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Prestressed Concrete Structures

Module 1

Introduction, Prestressing Systems and Material Properties

Prepared by:

Amlan K Sengupta Devdas Menon

Indian Institute of Technology Madras

Module 1-g (7 th Hour)

Prestressing Steel Introduction Forms Types

Properties of Prestressing Steel Strength and Stiffness Stress-Strain Curves

Relaxation of Steel Fatigue Durability

Material Properties

Introduction

The development of prestressed concrete was influenced by the invention of high strength steel. It is an alloy of iron, carbon, manganese and optional materials. The following material describes the types and properties of prestressing steel.

The properties of steel for non-prestressed reinforcement is not covered.

Forms of Prestressing Steel

Material Properties

Forms of Prestressing Steel

Wires

Prestressing wire is a single unit made of steel. The nominal diameters of the wires are 2.5, 3.0, 4.0, 5.0, 7.0 and 8.0 mm.

The different types of wires are as follows.

1) Plain wire: No indentations on the surface.

2) Indented wire: There are circular or elliptical indentations on the surface.

Material Properties

Forms of Prestressing Steel

Pitch

Material Properties Forms of Prestressing Steel Pitch Elliptical indentations Circular indentations Examples of indented
Elliptical indentations
Elliptical indentations
Properties Forms of Prestressing Steel Pitch Elliptical indentations Circular indentations Examples of indented wires

Circular indentations

Examples of indented wires

Material Properties

Forms of Prestressing Steel

Strands

A few wires are spun together in a helical form to form a prestressing strand. The different types of strands are as follows.

1) Two-wire strand:

2) Three-wire strand:

as follows. 1) Two-wire strand: 2) Three -wire strand : 3) Seven-wire strand: The central wire

3) Seven-wire strand: The central wire is larger than the six wires which are spun around it.

2) Three -wire strand : 3) Seven-wire strand: The central wire is larger than the six

Material Properties

Forms of Prestressing Steel

Tendons

A group of strands or wires are placed together to form a prestressing tendon.

of strands or wires are placed together to form a prestressing tendon. Grout Duct Fig 1g-1

Grout

Duct

Fig 1g-1 Cross-section of a tendon

Material Properties

Forms of Prestressing Steel

Cables

A group of tendons form a prestressing cable.

Bars

A tendon can be made up of a single steel bar. The diameter of a bar is much larger than that of a wire. Bars are available in the following sizes: 10, 12, 16, 20, 22, 25, 28 and 32 mm.

Reinforcing bars

Reinforcing bars Prestressing wire, strands and bar Fig 1g-1 Forms of reinforcing and prestressing steel

Prestressing wire, strands and bar

Reinforcing bars Prestressing wire, strands and bar Fig 1g-1 Forms of reinforcing and prestressing steel
Reinforcing bars Prestressing wire, strands and bar Fig 1g-1 Forms of reinforcing and prestressing steel

Fig 1g-1 Forms of reinforcing and prestressing steel

Indented wire

Indented wire Fig 1g-1 Forms of reinforcing and prestressing steel (contd.)

Fig 1g-1 Forms of reinforcing and prestressing steel (contd.)

Types of Prestressing Steel

Material Properties

Types of Prestressing Steel

The steel is treated to achieve the desired properties. The following are the treatment processes.

Cold working (cold drawing) This process is done by rolling the bars through a series of dyes. It re-aligns the crystals and increases the strength.

Material Properties

Types of Prestressing Steel

Stress relieving

This process is done by heating the strand to about 350º C and cooling slowly.

Strain tempering for low relaxation This process is done by heating the strand to about 350º C while it is under tension.

The last two processes improve the stress-strain behaviour of the steel.

Material Properties

Types of Prestressing Steel

IS 1343: 2012 specifies the material properties in Section 5.6. The following types of steel are allowed.

Plain cold drawn stress relieved wire conforming to IS:1785, Part 1

Indented cold drawn wire conforming to IS:6003

High tensile steel bar conforming to IS:2090

Uncoated stress relieved strand conforming to IS:6006

Uncoated stress relieved low-relaxation strand conforming to IS:14268.

