CONSEIL PERMANENT INTERNATIONAL P O U R L’EXPLORATION D E LA MER

FORAMINIFERA
Zooplankton
Sheet 108

Families: Globigerinidae and
Globorotaliidae
(BY A.W. H. Bk)*

1967

* ) Lamont Geological Observatory of Columbia University, Palisades,
New York. Contr. No. 982. This study received support from National
Science Foundation, Grant GB-42 19.

....................................... chambers spherical to ovate.... Hastigerina 3 2....... . 1962): Test trochospiral in the adult or in ontogeny.... Hemispherical chambers with umbilical aperture.. Non-spinose tests .......... perforate.......... .... 6 5..................... PARKER and JONES......................... streptospiral...................... 8................................ . Most of the species (22) are tropical-subtropical.............. Sphaeroidint.........-2PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA There are about 30 described species of planktonic Foraminifera living in the world oceans.............. ................ Cancellate...... 2 1..... chamber flanges.................... The morphological terms in this key have been defined in a publication by BOLLI........... Aperture from umbilicus to periphery.... five are coldtemperate or subpolar species...................... Cana'eina 3... chambers spherical...................... smooth surface texture Globigerinita 7.............. ... spinose when living either in the adult or in ontogeny ... ............................... ...................................lla ... 2....... The few deep water-species probably spend their earlier stages in near-surface waters................. radial in structure...... translucent texture........... Globoquadrina 6. may have bullae with accessory infralaminal apertures.. Streptospiral coiling in adult.... Test with spherical or hemispherical chambers.. 5 4... calcareous................ if present).................. Spherical chambers and umbilical aperture frequently covered by bulla with infralaminal apertures.......smooth surface . coarsely pitted surface texture... Globigerinella 9............... may have secondary apertures................. perforate............ Spinosetests .... Trochospiralcoilingthroughoutlife.................................. may have a keel............ ovate or clavate. pitted................... Primary aperture only ..................... . .......... chambers angular to ovate or spherical................. if present........ Globorotalia 5.... Pulleniatina 6....... The IndoPacific fauna except for its greater species diversity..... wall calcareous................................ spiral side flat or gently curved....... primary aperture umbilical............................ hispid........ Multi-chamberedtest ....................... wall Description (emended from that of PARKER................... honeycomb-like surface.. Sutural apertures....... 4.............. Aperture umbilical........... Orbulina 10... Globigerina 8............... KEY TO GENERA 1........ umbilical tooth........................................ umbilical-extraumbilical...no secondary apertures.................... 8 9 7............................................ primary aperture extraumbilical-umbilical or umbilical ...... I927 Family Globorotaliidae CUSHMAN................................... 4-6 Family Globorotaliidae 7-10 Family Globigerinidae 3.... umbilical aperture and rounded periphery.............. smooth......LOEBLICH....... peripheral keel may be present.........or globular............................. 10 9......................... .... Planispiral test with triradiate spines (gerontic stage streptospiral) .. Trochospiral test (spines simple..... ................... One-chambered spherical test (juvenile stage is multi-chambered with secondary apertures) ... Test with angular to ovate chambers............. (1957).................... Three species are found in Antarctic waters and of these one is also present in the Arctic Ocean. The presence or absence of spines is a major The classification and key used here agrees in most respects with that of PARKER criterion in distinguishing the two families................... Primary aperture (and. and TAPPAN Order FO-RIDA Family Globigerinidae CARPENTER........... Primary aperture and one or more secondary apertures.... radial in structure... 1962): Coiling of test trochospiral........... non-spinose when living both in the adult and in ontogeny................ Globigerinoides 10...... is essentially similar to that of the Atlantic............. They occur primarily in the euphotic zone....... (1962).....equatorial or spiroumbilical..... secondary apertures).. Pitted to smooth.... 1862 Description (after PARKER............. aperture a narrow slit from umbilicus to periphery.... trochospiral in ontogeny becoming nearly planispiral in adult..

