Ph. [101] Koo. K. 48. India. Effect of Structural Character of Gold Nanoparticles in Nanofluid on Heat Pipe Thermal Performance. 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He proposed the concept of nanofluids in 1993 and has led the nanofluids team to develop stable nanofluids that showed high thermal conductivities.. 10 2006 . [96] Bang. and Chang. 2005. [97] Bang.S... pp. transport in fuel cells. and Wongwises. and Chen. Combined Heat Transfer and Power Dissipation Optimization of Nanofluid Flows.. 8. C.. H. Materials Letters. respectively. L. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews.139. Sarit Kumar Das is a professor of the mechanical engineering department at the Indian Institute of Technology Madras. N. Patel is a Ph.