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Catalogue of Synopses of

International S&T Cooperation (INCO)

projects on challenges in
Fisheries, Coastal Zones, Wetlands and Aquaculture


ISSN 1025-3971

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Catalogue of Synopses of
International S&T Cooperation (INCO)
projects on challenges in
Fisheries, Coastal Zones, Wetlands and Aquaculture
Nuria Estrella Santos and Cornelia E. Nauen


Directorate-General for Research

International Cooperation

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This catalogue is a compilation of information sheets on 91 collaborative research and research support projects on fisheries, aquaculture, coastal zone and wetland issues, which were supported by successive INCO
Programmes since 1994. The projects responded to calls for proposals in the 4th, 5th and 6th Research
Framework Programmes (FPs, respectively 1994-1998, 1998-2002, and 2002-2006) in the context of specific
international cooperation and were competitively selected for funding. There were a total of 634 contractors
(298 team participations from Europe and 336 of INCO partner countries) for a total FP investment of more than
EUR 66 million. Each project sheet contains extensive information about the project, its partners and results,
thus providing a map of scientific excellence.

For bibliographical purposes this catalogue should be cited as follows:

Estrella Santos, N. and C.E. Nauen (eds.), 2008. Catalogue of synopses of
International S&T Cooperation (INCO) projects on challenges in fisheries, coastal zones, wetlands and aquaculture. ACP-EU Fish.Res.Rep., (17):292 p.



Sustainable management of
renewable marine resources - a comparative study of
management systems and
markets in Northwest African cephalopod fisheries
Impacts of Environmental
Forcing on Marine Biodiversity and Sustainable Management of Artisanal and
Industrial Fisheries in the
Gulf of Guinea


Natural variability of a coastal upwelling system and

small pelagic fish stocks

of seaweed resources in Africa: expanding the seaweed


Improving the Utilisation

and Quality of Low-Value
Fish by Processing

Knowledge in fisheries management




Fisheries Governance and

Food Security: North and
South in Concert



The trophic ecology of the

demersal fish community
of Lake Malawi/Niassa, Central Africa

Coherence of Conservation
and Development Policies of
Coastal and Marine Protected Areas (West Africa)




and fluctuations in recruitment and distribution of
small pelagic fish stocks

Development of a diagnostic
tool for the detection of fishborne trematodes







Strategies for partitioning

the productivity of Asian
reservoirs and lakes between
capture fisheries and aquaculture for social benefit and
local market without negative environmental impacts

Chinese Freshwater Fishes:

Training and workshop on
Research Priorities in Fish
Biology and Informatics at
the Aquatic Frontier




of continental fisheries: a
regional study of policy options and policy formation
mechanisms for the Lake
Chad Basin



Placing fisheries resources
in their ecosystem context:
and human impact

International Workshop on
Information Systems for Policy and Technical Support in
Fisheries and Aquaculture





La recherche halieutique et le
dveloppement durable des
ressources naturelles marines de lAfrique de lOuest:
Quels enjeux?


Symposium on Inland Fisheries Management and the
Aquatic Environment, Windermere, United Kingdom, 12
- 15 June 2002


Room to Manoeuvre: Gender
and Coping Strategies in the
Fisheries Sector
Damage of coral reefs by
recreational activities - restoration strategies and the
development of novel markers for environmental stress


Development of methodologies for the assessment and

management of groundwater resources and risks in
coastal zones





Anthropogenically induced
changes in groundwater
outflow and quality, and the
functioning of Eastern African nearshore ecosystems


Interdisciplinary methodologies for the sustainable use

and management of coastal
resource systems: EU-ASEAN
coastal transect applications


The impact of invasive grass

species on the structure,
function and sustainable
use of coastal and inland
sand dune ecosystems in
Southern Africa


Prediction of the resilience
and recovery of disturbed
coastal communities in the


Toxic Cyano Bacteria

The Cuu-Long project on the
Mekong Delta Vietnam Pilot phase 1996-1998

Control of bacterial regrowth

in water supply distribution
systems in water-short European and Mediterranean


Occurence of toxic cyanobacteria waterblooms - impact

on water environments and
potential human health risk.
Environmental, physiological and genetic mechanisms
involved in toxins production


Assessment of mangrove
degradation and resilience
in the Indian subcontinent:
the cases of Godavari estuary and South-west Sri Lanka




Macrobenthos of Eastern African mangroves - life cycles

and reproduction biology of
exploited species

Measuring, monitoring and

The coastal dimension


resource management and
conflict resolution in island
ecosystems. Test case: marine invertebrates and the
co-existence of conservation, tourism and fisheries


Sustainable environmental
management strategies in
South China - towards 2000
and beyond - a case study in
Water management, land
development and economic
diversification in Southeast
Asian deltas





Estuarine Specific Transport and Biogeochemically
linked interactions for selected heavy Metals and Radionuclides


Caspian Scientific Network


Meeting on mangrove macrobenthos


Biodiversity and Sustainable Exploitation in Tropical
Coastal Ecosystems


Policy options for the sustainable use of coral reefs
and associated coastal ecosystems


Estuaries and coastal areas.
Basis and tools for a more
sustainable development


Research into modelling of
the impacts of river catchment developments on the
sustainability of coastal
resources, which support
urban and rural economies:
the case study of Maputo
Bay Incomati River




Discovery Modelling Mediation Deliberation InterfaceTools for Multistakeholder
Knowledge Partnerships for
the Sustainable Management of Marine Resources
and Coastal Zones

Peri-urban mangrove forests

as filters and potential phytoremediators of domestic
sewage in east Africa


Sustainable options for people, catchment and aquatic


Transboundary networks of
marine protected areas for
integrated conservation and
sustainable development:
Biophysical, socio-economic
and governance assessment
in East Africa

Mangrove ecosystems, communities and conflict: developing knowledge-based

approaches to reconcile
multiple demands

Ecosystems, Societies, Consilience, Precautionary principle: Development of an

assessment method of the
societal cost for best fishing practices and efficient
public policies

Cross Sectoral Commons

Governance in Southern Africa





Integrating multiple demands on coastal zones
with emphasis on aquatic
ecosystems and fisheries



Assessing impacts of TBT

on multiple coastal uses


Main Uses of the Grey mullet as Indicator of Littoral

environmental changes



Climate variability and El
Nio Southern Oscillation:
Implications for natural
coastal resources and management




Integrated Ecological Coastal Zone Management System


Developing ubiquitous practices for restoration of Indo

Pacific reefs


Enhancing the outreach of
aquatic biodiversity and
ecosystem research in support of the transition towards global sustainability






Change, stress and sustainability - aquatic ecosystem

resilience in North Africa

Ecological bases for the

sustainable management of
flooded tropical ecosystems
- case studies in the Llanos,
Venezuela and the Pantanal,

Geo - environmental dynamics of Pantanal - Chaco:

multitemporal study and
previsional modelling





Management of aquatic vegetation in the Lower Senegal

River Basin


Natural resource functions,

biodiversity and sustainable
management of tropical wetlands

Organic Pond

Characterisation, utilisation
and maintenance of biological diversity for the diversification and sustainability of
catfish culture in South-East

Analysis and management

of organic matter and nitrogen in aquaculture ponds
for a minimal waste production and optimal efficiency






and ecological interaction of
noxious phytoplankton developments in the south of
Latin America

Improvements of scallop
production in rural areas


Sustainable production of
mud crab Scylla sp. through
stock enhancement in mangroves

The potential of periphytonbased aquaculture systems

in South Asia

Development of bio-encapsulated feed for larval fish

based on nutritionally enriched nematodes





Artemia biodiversity: Current global resources and
their sustainable exploitation



Responsible Aquaculture: a
world research and technological challenge




Global aquaculture: identification of key international

research themes



Chinese Bays
Carrying capacity and impact of aquaculture on the
environment in Chinese bays




Coastal and inland wetlands

in China and Pakistan: Colonial waterbirds as bioindicators of pollutant levels and



Tools for wetland ecosystem resource management
in Eastern Africa



The dynamics and evaluation of finger ponds in East
African freshwater wetland
ecotones using appropriate
fish production techniques

modelling coastal lagoons: making management tools for
aquatic resources in north

Institutions and research

for the Pantanal: towards a
bi-regional research agenda
to support policy institutions, legal frameworks and
social action






Control of epiphytism in
Gracilaria chilensis mariculture 233

Hazard analysis of antimicrobial resistance associated with Asian aquacultural


Production in aquatic periurban systems in southeast


Culture and management of
Scylla spp.




Policy research for sustainable shrimp farming in Asia:

a comparative analysis of
Bangladesh, India, Thailand,
and Vietnam with particular
reference to institutional
and socio-economic aspects

Anti-infectious immune effectors in marine invertebrates: characterization and
application for disease control in aquaculture


New native fish species for

Asian aquaculture: conserving natural genetic reserves
and increasing options for
sustainable use of aquatic

Aquaculture challenge-Asia:
International workshop to
discuss strategies to achieve
the goals of sustainable
environmentally acceptable
products, with current technological, scientific and environment

Zero discharge aquaculture
by farming in integrated recirculating systems in Asia


Improved resource use efficiency in Asian integrated

pond-dike systems




Mitigating impact from
aquaculture in the Philippines



Managing Agrochemicals in
Multi-use Aquatic Systems


ASEM Aquaculture Platform






Integrating BOMOSA cage
fish farming system in reservoirs, ponds and temporary water bodies in Eastern


Index of institutions
by country



European International S&T Cooperation

(INCO) has - through successive
Framework Programmes (FP4, FP5 and
FP6) between 1994 and 2006 - focused
largely on contributing to meeting basic needs in international cooperation
partner countries and regions. It did so
by promoting scientific partnerships
based on mutual interest and benefits. In the broadly interpreted area
of living aquatic resources and their
ecosystems, it has pursued the twin
concern for contributing scientifically
validated knowledge to addressing sustainable use of resource systems and
for strengthening scientific capacity
reflecting the broader dual mandate of
the INCO Programme.
Since the run-up to the United Nations
Conference on Environment and
Development (UNCED), Rio de Janeiro,
3-14 June 1992, commonly known as
the Rio Earth Summit, environmental awareness has grown significantly.
Perceptions about what are acceptable
ways to organise human societies relations with nature and here particularly
the marine, coastal and freshwater environments, their living resources and
associated ecosystems vary in different
parts of the world and keep evolving.
Perceptions have thus shifted over the
years from an approach of dominated
by resource exploitation towards one
that now puts biodiversity preservation and restoration of badly degraded
marine ecosystems at the centre of the
international political agenda. This is
reflected in the Johannesburg Plan of
Implementation (JPoI) decided by Heads
of State and Government at the World
Summit on Sustainable Development in
2002 and Jakarta Mandate centred on
ecosystem approaches adopted back in
1995 in the context of the Convention
on Biological Diversity (CBD).
Awareness of the often dominant role
of international trade in shaping use
patterns is rising in areas of work, long
dominated by the biological sciences.
As is the realisation of the social and

political issues of participation and inclusiveness of populations relying more

directly on the use of aquatic resources
for their livelihoods, but not necessarily
well represented in international negotiation fora. As more dimensions of the
sustainability concept are considered
and start being practically integrated,
research approaches become more integrated as well and pay more explicit
attention to relating to citizens.
Facilitating access to scientific knowledge and competence
As part of the European Commissions
commitment to improving the quality,
relevance and impact of research, this
catalogue is intended to enhance accessibility to research activities and their
results. It provides an easy entry into
more than 10 years of international cooperative research and work on aquatic
and coastal ecosystems in Africa, the
Caribbean and the Pacific (ACP), Asia,
Latin America, the Mediterranean and
Eastern Europe/Central Asia mobilising international teams that brought
together competence and knowledge
from Europe and its international cooperation partner countries.
The projects reflect responsiveness to
the internationally set targets, which
are actively supported by European
policies. Among these targets are the
significant reduction of the rate of biodiversity loss by 2010 adopted by the
CDB, the restoration of degraded marine ecosystems to the extent possible
by the year 2015 putting emphasis on
the creation of networks of marine
protected areas by 2012 (JPoI), and the
support of the elaboration of codes of
conduct for sustainable aquaculture
(FAO Code of Conduct for Responsible
Fisheries and Bangkok Declaration).
They are explicit attempts to produce
knowledge towards answers that enable action in relation to these political
goals and international agreements and
the challenges associated with putting
them in practice.

The 91 projects included here and representing a public investment of more than
EUR 66 million, have been important not
only for the relevance of the topics being researched, but also because they
have served as a launch pad for many
young European and partner countries
scientists. A word of caution is in order: while indispensable, science alone
cannot ensure the necessary transition
towards sustainable development on local, regional and global scales. As has
been discussed elsewhere (e.g. Nauen,
2005)1, impact of research at project
level depends on trust between social
actors, perceived relevance and capacity to communicate. But for projects to
truly impact on change according to sustainability agendas, policies have to be
in place and acted upon in all countries
concerned. This requires development
and strengthening of human and institutional capacities at the different levels
combined with enabling infrastructure.
There were a total of 634 contractors
(298 from Europe and 336 of INCO partner countries). The overall number of
mobilised participants is substantially
larger as most contractors have fielded
teams, not only individuals. In addition,
in the case of Accompanying Measures
(FP4/5) and Specific Support Actions
(FP6) a single legal entity could submit and manage a project, even though
many more people would be mobilised (e.g. for conferences/workshops).
Taken together, the distribution of participants provides a map of competence
of human and institutional resources in
the area of aquatic resources covered in
the catalogue. Some preliminary lessons
from these projects and their findings
have been drawn as a result of a questionnaire survey conducted in 20072.
Structure and content of the catalogue
This catalogue is structured into four
thematic areas which reflect the evolving
nature of the INCO work programmes
and the increasingly complex nature of
the problems addressed and which are
sometimes on the borderline between

classifications. Projects are in numerical order of Framework Programme and

contract. Additional indexes, e.g. by
country, should further facilitate use.
Each individual sheet provides the
following information: Project title, acronym (where applicable), the
Framework Programme, period, duration and type of project, coordinator
and website (where applicable). The information on project content, updated
to 31 July 2008, is structured according
to the following sub-headings:

Context and objectives This section contextualises the societal or

scientific problem the project has
addressed and what its researchable objectives were;

Activities This section summarises activities developed to address

the objectives, often with brief references to basic methodology used;

Results and outcomes The principal attention is placed on presenting

results and possibly some impact
beyond the research group itself;

Selected publications The emphasis is here on peer-reviewed

scientific publications with only the
occasional inclusion of major conference presentations or books.

Contact details Names and contact details of the coordinator and

leaders of other contracted teams
are given to facilitate direct contact
when readers want more in-depth

Acknowledgement: We thank the project coordinators and contractors for

their time and effort in helping to prepare the updated catalogue pages.

Nuria Estrella
and Cornelia E. Nauen

Nauen, C.E. (ed.), 2005. Increasing Impact of the EUs

International S&T Cooperation for the transition towards
sustainable development. Luxemburg, Office of Official
Publications of the European Communities, 26 p.
Nauen, C.E., 2008. Ten years of international scientific
cooperation in fisheries, aquaculture and coastal zones
some preliminary lessons. Environment, Development and
Sustainability, 10:605-622. DOI: 10.1007/s10668-008-9153-4.
NB: This paper refers to 90 projects the 91st came on-stream
too late for being incorporated in the review.


Sustainable management of renewable

marine resources - a comparative study
of management systems and markets in
Northwest African cephalopod fisheries
Context and objectives
The project studied the regulation of
the various production systems that
exist in the context of the Moroccan,
Mauritanian and Senegalese cephalopod
fisheries. Bringing together researchers
from both natural and social sciences,
the project aimed to document and
analyse the dynamics of the interactions
which exist between the production
and management systems. The project
took a comparative approach analysing
the dynamics particular to each countrys situation and using these as the
basis for a discussion of methods to
enhance sustainable management of
the resources. The ultimate aim of the
project was to identify ways in which
current management systems might be
improved so as to safeguard the natural
resources and the exploitation systems
based upon them.

The project proceeded via 3 major work
phases. In the first phase, researchers
developed a multi-disciplinary synthesis of the concept of sustainable
management. This synthesis was constructed on discipline-based views of
the sustainability concept (law, economics, sociology, biology) as well as
the viewpoints of those involved with
the management of the fishery (ie.
ministries) in order to develop and
promulgate the concept of sustainable
management in these fisheries.
The second phase sought to define the
cephalopod fishing system by taking
a historical perspective of the dynamics of the fishery. This was an essential
phase since clearly successful management relies upon identifying a discrete
management unit. However, this was
often easier said than done, especially
when a wider perspective than the fish
stock itself is taken.


The third phase sought to evaluate effects that have been induced by different
management systems with respect to the
concept of sustainable management.

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Results and Outcome

The cephalopod fisheries of Northwest
Africa represent the most valuable of
the fishery resources of the region and
its study offered several key insights. In
common with other fisheries, it is the
most valuable stocks which are most in
need of management. If management is
to be sustainable then there is a need
to take into account not only the biological condition of the fish stock but
also the economic, social and legal circumstances under which the fishery is
pursued to complement the focus on biological aspects of most prior research
efforts in the region. The major benefit
of this project has been to widen the
scope of research, thereby extending
the knowledge based on which management systems might be developed
or refined. It was also confirmed that
social-science research provides a necessary but insufficient perspective to
inform sustainable management.

Duration and Type of Project

01/03/1997 to 31/08/1998 (18 months)

Joint Research Project

Dr. Pierre Failler
University of Portsmouth
United Kingdom

The results of the project have a number of impacts at the regional level: At
the management level, each of the administrations has a broader range of
analytical means to explore management options. In addition, interactions
between the fisheries, especially at the
market level, have been made explicit,
laying the base for concerted management measures. Indirect benefits could
have accrued as well to EU fishermen
engaged in the fisheries (to the extent
access to the results is ensured) and
consumers of imported cephalopods.


