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THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES

ST. AUGUSTINE, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO, WEST INDIES


FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering
B. Sc. in Electrical & Computer Engineering

ECNG 1006
Laboratory Exercise 3
Impedance and AA-C Series
eries Circuit
Analysis

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES


ST. AUGUSTINE, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO, WEST INDIES
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

Contents
1.

General Information ................................................................................................................ 3

2.

Lab Learning Outcomes .......................................................................................................... 4

3.

Pre-Lab .................................................................................................................................... 4
3.1.

4.

In-Lab ...................................................................................................................................... 6
4.1.

5.

Pre Lab ............................................................................................................................ 4

In-Lab Procedure ............................................................................................................ 6

Post-Lab................................................................................................................................. 11
5.1.

Assignment ................................................................................................................... 11

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES


ST. AUGUSTINE, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO, WEST INDIES
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

List of Figures

Figure 1: To Examine the Frequency Dependent Nature of Impedance ........................................ 6


Figure 2 : To Analyze A-C Series Circuits..................................................................................... 8
Figure 3: Lissajous Pattern for Phase Measurement....................................................................... 9

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES


ST. AUGUSTINE, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO, WEST INDIES
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

ECNG1006
Laboratory Project and Design I
http://myelearning.sta.uwi.edu/
Semester II; 2008 / 2009

1. GENERAL INFORMATION
Lab # :
Name of the Lab:

Lab Weighting:

10%

Delivery mode:

Impedance and A-C Series Circuit Analysis


Estimated total hours for
completion of pre, in and post
lab exercises
 Lecture:
Yes
 Lab:
Yes

10 hours

Venue for the Lab:

Year 1 Laboratory

Lab Dependencies

The theoretical background to this lab is provided in ECNG1006


Theoretical content link:
Pre-Requisites ECNG 1012
Co- Requisites ECNG 1015
To undertake this lab, students should be able to:
Use basic laboratory equipment
Determine the phase relationship between waveforms
Understand the concepts of impedance, reactance and series
resonance
Draw voltage phasor diagrams

Recommended
prior knowledge
and skills:

Course Staff

Position/Role

E-mail

Dr. Ronald De Four

Course Lecturer

Ronald.DeFour@sta.uwi.edu

Juliet Romeo-Joseph

Engineering Practice Coordinator

Juliet.Romeo@sta.uwi.edu

Adelle Joseph

Course Coordinator

Adelle.Joseph@sta.uwi.edu

Jeevan Persad

Lab Demonstrator

Jeevan Persad@sta.uwi.edu

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES


ST. AUGUSTINE, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO, WEST INDIES
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

2. LAB LEARNING OUTCOMES


Upon successful completion of the lab assignment, students will be able to:

Cognitive
Level
1. Apply basic laboratory tools and a knowledge of the fundamental Application
principles of electrical and computer engineering to the behavior of energy
storage electronic components under ac as well as dc excitation

3. PRE-LAB
Due Date:
Submission
Procedure:
Estimated time to
completion:

February 27, 2009


Submit to Ms. Adelle Joseph in the Power Simulation Lab
2 hours

3.1. Pre Lab


3.1.1.

Write the equations for the impedance of a resistor R, an inductor L and a capacitor C as
a function of frequency and determine the magnitude of these impedances.

3.1.2.

For a 1K resistor, a 0.5mH inductor and a 0.1uF capacitor, calculate the reactance of
these elements at frequencies of 10 Hz, 100 Hz, 1 kHz, 10 kHz and 100 kHz.

3.1.3.

In a series circuit all elements carry the same current, and the circuit voltage is the sum
of the individual vo1tage drops. Write equations for the voltage drops across the
elements in an a-c series circuit containing resistance, inductance and capacitance
(RLC).

3.1.4.

Using the same graph, plot the waveforms for the voltage across and the current through
an a-c series circuit consisting of a resistor, inductor and capacitor.

THE UNIVERSITY OF THE WEST INDIES


ST. AUGUSTINE, TRINIDAD & TOBAGO, WEST INDIES
FACULTY OF ENGINEERING
Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering

3.1.5.

Draw the voltage phasor diagram for as a-c series circuit consisting of a resistor,
inductor and capacitor and show how you would obtain the resultant circuit voltage.

3.1.6.

Show how you would connect the oscilloscope in Figure 2 to simultaneously display the
voltages across the 10 resistor and the capacitor C.

3.1.7.

State the conditions under which series resonance occurs for an RLC circuit. Using the
circuit of Figure 2, compute the frequency at which series resonance occurs and the
value of the circuit parameters at resonance.