8(2):219-254. lO(2) :25-64... Wiss.W.R.. . V. S..H. B%. 1959. U. Jr. and between 25OW long. SCHOTT. L. Bull.. 2nd International Oceanographic Congress..-3PLANISPIRAL-Triradiate -SPINOSE- SpinFTransparent Test-nHastigerinacc 3 4 5 6 7 Globigerina digitata Globigerina quinqueloba Globigerina pachyderma Globigerina humilis Globigerina falconensis Globigerina bulloides Globigerina calida Globigerinella aequilateralis -Globigerinella adamsi 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 7 I *Globigerinitacc LSutural Apertures Very Smooth Test Globigerinita glutinata Globigerinita bradyi 18 19 Globoquadrina dutertrei Globoquadrina conglomerata Globoquadrina hexagona Pulleniatina obliquiloculata 20 21 22 23 Globorotalia truncatulinoides Globorotalia crassaformis Globorotalia hirsuta Globorotalia scitula Globorotalia menardii -Globorotalia tumida 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 -Globorotalia inflata -Globorotaliidae Figures i 2 Orbulina universa Globigerinoides conglobatus Globigerinoides ruber Globigerinoides sacculifer Sphaeroidinella dehiscens -Globigerina rubescens Globigerinidae ~ G lbigerinacc o TROCHOSPIRAL I Hastigerina pelagica Hastigerinella digitata -acandeinacc-Candeina nitida 31 In the Key overleaf species marked ** are commonly found in the northeastern Atlantic between 40°N and 65"N lat.. F. References BANNER.... H. W. 3(3) :43-134. H. Mu. R. Bb. Argent. 68:12-83. E. 1959. 1966. and BLOW.. c. Unless otherwise marked all the bar scales (placed underneath the middle specimen) are 500 p. 4599). Naval. Micropaleontology. Cushman Fdn Foramin. BOLTOVSKOY. Res. Collns.A. J. 1964. Smithson. Natn. atlant. Each species in the Key and in the diagram above is given a number and the same number is used in the figures. Publ. W. different views of the name species being lettered a. N.. 1964. Cushman Fdn Foramin.. Hidrogr. Misc. Okeanol. 11(1):1-41. 639: 1-54.. H.. dt. . 1960. Moscow 1966. A. 5( 1):77-100. p. LOEBLICH. 26. 1957. 215:3-50. 1965. BOLLI. A.Meteorcc. H. H. and TAPPAN. Exped. 1935. T.. 148(4):1-35 (Publ. Trudy Inst. Species marked * occur less commonly in this area. BRADSHAW. b. BELYAEVA. Contr. F. ))Distributionof planktonic Foraminifera in the World Oceanscc. Ergebn. Micropaleontology. Contr. CIFELLI. W. M. Res. PARKER.S. 1962. and Western Europe. Abstracts of Papers.. Serv.

subtropical surface waters 8 -0. right-coiling in coldtemperate waters - 1.Key to Species Test Species *Hastigerina pdagica (d'orbigny) Hastigerineiia digitata (mumbler) *&bulina unimsa d'Orhigny Outline Dominant Coiling Direction (spiral side) Chambers Smooth Trochospiral in juvenile. horn-like chambers Subtropical. glassy layer.3 mm juvenile. subtropical 9 5-6 in Hemispherical to ovate flaplike fina chamber Umbilical. 4-6 in adult Spherical in juvenile. sometimes modified into infralaminal apertures spinose Final &amber a lobed extension over umbilicus. left-coilii population in colder waten Spherical becoming subquadrate Umbilical becoming utra-umbilical. triradiate spines Subtropical. subtropical aurface watua 4 5 in juvenile 3 in adult Spherical Umbilical Two spinose P d to red pigment. coarse-crystaline compact test. nonspinw in adult Great wall thickening producing smooth. one secondary and one primary aperture per chamber. none in adult One (in earlier spinose S i l e spherical chamber Tropical. common also in subtropical regiom 6 4 in adult Spherical with chamber flanges Umbilical (obscured) Spinose in One (concealed: juvenile.dktinct lip May be present in iuvenile. spherical in adult spinose > I mm 4 in juvenih Spherical Equatorial Truadiatt spines Transparent test.65mm 4-5 in iuvenile. subtropical surface waters 5 6 7 in Spherical. chamber flanges coalesce and obscure apertures Tropical. hut not always present Subarctic and subantarctic cold-temperate surface waters. primary aperture over three chambers Dominant species in tropical surface water.3 mm - 1. 1 in adult Spherical Umbilical in juvenile. aperture is a narrow slit with distinct lip Left-coiling in sub-polar.47mm juvenile and adult 5 in juvenile 4 in adult 10 . absent in adult Subquadrate. tropical below 500 m depth 4-5 in juvenile. primary aperture over 3 chambers. honeycomb texture >Sphaeroidineila dehkctns (Parker and Jones)u a terminal form of Gbbigerimides soccul~m (Brady) Trochospual ovate Left+Right Secondar apeper chamber Globigm'na rubercm Hofker Trochospiral Left+Right Spinose Hiapid Globigerina digirala Brady Trochospiral Left+Right spinose HLpid **Globigarina quinqueloba Natland Trochospiral compressed kft+Right Spinose.1 mm Trochospiral nearly spherical Left+Right Coarsely spinow . tropical 6 Bifurcate or trifurcate in adult Equatorial becoming spiroumbilical Triradiatc spines Transparent test.27- - 0. last chambel often elongate and compruscd Umbilical One spinose Sac-like final chamber (if present) . smooth '"Globigm'na pachyderma rrochospiral compact Left Right character9 Stages dY) 5-6 in juvenile.25mm 5 in juvenile 4 in adult Spherical Umbilical spinose Light orangepink pigment in test Tropical.I mm Globigerinoides ruber d'orbigny Trochospiral Left+Right Coarsely spinw -0. Primary aperture position Gbbigm'm'ahconglo6ahrs (Brady) (Ehrenberg) Distribution Shape 5mm Smooth to pitted Diagnostic Number per whorl 6 in adult Planispiral Streptospiral spies Maximum length Texture Smooth Planispiral Apertures - 0.6 mm Globigerinoides sacculifer (Brady) [=Globigerinoiah trib6u. 4 in adult Spherical becoming compreved Umbilical Two Spinose Two secondary apertures per chamber. honeycomb texture. two secondaq apertures per chamber. round outline Tropical. subtropical below 500 m depth 7 -0. digitate in adult Umbilical spiroumbilical in adult spinose Digitate final chamber@) Tropical. subtropical 3 u p to .r (Reuss)] Trochospiral ovate Left+Right spinose. primary aperture over two chambers Tropical. 4 in adult - coarse Figs. triradiate spines.