Properties of Prestressing Steel

Material Properties

Properties of Prestressing Steel

The prestressing steel requires the following properties.

High strength and high elastic range

Adequate ductility

Bendability, required at harping points and at ends

High bond, required for pre-tensioned members

Low relaxation to reduce losses

Minimum corrosion

Good resistance to fatigue.

Material Properties

Strength of Prestressing Steel

The tensile strength of prestressing steel is given in terms of the characteristic tensile strength ( f pk ).

The characteristic strength is defined as the ultimate tensile strength of the coupon specimens below which not more than 5% of the test results are expected to fall.

The ultimate tensile strength of a coupon specimen is determined by a testing machine according to IS:1608. The following figure shows a test setup.

Wedge grips Coupon specimen Extensometer Fig 1g-2 Tensile strength t esting for prestressing strand (Courtesy:

Wedge grips

Coupon specimen

Extensometer

Fig 1g-2 Tensile strength testing for prestressing strand (Courtesy: Indian Institute of Technology Madras)

Fig 1g-3 Failure of a prestressing strand (Courtesy: Indian Institute of Technology Madras)

Fig 1g-3 Failure of a prestressing strand (Courtesy: Indian Institute of Technology Madras)

Material Properties

Strength of Prestressing Steel

Table 1g-1 Cold Drawn Stress-Relieved Wires (IS: 1785 Part 1)

Nominal Diameter (mm)

2.50

3.00

4.00

5.00

7.00

8.00

Minimum Tensile Stren th f pk (N/mm 2 )

g

2010

1865

1715

1570

1470

1375

The proof stress (defined later) should not be less than 85% of the specified tensile strength.

Material Properties

Strength of Prestressing Steel

Table 1g-2 Indented wire (IS: 6003)

Nominal Diameter

(mm)

3.00

4.00

5.00

Minimum Tensile Strength f pk (N/mm )

2

1865

1715

1570

The proof stress should not be less than 85% of the specified tensile strength.

Material Properties

Strength of Prestressing Steel

High Tensile Steel Bars (IS: 2090)

The minimum tensile strength is 980 N/mm 2 . The proof stress should not be less than 80% of the specified tensile strength.

Material Properties

Stiffness of Prestressing Steel

The stiffness of prestressing steel is given by the initial modulus of elasticity. The modulus of elasticity depends on the form of prestressing steel (wires or strands or bars).

f p

ε p

f p

E p
E p

ε p

Material Properties

Allowable Stress in Prestressing Steel

As per Clause 18.5.1, the maximum tensile stress during prestressing (f pi ) shall not exceed 76% of the characteristic strength.

i ) shall not exceed 76% of the characteristic strength. (1g-1) There is no upper limit

(1g-1)

There is no upper limit for the stress at transfer (after short term losses) or for the effective prestress (after long term losses).

Material Properties

Stress-Strain Curves for Prestressing Steel

The stress versus strain behaviour of prestressing steel under uniaxial tension is initially linear (stress is proportional to strain) and elastic (strain is recovered at unloading).

Beyond about 70% of the ultimate strength the behaviour becomes nonlinear and inelastic. There is no defined yield point.

Material Properties

Stress-Strain Curves for Prestressing Steel

The yield point is defined in terms of the proof stress or a specified yield strain. IS 1343:2012 recommends the yield point at 0.2% proof stress. This stress corresponds to an inelastic strain of 0.002.

f p

Proof

stress

0.002 ε p
0.002
ε
p

Material Properties

Stress-Strain Curves for Prestressing Steel The characteristic stress-strain curve is given in Figure 5 of IS 1343:2012. The stress corresponding to a strain can be found out by using this curve.

f p

0.95f pk

0.9f pk

Stress relieved strands and bars

0.002 0.005 ε p
0.002
0.005
ε
p

Material Properties

Stress-Strain Curves for Prestressing Steel

The stress-strain curves are influenced by the treatment processes. The following figure shows the variation in the 0.2% proof stress for wires under different treatment processes.

f p

stress for wi res under different treatment processes. f p Low relaxation Stress relieved As-drawn (untreated)

Low relaxation

Stress relieved As-drawn (untreated)

εp

Material Properties

Stress-Strain Curves for Prestressing Steel

The design stress-strain curves are calculated by dividing the stress beyond 0.8f pk by a material safety factor m = 1.15.

f p

0 8f

.

pk

0.8 f p k by a material safety factor  m = 1.15. f p 0

Characteristic curve

Design curve

ε p

Material Properties

Stress-Strain Curves for Prestressing Steel

A generalised equation uses the RambergOsgood function.