The project involved a significant exchange of expertise between European

and West African partners with ascertained capacity strengthening in the
NW African research institutes and
also enhanced intra- and inter-regional
scientific cooperation. Partners have
developed both within their own disciplines, especially in the social sciences,
and by being confronted with different
disciplinary approaches.

Follow-up and major outcomes

The project was followed-up by a
workshop on Intentionally oriented
fisheries: modes of governance and
development (held in Lisbon, May
1999) that focused on the institutional
aspects of fishery governance and the
influences of the international market
on fishery development as well. The
main outcome of the project was the
use of the results in the design of the
management plan of the cephalopod
fishery in Mauritania in 2003.

Selected Publications
Dme, M., 2000. International markets and
sustainability of marine resources: The case of
the Senegalese small-scale fisheries. pp. 43-46 In:
U.R.Sumaila, R. Chuenpagdee & M. Vasconcellos
(eds.). Proceedings of the INCO-DC International
Workshop on Markets, Global Fisheries and
Development,Bergen, Norway, 22-23 March 1999.
Brussels, ACP-EU Fish.Res. Rep., (7).
Dme, M., 2002. Rentabilit conomique et
financire des pcheries cphalopodires
artisanales sngalaises. pp.169-188. In
Caverivire, A., M. Thiam & D. Jouffre (eds.). Le
poulpe Octopus vulgaris. Paris, Editions IRD.
des Clers, S. & P. Failler, 1999. Aspects socioconomiques des pcheries. pp. 42-49 In:
Chavance, P. et C. Inejih (ds.). Evaluation des
stocks et des pcheries mauritaniennes: Voies
de dveloppement et damnagement. CNROP,
COPACE, Rome, FAO Publications.
Failler, P. & J. Catanzano, 2000. Sustainability
through economics. International Institute for
Fishery Economics and Trade (IIFET), Corvalis,
USA, 10-14 juillet 2000. Contribution to the
IIFET Conference.
Failler, P., 2002. Analyse comparative des
pcheries de poulpe en Afrique de lOuest. pp.
189-212 In Caverire et al. (ds.). Le poulpe
commun, Octopus vulgaris, des ctes nord-ouest
africaines. Paris, Editions IRD.
Failler, P., 2002. Lamnagement des pcheries
de cphalopodes en Afrique de lOuest. pp.
135-153 In: O/Zamel, M.E.L.M., N.S. Bangoura
& Diagana (eds.). Dynamique de gestion des
ressources halieutiques en Afrique de lOuest.
Acte du colloque de la Commission SousRgionale des Pches, 20-23 Novembre 2000.
Failler, P., A. Idelhaj, C. Inehji, M. Deme, 2004.
Un quart de sicle de gestion de cphalopodes
en Afrique de lOuest. pp. 455-474 In Chavance,
P. et al. (eds.). Editions IRD et Commission
Failler, P. 2004. La cogestion: aspects
institutionnels, contractuels et conomiques: Le
cas de la pche au poulpe en RIM et de la pche
au crabe au Canada. Sminaire AFD/MPM/FIBA/
CNROP, Nouadhibou, Mauritanie, 16-18 fvrier
2002. pp. 89-103 In Anonyme. Lamnagement
des pcheries mauritaniennes.

Pierre Failler
University of Portsmouth
Boat House No 6, College Road
H.M. Naval Base
Portsmouth PO1 3LJ
United Kingdom

Tel: +44 2392 84 40 85

Fax: +44 2392 84 46 14

Ismaila Thiam
lInstitut Mauritanien de Recherche
Ocanographique et de Pche (IMROP)
PO Box 22
E-M: E-mail:

Moustapha Dme
Centre de Recherche
Ocanographiques de Dakar-Thiaroye
PO Box 2241
E-M :

Abdel Idelhaj
Office National des Pches
2 Rue de Tiznit

Joseph Catanzano1
Institut de Recherche pour le
Avenue Agropolis
BP 5045
34032 Montpellier

Address at point of printing: IDDRA Agropolis International

Avenue Agropolis 34394 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.


Impacts of Environmental Forcing on Marine

Biodiversity and Sustainable Management of
Artisanal and Industrial Fisheries in the Gulf
of Guinea
Context and Objectives


The general objectives of this project

were to assess the impacts of upwelling and other forms of environmental
forcing on marine biodiversity and the
dynamics of artisanal and industrial
fisheries and to develop and implement
an information and analysis system for
the sustainable management and governance of fisheries resources in the
Gulf of Guinea, West Africa.

Activities followed six work packages:

1. Detection of space and time scales
over which environmental forcing
could be measured; identification
of biophysical structures.

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

2. Generation of testable hypothesis
regarding interannual variability
and ecosystem behaviour.
3. Parameterisation, modelling
sensitivity analysis.

01/11/1996 to 31/10/1998 (24 months)

Joint Research Project


4. Development
implementation of a Fisheries Information and
Analysis System (FIAS).

Prof. Jacqueline M. McGlade
Centre for Coastal and Marine Sciences
United Kingdom

5. Establishment of a research and development (R&D) network.


Results and outcome

Environmental forcing and variability
were described from a variety of data
sets and system structure was defined.
Structure and behaviour of demersal
fish assemblages were investigated
and links between environmental forcing and fisheries productivity (pelagic
and demersal) were noted. An individual-based model has been developed to
further investigate size-structured fish
community dynamics and this is currently being tested. The collaborative
work involved in the project has resulted in the establishment of a research
and development network in the Gulf
of Guinea region. Much of the data used
in this study is to be used in a FIAS for
the Gulf of Guinea region. This project
has fulfilled its objectives and provided
a number of interesting advances in the
understanding of environmental forcing in the Gulf of Guinea region and its
relation to fisheries productivity and
biodiversity. These are as follows:

Identification of surface oceanographic features of relevance to fisheries

recruitment and descriptions of seasonal and interannual variability in
environmental parameters.
Definition of boundary structures
for the physical system of the Gulf
of Guinea and validation of its
Identification of environmental and
climatic forcing functions, particularly the role of global/basin scale
climate modes.
Definition of demersal assemblage
structure and description of variability in these assemblages.
Elucidation of the relationship
between environmental forcing
functions and variability in pelagic
and demersal fish populations.

Molecular level description of the

population structure of certain
commercially important species
showing evolutionary divergence
between the Gulf of Guinea and other regions, but no clearly defined
spatial structuring of populations
within the Gulf of Guinea.
Aggregation and processing of a
large amount of historical data for
integration into FIAS and the development of expert system rules for
inclusion in SimCoastTM pertaining
to the sustainable development of
fisheries in the Gulf of Guinea.
The establishment of a collaborative
R&D network with other organisations
and projects operating throughout
the Gulf of Guinea region.

Additionally, through the project

dissemination workshop and other conferences, the results of this project have
been widely disseminated. A large number of research papers have emanated
from the project and have either been
published or accepted for publication,
many in a special book derived from the
dissemination workshop. Furthermore,
the project has contributed to five PhD
and one MSc degrees. Therefore, the
project has, overall, been a success and
an important milestone in furthering
understanding of the marine environment of the Gulf of Guinea region.

Selected Publications
The major literature contribution from
this project is a book, deriving from the
dissemination workshop of the project. It
contains 28 papers, 17 of which are from
scientists involved with this project.
McGlade, J.M., K. Koranteng, P. Cury & N.
Hardman-Mountford (eds.), 2002. The Gulf of
Guinea Ecosystem. Environmental forcing &
sustainable development of marine resources.
Elsevier, Amsterdam.

Additional Publications:
Bianchi, G., H. Gislason, K. Graham, L. Hill,
K. Koranteng, S. Manichkand-Heileman, I.
Paya, K. Sainsbury, F. Sanchez, X. Jin & K.C.T.
Zwanenburg, 2000. Impacts of fishing on the
size composition and diversity of demersal fish
communities. ICES Journal of Marine Science,
Cury P., A. Bakun, R.J.M. Crawford, A. JarreTeichmann, R.A. Quiones, L.J. Shannon
& H.M. Verheye, 2000. Small pelagics in
upwelling systems: Patterns of interaction and
structural changes in wasp-waist ecosystems.
Academic Press, ICES Journal of Marine Science,
Symposium Edition, 57(3):603-618.
Dedah, S.O., 1996. The Dakar Dialogue: moves
to strengthen fisheries research in the countries
of West and Central Africa. EC Fisheries
Cooperation Bulletin, 9(2):12-15.
Demarcq, H. & V. Faur, 2000. Coastal upwelling
and associated retention indices derived from
SST; Application to Octopus vulgaris recruitment.
Oceanologica Acta, 4:23.
Hardman-Mountford, N. J., K.A. Koranteng &
A.R.G. Price, 2000. The Gulf of Guinea Large
Marine Ecosystem. pp. 129-152 In C. Sheppard,
(ed.). Seas at the Millenium: An Environmental
Evaluation. Elsevier, Amsterdam.
Koranteng, K.A., 1997. Marine fishery resources
of Ghanas Coastal Zone. pp. 181-186. In S.M.
Evans, C.J. Vanderpuye and A.K. Armah (eds.).
The Coastal Zone of West Africa: Problems and
Management. Penshaw Press, UK.
Koranteng, K.A. 2001. Structure and dynamics of
demersal assemblages on the continental shelf
and upper slope off Ghana, West Africa. Mar.
Ecol. Prog. Ser. 220:1-12.
Koranteng, K.A. & O. Pezennec, 1998. Variability
and Trends in Environmental Time Series along
the Ivorian and Ghanaian Coasts. pp. 167-177
In M.-H. Durand, et al. (eds.), Global versus
Local Changes in Upwelling Systems. ORSTOM
Editions, Paris.
Koranteng, K.A., J.M. McGlade & B. Samb, 1996.
Review of the Canary Current and Guinea
Current Large Marine Ecosystems. pp. 61-84 In:
ACP-EU Fisheries Research Initiative. Proceedings
of the Second Dialogue Meeting, Western and
Central Africa, the Comoros and the European
Union. ACP-EU Fisheries Research Reports, 2.



Leloeuff, P., J. Konan, G. Zabi & R. von Cosel,

2000. Lcosystme benthique au large de grandbassam (Cte dIvoire) situations compares en
saisons froides 1969 et 1998 (rsultats de la
campagne Benchaci, 15-17 aot 1998. Doc. Sci. et
Tech. du Centre IRD de Bretagne 85:43p.
Menard, F., J. Hpffner, V. Nordstrm, T. Joanny
& J. Konan, 2001. A database for the industrial
trawl fishery of Cte dIvoire. Naga, ICLARM Q,.
Shin, Y.J. & P. Cury, 1999. OSMOSE: A
multispecies individual-based model to
explore the functional role of biodiversity in
marine ecosystems. pp 593-607 In Ecosystem
Approaches for Fisheries Management.
University of Alaska Sea Grant, AK-SG-99-01,
Shin, Y.J. & P. Cury, 1999. Etude de limpact des
refuges marins pour la gestion des pcheries
multispcifiques. Simulations avec les modle
OSMOSE. In Les espaces de lhalieutique, 4me
Forum Halieumtrique, Rennes, 29/06 au
01/07/99. Edition IRD, Paris.
Shin, Y.J. & P. Cury, 2001. Exploring fish
community dynamics through size-dependent
trophic interactions using a spatialized
individual-based model. Aquatic Living
Resources, 14(2):65-80



Jacqueline M. McGlade1

Kwame A. Koranteng2

Centre for Coastal and Marine Sciences

Directorate Office
Prospect Place, West Hoe
Plymouth PL1 3DH
United Kingdom

Ministry of Food and Agriculture

Marine Fisheries Research Division
P.O. Box B62



Philippe Cury3
Institut de Recherche pour le
911 Avenue Agropolis
BP 5045
34032 Montpellier Cedex 1

Shin Y.J., & P. Cury, 2001. Simulation of the

effects of Marine Protected Areas on yield
and diversity using a multispecies, spatially
explicit, individual-based model. pp. 627-642 In
Spatial processes and management of marine
populations, G.H. Kruse, N. Bez, A. Booth, M.W.
Dorn, S. Hills, R.N. Lipcius, D. Pelletier, C. Roy,
S.J. Smith, D. Witherell (eds.), University of
Alaska Sea Grant, AK-SG-01-02, Fairbanks.

CD-ROMs and Software

CD-Rom 2000. Statistiques des pcheries
industrielles chalutire et de petits plagiques
de Cte dIvoire et donnes environnementales.
CRO dAbidjan, IRD, Projet UE Golfe de Guine,
Pedreno, D. & F. Antoine, 1998. CUSSI version 1.0
Logiciel de visualisation et dextraction dindices
partir de sries dimages satellitales. Rapport
de stage dI.U.T. informatique, septembre 1998,
108 p.
Simcoast: A fuzzy logic decision based tool for
integrated coastal zone management. Discovery
Software 2004;

Coordinator moved from University of Warwick to CCMS/

NERC during project. Address at time of printing:
Executive Director, European Environment Agency, Kongens
Nytorv 6,1050 Copenhagen, Denmark.

Address at time of printing: FAO, Fisheries Department, Via

delle Terme di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy.

Address at time of printing: Centre de Recherche Halieutique

Mditerranenne et Tropicale IRD - IFREMER & Universit
Montpellier II, Avenue Jean Monnet, BP 171, 34203 Ste
Cedex. France.


Placing fisheries resources in
their ecosystem context: cooperation,
comparisons and human impact

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/09/1997 to 28/02/2002 (54 months)

Concerted Action

Dr. Villy Christensen
North Sea Centre




Context and Objectives

At the time of submitting the project, the
knowledge of multispecies interaction
of importance for ecosystem management may have seemed very sparse.
However, it was premised on the fact
that large amounts of scattered information were available from previous
and ongoing studies. It remains fundamental today that such information
can be placed in context through massbalance ecosystem analysis and thence
be of use for ecosystem management.
The concerted action was designed to
promote an intercontinental laboratory without walls where 31 participating
institutions from Europe, Africa, the
Caribbean and Latin America were given
a forum for cooperation on ecosystem
modelling addressing ecosystembased
management of fisheries.
Ecopath ecosystem modelling approach and software provided a
common ground for the participants.
EwE Ecopath with Ecosim has three
main components: Ecopath a static, mass-balanced snapshot of the
system; Ecosim a time dynamic simulation module for policy exploration;
and Ecospace a spatial and temporal
dynamic module primarily designed
for exploring impact and placement of
protected areas. The Ecopath software
package can be used to address ecological questions; evaluate ecosystem
effects of fishing; explore management
policy options, evaluate impact and
placement of marine protected areas
and evaluate effect of environmental
changes. The foundation of the EwE
suite is an Ecopath model (Christensen
and Pauly, 1992, Pauly et al., 2000),
which creates a static mass-balanced
snapshot of the resources in an
ecosystem and their interactions, represented by trophically linked biomass
pools. The biomass pools consist of
a single species, or species groups
representing ecological guilds. Pools
may be further split into ontogenetic

(juvenile/adult) groups that can then

be linked together in Ecosim. Ecopath
data requirements are relatively simple
and generally already available from
stock assessment, ecological studies
or the literature: biomass estimates,
total mortality estimates, consumption estimates, diet compositions, and
fishery catches.
The objectives of the Concerted Action
(CA) were:

To produce scientific methodology toward ecosystem management

of marine resources through the
construction and analysis of massbalance models of exploited marine
ecosystem of the Atlantic coasts
of Europe, Sub-Saharan Africa and
Latin America, of the Caribbean, and
of the Pacific coast of Latin America
to gain information of the resources
and their interaction.

To compare mass-balance models along gradients and transects

guaranteeing the highest possible
differences, including latitude, ensuring strong ecological (cold vs.
warm), and socio-economic (industrialised vs. developing) gradients.

To evaluate the impact of human

exploitation on marine and coastal
ecosystems with the purpose of
setting criteria for eco-labelling of
fishery products, which would thus
accrue additional benefits as a consequence of this concerted action.

The key activities included:

Linking researchers in Europe,

Africa, the Caribbean and Latin
America working with mass-balance
models of exploited, marine ecosystems through open, voluntary and
proactive cooperation.


Support of and cooperation between

the partners in the model parametrisation, analysis and description.

and English and a total of 13 models

were prepared or improved as a result of the workshop.

Four regional training workshops to

ensure a sufficient number of representative ecosystem models. The
workshops ensured that all partners
shared a common methodology and
information base with regards to
ecosystem modelling.

The ecosystem modelling workshops

served to introduce ecosystem-based
management of fisheries to a wide
range of scientists from a large number of continents, at the same time
providing an opportunity for international cooperation in recognition that
ecosystems know no political borders.
Preliminary ecosystem models were initiated or improved in connection with
the ecosystem modelling workshops
conducted as part of the CA.

Two international synthesis workshops covering the two major

regions involved (Atlantic and
Caribbean, and Eastern Pacific, respectively), where the ecosystem
models could be presented, discussed between participants, and
analysed comparatively.

Results and outcome

Placing Fisheries in their Ecosystem
Context conducted four international

University of Cape Town, Cape

Town, South Africa from December,
9-17, 1997: introducing the Ecopath
software to 20 participants from
South Africa.

Marine Biology Station, Puntarenas,

Costa Rica over six working days during the period 21-28 April 1998. A
total of 30 scientists participated.

Denmark, in August 1998. The workshop had a total of 31 participants.
The participants came from 19 countries, including 10 in West Africa.