cold-temperate Cold-temperate and iubtropical Subtropical to subpolar 23 22 21 20 19 18 17 16 15 14 13 12 . ligh spire and numerous chamben Bulla and infralaminal apertures.right-coiling.ighlypolished test with rescent-shaped aperture. later verlapping arlier hamben Cal Iemispher- Cal 5 in juvenile i4 in adult 3emispher- 1 in adult 3emisphercal Spherical Spherical Spherical becoming radially :longate Spherical Spherical becoming elongate Spherical Spherical to ovate Hemispher. .bundant in November in ubtropical North Atlantic rropical. compressed test vith apertural and spiral sides lepressed (on-spinose. flap like final chamber 5 in juvenile 50r6in iuvenile. unbdical tooth. subtropical Subpolar and coldemperate Subpolar to tropical IdY Subtropical.43mm "0. unbilical tooth. 6-8in aduli Jmbilical Iecoming xtra imbilical Jmbilical )ecom ing 'xtra umbiical with 00th 00th Jmbilical with unbilical 00th Umbilical Nith imbilical Umbilical sometimes modified nto infraaminal spertures Umbilical.58mm 0. high-arched aperture Resembles Globigcrina bulloidcs but has more elongate chambers. pitted wall. intergrades with Globigcrina Alloidcs and Globigcrinella aequilatcralis Large. subtropical in 'acific and Indian Oceans lnly rropical Pacific and ndian Oceans only rropical. unbilical tooth.rrochospiral 2ompressed rochospiral . highly arched aperture. tropical Subpolar.8 mm 0. predominantly ight-coiling 3ulla and infralaminal apertures.48mm ' 0. subtropical.ecoming treptospiral Globoquadrina conglomraia (Schwager) Ghboquadrina hexagona (Natland) Pulhiatina obliquiloculata (Parker and Jones) Light mostly xft+Right kft+Rigbt tight mostly Keel is absent in all species listed on these two pages. ical to ovate. pitted wall.19mm 0. +6 in adult 5 in juvenile 4 in adult 5 in juvenilt 4 in adult 5 in juvenilc 5-7 in adult 5 in juvenil< 5-6 in adult 5 in juvenili 4 6 in adull 5 in juvenili 4 in adult 5 in juvenil 4 in adult 5-6 in juvenile. itted 202itted Smooth iinely hispid Smooth Enely hispic Spinose hispid Spinose hispid Spinose bispid Spinose hispid Spinose hispid Spinose smooth 1. pointed final :hamhers Nearly planispiral test Elongate final chambers. itted Zoarse. . imooth test Radially elongate. pitted wall. interiomarginal arch Umbilical becoming extra-umbilical Umbilical Umhilical with lip Umbilical.8 mm 0. tropical in [ndian and Pacific Oceans hbtropical. sometimes modified into infralaminal apertures jpinose jpinose 3pinose Spinose Spinose Spinose Ntreptospiral. tropical Subtropical. ivenile resembles Globoquadrina utcrtrci ion-spinose.ecoming iearly kmispiral rrochospiral .86mm 0.ropical. zry smooth n adult Zoarse. low arched aperture with lip and smaller test Six to eight chambers per whorl and bulla-lie final chamber .8 mm 0. rrochospiral *Globoquadrina dutertrci (d'0:bigny) (= Ghbigcrina cggcrr Rhumbler) Rft+Right Left+Right Trochospiral Trochospiral Left+Right Ghbigcrinita brad$ Wiesner [= Ghbigcrinita uvula (Ebrenbeg)] Globigcrinella adami (Banner and Blow) LeftfRight Left+Right Left+Right Left+Right Left+Right Trochospiral becoming nearly planispiral Trochospira' becoming nearly planispiral * Globigcrinella aequilatcralir (Bra49 [= Ghbigm'nella siphomfcra (d'orbigny)] Trochospiral Trochospira Trochospira Globigcrina calida Parker **Ghbigcrina klhi&s d'Orbigny Ghbigmha falconmrir Blow Trochospira compressed 'itted in uvenile.9 mm 0.21 mm M in uvenile.48mm 0.68mm * - 9 - - -0. I yZ in adult Iemispher:al. 4 chambers in last vhorl of adult 'Ion-spinose. sometimes modified into infralaminal apertures Umbilical becoming interiomarginal equatorial Equatorial.

