STATISTICS & INFERENCE REPORT

Analysis on Reliable ISP in Karachi
Submitted To Class ID Submitted By (53234) : M.SHAHBAZ KHAN : 53965 : MUHAMMAD OSAMA SYED ADNAN SHAH (53218)

Page 1 of 22

USMAN GHANI (53007) SAQIB SHAIKH (53044)

Page 2 of 22

TABLE OF CONTENTS

Acknowledgment Nature & background Objective Confidence interval for a proportion Hypothesis testing for average used of Internet in a day Correlation between age of user with Price of Internet Goodness of fit Test Conclusion

03 04 05 09 15 11 19 22

Page 3 of 22

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

A project of this nature and magnitude was a very good learning experience. We owe a debt of gratitude to those people who aided us in the compilation of this project.

Firstly we thank Almighty ALLAH for giving us the strength to compile this report. We take this opportunity to thank our valued instructor “SIR SHABAZ KHAN” for giving us the opportunity to conduct a study of this nature for the course of “STATISTICS & INFERENCE”.

Page 4 of 22

NATURE & BACKGROUND OF STUDY

A computer network consisting of a worldwide network of computer networks that use network protocols to facilitate data transmission called ‘Internet’. The companies who are providing this service called “Internet Services Provider (ISP). In 1996, Brain net introduced internet first time in Pakistan through Dial-up connection. There are four types of internet connection in Karachi, i.e. i.e. Dial-up, Cable net, Wimax and DSL (Digital Subscriber Line). Wimax and DSL are new technologies that offer fast speed as compared to dialup and cable net. There are many ISP’s available in Karachi but here we are focusing only on three companies, i.e. PTCL, WORLDCALL and WATEEN. PTCL is offering two types of Internet connection, i.e. Dial-up and DSL. WATEEN is offering Wimax and DSL connection and WORLDCALL is offering Cable Net and DSL connection.

Page 5 of 22

OBJECTIVE

STUDY ABOUT THE RELIABLE INTERNET SERVICE PROVIDER (ISP) IN KARACHI
RELIABILITY means the ability of a person or system to perform and maintain its functions in routine circumstances, as well as hostile or unexpected circumstances. Its depend on many factors. For ISP company, its depend on:
• •

Goodwill of the company in the market, Fast speed of internet at low/ affordable charges with consistent connectivity and satisfied customer services, etc.

For our study we have asked Ten (10) Questions related to user choices, preferences and facilities which they often demand from any ISP. Following are the Questions which help us to identify the most Reliable ISP. 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) 9) 10) Gender Age If you have an offer to get DSL (or Internet) connection, which company How much Speed you will prefer? How much maximum amount would you like to pay? Which type payment mode would you like to pay (post pay or prepay) How many hours you use internet in a week? How many computers or devices would you like to use? Would you like to recommend your DSL connection to others? Are you satisfy with customer support services?

connection would you prefer ?