Selected and
cited Publications
Christensen, V., G. Reck and J.L. Maclean (eds.),
2002. Proceedings of the INCO-DC Conference
Placing Fisheries in their Ecosystem Context.
Galapagos Islands, Ecuador, 4-8 December 2000.
ACP-EU Fish.Res.Rep., (12):79 p. ftp://ftp.cordis.
Christensen, V. & D. Pauly, 2004. Placing
fisheries in their ecosystem context, an
introduction. Ecological Modelling, 172:103-107.
Pauly, D., V. Christensen & C. Walters. 2000.
Ecopath, Ecosim, and Ecospace as tools for
evaluating ecosystem impact of fisheries. ICES J.
Mar. Sci., 57:697-706.

A special issue of Ecological Modelling

in 2003 was dedicated to models developed and refined through the CA.

A total of 31 institutions in Europe,

West and South Africa, the Caribbean,
and Central and South America participated as partners in the CA. On
overview of the major event, the
Galapagos Conference was published
in the ACP-EU Fisheries Research
Report Series. The conference was
based on the premise that the sustainability of fisheries worldwide
depends on the maintenance of the
ecosystems in which they embedded.
The presentations at the conference
covered four areas: ecosystem-based
management of fisheries, impact of
fisheries on ecosystems, comparative
ecosystem analysis and ecosystem
structure and dynamics.
It should be noted that the CA operated
through voluntary co-operation. The
support to the activities was mainly done
through guidance where experienced
modellers helped or assisted less experienced partners, newer to the field.

Instituto Oceanogrfico, Universidade de So Paulo (IOUSP), So Paulo,

Brazil, 30 November to 5 December
1998, with 20 participants from fifteen institutions. The workshop was
conducted in Portuguese, Spanish





Villy Christensen1
The North Sea Centre
P.O. Box 104
DK-9850 Hirtshals

Jean Calvin Njock4

Camilo Bernardo Garcia

Ministre de LElevage, des Pches et

Industries Animales
Direction des Pches

Inst. Investigaciones Marina y Costeras

AA 1016
Santa Marta

Jorge Arturo Rodriguez


Paul T. Yillia
Astrid Jarre
Danish Institute of Fisheries Research
Fisheries Biological Institute
P.O. Box 101
9850 Hirtshals

Wolf Arntz2
Alfred Wegener Institut
27568 Bremerhaven

University of Sierra Leone

Institute of Marine Biology and
Mt. Aureol
Sierra Leone

Percival Showers5
The Sierra Leone institute is presently
not functioning due to effects of
civil war. Contact is, however, being
maintained with Dr. Percival Showers,
who left Sierra Leone just prior to the
destruction of the institute.


Thomas Olatunde AjayiNigerian

Riccardo Ceccarelli
ENEA, Dipartimento Innnovazione
Via Anguillarese, 301
S.M. de Geleria
00060 Roma

Institute for Oceanography and Marine

P.M.B. 12729, Victoria Island



Nicholas Polunin

Daniel Baird

University of Newcastle
Department of Marine Sciences and
Coastal Management
Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU
United Kingdom

University of Port Elizabeth

Department of Zoology
P.O. Box 1600
6000 Port Elizabeth
South Africa



Gabriella Bianchi3

Francisco Arregun-Snchez

Institute of Marine Research

Nansen Project
PO Box 1870
5024 Bergen

Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias

Marinas del Instituto Politcnico
Playa El Conchalito S/N
Apartado Postal 592
23000 La Paz




Universidad Nacional Autnoma,

Escuela de Ciencias Biolgicas
Apdo. 86
3000 Hereda
Costa Rica

Carmen Rossi-Wongtschowski
Universidade de So Paulo
Instituto Oceanografico (IOUSP)
Praa do Oceanogrfico, 191
Cidade Universitria, Butant
05508-900 So Paulo

Amoy Lum Kong

Institute of Marine Affairs
P.O. Box 3160, Caranage Post Office
Trinidad & Tobago

J.D. Woodley
University of the West Indies
Centre for Marine Sciences, Mona
7 Kingston

Ren Galzin
Universit de Perpignan
Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes
66860 Perpignan Cedex





Jos Juan Castro

Victor Marin

Alkaly Dieng

Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran

Alfonso XIII, 2
35003 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria

Universidad de Chile
Departamento de Ciencias Ecolgicas
Las Palmeras 3425
Casilla 653

Centre National des Sciences

Halieutiques de Boussoura
BP 3738/39
Rpublique de Guine




Ignacio OlasoInstituto Espanl de

Centro Costero de Santander
Apartado de Correos No 240
39080 Santander

Ramiro Snchez
Jeremy Mendoza
Universidad de Oriente
Instituto Oceanogrfico
Apdo. 245

Instituto Nacional de Investigacin y

Desarrollo Pesquero
Paseo Victoria Ocampo No.1 Escollera
7600 Mar del Plata



Torstein Pedersen
Norwegian College of Fishery Science
University of Troms
9000 Troms

Taib Diouf
Centre de Recherches
Ocanographiques de Dakar-Thiaroye
B.P. 2241

Gunther Reck
Universidad San Francisco de Quito
Plaza Cumbaya
P.O. Box 17-12-841

Sherry Heileman6
Universidad Nacional Autnoma de
Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y
Apartado Postal 70-305, Cuidad
Mxico D.F. 04510

Coleen Moloney7
Marine and Coastal Management (prev.
Cape Town 8001
Private Bag X2x
8012 Rogge Bay
South Africa

Hugo Aranciba
Universidad de Concepcin
Barrio Universitario s/n
P.O.Box 2407-10

John Blay
University of Cape Coast
University Post Office
Cape Coast

Anibal Delgado Medina

Instituto Nacional de Desenvolvimento
das Pescas
C.P. 132
S. Vicente
Cape Verde

Address at time of printing: University of British Columbia,

Fisheries Centre, 2202 Main Mall, Vancouver V6T 1Z4,


Present Address: FAO, Fisheries Department, Via delle Terme

di Caracalla, 00100 Rome, Italy

Address at the time of printing: SFLP, BP 139, Cotonou, Benin

Present Address: Tawi-Tawi College of Technology &

Oceanography Mindanao State Univ., Philippines

Address at time of printing: Division of Early Warning and

Assessment United Nations Environment Programme P. O. Box
30552, Nairobi Kenya


Address at time of printing: Department of Zoology, University

of Cape Town, Rondebosch 7701 Cape Town, South Africa




Strategies for partitioning the productivity
of Asian reservoirs and lakes between
capture fisheries and aquaculture for social
benefit and local market without negative
environmental impacts
Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/01/1998 to 31/03/2002 (51 months)
Joint Research Project

Prof. David Simon
Royal Holloway University of London
United Kingdom

Context and Objectives


Three reservoirs in Sri Lanka of different

morphology, age and geographic location, Ubolratana Reservoir in Thailand
and Lake Taal in the Philippines were
the object of the study. The scope of the
project encompassed a comparison of
the limnology, fisheries and socio-economic aspects of local communities in
order to determine whether the trophic
characteristics and key ecosystems
processes sustain a viable fisheries and
examine the ecological potential for increased multipurpose use.

The key activities involved:

1) trophic and environmental impact studies;

2) fish and fisheries;
3) aquaculture of cichlids; and

The main objectives were defined as


To define the basic trophic state

of five tropical water bodies in Sri
Lanka (Minneriya, Udawalawe and
Victoria reservoirs), Philippines
(Lake Taal) and Thailand (Ubolratana
reservoir) and their capability to
support and sustain both capture
fisheries and cage aquaculture at
levels of reduced environmental
damage, assessed by impact assessment techniques.

4) socio-economic
fisheries communities. A fifth
task collated and analysed the
data and developed trophic
models (using Ecopatha and
Ecosym software) applicable
to tropical reservoirs and lakes
of different productivity and
with active fisheries and caged

During a series of workshops the

fundamental knowledge gained was
focused on defining evidence-based
and appropriate scientific management procedures to integrate them
to local conditions (productivity
level, degree of environmental degradation, state of the market and
need for social benefit).

Dissemination of the project findings and the scientific management

procedures in a readily understandable manner and at different levels:
local fishermens societies, fisheries
officials and responsible government agencies.

To develop proper scientific management procedures, based on the

fundamental knowledge gained, integrating into local socio-economic
conditions and aimed at social
benefit of rural communities and
reduced over exploitation of fisheries resources.
To make available these scientific
management procedures to local
artisanal fishery societies in a readily understandable manner in order
to empower them to exploit this
knowledge for rural development
and increased market benefits.

After an initial period of preparation

to ensure comparability of measurement, comparative field studies in
the five tropical waters for a period
of 24 months involved four main
tasks of

The methodology was multifaceted

it included dynamic modelling using Ecopath and Ecosym software.
A particularly innovative method
was the experimental deployment of




hydro-acoustics, using a split-beam

echosounder to assess the biomass,
size and species composition of fish
populations (the first time this has
been attempted in tropical water bodies). Integration of the findings from
the various disciplines was achieved
by means of joint field research and a
series of project workshops during the
analysis phase.

Results and outcome

Open water, small-sized fish populations
could sustain a significant increase in
fishing activity. Fishing operating costs
remained sustainable for littoral fish of
high commercial value, even when Catch
Per Unit Effort CPUE is quite low, and
potential for the exploitation of additional species e.g. the predominantly
pelagic minor cyprinids exists. In many
reservoirs, there remained potential to
increase the scale of, and yields from,
cage or pen culture. However, the major
environmental and ecological impacts
already experienced in Lake Taal result
from the interaction between excessive
cage density and coverage in particular
areas, seasonally prevailing conditions,
and knock-on effects of aquaculture
activities on wild fish stocks. The most
profitable operations (per cage) involve
small numbers of cages (3 5 in Lake
Taal), where overall cage densities are
controlled, and a wide range of stocking
densities. There is much geographical
variation in the absolute and relative
importance of fishing and fish-related
activities, reflecting the interaction
between physical, morphometric, limnological, fish ecological, and human/
economic factors. The system-oriented
approach linking these factors has been
a key emphasis of the project. Artisanal
capture fisheries are important elements
of many rural economies particularly
for poorer households and poorer communities, for both of which fishing is
mainly a subsistence activity. Variations
in catch per unit effort (kg/boat/day)


due to rainfall and lunar cycles, commonly results in low incomes for some
fishers. Increasingly, people are developing multifaceted income/livelihoods
strategies or opting out of fishing altogether if better alternatives exist.

The main conclusions and recommendations that can be drawn from the study:

1. Many reservoir and lacustrine fisheries have not yet reached their
full potential in terms of overall
maximum sustainable yield (MSY),
although certain species of fish and/
or ecotones/zones may be overexploited. More complete utilisation
of all fishery resources, where they
are not yet exploited (effectively),
could contribute significantly to the
attainment of higher fish yields.

2. Appropriate policy measures need

to be based on integrated research

links limnological, ecological, fishing and socio-economic data

takes account of local variations in
conditions, even within/around a
single water body and by season
addresses the concerns and interests
of the various stakeholder groups

3. Policy formulation and implementation should:

be locally appropriate
aim to achieve close to the MSY of
all fish species, taking into account
seasonal and temporal variations in
involve the stakeholders who are
prepared to become active, in decision-making and implementation
aim at introducing appropriate comanagement strategies that define
the respective responsibilities and
entitlements of the relevant stakeholder groups. Wherever possible,
such responsibilities should be
complementary or shared
be transparent and accountable
as simple as possible while addressing the most relevant issues and
stakeholder interests. Attempting
to embrace all issues in an optimal management framework may
well be impracticable in terms both
of complexity and of the diversity
of interests
involve changes to existing fisheries
regulations, if necessary
address poverty and the inability
of many poor fisher households to
save or to avoid indebtedness, by
introducing rural banking or rotating community credit and savings

aim to promote and achieve environmentally, economically and

socially sustainable fisheries and
address capture fisheries and aquaculture comprehensively within
a framework based on the whole
water body and the livelihoods
strategies and opportunities of littoral human communities




Selected Publications
Amarasinghe, U.S., A. Duncan, J. Moreau, F.
Schiemer, D. Simon & J. Vijverberg, 2001.
Promotion of sustainable capture fisheries
and aquaculture in Asian reservoirs and lakes.
Hydrobiologia, 458:181-190.
Amarasinghe, U.S., P.A.D. Ajith Kumara & M.H.S.
Ariyaratne, 2002. Role of non-exploited fishery
resources in Sri Lankan reservoirs as a source
of food for cage aquaculture. pp.332-343 In
Cowx, I.G. (ed.). Management and Ecology of Lake
and Reservoir Fisheries. Fishing News Books,
Blackwell Science Ltd., Oxford, U.K
Moreau, J., S. Lek, W. Leelaprata, B.
Sricharoendham & M.C. Villanueva, 2005. A
Comparison of linear and nonlinear fitting
techniques for predicting fish yield in Ubolratana
reservoir (Thailand) from a time series data
on catch and hydrological features. pp. 99-109
In Lek, S., M. Scardi, P.F.M. Verdonschot, J.-P.
Descy & Y.S. Park, (eds.). Modelling Community
Structure in Freshwater Ecosystems. XII, 518 p.
227 illus. With CD-ROM., Hardcover. ISBN 3-54023940-5.
Peduzzi, P. & F. Schiemer, 2004. Bacteria
and viruses in the water column of tropical
freshwater reservoirs. Environmental
Microbiology, 6(7):707-716.
Prchalov, M., V. Dratk, J. Kubeka, B.
Sricharoendham, F. Schiemer & J. Vijverberg,
2003. Acoustic study of fish and invertebrate
behaviour in tropical reservoirs. Aquatic Living
Resources, 16:325-331.
Schiemer, F., U.S. Amarasinghe, J. Frouzova, B.
Sricharoendham & E.I.L. Silva, 2001. Ecosystem
structure and dynamics a management basis
for Asian reservoirs and lakes. pp. 215-226 In
De Silva, S. (ed.). Reservoir and Culture-based
Fisheries: Biology and Management. ACIAR,
Canberra, Australia.
Simon, D., C. de Jesus, P. Boonchuwong & K.
Mohottala, 2001. The role of reservoir and
lacustrine fisheries in Rural Development:
Comparative evidence from Sri Lanka Thailand
and the Philippines. pp. 56-66. In De Silva, S.S.
(ed.). Reservoir and Cultutre-based fisheries:
Biology and Management. ACIAR Proceedings No
98, ACIAR, Canberra, Australia.
Vijverberg, J., P.B. Amarasinghe, M.G. Ariyaratne
& W.L.T. van Densen, 2001. Carrying capacity
for small pelagic fish in three Asian reservoirs.
pp. 153-166 In De Silva, S.S. (ed.), Reservoir
and Cultutre-based fisheries: Biology and
Management. ACIAR Proceedings No 98., ACIAR,
Canberra, Australia.
Villanueva, M.C., M. Kakakkeo & T.
Chittapalapong, 2004. Food habits, daily ration
and relative food consumption in some fish
populations in Ubolratana reservoir, Thailand.
Asian Fisheries Sciences, 17(3-4):249-259.
Weliange, W.S. & U.S. Amarasinghe, 2003.
Accounting for diel feeding periodicity in
quantifying food resource partitioning in fish
assemblages in three reservoirs of Sri Lanka.
Asian Fisheries Science, 16:203-213.

Annie Duncan (until July 1999)1
Royal Holloway, University of London
Royal Holloway Institute for
Environmental Research
Callow Hill
Virginia Water, Surrey GU25 4LN
United Kingdom

Gilda C. Rivero (until December 1999)

University of the Philippines
Institute of Biology
College of Science
RP-1101 Quezon City

Dept. of Geography
Surrey TW20 0EX
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1784 44 36 51
Fax: +44 1784 47 28 36

Rafael Guerrero III (from Dec 1999)

Philippine Council for Aquatic and
Marine Research and Development
Dept. of Science and Technology
Jamboree Road
4030 Los Baos, Laguna



David Simon (from July 1999)

Fritz Schiemer
Universitt Wien
Institute of Ecology & Conservation
Department of Limnology
Althanstrasse 14
A-1090 Wien

Pinit Sihapitukgiat (ret 2003)

Boonsong Sricharoendham
Department of Fisheries
Kasetsart University Campus
10900 Bangkok


Upali Sarath Amarasinghe

University of Kelaniya
Department of Zoology
Kelaniya 11600
Sri Lanka

Jacques Moreau
Institut National Poytechnique de
Ecole Nat. Sup. Agronomique de
Agronomie, Environnement,
BP 32 607 Auzeville Tolosane
31326 Castanet Tolosane
Passed away




The trophic ecology of the demersal
fish community of Lake Malawi/Niassa,
Central Africa

Context and Objectives

The demersal fish of Lake Malawi comprises a community of high biodiversity
and a valuable human food resource.
Cichlid fish that make up most of the
community are characterised by slow
growth rates, low fecundity and restricted distribution. Increasing exploitation
of fish risks severe ecological impact
that could alter the trophic dynamics
of the lake as a whole. While the demersal communities comprise the most
diverse and productive fisheries in the
lake, there is very little known of their
ecology and, often, of the patterns of exploitation. Fisheries surveys in Malawi
that provide catch statistics have altered in methodology over a number
of years and are of variable quality.
Fisheries statistics from Tanzania and
Mozambique are negligible. The lake
is also a habitat for a number of other
taxonomic groups, for which there is
even less basic information than for the
fish species. The main objectives of the
project was to 1) provide trophic models to quantify energy flows through
the demersal fish community and the
food web that supports it in order to
understand the principal components
of the food web and to detect the main
ecological effects of disturbance, such
as increased fishing activity on it; and
2) determine the existing fishing pressure on the demersal fish community
through analysis of fisheries statistics
and evaluation of those through calibration studies.

The project comprised a consortium of
six European and three African partners
with, in additional, some limited participation from the Fisheries Institute
of Mozambique. Activities were focused
on: (i) determining the production at the
base of the food web; (ii) the diversity
and structure of the invertebrate communities; (iii) fish taxonomy; (iv) fishery

assessment and growth rates of demersal fish; and (v) fish diet analysis and
ecosystem dynamics supported with
stable isotope work and mathematical
modelling. Data from the demersal zone
was collected with the use of a specialised research vessel, the R.V. Usipa.