4. IN-LAB
Allotted Completion 3 hours
Time:
1) One oscilloscope with a pair of required test leads.
Required lab
2) One function generator with a pair of leads not less than 30 cm
Equipment:
long.
3) One power supply with one pair of leads about 30 cm long.
4) One multimeter with leads
5) One solderless breadboard
6) One RLC meter
7) Resistors (1x10, 1x1k)
8) Capacitors (1x0.1F)
9) Inductors (1x0.5mH)

4.1. In-Lab Procedure


4.1.1.

To Examine the Frequency Dependent Behavior of Impedance.

a) Using the RLC meter, measure and record the value of the 1 k resistor R, the 10
resistor r, the 0.5mH inductor L and the 0.1F capacitor C. Also, measure and record the
parasitic resistance Rp of the inductor.
b) Construct the circuit shown in Figure 1 and put the 1 k resistor in the circuit location
indicated by the box labeled Device Under Test.

Figure 1: To Examine the Frequency Dependent Nature of Impedance

Lab # 3: Impedance and AC Series Circuit Analysis

c) Set the Function Generator to produce a sinusoidal waveform of 10 Hz with no DC


offset. Ensure that the attenuator selector switch is set to 1 and the output amplitude
control is turned to its zero output position.
d) Have your circuit checked by the TA. When you get the go ahead, turn on the function
generator and oscilloscope. Slowly increase the amplitude, produced by the function
generator until channel 1 displays a 4 Vpp waveform.
e) The 10 resistor is used to measure the current flowing through the device under test,
hence, the voltage across the device under test includes the small voltage drop across the
10 resistor. Draw up a table for the device under test and measure and record the
magnitude of the voltage across this device Vpp, displayed on channel 1 of the
osci11oscope. Measure and record the current through the device under test by taking the
channel 2 peak to peak voltage and dividing it by 10.
f) Ensure that both current and voltage waveforms are symmetrically centered on the
oscilloscope screen and measure and record the phase relationship between the
waveforms. Your measurement should indicate if the current leads or lags the voltage.
g) Increase the input frequency to 100 Hz and re-measure and record the current and
voltage. Continue to increase the input frequency to values of 1 kHz, 10 kHz and 100
kHz and for each frequency re-measure and record the current and voltage.
h) Remove the resistor from the circuit, and insert the capacitor in its place. Repeat steps (e)
and (g).
i) Remove the capacitor from the circuit, and insert the inductor in its place. Repeat steps
(e) and (g).

4.1.2.

Analysis of A-C Series Circuits

a) Connect up the circuit shown in Figure 2. Set the Function Generator to produce a
sinusoidal waveform of 1 kHz (i.e. a period of 1 ms on the oscilloscope) with no DC
offset. Ensure that the attenuator selector switch is set to 1 and the output amplitude
control is turned to its zero output position.

Lab # 3: Impedance and AC Series Circuit Analysis

Figure 2 : To Analyze A-C Series Circuits

b) Connect the channel 1 input of the oscilloscope across the 10 resistor observing the
polarity of the oscilloscope leads. The 10 resistor was added to the circuit to measure
the current flowing through the circuit, because, the voltage and current have the same
phase for a resistor.
c) Connect the channel 2 input of the oscilloscope across the capacitor C and the 10
resistor observing the polarity of the oscilloscope leads. The voltage across the 10
resistor is negligible in comparison to that across the capacitor and hence would not
significantly change the capacitor voltage reading.
d) Have your circuit checked by the TA. When you get the go ahead, turn on the
oscilloscope and the function generator and set the function generator output amplitude
control to 6 Vpp. Do not readjust the function generator amplitude control.
e) Measure and record the peak to peak voltage (Vcpp) across the capacitor shown on
channel 2 and the peak to peak voltage (Vrpp) across the 10 resistor shown on channel 1
of the oscilloscope. Measure and record the phase difference (ct) between the two
waveforms and state whether the current leads or lags the voltage. Place your readings in
a table.
f) Switch the SEC\DIV switch to X-Y mode. Set the VOLTS/DIV on the X and Y channels
so that the Lissajous pattern is as large as possible, but is completely visible on the CRT.
At frequencies other than resonance, the Lissajous pattern will be similar to that shown in
Figure 3.

Lab # 3: Impedance and AC Series Circuit Analysis

Figure 3: Lissajous Pattern for Phase Measurement.

g) Verify that the Lissajous pattern is centered on the oscilloscope CRT by switching the X
and Y input selector switches to GND and centering the spot on the screen.
h) Draw the Lissajous pattern produced and measure and record the two distances A and B
as shown in Figure 3. The dimension A is the distance between the two intersections of
the Lissajous pattern and the Y axis, while, B is the vertical distance between the top and
bottom of the pattern.
i) Interchange the capacitor C with the inductor L in the circuit and repeat steps (e) through
(h) to measure and record VLpp and Lt.
j) Interchange the inductor L with the resistor R in the circuit and repeat steps (e) through
(h) to measure and record VRpp and Rt.
k) Connect channel 2 of the oscilloscope directly across the function generator and, measure
and record the circuit peak to peak voltage Vpp. Also measure and record the phase on the
time axis t and using the Lissajous pattern with the oscil1oscope in the X-Y mode.
4.1.3.