4 mm 0.. tight mostly Very smooth Coarsely hispid tight mostly Compressed trochospiral.. subtropical surface waters Tropical. especially in winter Subtropical. especially abundant between December and March in Sargasso Sea. with lip Elongate from umbilicus to periphery. in adult Number per whorl Chambers Umbilical but absent in adult Elongate from umbilicus to periphery. crystalline at apertural base Left mostly Trochospiral. thinner test More rounded periphery and smoother test than Globorotalia hirsuta More lobulate periphery and fewer chambers than Globorolalia scitula. moderately lobulate periphery.6 in juvenile and adult 4-5 in adult 5-6 in iuvenile. thin in adult Obscure. coarsely crystallie in adult .0 mm 1. diffen from Globmotalia tum'da in flatter and subcircular. inflated apertural side Texture "Gbborotdia inj7ata (d'orbigny) Dominant Coiling Direction (spiral side) Test mm 0. umbilical to extra umbilical Primary aperture position ktural ipertures - Secondar apertures per chamber Apertures Key to Species Welldeveloped keel keel Welldeveloped Absent or obscure Obscure i: juvenile. right-coiling mostly Differs from Globmotaliainflata in its slit-like aperture and angular periphery. often below 300 m Subtropical. with lip Elongate from umbilicus to periphery. becoming hispid Smooth in juvenile. thin keel Wellieveloped keel Keel Multiple sutural apertures between all chambers.5 mm .0. in winter in subtropics Distribution 31 30 29 28 27 26 25 24 .andrightcoiling populations in Atlantic and Pacific Cold-temperate regions between subpolar and subtropical. coarsely hispid at aperture bas Smooth in juvenile.Smooth in juvenile. flat spiral side. 4-5 in adult Spherical Angular rhomboid Angular rhomboid And? rhomboid Angular rhomboid Angular conical 5 in juvenile.66 mm 1. I.0. - - . hemispherical Shape 4 in juvenile 3 in adult 5-6 in adult 5-6 in adult 5 . with lip Elongate from umbilicus to periphery. biconvex or apertural side flat Globorotalia hirnrta (d'orbigny) - Smooth to hispid Left mostly Trochospiral planoconvex Globorolalia crarsaformis (Galloway and Wissler) [= Globorotalia punchdata (d'orbigny)] Trochospiral Smooth to hispid &+Right Trochospiral conical *Globorotdia tnmcatulinoidcs (d'orbigny) Cdeina nitida d'Orbigny Smooth.65 mm - Maximum length Inflated.76 mm - - 1. subtropical Tropical. left-coiling and smooth test Diagnostic Characters Tropical. differs from GbborotlJia hirsuta in its convex apertural side and flat spiral side conical test Large aperture.9 mm 0. very smooth globular test Elongate oval outline and higher spire than Cloborotalia menardii. rounded periphery. distinct provinces of left. subtropical Subpolar to equatorial especially below 500 m Subtropical. with lip Elongate from umbilicus to periphery. with lip Elongate from umbilicus to periphery.eft+Right Left mostly Left mostly Compressed trochospiral biconvex Compressed trochospiral subcircular outline Compressed trochospiral elongate oval outline Globorotalia scitula (Brady) Globorotalia menardii (d'orbigny) [= Globmotalianrltrata (d'orbigny)] Spines are absent in all species listed on thii page.65 . Angular 5-6 in adult conical 5 in juvenile. with lip Large. test often greatly thickened Rounded.