Results and outcome

The project has advanced considerably
the knowledge of fish and invertebrate taxonomy, provided a quantified
description of food web dynamics affecting the near-bottom (demersal) fish
community and, for the first time, quantified artisanal fisheries activities along
the coast of Tanzania. Supplementary
novel information was collected on artisanal fisheries in Mozambique and
new analysis and studies done by the
Department of Fisheries of Malawi. The
diversity of demersal fish is even higher
than previously thought and it is clear
that some taxonomic problems are
acute. Morphometric and genetic studies
showed that many non-mbuna species
(non rock-dwelling) are not homogeneous in their morphology and genetic
material over their distribution range.
Significant differences were found in
microsatellite allele frequencies among
populations of some abundant demersal
fish, suggesting segregation of stocks.
Up-dated guides to benthic invertebrates
were produced. Ecosystem modelling
indicated that the main pathway for
energy flow through to the species supporting the demersal fishery is through
the consumption of copepods by demersal fish apparently migrating into the
free water (pelagic) for feeding. The lakefly, Chaoborus edulis, provides a direct
link between the demersal fish community and pelagic productivity but its
importance is less in the demersal communities than it is in the pelagic zone
of the lake. By integrating the demersal
and pelagic components of the Lake
Malawi ecosystem into a single model,
ecological efficiency of the lake appears


Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/03/1998 to 28/02/2002 (48 months)
Joint Research Project

Prof. Kenneth Irvine
University of Dublin




to be much greater than previously supposed and the demersal fish community
is able to utilize directly much of the pelagic production previously thought to
be exported to detritus.

Application of results
The lake contained a high proportion of
fish at the same or similar trophic level
in the food web (trophically equivalent
fish), a feature likely to be important
for maintenance of ecosystem function. Prudent exploitation of the fishery
would maintain this diversity to provide
a buffer against possible environmental
change or trophic knock-on effects of
high fishing pressure. It is, however,
clear that current fishing practice in the
south of the lake threatens both biodiversity and sustainable fishing. There
is a need for a reappraisal of fisheries
management and, throughout the lake,
continued support for development of
monitoring and research programmes.

Selected Publications
Darwall, W.R.T. & E.H. Allison, 2002. Monitoring,
Assessing and Managing Fish Stocks in Lake
Malawi/Nyassa: Current Approaches and Future
Possibilities. Journal of Aquatic Ecosystem Health
& Management, 5:293-306.
Martens, K., 2003. On the evolution of
Gomphocythere (Crustacea, Ostracoda) in
Lake Nyassa/ Malawi (East Africa), with the
description of 5 new species. Hydrobiologia,
Ngatunga, B. & J. Snoeks, 2003. Lethrinops
turneri, a new shallow-water haplochromine
cichlid (Teleostei, Cichlidae) from the Lake
Malawi/Nyasa basin, Africa. Ichthyological
Exploration of Freshwaters 14:127-136.
Shaw, P.W., G.F. Turner, M.R. Idid, R.L. Robinson,
& G.R. Carvalho, 2000. Genetic population
structure indicates sympatric speciation of Lake
Malawi pelagic cichlids. Proceedings of the Royal
Society, 267:273-2280.
Snoeks, J. (ed.), 2004. The cichlid diversity of
Lake Malawi/Nyasa: Identification, distribution
and taxonomy. Cichlid Press, El Paso, USA, 360 p.
Taylor, M.I. & E. Verheyen, 2001. Microsatellite
data reveals weak population substructuring in
Copadichromis sp. virginalis kajose, a demersal
cichlid from Lake Malawi, Africa. Journal of Fish
Biology, 59:593-604.



Gary Carvalho


University of Hull
Cottingham Road
Hull HU6 7RX
United Kingdom

Kenneth Irvine
University of Dublin
East Theatre, Trinity College
College Green
2 Dublin
Tel: +35 316 081926
Fax: +35 316 778094


Aggrey Ambali


University of Malawi
Chancellor College
PO Box 280
40 Zomba



Jos Snoeks

Mr. S.A. Mapila

Muse Royal dAfrique Centrale

13 Steenweg op Leuven
3080 Tervuren

Ministry of Natural Resources

Department of Fisheries
PO Box 593



George Francis Turner1

Eddie Allison

University of Southampton
Bassett Crescent East
Southampton SO16 7PX
United Kingdom

University of East Anglia

Overseas Development Group
School of Development Studies
Norwich NR4 7JT
United Kingdom


Phillip Bwathondi (retired)


Current contact:

Dr Benjamin Ngatunga
Ministry of Tourism, Natural Resources
and Environment - United Republic of
PO Box 9750
Dar es Salaam

Koen Martens
Institut Royal des Sciences Naturelles
de Belgique
29 Rue Vautier
1040 Bruxelles

Address at point of printing: University of Hull, Hull, HU6

7RX, United Kingdom


Environmental conditions and fluctuations in
recruitment and distribution of small pelagic
fish stocks

Context and Objectives

The main objective of Envifish was to
develop appropriate methodologies
for improving the sustainable management of small pelagic fish based on the
identification and quantification of key
environmental conditions that influence fluctuations in their recruitment
and distribution in the Benguela and
Angolan systems. Specific objectives to
be achieved during the project were:

To develop a consistent and quality controlled database of satellite,

oceanographic and fisheries data.

To identify and quantify the key

environmental features associated
with, and possibly causing, the significant variability in abundance in
small pelagic fish stocks in the last
15 years.

To evaluate the impact of key environmental features, such as areas of

spawning and recruitment habitat,
as well as processes, such as concentration, retention and enrichment,
on recruitment success.

To relate environmental conditions

to the spatial distribution of small
pelagic fish stocks.
To develop adequate training and capacity building in order to allow these
scientific findings to be transferred
to management and decision making
processes in African countries.

The following activities were undertaken during the project:
1. Data Compilation: Satellite data;
meteorological data; oceanographic
data; Angolan system fisheries data;
N. Benguela system fisheries data, S.
Benguela system fisheries data.

2. Physical & Biological Forcing

Functions: Identification of critical
time and space scale; determination
of seasonal and interannual variability; determination of spatial
patterns; inter-decadal indices and
characteristics of biologically critical physical structures.

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

3. Systems Analysis for Fisheries:
environmental data and fish distribution; role of oceanographic
features and processes influencing
pelagic fish spawning; role of oceanographic features and processes
influencing recruitment; integrate
picture of spawning-transport and
recruitment; comparative analysis
of subsets within the region.

01/10/1998 to 30/11/2001 (38 months)

Joint Research Project

Dr. Leo Nykjaer
Joint Research Center
Ispra, Italy

Results and outcome

Database of satellite, oceanographic
and fisheries data
A large database of remote sensing
and in situ data was compiled for the
South Atlantic coast of Africa by the
Envifish project. The primary data set
was an 18-year (1982-2000) time series
of SST (Sea Surface Temperature) images from the NOAA (National Oceanic
and Atmospheric Administration of
the USA) /AVHRR (Advanced Very High
Resolution Radiometer) sensors. Other
remote sensing data sets used include
SeaWiFS (Sea viewing Wide Field-of-view
Sensor) ocean colour and chlorophyll
and TOPEX/Poseidon1 and the European
Remote Sensing ERS-1/2 altimetry.
Additionally, gridded ECMWF (European
Centre for Medium-Range Weather
Forecasts) wind speeds and direction, in
situ oceanographic and meteorological
TOPEX/Poseidon is a joint mission of the USA National
Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the French
space agency, Centre National dEtudes Spatiales (CNES).
The TOPEX/Poseidon program utilizes a satellite altimeter to
understand how the ocean interacts with the Earth.




measurements and fisheries data from
the region have been pooled and used
throughout the project. The compilation of a metadata catalogue was a
major step from this project in aiding
the future use of the data.
Key environmental features associated with variability in abundance of
small pelagic fish stocks
Key oceanographic features of putative importance to small pelagic fish
stocks were identified in satellite images and their variability in space and
time was described from the various
data sets. These included the Congo
River Plume, the Angola Current, the
Angola-Benguela Front, upwelling cells,
the Cape jet current and the Agulhas
current. Biological features, such as
spawning grounds and nursery areas,
were also identified. Areas of high and
low variability along the coast were
documented, particularly highlighting
an area of low wind and temperature
variability along the northern Namibian
coast. In situ measurements of salinity
along the Angolan coast highlighted the
high degree of variability in the strength
of the Congo River Plume along the
coast. The main spawning grounds in
the Northern Benguela lie downstream
of the major upwelling cell at Lderitz,
where SeaWiFS satellite data and in situ
measurements showed primary and
secondary production to be high.
Descriptions of the seasonal and interannual variability of the region gave good
insight into the different factors forcing oceanographic processes and of the
different systems along the coast. On a
seasonal basis, atmospheric forcing of
the Benguela upwelling region is mainly
by the South Atlantic high-pressure centre and forcing along the Angolan coast
is by changes in the equatorial belt
and Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone,
perhaps regulated to some extent by
changes over the North Atlantic highpressure centre. Thus, the seasonality



of these two regions is very different.

On an interannual basis, the Southern
Benguela upwelling region appears to
be forced by the South Atlantic highpressure cell and the Angola Current by
changes in the equatorial belt, however,
shifts in the position of the AngolaBenguela front mean that the Northern
Benguela is a mixed system, under influence from both the Angola Current
and the Southern Benguela. It is separated from the Southern Benguela at the
Lderitz upwelling cell. No significant
influence appears to be exerted on the
region by El Nio or the North Atlantic
Oscillation (NAO).
Investigation of the linkages between
events on different time scales showed
warm years to be characterised by a
sequence of warm events, not by a
general warming throughout the entire
year, and that interannual trends in
SST along the Angolan coast could be
related to changes in sea level pressure
in the subtropical North Atlantic during
July to September, forcing SST changes
in the Gulf of Guinea during October
and November. Additionally, there appears to be no energetic link between
interannual changes (3-7y) and decadal
scale changes (15-30y) in the Benguela
upwelling regime.
Mesoscale features, such as strong
upwelling filaments and eddies of
various sizes, occur throughout the region and can impact on spawning and
nursery grounds. The largest eddies
originate from the Agulhas retroflection while smaller eddies originate
from the upwelling.
Impact of key environmental features
and processes on recruitment success
The key oceanographic features were
described in terms of possible processes impacting recruitment success.
The theoretical basis for this work
was the triad hypothesis, which described enrichment, concentration and

retention mechanisms as being crucial for recruitment. Firstly, putative

triads were identified. Then, in areas
where data was sufficient, indices of
the strength of various processes were
tested against recruitment data. In
the Northern Benguela, moderate upwelling was identified as recruitment
favourable if it persisted for a period of
greater than 50 days (the larval stage of
the fish). Comparison with recruitment
data supported this assertion, although
only six years of data were available.
Previously proposed relationships were
tested in light of more recent data.
Testing of some of the existing indices for the Southern Benguela anchovy
(SST variance index, south-easterly wind
anomaly index) did not give significant
results, however, investigation of the position of the South African West Coast
upwelling front and the transport path
length along this front showed reasonable correlations with recruitment for
both anchovy and sardine. Some evidence
was also found for a degree of density
dependent regulation of recruitment.
Relationship between environmental
conditions and the spatial distribution
of small pelagic fish stocks
Statistical modelling of the relationship
between catches of various commercial
species and environmental variables
have were to relate environmental conditions to the spatial distribution of small
pelagic fish stocks. A consistent relationship was found between the area of
16-19C water and anchovy spawning
on the Agulhas bank. Further results
from this research, undertaken during
Envifish, showed Anchovy catch rates
to peak at intermediate temperatures
(14 17C) and decline with increasing
spatial variance. Pilchard catch rates
showed no consistent trend with either
SST or spatial variance of SST. Round
herring catch rates were bimodal with
peaks at both high SST (> 18C) and low
SST (< 13C) and catch rates increased


when SST variance was high (standard

deviation of SST > 3C).
Training and capacity building in
African countries.
Envifish provided training and capacity building for all the African partner
countries. This was essential to fulfil
the Envifish objectives and allow scientific findings to be transferred to
management and decision-making. To
accomplish this, much support was given to academic training. Two Angolans
from IIM received support for academic training in their MSc courses at the
University of Cape Town. This training
included scientific writing, data handling
and analysis and presentation at conferences. A Namibian student was granted
a one-year scholarship to undertake an
Honours Degree at UCT. In South Africa,
a student received an MSc degree from
UCT, while a second student registered
part-time for a PhD at UCT. All students
also gained experience at presenting papers at scientific meetings.
As well as academic studies, in-house
training and workshops were an
important part of the Envifish capacity building effort. At IIM, a number of
technicians, at a variety of levels, benefited from training and data analysis. In
Namibia several students have participated in training courses overseas. In
South Africa a post-doctoral scientist,
through Envifish funding, contributed a
great deal to capacity building throughout the project, especially through
teaching, organising workshops and
supervising students.

Selected Publications
Barange, M. & L. Nykjaer (eds.), 2003. ENVIFISH:
Investigating Environmental conditions and
fluctuations in recruitment and distribution
of small pelagic fish stocks. Progress in
Oceanography, 59(23):177338.
Boyer, D.C., J. Cole & C. Bartholomae, 2000. An
environmental evaluation at the millennium.
Southwestern Africa: Northern Benguela Current
Region. Marine Pollution Bulletin, 41:123-140.
Boyer, D.C., H.J. Boyer, I. Fossen & A. Kreiner,
2001. Changes in abundance of the Northern
Benguela sardine stock during the decade 1990
to 2000, including a discussion of the relative
importance of fishing and the environment.
S.Afr.J.mar.Sci., 23:76-84.
Hagen, E., 2001. Northwest African upwelling
scenario. Oceanologica Acta, 24 Supplement,
Hagen, E., R. Feistel, J.J. Agenbag & T. Ohde,
2001. Seasonal and interannual changes in
intense Benguela upwelling (1982-1999).
Oceanologica Acta, 24(6):557-568.
Kreiner, A., C. van der Lingen & P. Fron,
2001. A comparison of condition factor and
gonadosomatic index of sardine (Sardinops
sagax) stocks in the northern and southern
Benguela upwelling ecosystems, 1984 to 1999.
S.Afr.J.Mar.Sci., 23:123-134.
Mitchell-Innes, B.A., N.F. Silulwane & M.I. Lucas,
2001. Variability of chlorophyll profiles on the
west coast of southern Africa in June/July 1999.
S.Afr.J.Sci., 97:246-250.
Richardson, A.J., H.M. Verheye, V. Herbert, C.
Rogers & L.M. Arendse, 2001. Egg production,
somatic growth and productivity of copepods
in the Benguela Current System and the AngolaBenguela Front. S.Afr.J. Sci., 97:251-257.
Silulwane, N.F., A.J. Richardson, F.A. Shillington
& B.A. Mitchell-Innes, 2001. Identification and
classification of vertical chlorophyll patterns
in the northern Benguela upwelling system.
S.Afri.J.Mar.Sci., 23:34-51.







Leo Nykjaer

Eberhard Hagen

Inland and Marine Waters

Institute for Environment and
Joint Research Centre
Via E. Fermi 1
I 21020 Ispra (VA)
Tel: +39 0332 78 97 15
Fax: +39 0332 78 90 01

Baltic Sea Research Institute

Seestrasse 15
Pf 301161
18119 Rostock /Warnemunde


Nkosi Luyeye
Instituto de Investigao Marinha IMM
Victoria de Barros Neto
2601 Luanda

Frank Shillington


Jacqueline McGlade2
Natural Environment Research Council
Merseyside L43 7RA
United Kingdom

Tore Stroemme
Institute of Marine Research
2 Nordnesparken
PO Box 1870
5024 Bergen-Nordnes

University of Cape Town (UCT)

Private Bag
7700 Rondebosch
South Africa

Carmen Lima3
Instituto de Investigao das Pescas e
do Mar
Avenida Brasilia
1400 Lisboa


David Charles Boyer

Ministry of Fisheries and Marine
PO Box 912
20 Swakopmund

Alan Boyd
Ministry of Environmental Affairs
Private Bag X2
8012 Cape Town
South Africa

Andrew Bakun
Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations
Via delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Roma
Address at time of printing: Director General of the European
Environment Agency, Kongens Nytorv 6, DK-1050





Sustainable development of continental

fisheries: a regional study of policy options
and policy formation mechanisms for the
Lake Chad Basin
Context and Objectives
The starting point for this project was
the recognition that sustainable fisheries development must be founded upon
a good understanding of the design and
implementation of appropriate fisheries management policy, both at local
and regional levels. The general purpose of the project was therefore to
carry out multi-disciplinary research on
the key constraints to improvements in
fisheries policy formation in the Lake
Chad Basin (LCB) one of the largest and
most important continental fisheries
in Africa. The key fisheries policy constraints were recognised to be:
1. Lack of relevant data and information to underpin fisheries policy
2. Limited institutional capacity to
undertake policy analysis and
3. Weak policy formation mechanisms
for fisheries.
Within this context, the project aimed
at providing a basis for developing a
range of approaches by which the constraints might be reduced or removed,
leading to eventual improvement in
policy formation, with particular reference to fisheries management systems.

The project undertook a wide range
of activities over the course of three
years to address the three major researchable constraints. The location
of the work included all three Lake
Chad Basin countries within the project (Cameroon, Chad and Nigeria), plus
research meetings and seminars at the
coordinating institute (CEMARE) in the
United Kingdom for all collaborators.