Series Resonance

a) Set the function generator to produce a 1 kHz sinusoidal signal of magnitude 6Vpp.
Connect the circuit as shown in Figure 2.
b) With the oscilloscope set to X-Y mode, obtain a display of the Lissajous pattern on the
CRT.
c) Gradually change the frequency control and switches on the function generator until the
Lissajous pattern is a single straight line and record the frequency at this point. The
straight line Lissajous pattern is obtained when the circuit is in resonance. Draw the
Lissajous pattern produced.

Lab # 3: Impedance and AC Series Circuit Analysis

d) Measure and record the peak to peak voltage and phase angle for each component and for
the supply voltage using the oscilloscope. Also, measure and record the circuit current
and phase angle.
e) Repeat (d) above for a range of frequencies above and below the resonant frequency.
Record your results in a table.

Proceed to post-lab exercise.

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Lab # 3: Impedance and AC Series Circuit Analysis

5. POST-LAB
Due Date:
Submission
Procedure:
Deliverables:

March 20, 2009 @ 4PM


Submit to Mr. Lawrence Hutchinson in the Year 1 Lab

Signed Plagiarism Declaration Form


Typewritten responses to the assignment questions ONLY, bound
in a folder.

5.1. Assignment
5.1.1.

Create a table to enter your data from the lab.

5.1.2.

On one graph, plot both theoretical and measured impedance for the resistor, capacitor
and inductor and functions of frequency for the data obtained in section 4.1.1. Both axes
should be logarithmic, with the frequency on the horizontal axis and the impedance on
the vertical axis. To help identify the curves each, impedance should be drawn in a
different color.

5.1.3.

The parasitic resistance Rp of the inductor was measured in section 4.1.1 (a). At what
frequencies does this resistance create a significant difference between Z Lmeas and

Z Ltheo and why?


5.1.4.

Can the theoretical inductor impedance, Z Ltheo , computed in section 4.1.1 be corrected
to eliminate the separation between the plots of Z Lmeas and Z Ltheo ? If your answer is
yes, implement your suggestions and draw and discuss the differences between the new
plots.

5.1.5.

Could the oscilloscope in Figure 1 be connected such that channel 1 measures the
voltage across the device under test and excludes the voltage drop across the 10
resistor while, channel 2 measures the voltage drop across the 10 resistor? Give
reasons for your answer.

5.1.6.

Draw up a table and record the data obtained in section 4.1.2. Compute the phase angle
Lis , obtained using the Lissajous patterns using the equation,
A
B

Lis = Sin 1

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Lab # 3: Impedance and AC Series Circuit Analysis

5.1.7.

In section 4.1.2, compare the phase angles t, obtained when the waveforms were
displayed as functions of time with Lis which were obtained using the Lissajous
patterns. Discuss any differences.

5.1.8.

Using Figure 2, calculate the peak to peak voltage across each component and its phase,
and the peak, to peak circuit current and phase using the measured values of the
components.

5.1.9.

Compare the measured peak to peak voltages and phase angles obtained in section 4.1.2,
with those calculated. Give reasons for any differences

5.1.10. Draw the phasor diagrams for the calculated and measured component values obtained
in section 4.1.2 on the same graph. Use different colours to differentiate the measured
phasors from the calculated ones. Discuss any differences between the measured and
calculated phasor diagrams. Does the supply voltage phasor close the phasor diagrams?
Discuss your findings.
5.1.11. Calculate the voltage across each component and phase angle, and the circuit current
and phase for the circuit of Figure 2 at the resonant frequency obtained in section
4.1.3(c). Use the measured va1ues of the circuit components.
5.1.12. Draw the phasor diagrams for the measured and calculated values obtained in sections
4.1.3 and 5.1.11 respectively on the same graph and explain any differences.
5.1.13. Explain how the phasor diagrams in section 5.1.12 differ from that of section 5.1.10.
5.1.14. The resonant frequency of the circuit in Figure 2 is determined from the equation
f res =

1
2 LC

Compute the resonant frequency using the above equation and compare the results with
the measured value obtained in section 4.1.3(c). Give reasons for any differences.
5.1.15. Using the results produced in section 4.1.3(e), determine the impedance of each
component at the various frequencies and plot these impedances as a function of
frequency on the same graph. Also, on the same graph, plot the magnitude of the circuit
current as a function of frequency and discuss the nature of the plots.

End of Lab # 3: Impedance and A-C


Series Circuit Analysis

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