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Gender Responsive Technology for Poverty Alleviation in Thailand 23

Figure 3: Proposed flow of technology support

Central Government
Organizations (GO)

Local NGOs
Service and Local GO Local
Supply of technical Technology Local GO
technical gender-responsive Agency
agency Centre
organizations technology,
knowledge and
Gender specific
technology and
(Women and men
collaborate in
providing and using
local information) Gender-sensitive
CBOs Local NGOs technology
Demand Flow
Supply Flow

Source: FAO/RAP GAD Programme/2002.

Capacity building

● Educate community leaders, government officials, and local people (men and women) about
the relevance and importance of gender-sensitive and participatory approaches, and about
the Royal Thai Government’s commitment to gender equality and human rights.
● Train government officials involved in rural development in gender analysis and gender
mainstreaming, and support them to mainstream gender in policy formulation and
planning process and implementation of activities. For instance, support them to use
a gender-responsive assessment process for technology needs identification and transfer.9
● Train government officials (in provincial, district and sub-district organizations) and
community group leaders to use ICTs to access and disseminate needs-based technology
information that is also gender sensitive.
● Build the capacity of rural women to identify and articulate their information and technology
needs, and to access information and services provided by government institutions.
A framework to build the capacity of rural women to identify their technology and resource
needs, increase their knowledge and enhance self-confidence, and empower them to
engage with external agencies is presented in Figure 4.

Research and development

● Create and regularly update organizational directories to improve knowledge about the roles
of different actors (government, non-governmental, academic, local and other) in technology
development and delivery.

The checklist developed and used during the SPPD research provides a useful set of questions aimed at
village- and district-level stakeholders, which could form the basis of a gender-responsive technology assessment
process (see Annex 1).
Gender Responsive Technology for Poverty Alleviation in Thailand 24

Figure 4: Capacity building components and potential gains for rural women

Increased knowledge, Ability of identify technology

self-confidence & self-esteem and resource needs,
Articulation in public and solve problems


Learning BUILDING Group
Process RURAL Process


Sharing development Empowerment to deal with

benefits: Technology external agencies and to
and resources access information
(internal & external) resources and

Source: FAO/RAP GAD Programme/2002.

● Develop a gender- and sex-disaggregated database (using inputs from government, NGOs
and communities) and support decision-makers to use this to assist the identification,
planning and targeting of gender-sensitive interventions, including technology development
and delivery.
● Carry out additional research to develop a range of appropriate and affordable technologies
that meet rural women’s needs in agricultural production, post-harvesting and household
activities, and help to reduce drudgery and save time.
● Support NGOs and private companies’ efforts to develop appropriate gender-roles
responsive technologies for agricultural production, processing and household tasks.

Institutional Collaboration

● Develop partnerships between different types of organizations – including government

organizations, NGOs, academic institutions and CBOs – involved in technology planning,
development and transfer in order to foster synergies, improve information exchange and
coordination, and strengthen the delivery of demand-driven and gender-responsive services
accessible to rural women.
● Identify ways to develop new linkages between CBOs and sub- and district level
institutions to support technology planning, development and transfer. For instance,
sub- and district-level agencies could match technology demands identified by community
groups with services offered by various government agencies.
Gender Responsive Technology for Poverty Alleviation in Thailand 25

● Develop a framework to manage the flow of resources available for gender-responsive

technology development and dissemination to reduce duplication and overlap
(see Figure 5). The information available from government, local governance organizations,
NGOs and service organizations as well as private sector should flow through the
technology centre, the nodal decentralised unit for supporting rural communities. To
achieve such decentralised technology support system, it would be important to increase
investment in these centres in physical infrastructure, financial support and human resource.
The local administration should acknowledge the unique role of such local technology
support systems and provide administrative support. The research and training institutions
should play a key role in developing gender responsive technologies and methodologies
for training and information dissemination. In the view of increasing importance of
information technologies in development, it would be essential to take advantage of such
technologies to support technology centres.

Figure 5: Resources mobilised for technology and technical knowledge services

Government Private Sector

Research and training

Institutions support Support from
Gender Roles Information and
Responsive-technology Service and Support Communication
development and Technology Centre Technologies (ICTs)
methodologies for for technology
training and dissemination

Rural Community
Men and Women
Demand Flow
Supply Flow

Source: FAO/RAP GAD Programme/2002.