The major activities, with respect to

each researchable constraint included:
(1) Lack of relevant data
and information
First, the status of the Lake Chad Basin
fisheries, from the perspective of each
collaborating country, was documented
and reviewed. Second, in order to upgrade the available information, and to
address a number of major gaps, a portfolio of socio-economic and livelihood
surveys, together with the operation
of a simple Fisheries Information
Monitoring System (FIMS), were planned
and implemented in each country. This
included the development of survey
manuals and the operation of a series
of linked training courses to help build
the necessary research capacity. The
new information collected and analysed
was subsequently written-up as a series
of reports and published through various media (as explained below).

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/11/1998 to 31/10/2001 (36 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Arthur Neiland / Dr. Christophe Bn
University of Portsmouth
United Kingdom

(2) Limited institutional capacity

First, each national collaborator had to
undertake a review of the institutional
arrangements for fisheries at local, national and international (regional) levels.
This included detailed description and
profiles of organisational history, development and capacities. Second, this
information was used to design a strategy for institutional capacity-building
which included: training courses and
seminars in areas such as socio-economic surveys, livelihood analysis and
policy analysis. Visits and tours of fisheries and institutes, within each country
and in the UK, also provided the opportunity to consider different approaches
to common problems (such as fisheries
regulation and research prioritisation).
The need for capacity-building was a
key theme and consideration which was
addressed throughout the duration of
the project.



(3) Weak policy

formation mechanisms
The policy process (formation + implementation) was researched in each
LCB country. First, a review was undertaken of each set of national policies
and policy frameworks for fisheries.
Second, the performance of fisheries
policy implementation over the past
30 years was reviewed and evaluated.
Third, the factors which have affected
the policy process in each country and
the possibilities for addressing them
were also considered. The information
was written up as a series of national
reports, which in turn formed the basis
of a joint policy analysis paper, and the
development of a new proposal for a
fisheries development programme.

Results and outcomes

The research undertaken in the LCB
fisheries has produced results and outcomes in four major domains:
(A) Information documentation
and dissemination
Key results:
It has been shown that the fisheries of
the LCB were productive (over 60,000t/
yr), valuable (the first sale value of
traded fish is US$25 million/yr) and
contribute to the livelihoods of thousands of rural people. At the same time,
paradoxically, 40% of the rural households in the LCB fisheries region are
impoverished (low income, vulnerable
to food insecurity).
Production and dissemination of a wide
range of reports, papers and journal articles covering important environmental,
economic, social, institutional and policy issues. These outputs have effectively
helped to raise the profile of the fisheries of the LCB amongst government
policy-makers, international donors and


scientists. For example, a joint-paper by

all members of the LCB team has recently appeared in the International Journal
of Social Economics. Elsewhere, the research findings have contributed to an
international workshop on Poverty and
Fisheries organised for 25 West African
states by the DFID/FAO Sustainable
Fisheries Livelihoods Programme (SFLP).
(B) Capacity-building in policy
analysis and policy development
Key results:
The analysis of national fisheries policy
for each of the LCB countries revealed
a high level of incompleteness in areas such as fisheries management,
and economic, social and institutional
development. At a regional level, there
was no common fisheries policy for the
Lake Chad Basin. The formation of fisheries policy had been constrained by
limited capacity in a wide range of areas
including policy analysis and fisheries
policy planning and development.
The capacity of the fisheries authorities
of the LCB countries (within the project) to undertake policy analysis and
policy development increased through
the training and mentoring activities of
the project. A series of training courses were operated in: socio-economic
surveys/livelihood analysis; fisheries
monitoring and policy analysis and
up to 18 people passed through these
courses. Partly on the basis of this new
and increased capacity, the DFID/FAO
SFLP sponsored a small project to examine the linkage between trade and
sustainable livelihoods The key policy
issue of trade was examined in all five
LCB riparian countries (Chad, Niger,
Nigeria, Cameroon, Central African
Republic), and the results incorporated
into future fisheries policy.

(C) Institutional development

Key results:
The performance of fisheries policy
in the LCB as a whole was weak. The
follow-on analysis of the policy process in all LCB countries revealed
that the implementation of fisheries
policy was constrained by a range of
factors including weak institutional
development at all levels of the formal
fisheries management system operated
by national government, and also at
the international level of the Lake Chad
Basin Commission (LCBC). Interestingly,
traditional management systems at local level remained strong, active and
effective, but remained distinct and
separate (on the whole) in their operation from formal systems.
The increasing amount of information
and the accompanying raised profile of
the LCB fisheries had a positive impact
on the formal institutional arrangements
for fisheries in the region. The Lake
Chad Basin Commission (LCBC) posted
a fisheries expert to its Secretariat in
Ndjamena for the first time. In Nigeria,
Borno State established plans for a new
Department of Fisheries. Throughout
the LCB, efforts were done to establish
and operate a Fisheries Information
Monitoring System (FIMS), with local
fisheries departments and fish marketing groups working together under the
(D) Design of future
development interventions
Key results:
The analysis of the policy process
in each country of the LCB revealed
that past policy had been dominated
by technology-based, productionist
approaches, with relatively little consideration of the broad economic,
social and institutional context of the
livelihoods of fishers and other people
in the fisheries. In line with new policy



approaches in other natural resource

sectors, throughout the world, which
have adopted a broader and livelihoodbased perspective, the research
revealed that a new approach to fisheries development in the Lake Chad Basin
is needed.
There were two notable outcomes:
an Overview Report Fisheries of the
Lake Chad Basin: using policy research
knowledge as a basis for future development action including: (i) a summary
of the work of the Research Project; and
(ii) a concept note for a Lake Chad Basin
Fisheries Development Programme
(LCB-FDP); and the research outputs
of the project were distributed to the
DFID/FAO SFLP, to provide some guidance in the designing of two pilot
development projects in the LCB (fish
processing) and also in Burkina Faso
(inland fisheries management).

Selected Publications
Bn, C., K. Mindjimba, E. Belal, T. Jolley & A.
Neiland, 2003. Inland fisheries, tenure systems
and livelihood diversification in Africa: the case
of the Yar floodplains in Cameroon. Journal of
Asian and African Studies, 38:17-51.
Bn, C., A. Neiland, T. Jolley, B. Ladu, S. Ovie, O.
Sule, M. Baba, E. Belal, K. Mindjimba, F. Tiotsop,
L. Dara, A. Zakara & J. Quensire, 2003. Inland
fisheries, poverty and rural livelihoods in subSaharan Africa: Investigations in the Lake Chad
Basin. Journal of Asian and African Studies,
Bn, C., A. Neiland, T. Jolley, B. Ladu, S. Ovie, O.
Sule, M. Baba, E. Belal, K. Mindjimba, F. Tiotsop,
L. Dara, A. Zakara, & J. Quensire, 2003. Naturalresource institutions and property rights in
Inland African fisheries, the case of the Lake
Chad Basin region. International Journal of Social
Economics, 30(3):275-301.
Bn, C., K. Mindjimba. E. Belal & T. Jolley,
2000. Evaluating livelihood strategies and the
role of inland fisheries in rural development
and poverty alleviation: the case of the Yar
floodplain in North Cameroon. Proc. 10th Conf.
IIFET, Corvalis, 10-14 July 2000.

Arthur Neiland1 &
Christophe Bn2
Centre for the Economics and
Management of Aquatic Resources
University of Portsmouth
Locksway Road
Portsmouth PO4 8JF
United Kingdom

Bernard Ladu
National Institute for Freshwater
Fisheries Research (NIFFR)
PMB 6006
New Bussa, Niger State

Baba Malloum Ousman

Ministry of Livestock, Fisheries and
Animal Industries (MINEPIA)

Jacques Quensire
Institut de Recherche pour le
Route des Pres Maristes
BP 1386
30 Dakar - Hann

Address at time of printing: Institute for Sustainable

Development and Aquatic Resources (IDDRA), Portsmouth
Technopole, Kingston Crescent, Portsmouth, Hampshire PO2
8FA, United Kingdom

Address at time of printing: WorldFish Center, Africa and Asia

Programme, PO Box 11728, Cairo, Egypt.



Chinese Freshwater Fishes: Training
and workshop on Research Priorities
in Fish Biology and Informatics at the
Aquatic Frontier

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/10/2000 to 31/10/2001 (7 months)
Accompanying Measure

Dr. Sven Kullander
Swedish Museum of Natural History

Context and Objectives

The basic understanding of Chinese
fish systematics, distribution, ecology,
genetic components and conservation
is in considerable need of improvement and globalisation. All these
fields of research are required in order to develop sustainable use of fish
resources and management tools for
conservation. At present there exists
no platform for Chinese-European fish
biology exchange.
CHINAFISH objectives were:

To provide a platform for European

and Chinese joint research in ichthyology and fish biology, that would
be multidisciplinary and versatile
enough to expand on all key topics
related to research on fish and fish
biology in China

To propose powerful research

projects towards better basic understanding and utilisation of
available and still unexploited natural resources.


This accompanying measure (AM) included a workshop and a training visit
with the aim of investigating, summarising and proposing research on novel
resources and their management, including finding new species and genetic
stock, improving assessment methods
and understanding of ecosystems and
community function, and making available the information in modern, suitable
formats such as Internet databases.
The workshop was the principal project activity. It was held 7-11 December
2000 in the Foreign Guesthouse of the
Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing.
Participants represented not only the traditional fishery/aquaculture sector, but
covered overall expertise in fish biology.



The CHINAFISH workshop reviewed

the status of Chinese ichthyology and
research priorities for EU-Chinese cooperation with emphasis on sustainable
use of fish resources.
The research model designed by the
workshop integrated basic life history
disciplines such as systematics, genetics
and ecology, with fisheries/aquaculture
and conservation/management.

Results and outcome

The workshop listed several research
priorities, addressing obvious gaps in
knowledge, urgent need for data gathering in areas under environmental
pressure, and research approaches that
had so far not been tried on Chinese
freshwater fishes. Such included inventories of smaller water bodies;
databases of specimens in research
collections and museums; systematic
revisions of the big carps; integration
of terminology of classification; phylogenetic relationships of major cyprinid
groups; genetic variability, especially
over large geographical areas, and genetic characterisation of populations
and species using modern molecular
techniques; ecomorphological analyses covering size-related ecological
performance; ecological characteristics
of culture species under natural conditions, especially interactions between
feral and wild fish; genetic characterisation of aquaculture stock;
procedures for bioassay testing; density-related disease transfer.
Finfish aquaculture is traditionally in
the realm of technology, management,
and socio-economic considerations.
Papers presented at the CHINAFISH
workshop suggested an alternative approach to study and implement finfish
aquaculture resources, drawing on the
experience and outlooks of biological
systematics, ecology, paleoichthyology,



genetics, and conservation biology,

based mainly on studies of natural fauna, in addition to frontline research in
aquaculture management.
Morphological systematic ichthyology
has a long tradition in China, with several well-illustrated descriptive catalogs
of regional fauna and also works covering the Chinese fish fauna as a whole.
About 900 species of fish are known
from Chinese freshwaters, dominated by
the Cyprinidae, carp fishes, with about
530 species. Less than 20 native species
are common in commercial aquaculture
in China, and recent development has
built to quite some extent on exotic species, especially Nile tilapia.

Selected Publication
The following report presents the proceedings of the Workshop:
Kullander, S.O. (ed.), 2001. Chinese Freshwater
Fishes: Research Priorities in Fish Biology and
Informatics at the Aquatic Frontier. Proceedings
of an INCO-DEV Workshop convened in Beijing,
China, 7-11 December 2000. Brussels, ACP-EU
Fish.Res.Rep., (9):97 p. ISSN 1025-3971

Sven Kullander
Swedish Museum of Natural History
Frescativaegen 40
P.O. Box 50007
10405 Stockholm
Tel: +46 8 51 95 41 16
Fax: +46 8 51 95 42 12

In addition to other relevant research

being published, about 5000 scientific articles in aquatic science are
published in China annually and mainly
in Chinese. Very little of this enormous
body of information is readily available
internationally. It is therefore important to develop information systems
that gather and redistribute the information in formats openly and widely
accessible for end-users.




International Workshop on Information

Systems for Policy and Technical Support
in Fisheries and Aquaculture

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/05/2000 to 31/01/2001 (9 months)
Accompanying Measure

Prof. Dr. Enrico Feoli
University of Trieste

Context and Objectives

To address issues associated with the

difficult transition from abundance
to scarcity in aquatic resources an
International Workshop on Information
Systems for Policy and Technical Support
in Fisheries and Aquaculture was proposed in order to review the state of the
art of available information systems and
accessible information resources on key
thematic areas in relation to aquatic resources as well as to identify a strategy
for information sharing and interaction
between scientists and decision makers
in these key thematic areas and for the
management of protected areas.


Reliable information will spread the

right perception of the productive
capacity and result in more realistic
assessment of decreasing benefits and
rising costs. Conservation of aquatic
biodiversity, ecosystem approaches to
fisheries and aquaculture production
and food quality and safety along the
entire chain from production to the
consumer are key concepts that will
govern approaches to aquatic living
resources in the future. International
trade is a major driving force in bringing many of these problems to a head,
while also offering opportunities for
socio-economic development.

Defining in concerted way information tools indispensable for policy

formulation and/or technical improvements in the respective fields,
including aquaculture, health and
veterinary standards and trade in
fishery products.

The workshop was convened in Los

Baos, Philippines, from 5 to 7 June
2000, around 30 experts from Europe
and developing countries from Asia,
Africa and Latin America participated.
The workshop alternated plenary presentations and discussion with panel
work to cover efficiently the extensive
ground highlighted above.
The activities leading up to the workshop and its follow-up were governed
by a steering committee covering the
thematic scope and providing guidance
to invited participants.

The specific objectives were:


Reviewing the state of the art of

available information systems and
accessible information resources
about key thematic areas in relation
to aquatic resources and identifying the critical knowledge gaps for
policy and environmentally friendly
production and trade;

Determining a strategy for information sharing and interaction between

scientists and decision makers in
these key thematic areas and management of protected areas;


Results and outcome

The workshop was successful in getting
the expected results by the presentation of invited speakers and by the
panel work:

The review of the state of the art

of available information systems
and accessible information resources and identification of critical
knowledge gaps for policy and environmentally friendly production
and trade in relation to aquatic resources was achieved by general
presentations on data bases such
those of Rainer Froese The FishBase
Information System: Key Features
and Approaches, Uwe Piatkowski
Notes on cephalopods/CephBase,
Michael Apel & Michael Turkay
Decapod Crustacea in existing
databases and concepts, Philippe
Bouchet & Nicolas Bailly ClamBase:
A proposition from MNHN-InSys
within the framework of a Global
Marine Mollusca Database and
by the presentation of regional
systems such those of Wang Lu
Coral Reef Information System and
Management for the China Sea,
and of Satish Babu on Information
needs of small-scale fishing communities in South India.

The economic and trade aspects were

covered by the presentations of Akhmad
Fauzi An overview of economic
valuation techniques: a highlight on information needed for their application
in developing countries and Carlos A.
Lima dos Santos Seafood health standards and trade - key problems.

Enrico Feoli presented examples of integration of remote sensing, spatial

data and biodiversity data bases to
construct network for sustainable use
of biological resources. The policy aspect was covered by the presentation
of Daniel Pauly Importance of the
historical dimension in policy and management of natural resource systems,
by Thorolfur Matthiasson Economic
and social database for policy relevant
natural resource analysis and by Ussif
Rashid Sumaila Economic drivers
and approaches to integrate economic
factors into policy formulation and
management-key problems.


Different possibilities to develop

strategy for information sharing
and interaction between scientists
and decision makers in key thematic areas related to aquatic resources
and management of protected areas
jointly determined were illustrated
by discussions and presentation of
the internet use to reach the connection between different data bases. A
demonstration was done by Rainer
Froese and the FISHBASE staff which
showed the way to link different
data bases with the FISHBASE.
The possibility to develop network
design composed of thematic information tools indispensable for
policy formulation or technical improvements defined for aquaculture
and fisheries in their ecosystem
context, other key aquatic groups,
sanitary and phytosanitary and
eco-standards, trade in fishery
products was discussed during the
panel work where concept notes and
project proposals were formulated
and/or discussed for the major research areas, namely:

Information systems on other

aquatic groups in support of
capture and culture fisheries;

Sanitary and phytosanitary

standards (SPS) and relevant
environmental regulations in
relation to trade in fishery

Decision support system to ecosystem based fisheries analysis

and co-management;

price analysis at macro and micro levels and co-management;
Thorolfur Matthiasson presented one of the results of the
panel work as a proposal Draft
on Economic and social database for policy relevant natural
resource analysis, while Carlos
A. Lima dos Santos contributed also a note on Seafood
Health Standards and Trade:
key issues.

Two out of several proposals

based on concepts presented and
discussed at the workshop were
successful in subsequent calls: one
on a seaweed database for Africa
to systematise scientific knowledge
and make it available in the public
domaine; and a multi-disciplinary
approach to reconcile multiple
demands on coastal zones by organising, analysing and disseminating
information on ecosystems and socio-economic dimensions of coastal
zones supported by a web-based
archive. Other concepts have been
utilised in other follow-up work.