Page 6 of 22

SAMPLE DATA
S.NO. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 Q 1. MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE MALE MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE MALE MALE MALE FEMALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE MALE MALE MALE MALE FEMALE FEMALE MALE MALE FEMALE MALE FEMALE FEMALE MALE MALE MALE MALE MALE FEMALE FEMALE FEMALE MALE MALE MALE MALE Q 2. 28 21 25 22 18 19 26 25 22 19 20 18 18 22 28 24 22 19 20 18 18 22 25 24 22 19 24 21 19 19 27 22 19 25 19 23 22 24 21 27 26 22 18 19 20 Q 3. PTCL PTCL WORLDCALL WORLDCALL PTCL WORLDCALL PTCL WORLDCALL WATEEN PTCL WATEEN PTCL WATEEN PTCL WATEEN PTCL WATEEN PTCL WATEEN WATEEN PTCL PTCL WATEEN PTCL WATEEN PTCL PTCL PTCL WORLDCALL WORLDCALL PTCL PTCL WATEEN WATEEN PTCL PTCL WATEEN PTCL PTCL PTCL WORLDCALL WORLDCALL WORLDCALL PTCL PTCL Q 4. 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB 2 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Q 5. Q 6. 840 Postpay 1,800 Postpay 2,400 Prepay 840 Postpay 1,800 Postpay 1,200 Postpay 1,800 Postpay 1,500 Prepay 1,200 Postpay 1,500 Prepay 1,400 Postpay 799 Postpay 840 Postpay 799 Prepay 840 Postpay 799 Postpay 1,200 Postpay 799 Prepay 1,500 Prepay 840 Postpay 840 Postpay 799 Prepay 840 Prepay 799 Postpay 840 Postpay 840 Postpay 1,400 Postpay 1,800 Prepay 1,400 Prepay 840 Postpay 840 Postpay 799 Prepay 799 Prepay 840 Postpay 1,400 Postpay 799 Prepay 840 Postpay 1,400 Postpay 840 Postpay 1,400 Prepay 1,800 Prepay 1,800 Prepay 1,400 Postpay 840 Postpay Q 7. 20 25 30 20 21 22 20 19 30 18 29 35 25 21 22 25 24 25 24 30 19 18 30 24 20 21 12 23 22 21 34 18 24 54 21 25 44 32 26 30 30 25 34 41 39 Q 8. 2 1 1 3 1 1 2 1 3 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 1 1 3 2 2 4 2 Q 9. Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Q 10. Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes

1,200 Postpay

Page 7 of 22

S.NO. 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80

Q 1. FEMALE FEMALE FEMALE FEMALE FEMALE FEMALE FEMALE MALE MALE MALE MALE MALE MALE MALE MALE MALE MALE MALE MALE MALE FEMALE MALE MALE MALE FEMALE MALE MALE MALE MALE MALE MALE FEMALE MALE MALE MALE

Q 2. 28 26 23 21 20 19 19 30 29 25 25 24 24 23 22 22 21 22 22 25 24 24 22 21 23 25 24 21 25 24 26 24 27 22 24

Q 3. PTCL PTCL WORLDCALL WORLDCALL WATEEN WATEEN WATEEN PTCL PTCL PTCL PTCL PTCL PTCL WATEEN WATEEN WATEEN WORLDCALL PTCL WATEEN PTCL WORLDCALL PTCL PTCL WATEEN WATEEN PTCL PTCL WORLDCALL WATEEN WATEEN PTCL PTCL PTCL PTCL PTCL

Q 4. 2 MB 2 MB 2 MB 2 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 1 MB 2 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB 2 MB 2 MB 1 MB 1 MB Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs. Rs.

Q 5.

Q 6.

Q 7. 15 18 10 5 15 16 16 30 24 12 29 30 35 21 25 20 10 21 28 24 30 28 21 22 21 28 28 35 28 21 35 20 28 21 21

Q 8. 1 1 1 2 1 2 1 3 1 2 2 3 2 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 2 2 1 1 1

Q 9. Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

Q 10. Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes No No Yes No Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes

1,500 Postpay 1,500 Postpay 1,400 Prepay 1,400 Postpay 1,000 Postpay 800 Postpay 800 Prepay 1,500 Prepay 999 Prepay 999 Prepay 999 Prepay 999 Postpay 999 Postpay 1,000 Postpay 800 Prepay 800 Postpay 1,400 Prepay 840 Postpay 1,500 Prepay 840 Prepay 1,800 Postpay 840 Prepay 1,900 Postpay 799 Postpay 799 Prepay 840 Prepay 840 Prepay 1,800 Postpay 799 Postpay 799 Postpay 840 Prepay 840 Prepay 1,999 Postpay 840 Prepay 840 Prepay

Page 8 of 22

SUMMARY OF SAMPLE DATA
Standard deviatioon Minimum Maximum

Company

Male

Female

Total Relative %age Mean Median Variance

PTCL WATEEN WORLDCALL

29 16 7 52

14 7 7 28

43 23 14 80

53.75% 28.75% 17.50%

1,055 939 1,700

840 799 1,800

95,322 72,655 78,462

309 270 280

840 799 1,400

1,999 1,500 2,400

PTCL
33%
30%

WATEEN

WORLDCALL

50%

50%

67%

70%

Male

Female

Male

Female

Male

Female

Page 9 of 22

CONFIDENCE OF INTERVAL FOR PROPORTION

Objective To construct a 95% Confidence Interval of population proportion of users who are using internet connection of PTCL, Worldcall and Wateen respectively. Data and Sample Size The data is primary and has been collected through survey in facebook. A sample of 80 individuals’ was taken. Sampling technique The sampling technique that was used in the survey is Convenience Sampling. We have used sample data from Question 5.