Ih 7a 7c .

all the bar scales (placed underneath the middle specimen) are 500y. .2so)l 9b 9a @ Q l25y I2a 12b - 13a Il a 15a 1'7'a I3c I 5b I5c I Ilb I Ic I le I If - I2c 13b I I Io c \ 9c Ild t6b 16a 17b I I7c Unless otherwise marked.

tional .I 18a 18b I8c I 2sop ~ 19a 19 b 19c Id 20a 20 b 20c 21c 250p U 22a 22 b 22c 23 c 23a 24 a 26a 30a 26b 30 b 26c 28c 29a 29 b 29c 30c 3 la 31 b 31c jades.

truncatulinoides. . truncatulinoides and Hastigerina pelagica) which occur in the central oligotrophic areas of the oceans. and they can be grouped into three major distributional zones . scitula. right-coiling G. and Hastigerinella digitata appear to be truly meso. New York. Planktonic Foraminifera apparently spend their earlier stages in the enphotic zone and later descend to deeper depths. Kuroshio Currents. Palisades. pachyderma and G. Some species such as Globorotalia crassaformis.) along the eastern margins t of the continents. G. Globorotalia menardii. Globorotalia hirsuta.. Moscow. g.or bathypelagic. g. G. There are a t least three warm-water species that occur in the Indo-Pacific region. Pulleniatina o bliquiloculata. nas are characterized by the prolific occurrence of Globorotalia inflata.dehiscens))). The bipolarity in the faunal zonations is clearly observed in the distributional patterns of the coiling directions of G. Congr.. G. Globigerinella aequilateralis and Orbulina universa) occur abundantly in both tropical as well as subtropical waters. bulloides sensu strict0 and Globigerinita bradyi) and a single Polar species (left-coiling G. House "Nauka'l. Second Intern. where upwelling takes place. The majority of the species (22) belong to the warm-water province. pachyderma). g. Its faunal diversity suggests that here evolution proceeded more rapidly than in the colder areas.NO. The former two species are known from Pleistocene deep-sea sediments. Oceanogr. The seasonal succession of these foraminiferal assemblages was documented in the the Sargasso Sea off Bermuda from plankton tows collected biweekly between 1958 and 1962. G. Publ. Life a t great depths is accompanied by considerable shell thickening in most species which is estimated to add about 5O0/o or more CaCOa by weight to the foraminiferal test (e. which are transported to mid-latitudes via the warm currents (Gulf Stream. 25 . 1966. Globigerinoides sacculifer d3. with the exception of incursions equator-ward along the western margins of continents. Globigerinoides sacculifer. The warm-water species can be grouped into (a) the Equatorial or Tropical species (e. pachyderma. but they have apparently disappeared since from the Atlantic.. which divides the northern cold-water region from its southern counterpart.H. . They are Globoquadrina hexagona. Its distribution is generally limited to the middle latitudes. conglomerata and Globigerinella adamsi. Lamont Geolopical Observatory of Columbia University. Globoquadrina dutertrei. The two transitional zones between the warm-water and cold-water fau. and Globorotalia tumida).a warm-water belt between approximately 40" N and 40" S Latitudes. 26 From: Abstracts of Papers. U S A There are about 30 species of planktonic Foraminifera living in the world oceans. etc. G. and (b) the Central-water or Subtropical species (e. The bipolar nature ol the species distributions is evident from the striking similarity of the foraminiferal faunas in reciprocal latitudinal zones between the northern and southern hemispheres. whereas the non-spinose ones exhibit a great range in depth habitats.SIIb DISTRIBUTION OF PLANKTONIC FORAMINIFERA IN THE WORLD OCEANS BB A l l a n W. truncatulinoides in the North and South Atlantic. Globorotalia menardii. The cold-water fauna can be divided into Subpolar species (Globigerina quinqueloba. but which are no longer present in the Atlantic Ocean. The spinose species are generally epipelagic. Some species (Glohigerinoides ruber...