Selected Publication
The following report contains the proceedings of the Workshop:
Feoli, E. & C.E. Nauen (eds.), 2001. Proceedings
of the INCO-DEV International Workshop on
Information Systems for Policy and Technical
Support in Fisheries and Aquaculture. Los Baos,
Philippines, 5-7 June 2000. Brussels, ACP-EU
Fish.Res.Rep., (8):132 p. ISSN 1025-3971


Enrico Feoli
Universit degli Studi di Trieste
Depto. di Biologia
Via Giorgieri 10
34100 Trieste
Tel: +39 040 558 71 11
Fax: +39 040 558 20 11


Natural variability of a coastal upwelling
system and small pelagic fish stocks

Context and Objectives

The coastal ocean off northwest Africa
is one of the worlds upwelling regions
with high production of small pelagic
fish thriving on nutrient-rich waters rising to the surface and enabling plankton
blooms, the principal food of small pelagics. Exploitable biomasses of these
short-lived fish species (e.g. sardines,
sardinella, mackerel, horse mackerel)
are known to depend heavily on suitable
environmental conditions for the survival of their larvae and juveniles. This was
as already demonstrated in other important upwelling regions of the world, such
as the Humboldt system off Chile and
Peru (supporting the famous Peruvian
anchoveta fisheries) and the Benguela
system off southwest Africa.
The pelagic fisheries play a very important role in the developing economies
of the northwest African region. One
of the key questions for sustainable
fisheries management in this upwelling-controlled ecosystem is how the
fish populations respond to a climate
change. What are the environmental
factors that lead to a sudden collapse
of fish stocks? How to combine environmental observation from space with
in situ physical and biological monitoring in order to anticipate the stock
collapses prior to the stress periods?
How to inform fisheries regimes in
time to avoid excessive fishing pressure at times of environmental stress
which led e.g. to the spectacular collapse of the Peruvian anchoveta in the
early 70s? The projects general objective was to analyse and quantify the
influence of the natural variability of
the Northwest African upwelling system on the abundance and distribution
of small pelagics. In particular, specific
objectives were:

To compile relevant environmental,

biological and fisheries data into a
distributed database together with
tools for analysing the data;

To identify and quantify environmental variability relating to

significant changes in abundance
and distribution in small pelagic
fish stocks;
To model different environmental
situations and their consequences on key processes influencing
successful recruitment and fish
To investigate the potential of using models as a tool for suggesting
precautionary measures to be incorporated into responsible fisheries
management strategies;
To develop adequate capacity
building for African scientists and
managers to properly understand
natural environmental variability and its significance for fisheries
management in combination with
using analytical models from the

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/01/2002 to 17/05/2005 (39 months)
Shared Cost Action

Dr. Leo Nykjaer
Joint Research Centre
Ispra, Italy

The project was carried out as a retrospective analysis of environmental,
biological and fisheries data with focus
on the decade 1990 to 2000. The different activities consisted of:

A documentation of the environmental variability associated with

the major changes in fish population for three case studies.

An investigation of upper ocean dynamics through application of an

existing hydro-dynamic model.

An examination of the influence

of oceanographic key parameters
on the distribution and biology of
small pelagics.

An evaluation to what extent some

of the environmental changes could





effectively be monitored and how

their effect on the fishery resources
could be forecasted.

Results and outcomes

The project results:

provided data and methodologies

that can be used and maintained by
the developing countries for practical use in resource management
increased awareness, both at decision making level and at the
scientific level, of the value and
benefits of considering environmental aspects in the management
of living resources.
contributed to ecosystem-based
approach of management of living
improved capacity building of
African scientists and strengthened
human networking and institutional

Selected Publications

Leo Nykjaer

Herbette, S., P. Marchesiello & L. Nykjaer, 2004.

The impact of wind forcing on the inter-annual
variability of the northwestern African coastal
upwelling. Geophysical Research Abstracts, Vol
6, 02672.
Marchesiello, P., S. Herbette, L. Nykjaer & C. Roy,
2004. Eddy-driven dispersion processes in the
Canary Current upwelling system: comparison
with the California system. Globec International
Newsletter, 10(1), April 2004.
Nykjaer, L., 2002. NAT-FISH, a SPACC affiliated
project in the Northwest African upwelling area,
Globec International Newsletter. 8(2).
Ostrowski, M. & T. Strmme, 2004. Evolution of
coastal SST in the northeast subtropical Atlantic
and distribution patterns of small pelagic
fish from Mauritania to Morocco. Poster. ICES
Symposium on the Influence of Climate Change
on the North Atlantic Fish Stocks, Bergen 11-14
May, 2004.

Related publications:
Christensen, V., P. Amorim, I. Diallo, T. Diouf,
S. Gunette, J.J. Heymans, A. Mendy, M.M. ould
Taleb ould Sidi, M.L.D. Palomares, B. Samb,
K. Stobberup, J.M. Vakily, M. Vasconcellos, R.
Watson & D. Pauly, 2004. Trends in fish biomass
off Northwest Africa, 1960-2000. pp. 215-220.
In: Chavance, P., M. B, D. Gascuel, J.M. Vakily &
D. Pauly (eds.). Pcheries maritimes, cosystmes
et socits en Afrique de lOuest: Un demisicle de changements. Actes du symposium
international, Dakar, Sngal, 24-28 juin 2002.
Luxembourg, Office des Publications Officielles
des Communauts Europennes et Paris, IRD.

Joint Research Centre (JRC)

Institute for Environment and
21020 Ispra
Tel: +39 0332 78 97 15
Fax: +39 0332 78 90 34

Tore Strmme
Institute of Marine Research (IMR)
P.O. Box 1870
5817 Bergen

Mostafa Chbani
Institut National de Recherche
Halieutique (INRH)
2, Rue Tiznit
Casablanca 01

Mohamed Mahfoudh
Institut Mauritanien de Recherches
Ocanographiques et des Pches
B.P. 22

Birane Samb
Centre de Recherches
Ocanographiques de
Dakar-Thiaroye (CRODT)
BP 2241




Underpinning sustainable ecosystem
management of seaweed resources in Africa:
expanding the seaweed database

Context and Objectives

Despite its enormous coastline and
burgeoning coastal populations, Africa
has not seen major developments of a
seaweed industry except in Tanzania
and South Africa and recently in
Mozambique. In fact, there seems to be
a relative paucity of local knowledge
of seaweeds despite the incredible biodiversity which is particularly high on
the east coast. In some areas, such as
Namibia and the west coast of South
Africa, up welling of cold water shows
enormous potential for maricultural
development if the right algae and
management techniques can be found.
There is also considerable potential for
the extension of Eucheuma cultivation
to other tropical and subtropical countries. The main objective of this project
was to produce tools for policy makers
and other interested parties, who might
be interested in sustainable use of seaweed resources. This involved making
available a database containing information such as uses of different species
of seaweeds, distribution of those species and ecological information about
them. The information systems was
also to contain legal and commercial
information from countries that are
currently harvesting or growing seaweeds. Technical information such as
methods of harvesting or aquaculture
were also to be provided. This database
was to be available both via the Internet
and on CD ROM.
It was hoped that the project would:

Promote the sustainable use of

seaweed stocks by communicating
current best practice in countries
currently harvesting/growing seaweeds in a sustainable manner;
Promote links and exchanges
between phycologists (seaweed scientists) in Africa and the EU.

A major redesign of the AlgaeBase
database was carried out, comprising significant effort in standardising
and cleaning data sets. Pre-existing
flat-file systems were transferred into
MySQL database formats for greater
versatility and stability. The available
and newly accessed ecological, commercial and technical information
was assembled and inputted into the
database. Moreover, an entirely new
SeaweedAfrica archive was created
under this project with progressive
merge of the two. The use of these
archives was then promoted via the
Internet and selected parts also distributed to interested parties via CD ROM.
The planned South Atlantic Seaweed
Check-list was not produced for lack
of access to Argentinean catalogue
data. Information for Uruguay, Brazil,
Venezuela and the Antarctic and SubAntarctic islands have, however, been
obtained and entered into AlgaeBase.

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/11/2001 to 31/10/2005 (48 months)
Shared Cost Action

Prof. Michael Guiry
National University of Ireland


Results and outcome

Raise general awareness of the

many uses and potential uses of
seaweeds, particularly in the EU and

Inform policy makers and other

interested parties as to which seaweeds grow in their areas and what
can be done with them. The focus
was on high value, low volume
products as much as possible;


Improved web-based archiving of

a much larger number of African
seaweed species in two easy-to-use
Completion of the nomenclatural
and taxonomic sections and the
addition of seaweed pictures and
common names to the AlgaeBase
web-archive (>130,000 records from
17 geographical areas on >121,000



species, subspecies, varieties and
formae of algae);

Production of an information pack

containing: extracts of the Seaweed
Africa database; details of content
and capabilities of the database
and guidelines for accessing the
data via internet on a PowerPoint

Selected Publications
Anderson, R.J. & J.J. Bolton, 2005. Introduction.
Guide to the seaweeds of KwaZulu Natal. Scripta
Botanica Belgica, 33:11-37.
Arajo, R. I. Brbara, G. Santos, M. Rangel &
I. Sousa Pinto, 2003. Fragmenta chorologica
occidentalia, Algae, 8572-8640. Anales Jardin
Botnico Madrid, 56:405-409.

Coimbra, J., F. Barreto Caldas, I. Sousa Pinto,

P.T. Santos, C. Antunes, M.R. Oliveira, S. Dias
& M. Felcio, 2002-2003. Integrated plans for
the coastal zone (POOC) of Terceira Island,
Azores: characterization of the communities
of the coastal zone. Porto, Portugal, Regional
Government of Azores, 91 p.

Pictures of commercial seaweeds in

Africa and a list of commercial and
potential species in Africa;

De Clerck, O., J.J. Bolton, R.J. Anderson & E.

Coppejans, 2005. Guide to the seaweeds of
KwaZulu Natal. Scripta Botanica Belgica, 33:1294.

Information meetings with the seaweed industries were convened in

Ireland, Kenya, Namibia, Portugal,
Tanzania and South Africa;

Sustainable harvesting;
Aquaculture with lowest possible
environmental impacts;
Low volume high value species;
communication between existing projects and
broad-based access from very diverse publics between October
2004 and October 2006 the databases have been searched 5.056 million


Rindi, F. & M.D. Guiry, 2004. A long term

comparison of the benthic algal flora of
Clare Island, County Mayo, western Ireland.
Biodiversity and Conservation, 13:471-492.
Smit, A.J., 2004. Medicinal and pharmaceutical
uses of seaweed natural products: A review.
Journal of Applied Phycology, 16:245-262.

Coimbra, J., F. Barreto Caldas, I. Sousa Pinto,

P.T. Santos, C. Antunes, M.R. Oliveira, S. Dias
& M. Felcio, 2002-2003. Integrated plans for
the coastal zone (POOC) of S. Jorge Island,
Azores: characterization of the communities
of the coastal zone. Porto, Portugal, Regional
Government of Azores, 93 p.

Checklists of seaweeds for South

Africa, Namibia and Kenya compiled
and distributed as CD ROMs;

Tools available for the initiating of

new projects or enhancement of existing projects. These tools stress
the following;

Rindi, F. & M.D. Guiry, 2004. Composition and

spatio temporal variability of the epiphytic
macroalgal assemblage of Fucus vesiculosus
Linnaeus at Clare Island, Mayo, western Ireland.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and
Ecology, 311:233-252.

Bolton, J.J. & H. Stegenga, 2002. Seaweed

biodiversity in South Africa. South African
Journal of Marine Science, 24:9-18.


SeaweedAfrica: creation of a second

web archive containing ecololgical, commercial and technological
information for use in ecosystem
management and planning; there
are 216 use categories with 1114
different seaweed uses recorded
and some 230 compounds (so far)

times, current daily use rates are

between 10 and 12,000 times.

De Clerck, O., H.R. Engledow, J.J. Bolton, R.J.

Anderson & E. Coppejans, 2002. Twenty marine
benthic algae new to South Africa, with emphasis
on the flora of KwaZulu Natal. Botanica Marina,
Gullstrm, M. M. Lundn, M. Bodin, J. Kangwe,
M.C. hman, M. Mtolera & M. Bjrk, (2006).
Assessment of vegetation changes in the
seagrass-dominated tropical Chawaka Bay
(Zanzibar) using satellite remote sensing.
Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 67:399-408.
Guiry, M.D., 2005. AlgaeBase Listing the worlds
algae. The Irish Scientist Yearbook, 13:74-75.
Leliaert, F., O. De Clerck, J.J. Bolton &
E. Coppejans, 2001. New records of the
Chlorophyta from South Africa, with emphasis
on the marine benthic flora of KwaZulu Natal.
South African Journal of Botany, 67:450-459.
N Chualin, F., C.A. Maggs, G.W. Saunders & M.D.
Guiry, 2004. The invasive genus Asparagopsis
(Bonnemaisoniaceae, Rhodophyta): molecular
systematics, morphology, and ecophysiology
of Falkenbergia isolates. Journal of Phycology,
Oliveira, E.C., K. sterlund, M.S.P. Mtolera, 2005.
Marine plants of Tanzania. A field guide to the
seaweeds and seagrasses of Tanzania. Edited by
N. Sporrong & M. Bjrk. Stockholm, SIDA/SAREC,
268 p.





Michael D. Guiry

Robert Anderson & John Bolton

AlgaeBase Centre
Martin Ryan Institute,
NUI, Galway
University Road
Tel: +35 391 49 23 39

University of Cape Town

Department of Botany
7700 Rondebosch
South Africa


Mats Bjrk

Kuria Kairu & Patrick Gwada


Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research

- International Ocean Institute East Africa
PO Box 8165
254 Mombasa



University of Stockholm
Botaniska Institutionen
Lilla Freskativgen 5
10691 Stockholm

Fergus Molloy & Alan Critchley

University of Namibia
Department of Biology
PO Box 13301
Mandume Ndemufayo Ave.
Windhoek 9000

Derek Keats
University of the Western Cape
- International Ocean Institute - IOI Southern Africa
P.Bag X17
Modderdam Road
Bellville 7885
South Africa

Martin Cocks & Isabel Sousa Pinto

University of Porto
Centro Interdisciplinar de Investigao
Marinha e Ambiental
Rue do Campo Alegro, 833
4150-180 Porto




Improving the Utilisation and Quality
of Low-Value Fish by Processing

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

1/01/2002 to 30/06/2005 (42 months)
Shared Cost Action

Context and Objectives

The main objective of the study was

to improve the utilisation of low-value
fish including waste products by producing, with staple foods, extruded and
dried products of high nutritional and
organoleptic quality, in the developing
countries. The research expected to:

Results and outcome

Prof. Nazlin Karmali Howell
University of Surrey
United Kingdom

Develop the under-utilised marine

resources in Africa and Asia with
due regard to fish stocks, longterm Government plans and the
Expand postharvest fish processing
technologies to produce nutritious,
safe and cheap products for local
use; for export to neighbouring
countries as well as abroad; and to
aid food security;

This research project enabled the developing countries partners to undertake

their own, often fundamental, research
in collaboration with European research
groups. In particular, the following activities were undertaken:

Provision and characterisation of

selected low-value fish species in
Africa and Asia;

Production of added-value products

from selected fish species;

Design and manufacture of a simple

low-cost extruder for developing



Extrusion and drying of low-value fish

combined with other local crops;

A detailed knowledge of the beneficial nutritional and organoleptic

properties of selected low-value
fish species was obtained; extremely low PCB and dioxin levels, below
the legal limits were found.

High quality fish protein isolate,

collagen, gelatin and fish oil were

A simple and cheap extruder was

designed for and built in each developing country.

High quality and nutritious extruded and dried food products

including infant foods, instant
foods and snacks were made from
the selected fish.

Biochemical changes (protein denaturation and lipid oxidation) in

dried and extruded fish food products were investigated leading to
improved quality control methods
and preservation systems, including natural antioxidant mixtures.

Develop strong and beneficial

long-term links between developing countries and Europe in terms
of research, education and training
and trade.


Monitoring quality and biochemical changes of extruded and dried

products during storage.

Many of the above studies were undertaken with generous collaboration with
industry including Unilever Research,
UK, Croda Foods, UK, a number of SMEs,
FAO and UNICEF. The research will have
an economic impact by reducing wastage and pollution and improving quality
control methods and training; new products and technology have started to
enhance food safety and security and
help combat malnutrition, heart disease
and diabetes and are expected to do so
well into the future. Example: C.S. Cheow
won a Silver Medal, 16th International
Invention Innovation Industrial Design
& Technology Exhibition 2005 (ITEX


May, 2005), Kuala Lumpur for the

invention of Fish-Based Breakfast
Cereal, Malaysian Ministry of Science,
Technology & Innovation and Malaysian
Invention and Design Society.
The coordinators team also received
the top rating (5 stars) in the competitive research evaluation carried out
every five years in the UK.