   1  A  f  E ε A  p p
1  A
f
E
ε
A
p
p
p
1
  C
C
 1 
 
p
 f

B

f p

)

(1g-2) AE p Governed by C E p
(1g-2)
AE p
Governed by C
E p

ε p

E

p (

1- A

Material Properties

Stress-Strain Curves for Prestressing Steel

For low-relaxation strands, A = 0.025, B = 118, C = 10 For stress-relieved strands, A = 0.03, B = 121, C = 6

Reference: Collins, M. P. and Mitchell, D., Prestressed Concrete Structures

Relaxation of Steel

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

Relaxation of steel is defined as the decrease in stress with time under constant strain. Due to the relaxation of steel, the prestress in the tendon is reduced with time. Hence, the study of relaxation is important in prestressed concrete to calculate the loss in prestress.

The relaxation depends on the type of steel, initial prestress and the temperature.

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

f p

Material Properties Relaxation of Steel f p Fast loading With sustained loading Effect of relaxation ε

Fast loading

With sustained loading

Effect of relaxation

ε p

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

The following figure shows the variation of stress with time for different levels of prestressing.

f p

f pi

100 90 f pi  0.6 80 f py 0.7 0.8 70 0 9 .
100
90
f pi
 0.6
80
f py
0.7
0.8
70
0 9
.
60
50 10
100
1000 10,000 100,000
Time (hours)

Reference: Collins, M. P. and Mitchell, D., Prestressed Concrete Structures

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

It can be observed that there is significant relaxation loss when the applied stress is more than 70% of the characteristic tensile strength.

Specimen Load cell Fig 1g-4 Relaxation test of a single wire strand (Courtesy: Indian Institute

Specimen

Load cell

Fig 1g-4 Relaxation test of a single wire strand (Courtesy: Indian Institute of Technology Madras)

Specimen Fig 1g-5 Relaxation test of a seven-wire strand (Courtesy: Indian Institute of Technology Madras)

Specimen

Fig 1g-5 Relaxation test of a seven-wire strand (Courtesy: Indian Institute of Technology Madras)

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

The upper limits of relaxation loss are specified as follows.

Table 1g-3 Relaxation losses at 1000 hours (IS: 1785, IS: 6003, IS: 6006, IS: 2090)

Cold drawn stress- relieved wires

5% of initial prestress

 

I

d

t

d

i

5%

f i

iti

l

 

n

en e

w res

 

o

n

a

 

prestress

Stress-relieved

5% of initial prestress

 

strand

 

Bars

 

49 N/mm 2

 

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

In absence of test data, IS 1343:2012 recommends the

followin

loss, the values are multiplied by 3.0.

Table 1g-4 Relaxation losses at 1000 hours at 202°C

g estimates of relaxation losses

.

For lon -term

g

Initial

Relaxation Loss (%)

Stress

Regular strands

Low relaxation

strands

0.5f pk

0

0

0.6f pk

3.0

1.0

0.7f pk

5.0

2.5

0.8f pk

8.0

4.5

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

The following equation provides an estimate of the drop in stress with time under normal temperature.

  f   log t f  t  f 1  
 f
log t
f

t
f
1
pi
 0.55 
p
pi
K
f
py

(1g-3)

Type

K

Stress-relieved

7

Low-relaxation

30

Reference:

AASHTO LRFD Bridge Design Specifications

Material Properties

Relaxation of Steel

The following figure shows the effect of temperature schematicall y.