Agriculture Technology Transfer Centres (TTCs)

● Make TTCs gender-responsive by: i) training staff in gender analysis approaches; and
ii) enabling staff to access and use gender-disaggregated data to understand and apply
gender-differentiated information in the identification, dissemination and transfer of
● Supply TTCs with well-equipped resource libraries that include relevant publications,
audio-visual materials and the necessary hardware and software infrastructure to make
good use of these materials (Figure 6).
Gender Responsive Technology for Poverty Alleviation in Thailand 26

● Strengthen the capacity of staff of TTCs to use ICTs to access information and
dissemination information and technology.
● Train and encourage the staff of TTCs to use alternative, interactive approaches to discuss
technology options, adoption constraints and adoption feasibility with rural men and
● Promote information exchange and linkages between the TTCs and research and
development institutes, universities and national research centres.
● Support staff of TTCs to become active partners in the identification and dissemination of
needs-based technology developed by state and private sector organizations.
● Ensure that the services offered by the TTCs are available at a time of the day and season
when local people can make use of them.

Figure 6: Proposed resource library to support technology transfer centres

Information and Communication Technologies

Resource Library to Support Technology Transfer Centres (TTCs)

Tambon ADM Technology

Research &
Gender responsive Technology (GO/Private)
Gender technology information flows
responsive dissemination and
technology assessment
planning Gender concerns in
Information NGOs
& adoption

Gender-responsive Technology Transfer Centre Capacity

Women’s Groups Building
External TTC: Access to gender database and technology information,
Internal participatory approaches
Rural Women: Participation, articulation of technology needs,
knowledge of technology providers/sources
Rural Leaders: Participatory planning and gender equality in
participation, knowledge of organizations
All Stakeholder: Gender analysis and gender planning
Source: FAO/RAP GAD Programme/2002.

Policy for gender-responsive technology

● Develop a gender-responsive technology policy framework, as part of the Government’s

framework for gender and development, in order to strengthen the capacity of organizations
at the implementation level to plan and deliver gender-sensitive technology services in
response to local needs.
● Develop and implement policies that enable government officials at lower levels to serve
as facilitators of rural development according to needs and priorities articulated by local
men and women.
Gender Responsive Technology for Poverty Alleviation in Thailand 27

● Develop mechanisms to ensure that policies related to technology development and transfer
taking into account the different roles and needs of rural women and men, and target
women accordingly.
● Revise the organizational structure for planning and policy-making at the national level to
support gender mainstreaming at all levels (Figure 7). The flow chart presents the proposed
linkages to improve gender mainstreaming in policy formulation phase and implementation
process. For instance, establish provincial GAD Committees to support gender
mainstreaming in the implementation of policies, programmes and projects, and monitor
progress. It is crucial that current interventions by Royal Thai Government (RTG) at central
level on gender mainstreaming be carried to the provincial level also. It is also
recommended that capacity building and gender planning as relevant to technical area
should be supported at provincial level and further down in the hierarchy of the agency.
● Increase the number of female government officials employed at the provincial, district and
sub-district level.
● Implement key reforms in primary, secondary and tertiary education to help change
perceptions about traditional gender roles and stereotypes. For instance, revise primary
school textbooks, introduce sex-based quotas in secondary schools, and ensure equal
opportunities for female and male university students at the tertiary level, especially in
disciplines like engineering, medicine, science and technology that have traditionally been
dominated by male students.

Figure 7: Proposed organizational framework to mainstream gender and development (GAD)

approaches in technology development and transfer

National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB)

Gender and Development (GAD) Advisory Board

(experts from GOs, NGOs, academia, etc.)

NESDB GAD Policy and Plan of Action

Ministry RTG Cabinet Ministry

Ministry of
Planning & Policy Unit: Sex Segregated
Data base Gender Responsive Planning

Training Unit (GAD)

Line agencies (programme,

project planning and
implementation) GAD Provincial Committee
Office of M&E of gender
Provincial Governor mainstreaming in project
Rural communities, civil society implementation
and the people participation
Gender Responsive Technology for Poverty Alleviation in Thailand 28

7. National policy dialogue

The findings of the study were presented to a group of Policy Dialogue Stakeholders
development stakeholders representing various ministries, Government Organizations
development agencies both from UN and bilateral affiliations, Academic Institutions
Non-Government Agencies and academic and research institutions NGOS
Donor Agencies
(Annex 2). The National Policy Dialogue meeting served a forum UN Agencies
for discussing the outcome of the study and thus to validate the
findings as well as to generate recommendations. The synthesis report includes the
recommendations of the team as well as those relevant ones that emerged during the policy

The major recommendations that emerged were:

● The importance and relevance of developing reliable sex-segregated and gender –

differentiated database relevant to agriculture and rural development.
● Improving social research in agriculture sector with sex-segregated data approach.
● Information need on rural women’s health impacts in pesticide intensive agriculture
● The importance of developing curriculum content that address gender considerations.
● The importance of making teachers sensitive to gender considerations in imparting
● Identifying opportunities for rural women beyond the socially prescribed gender roles.
● Training rural women in non-traditional vocations to find employment in industrial sector.
● Provision of village based training for rural women.
● Leadership development for rural women.
● Improving rural women’s information access to government programmes and services.
● Providing loans to obtain technologies to improve rural productivity.
● The stakeholders proposed expansion of the pilot study to all the provinces
● The stakeholders emphasized the importance of sharing the findings of the study widely.