Selected Publications
Results have also been disseminated in
over 20 conferences.
Badii, F. & N.K. Howell, 2004. Elucidation
of protein aggregation in frozen cod and
haddock by transmission electron microscopy/
immunocytochemistry, light microscopy and
atomic force microscopy. J.Sci. Food Agric.,
Badii, F, & N.K. Howell, 2006. Fish gelatin:
structure, gelling properties and interaction
with egg albumen proteins. Food Hydrocolloids,
Badii, F., P. Odote, J. Kazungu, L. Abbey, R.
Kandando, B. Shamasundar, C.S. Cheow & N.K.
Howell, 2007. Composition and nutritional
analysis of under-utilised fish species in Africa
and Asia. J. Food Biochemistry. Accepted.
Cheow, C.S., Z.Y. Kyaw, N.K. Howell & M.H.
Dzulkifly, 2005. Relationship between
physicochemical properties of starches and
expansion of fish cracker (keropok). Journal of
Food Quality, 27(1):1-12.
Cheow, C.S., M.S. Norizah, Z.Y. Kyaw & N.K.
Howell, 2007. Preparation and characterisation
of gelatins from the skins of sin croaker (Johnius
dussumieri) and shortfin scad (Decapterus
macrosoma). Food Chemistry, 10:386-391.
Dileep, A.O., B.A. Shamasundar, P.K. Binsi, F.
Badii &. N.K. Howell, 2006. Influence of corn
and tapioca starch on the dynamic viscoelastic
behaviour of ribbonfish (Trichiurus spp) meat
stored. J. Food Science. 70(9):E537-E545.
Dileep, A.O., B.A. Shamasundar, P.K. Binsi, F.
Badii N.K. Howell, 2005. Effect of ice storage on
the physicochemical and dynamic viscoelastic
properties of ribbonfish (Trichiurus spp). J. Food
Science, 70:537-545.
Fennessy, S.T, G.K. Mwatha & W. Thiele, 2004.
Regional workshop on approaches to reducing
shrimp trawl bycatch in the Western Indian
ocean, Mombasa, Kenya 13-15 April 2003. Rome,
FAO Fisheries Report, 734.
Leelapongwattana, K., S. Benjakul, W.
Visessanguan & N.K. Howell, 2005.
Physicochemical and biochemical changes during
frozen storage of minced flesh of lizardfish
(Saurida micropectoralis). Food Chemistry,

Ngarize, S., H. Herman, A. Adams & N.K. Howell,

2004. Comparison of changes in the secondary
structure of unheated, heated and high-pressure
treated -lactoglobulin and ovalbumin proteins
using Fourier Transform Raman spectroscopy
and self deconvolution. J.Agric. Food Chem.,
Ngarize, S., A. Adams & N.K. Howell, 2004.
Studies on egg albumen and whey protein
interactions by FT-Raman spectroscopy and
rheology. Food Hydrocolloids, 18:49-59.
Ngarize, S., A. Adams & N.K. Howell, 2005. A
comparative study of heat and high pressure
induced gels of whey and egg albumen proteins
and their binary mixtures. Food Hydrocolloids,
Oduor, P.M., 2004. Improved utilization of low
value fish in Kenya: Biochemical and microbial
characterisation. In S.T. Fennessy, G.K. Mwatha
& W. Thade (eds.). Regional workshop on
approaches to reducing shrimp trawl by-catch
in Western Indian Ocean. Mombasa, Kenya. FAO
Fish.Rep., 734.
Odote, P. & J. Kazungu, 2007. Preparation of a
Snack Food from Some Low Value Fish in Kenyan
Marine Waters and their Body Composition.
Western Indian Journal of Marine Science,
Saeed, S. & N.K. Howell, 2004. Rheological
and differential scanning calorimetry studies
on structural and textural changes in frozen
Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus). J.Sci. Food
Agric., 84:1216-1222.
Sarkardei, S. & N.K. Howell, 2007. Effects of
Freeze-drying and storage on the FT-Raman
spectra of Atlantic Mackerel (Scomber scombrus)
and Horse Mackerel (Trachurus trachurus). Food
Chemistry, 103:62-70.
Sarkardei, S. and N.K. Howell, 2008. Effects of
natural antioxidants on stored freeze-dried
food product formulated using Horse Mackerel
(Trachurus trachurus). International Journal of
Food Science & Technology, 43(2):309315.


Dick Stegeman

Agrotechnical Research Institute

ATO BV Business Unite and Food
Bornesteeg 59, Postbus 17
6700 AA Wageningen
The Netherlands

Irineau Batista

Instituto de Investigao das Pescas e

do Mar (IPIMAR)
Av. Brasilia
1400 Lisboa

Dr. Lawrence Abbey

Institute of Food Research

PO Box M20

Nangula Uusiku

University of Namibia
Department of Food Science and
Private Bag 13301
Mandume Ndemufayo

Peter Odote

Kenya Marine Fisheries Research

Institute (KMFRI)
Headquarters, PO Box 81651

Prof. Nazlin Karmali
The University of Surrey
School of Biomedical and Molecular
Surrey GU2 7XH
United Kingdom Howell
Tel: +44 1483 68 64 48
Fax: +44 1483 68 64 01


Prof. B.A. Shamasundar

Karnataka Veterinary, Animal &

Fisheries Sciences Univ.
College of Fisheries, Hoige Bazaar
Bangalore 575 002

Dr. Cheow Chong Seng

Universiti Teknologie Mara

Faculty of Applied Sciences
40450 Shah Alam



Knowledge in fisheries management

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/01/2002 to 17/05/2005 (41 months)
Shared - Cost Action

Mr. Poul Degnbol
Institute for Fisheries Management

Context and Objectives


This project addressed the need to

develop new types of research based
knowledge that are appropriate to the
complexity of tropical aquatic ecosystems and the way management
institutions in developing countries
actually work. One very critical need
is the development of less complex
indicators of ecosystem health and
exploitation status that are both scientifically valid and widely acceptable by
fisheries stakeholders. The objective of
the project was to improve our understanding of the information needs and
appropriate institutional structures
for fisheries management by bringing
together natural and social scientists
from Europe, Southern Africa and South
East Asia to develop indicators such as
these for seven case studies. The projects research objectives were to

The project was based on case studies

of knowledge and management in fisheries. The cases selected for study are:

1. Analyse candidates for indicators of

resource system health and exploitation that are robust, less costly
than traditional stock assessment
parameters, and compatible with
the management institutions in developing countries;
2. Analyse how these candidate indicators relate to existing institutions
and social contexts that influence
the quality, content and use of scientific information, including both
research-based information and information generated in cooperation
with stakeholder groups; and
3. Evaluate the ability and willingness
of co-management institutions to
use multiple sources of knowledge
in management decision-making,
and what difference this use of multiple sources of knowledge makes
in the actual management of fishing



1. lake fisheries in Malawi;

2. freshwater fisheries in Zambia;
3. the shrimp fishery at the Sofala
Bank, Mozambique;
4. the pelagic fishery in South Africa;
5. the fisheries in the Mekong River
system, Kampassak Province, Laos;
6. the coastal fisheries off the Mekong
Delta, Dam Doi district, Vietnam;
7. the coastal fisheries in Khanh Hoa
Province, Vietnam.
In each case, indicators of resource
sustainability were evaluated by a multidisciplinary team through the lens
of how both research based and local
knowledge of the ecosystem can be
integrated to establish sustainability
indicators which are considered valid
by all stakeholders. Local ecological
knowledge was identified by interviewing stakeholders using various means
such as drawing maps and timelines.
Statements about the ecosystem and
their resources were then evaluated to
identify the knowledge that has validity
from both a research and user perspective. The project drew on expertise and
methodologies within fisheries biology,
aquatic ecology, anthropology, economics and sociology.


Results and outcome

The case studies have highlighted the
urgency but also the difficulties involved
in identifying a common knowledge
ground that might be utilized to guide
policy and management decisions. One
main conclusion is that ecological sustainability has better chances of being
achieved if allocation issues are being
addressed as an integral part of the
process. User perceptions focus on local allocation issues at least as much
as on longer-term sustainability issues.
Consequently, to be legitimate to users,
management institutions must address
allocation and sustainability in an integrated way and indicators should inform
decisions on both aspects. The challenge
to select meaningful indicators to guide
management decision thus involves
the identification of a common ground
between users knowledge and researchbased knowledge, which relates to
shared objectives and actions and which
addresses both allocation and longerterm sustainability sustainablity. This
requires a multidisciplinary approach
to both research and implementation to
support management institutions.
The types of candidate indicators that
emerged differed widely among the
seven cases. They were generally case
specific. Sometimes, environmental
drivers were emphasised, especially in
relation to fresh-water systems. Also
the types of conflicts involved differed.
While in most cases conflicts had arisen
among different fisher groups, sometimes other users were involved (such
as between fishers and dam builders
regarding the use of riverine resources on the Mekong River in Laos). The
extent of local ecological knowledge
differed markedly. In some cases, being a fisherman is only a temporary
occupation and the high turnover has
implications for the accumulation of
local knowledge and results in a limited historical perspective.

A recurrent observation has been that

local ecological knowledge is linked
directly to the problems users are facing. Long-term sustainability may be an
issue, but allocation issues, conflicts
among user groups and environmental
degradation are positioned prominently in the knowledge landscape. This
observation highlights another issue
regarding the selection of indicators
to serve management decisions: they
must relate to local agendas if they are
to be useful for the stakeholders. From
a user perspective, the most important
knowledge relates to means to address
allocation, if the major concern, as is
often the case, is allocation of access
among users.
The general experience across cases
has been that local knowledge does not
relate to research-based knowledge in a
simple way. Rather, observations made
elsewhere that a major difference relates
to scale were confirmed: local knowledge relates to much smaller space and
time scales than the type of researchbased knowledge usually generates for
fisheries management. Consequently,
user statements may not be verifiable
from a research perspective because of
lack of data (or lack of understanding
of the processes operating) on a comparable level of resolution.
Also, local knowledge is not expressed
in terms that relate directly to indicators in the research-based sense. The
case studies have produced a plethora
of examples of specific statements
about local phenomena that cannot be
related to overall resource conditions
or ecosystem health. One important
reason is that statements about nature
relate to processes and phenomena
that are important in the context of
daily fishing operations. They may reflect local abundance of commercially
attractive resources but may not relate to overall productivity or overall
changes in species and/or size composition. Another reason is that changes


in fishing practices confound the temporal perspective of ecosystem change

(e.g., changes in gear composition and
in mesh size used have been the norm
in some lakes). A third reason is that
local knowledge often does not have
a sufficiently long time perspective to
avoid the shifting baseline syndrome.
For instance, scientific data demonstrate that the larger cichlids in Lake
Mweru have been depleted twenty years
ago, but fishers consider the present
situation as normal.
The project activities and the project
outcomes has resulted in new cooperative management institutions being
established in some cases where such
institutions did not exist or in changes
in existing management institutions. In
Laos new comanagement institutions
integrating local fishing communities
and local government have been established as an extension of project
activities, in Vietnam the project has
inspired an extension of the scope for
fisheries management, in Malawi and
Zambia the results of the project have
informed local comanagement institutions and in South Africa the project
has been seen as an important element
in the development of an ecosystem
approach to fisheries management in
the country. The project has furthermore contributed to increased capacity
to provide relevant research input to
aquatic resource management in national research institutions.




Selected Publications
The overall outcomes including case
studies will be published in a consolidated volume:
Christensen, S. & D.V. Thi, 2004: Biological
evaluation of local ecological knowledge
regarding ecosystem health and exploitation
status in the shrimp fishery in South Vietnam.
Presented at the 7th Asian Fisheries Forum,
November 30 December 4, Penang, Malaysia.
Degnbol, P. & A. Jarre, 2004. Review of indicators
in fisheries management a development
perspective. African Journal of Marine Science,
Degnbol, P., 2005. Indicators as a means of
communicating knowledge. ICES Journal of
Marine Science 62:606-611.
Donda, S. & F. Njaya 2004. Organisational and
Institutional Change in the management of Lake
Malombe Fisheries. Paper presented at the IASCP
conference, Mexico 2004.
Nielsen, J.R. & M. Hara, 2006. Transformation of
South African industrial fisheries. Marine Policy,
Wilson, D.C., J.Raakjaer & P. Degnbol, 2006. Local
ecological knowledge and practical fisheries
management in the tropics: A policy brief.
Marine Policy, 30(6):794-801.



Poul Degnbol1

Mafaniso Hara

Institute for Fisheries Management

IFM, Nordscentret
P.O. Box 104
DK-9850 Hirtshals
Tel: +45 9894 28 55
Fax: +45 9894 42 68

Programme for Land and Agrarian

School of Government
University of the Western Cape
P/Bag X17
Modderdam Road, Bellville
ZA-7535 Bellville, Cape Town
South Africa


E-M: Mhara@Uwc.Ac.Za

Isaac Malasha
Centre for Applied Social Sciences
University of Zimbabwe
PO Box MP 167
5 Aberdeen Road, Avondale
Mount Pleasant, Harare

Steve Donda
Department of Fisheries
PO Box 593
Capital Hill Circle

Cyprian Kapasa
Department of Fisheries
PO Box 350100
Mundawanga Road

Simeao Lopes
Instituto de Desenvolvimento de Pesca
de Pequena Escala
PO Box 2473
Av. Marginal, Parcela 141/8




Paul van Zwieten

Dan van Thi

Johann Augustyn

Fish Culture and Fisheries Group

Wageningen University
P.O. Box 338
NL-6700 AH Wageningen
The Netherlands

Research Institute for Marine Fisheries

170 Le Lai Street

Marine and Coastal Management

Private Bag X2
Rogge Bay 8012
South Africa




Ha Xuon Thong
Jeppe Kolding
Dept. Fisheries and Marine Biology
University of Bergen
High Technology Center
N-5020 Bergen

Institute for Fisheries Economics and

under Ministry of Fisheries
10-12 Nguyen Cong Hoan Street



Eyolf Jul-Larsen

Truong Quoc Phu

Chr.Michelsen Institute
P.O. Box 6033 P.T.
N-5089 Bergen

Institute for Marine Aquaculture

College of Agriculture, Cantho
3/2 Street


Niels Jepsen
Danish Institute for Fisheries Research
Vejlsvej 39
DK-8600 Silkeborg

Don Macintosh
CENTER - Aarhus University
Dept. Genetics & Ecology
Building 540
DK-8000 Aarhus C

Berit Aasen
Norwegian Institute for Urban and
Regional Research
P.O. Box 44, Blindern
N-0313 Oslo

E-M: Tqphu@Ctu.Edu.Vn

Do Thi Minh Duc

Faculty of Geography
Hanoi National Pedagogic University
Xuan Thuy Str., Quan Hoa District
10620 Hanoi

Sommano Phounsavath
LARReC - Living Aquatic Resources
Research Center
PO Box 9108
Ban Khounta

Russo de Sa
Instituto Nacional de Investigao
(Fisheries Research Institute)
PO Box 4603 - A. Mao Tse Tung, 387
Address at the time of printing: European Commission, DG
for Fisheries and Maritime Affairs, Joseph II, 1049 Brussels,
Belgium; E-M:




Fisheries Governance and Food Security:
North and South in Concert

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/08/2001 to 31/12/2004 (41 months)
Thematic Network

Dr. Maarten Bavinck
Stichting Interuniversitair
Instituut voor Sociaal-Wetenschappelijk
Onderzoek (SIWO)
The Netherlands

Context and Objectives

Specific objectives were

Capture fisheries are in crisis.

Documents and figures on the state
of global fisheries that have appeared
since the 1990s point out a strongly
negative trend, with three related components. The first is the decline or
collapse of fish stocks, the world over.
The degradation of aquatic ecosystems
is reflected in the levelling off of the
total world catch in the 1990s, and in
the declining catches of individual fishers. The second component of crisis is
fishing over-capacity. There are simply
too many vessels and too many people
fishing with ever more powerful and
sophisticated methods exploiting ever
more southernmost and deeper parts of
the ocean which used to be inaccessible
still few decades back. Their aggregate
activity is the main cause of the collapse of fish stocks and entire aquatic
ecosystems. The third aspect of crisis
relates to management. Despite signals
that things were going terribly wrong,
fisheries managers have been unable
to reverse the trend. Thus, the foundations of fisheries management theory
and practice became questioned.

To identify the requirements, principles and models that provide

opportunities for addressing problems that arise at the interfaces of
human systems and ecosystems.
Concrete policy applications were
to be worked out in the course
of the project and laid down in a

To elaborate a methodology of
knowledge production, which uses
interactive learning processes to
cross disciplinary boundaries. The
realisation of an intersectoral conceptual framework and a number
of joint publications on the topic of
fisheries governance were to form a
measure of its success.

The aim of the fisheries governance

network (FISHGOVFOOD) was to develop and to share a new, interactive
perspective on the governance of fisheries and aquaculture. The reason for
the initiative was that the participants
believed that the crisis that is affecting
the sector cannot be resolved by conventional methods. There is a need for
creative thinking, which means crossing
boundaries between disciplinary understandings and routine approaches. This
implies a shift from a problem-solving
approach to one that emphasises opportunity-creation and the effective
handling of tensions.



To create a forum, which would provide scholarly input to persons and

institutions involved in fisheries
governance in the South and in EUcountries. It was to be measured in
the attendance of seminars and in the
dissemination of the end-products.
To combine expertise and resources from European scientific and
practitioners communities with
those in the South and thereby to
support Community development
co-operation policy. It was to be
measured in the extent to which
the network gives rise to applications, which form useful inputs
for development.



Results and outcome

Selected Publications

The project had three phases. In the

first phase a conceptual framework for
the governance of fisheries and food
security was elaborated and a first exchange of thoughts took place. The
projects core members formulated a
seminar paper, which was circulated
amongst the members via a newly created information network. During the
first seminar organised the invited
members discussed and revised the
framework, and split up into 5 working
groups, each of which took up one of
the selected issues and was responsible
for writing a section of the 2 intended
publications. The 5 issues were: (a)
principles of fisheries governance; (b)
food security and the fish chain; (c)
technological innovation and control;
(d) institutional tradition and renewal;
and (e) multiple-use conflicts with regard to marine resources. In the second
phase the working groups drafted texts
and discussed them with others via the
information network. The texts for the
two publications were completed in
the course of second year. In the third
phase the draft versions of the two
publications were peer reviewed for
final evaluation at a second seminar
that took place to which by all members were present. A core group acted
as editorial board and supervised the
publication of both manuscripts.

The network succeeded in developing a coherent, innovative approach,

termed interactive governance. This
approach differs from conventional
approaches in its emphasis of the diversity, complexity and dynamics of the
system-to-be-governed as well as of the
governing system. It varies also in the
inclusion of principles and ethics in the
governance effort.

Bavinck, M., R. Chuenpagdee, M. Diallo, P. van

der Heijden, J. Kooiman, R. Mahon & S. Willams,
2005. Interactive fisheries governance: a guide
to better practice. Amsterdam, Amsterdam
University Press.
Kooiman, J., M. Bavinck, S. Jentoft & R. Pullin
(eds), 2005. Fish for Life: interactive governance
for fisheries. Amsterdam: Amsterdam
University Press.