Page 10 of 22

Statistical Method We have applied Confidence interval for a population proportion at 95% level of confidence interval. Data:
Variable PTCL WORLDCALL WATEEN Sampe Size, n = No. of user 43 14 23 80 Relative ratio 0.5375 0.175 0.2875

Z value = 1.96 Formula

Calculation
PTCL ( 0.5375 ) + ( 1.960) (0.5375) ( 1 - 05375 ) 80 WORLDCALL ( 0.175 ) + ( 1.960) ( 0.175 ) (1 - 0.175 ) 80

0.428 < p < 0.6465

0.0917 < p < 0.2582

WATEEN ( 0.2875 ) + ( 1.960) ( 0.2875 ) (1 - 0.2875 ) 80

0.18832 < p < 0.386

Conclusion Hence with 95% confidence the true percentage of internet users of PTCL is 42.18% to 64.65%, Worldcall is 9.17 % to 25.82% and Wateen is 18.83% to 38.6% in Karachi.

Page 11 of 22

CORRELATION & REGRESSION

Objective The objective of this test is to determine the fact that there a significant relationship between the age of users and the price of internet charged by ISP. Population Internet Subscriber Sample Size, Data The sample size was of 80 observations. The data was primary. Sampling Technique The sampling technique used was convenience sampling. We have used sample data from Question 2 & 5. We have used Q2. as an Independent variable (x) and Q 5 as dependent variable (y).

Statistical method The method we have used is Correlation Hypothesis Testing.

Page 12 of 22

Problem The research has been conducted to determine whether there is a relationship between the age of internet user and the price / charges of internet. Data Sample size: n = 80 , ∞ = 0.05 , Test: Two tailed test. Step 1 Ho: HA: There is no correlation between the age of internet user and the price charge by ISP There is a correlation between the age of internet user and the price charge by ISP (claim).

Step 2 Since ∞ = 0.05 and degree of freedom is 80 - 2 = 78, the critical values obtained from Table F are +- 1.960. r represent coefficient of correlation and r 2 represent Coefficient of determination. Step 3 Statistical Methods Co-Relation

r=

( 80 ) ( 2,029,717) - ( 1,807) ( 89,988) [ (80)(41,499) - ( 1,807)2 ] [ (80) ( 113,260,222) - ( 89,988)2 ]

r=

- 0.0318

r2 =

0.0010131 or 0.10%

Test is not significant. Calculation of regression is meaningless

Page 13 of 22

T Calculation

Step 4 Decision Rule

Step 5: Conclusion T- Cal lies in the acceptance region so we accept Ho (null hypothesis). There is no correlation between the age of internet users and the price of internet charged by ISPs’.
Scatter Diagram
2500 2300 2100 1900 1700

-1.96

PRIC E

1500 1300 1100 900 700 500 15 17 19 21 23 25 27 29 31 33 35

GENDER

Page 14 of 22

HYPOTHESIS TESTING
Objective The objective of this test is to find out the average used of internet (in hrs) in a day by Karachi users. Population Internet subscriber Sample Size, Data: The sample size is 80 observations consist of (PTCL 43, Wateen 23, Worldcall 14) respectively. The data is primary. We have used sample data from Question 7.

Sampling Technique Convenience sampling has been used Statistical method: The method we have used is Hypothesis Testing.