8. Conclusion
The document is a synthesis of the field research findings on factors influencing the supply and
demand of gender responsive technologies to improve rural productivity and economic
opportunity for poverty alleviation. The primary outcome of the study is validating with systematic
research many commonly made casual observations regarding situation of rural women as well
as anchoring the technology needs of rural communities to poverty alleviation programme.
Rural Thai women when compared with other developing countries in the region have higher
socio-economic status. But the situation of urban women is far superior to that of rural women
in Thailand. Rural poverty in Thailand should be eliminated to achieve equitable gain in
development. In the poverty alleviation strategies of Thailand, gender responsive technology
identification and transfer should be key component.
Gender Responsive Technology for Poverty Alleviation in Thailand 29

Annex 1

Checklist of topics covered with village and

district-level stakeholders

Profile of resources (access, control and constraints)

● Who has access to, and control over, village resources?

■ Natural resources (land, water, forest and forest products)
■ Man-made resources (water systems, roads, electricity, communications, technology
transfer centres, temple schools and public schools)
● Which material and non-material benefits do women and men derive from production (such
as wages, income, social insurance, status, respect and mutual assistance)? What are
the end products? Who are the users?
● What material and human resources women and men contribute to the household
● Who has access to, and control over, household resources (such as land, water, livestock,
capital, equipment, plants, labour, tools and transportation)?
● What problems and needs do those who lack of access to, and/or control over, village
resources face?
● How do men and women in the community typically make decisions?
● How do men and women differ in term of access and constraints to resources? How do
these differences affect their work and productivity?

Activities Profile (agricultural production, post-harvesting and the household tasks)

To identify a representative sample of different kinds of households including mid-sized and small

● What are the daily and seasonal variations in labour availability?

● Are traditional labour patterns seasonal? In what ways? How have traditional seasonal
labour patterns changed?
● Who is responsible for meeting the needs and caring for household members (such as
child care, home gardening, shopping, food preparation, fuel and water collection, health
care, laundry, food processing and cleaning, etc.)?
● Do men and women have different management practices for the same crops?
● When do men and women carry out their work activities?
● Where do men and women perform their work tasks (for instance at home, in the village,
local market, fields or technology transfer centre)? How far away are these places from
the household?
● How do men and women carry out their work tasks (including technologies used, methods
of use, etc.)?
● Which members of the household are responsible for which agricultural tasks? How rigid
is the gender division of labour?
Gender Responsive Technology for Poverty Alleviation in Thailand 30

Technology profile

● What are the technologies used by men and women for production, post-harvesting and
household activities (technology types, cost, user-constraints, training and availability of
information type)? What technologies do women and men need specifically?
● What are the local and external sources of technology (including relationships, objectives,
benefits, access, control, needs and constraints)?
● What are the constraints and problems of technology used and demanded by gender issue
in production, post harvesting and the household?
● How do men and women differ in terms of technologies used and demanded? What causes
these differences?
● Are the available technologies gender roles and gender specific needs responsive? How?
What strategies are used to make technologies gender responsive?
Gender Responsive Technology for Poverty Alleviation in Thailand 31

Annex 2

Stakeholders of National Policy Dialogue Meeting

Various participants from government, academic institute, NGO, donor agency and UN agencies
participated in the National Policy Dialogue Meeting.

Government Organizations
Bank of Agriculture and Agricultural Cooperatives
Bureau of the Budget
Government Saving Bank
Ministry of Agriculture and Cooperatives
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Interior
Ministry of Labour and Social Welfare
Ministry of Public Health
Ministry of Science Technology and Environment
National Economics and Social Development Board
Thailand National Commission on Women’s Affairs

Academic Institutes
Kasetsart University
Thammasat University

Appropriate Technology Association
Association for the Promotion of the Status of Women
The Sustainable Development Foundation
Thai Women Watch

Donor Agencies
Netherlands Embassy

UN Agencies