f p

f pi

1

0.9

0.8

0.7

0.6

0.5

Temperature
Temperature
shows th e effect of temperature schematicall y . f p f pi 1 0.9 0.8
shows th e effect of temperature schematicall y . f p f pi 1 0.9 0.8
shows th e effect of temperature schematicall y . f p f pi 1 0.9 0.8
shows th e effect of temperature schematicall y . f p f pi 1 0.9 0.8
shows th e effect of temperature schematicall y . f p f pi 1 0.9 0.8
shows th e effect of temperature schematicall y . f p f pi 1 0.9 0.8
shows th e effect of temperature schematicall y . f p f pi 1 0.9 0.8
shows th e effect of temperature schematicall y . f p f pi 1 0.9 0.8

Time

Fatigue

Material Properties

Fatigue

Under repeated dynamic loads the strength of a member may reduce with the number of cycles of applied load. The reduction in strength is referred to as fatigue.

Fatigue tests are conducted to develop the stress range (S) versus number of cycles for failure (N) diagram.

Under a limiting value of stress range, the specimen can withstand infinite number of cycles. This limit is known as the endurance limit.

Material Properties

Fatigue S-N Diagram for prestressing tendons 0.5 0.4 f p 0.3 f pu 0.2 0.1
Fatigue
S-N Diagram for prestressing tendons
0.5
0.4
f p
0.3
f pu
0.2
0.1
Endurance
Limit
0.0 10 3
10 4
10 5
10 6
10 7

Number of cycles (log scale)

Reference: Naaman, A. E., Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design

Material Properties

Fatigue

S-N Relationship for prestressing tendons

∆f p  0.123 logN  0.87 f pu
∆f
p
 0.123 logN  0.87
f pu

(1g-4)

Reference: Naaman, A. E., Prestressed Concrete Analysis and Design

Material Properties

Fatigue

In prestressed applications, the fatigue is negligible in members that do not crack under service loads. If a member cracks, fatigue may be a concern due to the following reasons.

1) High stress in the steel at the location of cracks 2) Effect of fretting (wearing due to contact of strands under motion) 3) Stress corrosion.

Material Properties

Fatigue

The prestressed member is designed such that the fluctuating stress range in the steel under service loads remain under the specified endurance limit.

Specimens are tested under 2 x 10 6 cycles of load to observe any effect of fatigue.

Fig 1g-6 Fatigue testing setup for rail  sleeper fastening (Courtesy: Indian Institute of Technology

Fig 1g-6 Fatigue testing setup for railsleeper fastening (Courtesy: Indian Institute of Technology Madras)

Durability

Material Properties

Durability

Corrosion of bars in concrete structures occurs due to the breakdown of the passive alkaline film, in presence of moisture and oxygen, under the effect of the following.

1) Diffusion of chloride ions 2) Carbonation of concrete

Pitting corrosion is more severe in prestressed strands because of the smaller diameter.

Material Properties

Durability

In addition, prestressing steel is susceptible to the following in aggressive environments.

1) Stress corrosion 2) Hydrogen embrittlement

Hence, prestressing strands needs to be adequately protected.

Material Properties

Durability

For bonded post-tensioned tendons, the alkaline environment of the grout provides adequate protection. However, if the grout has voids or develops void with time, then the strands are susceptible to corrosion.

Material Properties

Durability

For unbonded tendons, corrosion protection is provided by one or more of the following methods (Cl. 12.1.5.1).

1) Epoxy coating of strands 2) Mastic wrap (grease impregnated tape) around strands 3) Galvanized strands 4) Non-corroding sheathing duct (HDPE or FRP duct) 5) Anchorages covered by casing 6) Encasing of strands in tubes (for external prestressing).

Material Properties

Codal Provisions

The following topics are covered in IS 1343:2012 under the respective sections. These provisions are not duplicated here.

Assembly of prestressing and reinforcing steel: Section 12

Section 13

Prestressing:

Prestressing Steel Introduction Forms Types

Summary

Properties of Prestressing Steel Strength and Stiffness Stress-Strain Curves

Relaxation of Steel Fatigue Durability