Page 15 of 22

Problem The researcher claims that the average used of internet in Karachi is 3 hours in a day To test the claim, Is there enough evidence to reject the claim at ∞=0.05. Sample size is 80 observations consist of PTCL 43, Wateen 23, Worldcall 14 respectively. Source:
http://www.dawn.com/wps/wcm/connect/dawn-content-library/dawn/news/pakistan/03-all-resources-to-be-used-forpower-generation-ss-10?pageDesign=Advertise_DAWN

Data PTCL Sample Size ( n ) Mean (X) Standard deviation ( s ) Mean (μ) Test: Two tailed test. Step 1 Ho : The average used of internet in Karachi is 3 hrs in a day. (claim) HA : The average used of internet in Karachi is not 3 hrs in a day. Step 2 Since ∞ = 0.05 and critical values are +- 1.960 ( PTCL) , +-2.145 ( Worldcall) and +2.069 (Wateen). Step 3 Formula : 43 3.52 hrs 0.957 3 hrs WORDLCALL WATEEN 14 3.19 hrs 1.316 3 hrs 23 3.66 hrs 1.25 3 hrs

** When n < 30 , t distribution would be used instead of z. The formula would changed to ‘ t ’.

Page 16 of 22

Calculation:
PTCL z = 3.52 - 3 0.957 43 3.563 t = WORLDCALL 3.19 - 3 1.316 14 0.540

z =

t =

Reject Ho
WATEEN t = 3.66 - 3 1.25 23 2.532

Accept Ho

t =

Reject Ho

Step 4 Decision Rule: Two tailed test

-1.96
Page 17 of 22

Step 5: Conclusion For PTCL and Wateen Since Z cal value lies in the rejection region, hence reject Ho and accept H A. Now we can say that average used of internet in Karachi is not 3 hrs in a day. For Worldcall Since Z cal value lies in the acceptance region, hence accept Ho and reject H A. Now we can say that average used of internet in Karachi is 3 hrs in a day.

Page 18 of 22

GOODNESS OF FIT TEST

Objective To see whether a frequency distribution fits a specific pattern Population Internet subscriber Sample Size, Data: The sample size is 80 observations. The data is primary. We have used sample data from Question 3 and 10.

Sampling Technique Convenience sampling has been used Data CLAIM A CEO of Internet company wishes to know that whether customers show any preference while selecting Internet Service Provider (ISP)?. The samples of 80 observations were taken from Question 3 and 10 and let Alpha value is 0.05. PTCL No. of subscriber 43 WATEEN 23 WORLDCALL 14

Page 19 of 22

Solution Step 1 State the hypotheses: Ho : Customers show no preference while selecting Internet Service Provider (ISP) HA : Customers show preference while selecting Internet Service Provider (ISP) (Claim) If there were no preference, one would expect each frequency to be selected with equal frequency. In this case 80/4 = 26.666 PTCL Observed value Expected value Step 2 Find the critical value. The degree of freedom are (c-1) = 3 - 1 = 2 and the critical value from table G is = 5.991 at alpha is 0.05. Step 3 Compute the test value by subtracting the expected value from the observed value, Squaring the result and dividing by the expected value, and finding the sum. The expected value for each category is 26.66. Formula for test value: X2 = (O – E) E 26.66)
2 2

WATEEN 23 26.66

WORLDCALL 14 26.66

43 26.66

X 2 = (43 – 26.66)2 + ( 23 – 26.66) 2 + ( 14 – 26.66 = 16.529 26.66 26.66

Page 20 of 22

Step 4 GRAPH Right - Tailed - Test

Make the decision. The decision is to reject null hypothesis, since 16.5291 > 5.991 Step 5 CONCLUSION The value lies in rejection region so reject Ho and accept HA, it can be concluded that Customers show preference while selecting Internet Service Provider. So Test is “Not a good fit”.

Page 21 of 22

CONCLUSION
“ We can say PTCL is a most reliable ISP in Karachi ”

Because the company is offering some unique services as compared to competitors. Like DSL, Smart TV and Land line in ONE connection and also offering fast internet speed with consistent connectivity and also maintaining satisfied customer services. The most important benefit for student is 30% reduction on internet charges.

Page 22 of 22

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful

Master Your Semester with Scribd & The New York Times

Special offer for students: Only $4.99/month.

Master Your Semester with a Special Offer from Scribd & The New York Times

Cancel anytime.