The results of the network were incorporated in an academic publication,

intended for a scholarly public and in
a policy workbook for decision makers.
The network also prepared a brochure
describing the interactive governance
approach. They were launched officially at the recent 2005 MARE Conference
on People and the Sea.
It is still too early to assess the longterm impact of the network. Reactions
to network products among policy
making agencies, such as FAO, are,
however, favourable. The fact that the
Technical Centre for Agricultural and
Rural Cooperation (CTA) has decided to
fund the translation of the policy workbook into French and Spanish and also
to participate in its distribution is an
indication of relevance.







Maarten Bavinck

Stella Williams

Stichting Interuniversitair Instituut

voor Sociaal-Wetenschappelijk
Plantage Muidergracht 4
1018 TV Amsterdam
The Netherlands
Tel: +31 205 27 06 61
Fax: +31 206 22 94 30

Agricultural Economics
Obafemi Awolowo University (OAU)
PO Box 1028
Ile Ife


Centre for the Economics &

Management of Aquatic Resources
University of Portsmouth
Locksway Road, Southsea
PO4 8JF Portsmouth
United Kingdom


Andy Thorpe


Serge Collet
Consorzio Mediterraneo (Societ Coop.
a Resp. Limitata)
Via Nazionale 243
00184 Roma

Juan L. Surez de Vivero

Departamento de Geografa Humana
Facultad de Geografa e Historia,
Universidad de Sevilla
c/ Maria de Padilla s/n
41004 Sevilla

Svein Jentoft
Department of Planning and
Community Studies
Faculty of Social Science, University of
9037 Tromsoe

Michel Kublcki
Institut de Recherche pour le




98848 Noumea
New Caledonea

Gisli Palsson
Institute of Anthropology
University of Iceland
107 Reykjavik

C. Sharma
International collective in support of
College Road 27
600006 Madras

Joeli Veitayaki
Marine Studies Programme
University of the South Pacific
Lancala Bay Road

Maria Luisa. Acosta

Centro de Asistencia Legal a Pueblos
De la Iglesia de San Antonio
120 Vrs. al Sur

Alan Debrot
Caribbean Research and Management
of Biodiversity Foundation
PO Box 2090
Piscaderabaai z/n
Willemstad Curaao
The Netherlands Antilles


Roger Pullin
Manx Wildlife Trust
Tynwald Mills, St. Johns
Isle of Man IM4 3AE
United Kingdom

Jacques van Zyl

Marine & Coastal Management
PLBag X2 Roggebaai
ZA-8012 Cape Town
South Africa



Ratana Chuenpadgee

J. Worms

Coastal Development Centre

Fac. of Fisheries, Kasetsart University
50 Phaholyothin Road
10900 Chatuchak, Bangkok

Parc National du Banc dArguin

Av. Gamal Abdel Nasser
B.P. 5355



Jan Hoorweg

Anabelle Trinidad

African Studies Center

Heusdenhoutsestraat 22-1
4817 WC Breda
The Netherlands

Pacific Rim Innovation and

Management Exponents
5th floor, CIFC Towers


Katia Frangoudes
Universit de Bretagne Occidental CEDEM
12, Rue Kergoat
BP 816
29200 Brest

Robin Mahon
Fisheries and Environmental
Sunset Crest 48

Jos Pascual
Universidad La Laguna
Fac de Geografia
38205 La Laguna Tenerife



Peter van der Heijden

International Agricultural Centre
Postbus 88
6700 AB Wageningen
The Netherlands

J. Nageon de Lestang
Seychelles Fishing Authority
PO Box 449
2284 SFA SZ Victoria

Poul Degnbol1
Institute for Fisheries Management
North Sea Centre, PO Box 104
9850 Hirtshals

Laura. Piriz
Box 423
401 26 Gteborg

Taib Diouf
Institut Sngalais de Recherches
Agricoles ISRA
Bel Air BP 3120
Route de sHydrocarbures


Address at the time of printing: European Commission, DG

for Fisheries and Maritime Affairs, Joseph II, 1049 Brussels,
Belgium; E-M:



Coherence of Conservation and Development
Policies of Coastal and Marine Protected
Areas (West Africa)

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/01/2002 to 30/06/2005 (42 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Jean-Yves Weigel


Context and Objectives

The recommendations of the 2002
Development (WSSD) and those of the
2003 World Parks Congress reaffirm the
role of marine protected areas (MPAs)
in the conservation of biodiversity and
in the sustainable utilisation of ecosystems. The detailed wording of these
recommendations, in underlining the
essential association of all stakeholders, highlights the necessary coherence
of conservation and development policies, in particular regarding the marine
protected areas managed mainly for the
sustainable use of natural ecosystems
(category VI of IUCN). The challenge of
the 2002 WSSD key outcome, the establishing of representative networks
of MPAs by 2012, is likely to be even
surpassed by the challenge to manage
them effectively over time. Today, the
challenge of management, and more
generally of inclusive governance systems, is more than ever crucial.
The design and the implementation
of an adequate governance system are
especially difficult in less-advanced
countries within context of the complexity of social and institutional
organisations and of high annual human population growth rates. From
this point of view, the West African
coastal and marine protected areas appeared as a particularly representative
case study. They are important in terms
of surface area and population - they
cover 2,700,000 hectares (land and sea)
in fourteen parks and two biosphere
reserve with a population of 170,000 inhabitants. The project studied the most
important ones, in terms of surface
area: the Parc National du Banc dArguin
(PNBA) in Mauritania, the Rserve de
Biosphre du Delta du Saloum (RBDS)
in Senegal, and the Reserva da Biosfera
do Archipelago Bolama-Bijagos (RBABB)
in Guinea-Bissau.



The main aim of the project was the

evaluation of governance systems of
coastal and marine protected areas in
West Africa, and the definition of public policy options to strengthen the
coherence of conservation and development policies. Initially this objective
required the characterisation of governance systems which required not only
to clarify the constraints (demographic,
socio-economic, institutional, legal), but
also to work out a framework of analysis. Moreover, this objective implied to
reveal the weaknesses of governance
systems and a preliminary stage of
proposing options of public policy to
mitigate these weaknesses.
The specific objectives were the assessment of the role of West African coastal
and marine protected areas as vectors
for conservation and socio-economic
development, the study of demographic
and economic aspects, the review of renewable natural resources exploitation
and valorisation, the examination of
regulatory systems of access to renewable natural resources, the appraisal of
public policies, the analysis of governance systems, the definition of public
policy options and the conditions of
their applicability inside and outside
coastal and marine protected areas.

The project proceeded in four phases.
Throughout the project, the choice of
a collegial modus operandi to reinforce the partnership was privileged,
in particular when it was a question of
conceiving and implementing the methodology which was discussed at the first
two meetings. In the same way working
and synthesis papers were revised and
approved in the four last meetings.
In a first phase, the research effort
was focused on the bibliographical
analysis, on the history of populating
and of coastal and marine protected


areas design process, on indigenous

knowledge and the state of renewable
natural resources. At the meeting of
Nouakchott, Mauritania, in October
2002, the multiple roles of the West
African coastal and marine protected
areas were pointed out, as well as the
general lack of systematic studies necessary for the analysis of coastal and
marine protected areas governance systems in less-advanced countries. Three
synthesis papers and eleven working
papers were written.
The second phase was devoted to the
field investigations which took the
shape of a trans-disciplinary samplebased survey, village monographs,
surveys on legislative and regulatory
framework and on the applicability of
standards. Five methodological working
papers were discussed at the meeting
of Missirah, Senegal, in May 2003.
The third phase was dedicated to processing and analysing the material
collected during field surveys. The privileged topics were:
1. the population and migratory pressure as well as the characterisation
of coastal and marine protected areas economies,
2. he dynamics of exploitation and
valorisation of resources,
3. the decision-making processes, the
modes of regulation of access to
resources as well as the territorial
4. the administrative and regulatory
processes as well as the institutional
arrangements and legal classification.
Most of the results were presented
at the meeting of Banyuls, France,
in March 2004. All of results are recorded in three synthesis papers and
21 working papers.

During the fourth phase, an analysis framework for the governance of

coastal and marine protected areas in
less-advanced countries was designed
taking into account the results from the
third phase. This framework of analysis, which was discussed at the meeting
of Dakar, Senegal, in July 2004, made it
possible to characterise the governance
systems of the studied protected areas,
to reveal the weaknesses of these governance systems, and then to propose
public policy options which were discussed at the meeting of Bissau, Guinea
Bissau, in December 2004. As a result,
five synthesis and working papers
which were written on these topics.

Results and outcome

The project succeeded in analysing the
constraints affecting the governance
of coastal and marine protected areas
in West Africa and more generally of
those of the less-advanced countries.
The main findings relate to:
1. the attractivity of these protected areas which translate into an
extraordinary increase of their
populations and a strong mobility which takes various forms: an
offshore immigration that can be
assimilated to a strategy of circumventing regulations, the migration
of residents as a claim of territory
or indigenousness, the seasonal immigration of non-residents;
2. the deregulation and the exportoriented economies of coastal
and marine protected areas which
results in a lack of public management, an uncontrolled exploitation
of natural resources, an economic
vulnerability and a paradoxical
reinforcement of the traditional socio-economic organisations (except
in the RBDS);


3. the deficiency of regulatory systems

of the access which refers to the
lack of legitimisation of traditional
or participative decision-making
processes, and to the lack of coherence and consolidation of the
juridical references;
4. the great complexity of the administrative processes which leads to a
syncretic legal system characterised
by the coexistence of a control of the
States (at the administrative level)
over these areas and the multiplicity
of traditional legal orders that partly
govern access to the resources.
After having included the results relating to the constraints to governance,
the project succeeded in characterising
the different governance systems. The
comparative approach made it possible to put forward a broad range of
weaknesses: the excessive role played
by international organisations, the
confinement of fisheries management
measures to sectorial and technical
aspects despite the political nature
inherent in resource allocation (and access), the incomplete decentralisation,
the fragmentation of the states and the
civil societies of these protected areas.
To mitigate these weaknesses, four
general public policy options have been
retained and defined for each protected
area: the integration of the management
plans of the protected areas into the
national and regional public policies;
the rehabilitation of the public administration and institutional reinforcement;
the recognition and protection of territorial use rights; the development of
ecotourism community-based, planned
and co-directed, integrated into the
tourism development policies.
The results of the project allowed the
publication of six peer reviewed articles, one book and many conference
papers. Two PhDs resulted from the
project as well as contributions to debates in the international arena, such



as the co-writing of guidelines for MPAs
as a tool for fisheries management
(FAO, June 2006) and a contribution
to a workshop on policy coherence
for development in fisheries (OECD,
April 2006). At the regional level, the
diffusion of 50 synthesis and working
documents to 33 correspondents contributed to a direct use of the projects
results, for example to conceive the
plans of management of the coasts in
Guinea-Bissau and Mauritania, to set up
the fishery local councils in Senegal or
to define the objectives of the BissauGuinean Instituto da Biodiversidade e
das Areas Protegidas.

Villanueva, M.C., L. Tito de Morais, J.-Y. Weigel

& J. Moreau, 2004. An Ecopath model of the
Sine-Saloum Delta Biosphere Reserve (Senegal)
/ Modle Ecopath pour une reserve de la
biosphere: le delta du Sin-Saloum (Sngal). pp.
405-414 In Chavance, P. et al. (eds.). Pcheries
maritimes, cosystmes et socits en Afrique de
lOuest: un demi-sicle de changement. Actes du
symposium international, Dakar - Sngal, 24-28
juin 2002. Luxembourg, Office des publications
officielles des Communauts europennes et
Paris, IRD, xxxii-532 p. - Srie de rapports de
recherche halieutique ACP-UE, (15).
Weigel, J.-Y., F. Fral & B. Cazalet (eds.), 2007.
Les aires marines protges ouest-africaines.
Gouvernance et politiques publiques.
LHarmattan, 207 p.

Dr. Pierre Failler
University of Portsmouth CEMARE
Boat House No 6, College Road
H.M. Naval Base
Portsmouth PO1 3LJ
United Kingdom

Prof. Franois Fral

Universit de Perpigna
52 avenue de Villeneuve
66860 Perpigna

Selected Publications
and Papers

M. Alfredo Simao Da Silva Union

Mondiale pour la Nature (UICN)
Sao Tome 12
BP. 23
1031 Bissau
Guinea Bissau

Cazelet, B., 2005. Les aires marines protges

lpreuve du sous-dveloppement en Afrique de
lOuest. Universit du Qubec, VertigO, 5(3).
Cazalet, B., 2006. MPA Management Policies
in West Africa: Recommended Guidelines for
Balancing Conservation and Development.
University of Washington, MPA News. Vol 7(9).



Dr.A. Mohamed Saleck

Dahou, T., J.-Y. Weigel, J.F. Nol, A.M. Ould

Saleck, A.S. Da Silva & M. Mbaye, 2004. La
gouvernance des aires marines protges: leons
ouest-africaines. Universit du Qubec, VertigO,
Vol 5(3).
Dahou, T. & J.-Y. Weigel, 2005. La gouvernance
environmentale au miroir des politiques
publiques: le cas des aires marines protges
ouest-africaines. Afrique Contemporaine,
Failler, P., 2004. Internationale Ubereinkommen.
Von Rio nach Johannesburg um aquatische
Ressourcen zu schtzen und sie nachhaltig
zu ntzen? Entwicklung und lndlicher Raum.
Schwerpunkt: Aquatishe Ressourcen, 38.
Jahrgang, Heft 2004/6.
Failler, P. & O. S. MBareck, 2004. Effets de la
libralisation du commerce et des mesures
lies au commerce dans le secteur de la pche
en Rpublique Islamique de Mauritanie. UNEP
Workshop on Fisheries Subsidies and Sustainable
Fisheries Management. Maison Internationale
dEnvironnement II (International Environment
House II), Geneva, 26-27 April 2004.
Failler, P. & M. Deme, 2004. The potential social
and cultural impacts of the development of
shrimp farming in West Africa (Senegal, Gambia,
Guinea Bissau, Sierra Leone). World Bank/Club
du Sahel Workshop, Paris, 11-12 November 2004.
Failler, P., B. Bjibril, H. Viera & V.P.Correia, 2005.
Accords de pche et libralisation du commerce
international: le cas de la Guine Bissau. Revue
Congolaise des transports maritimes et des
affaires maritimes, 2(3):77-108.



Parc National du Banc dArguin (PNBA)

Avenue Gamal Abdel Nasser
BP. 5355



Dr. Jean-Yves Weigel1

Institut de Recherche pour le
Dveloppement (IRD)
Unit Mixte de recherche C3ED (IRD/
Universit de Versailles Saint Quentinen-Yvelines
47 boulevard Vauba
78280 Guyancourt cedex
Tel: +33 1 39 25 53 75
Fax: +33 1 39 25 53 00

M. Moustapha Mbaye
Direction des Parcs Nationaux du
Sngal (DPN)
Fort de Hann
BP. 5135


Posted overseas at the time of going to press


Development of a diagnostic tool for the
detection of fish-borne trematodes

Context and Objectives

The objective of TREMKIT was to develop nucleic acid- and antibody-based
diagnostic tools for the detection of
three species of fish-borne trematodes,
Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov), Opisthorchis
felineus (Of) and Clonorchis sinensis
(Cs), which together infect over 35 million people in Asia. These diagnostic
tools were to be more sensitive than
the existing microscopy methods and
also more specific in not cross-reacting
to other helminths common in endemic
areas. Ov is classed as a Class I carcinogen and is responsible for high levels of
cholangiocarcinoma where it occurs in
SE Asia. Cs also poses health hazards
and although only a Class II carcinogen,
is still implicated in elevated levels of
cholangiocarcinoma. The burden of infection, whether Ov, Of or Cs, currently
results in loss of wage-earning ability,
loss of economic activity and high social and financial costs for families in
caring for the worst affected. This impacts most severely on the rural poor.
Faster, more reliable and more accurate tests for infection in humans will
be particularly important for achieving control in areas subject to control
measures. In addition, development
of diagnostic tools that enable a more
precise understanding of the parasite
life cycle is an essential step towards
understanding the epidemiology of
these trematodes and thus identifying potential control points. Current
microscopy-based methods for the detection of fish-borne trematodes are
time-consuming and require considerable skill on behalf of the operator to be
able to isolate and identify the parasite
species. Diagnosis of human infections
is accomplished by detection of eggs in
faeces of patients. Humans become infected through consumption of raw or
undercooked fish, which harbour the
metacercarial stage of trematode parasites. For determining the food safety
of fish, fish tissue has to be digested

and metacercaria separated from it by

sedimentation and then detected by
microscopic examination. However, in
endemic areas, Cs, Ov and Of occur in
fish along with metacercaria of other
innocuous parasites and it is not easy
to differentiate these metacercaria.
Low-level infections in humans often
go undetected, increasing the risk of
re-infection in the area. One objective
of this project was to develop rapid
and easy-to-use antibody-based tests
to enable detection of infection. A further objective was the development of
nucleic acid (PCR)-based test methods
as it was envisaged that these would
have greater potential for detection of
low levels of infection, as well as differentiation of trematode species, which is
essential for epidemiological studies.

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/05/2002 to 31/07/2006 (51 months)
Shared Cost Action

Dr Susan Seal
NRI, University of Greenwich at Medway
United Kingdom

Prior to the project, no PCR primers
existed for Of or Cs, but a few gene sequences for Cs and other trematodes
were available from GenBank. A PCR
primer pair targeting a repeated DNA
sequence had been developed for Ov
and it was a priority for the project to
assess this primer pair for its suitability as a specific test.

As described above, the TREMKIT
Consortium adopted two approaches
to the development of diagnostic test
kits, namely to develop both nucleicacid based as well as antibody-based
diagnostics. As a result, the initial activities were:

Development of monoclonal antibodies for the detection of


Development of PCR primer sets for

the detection of trematodes




Once specific PCR primers and antibodies for the target trematodes had
been developed, the projects activities
concentrated on testing a range of selected PCR primers and antibodies for
their efficacy at detection of the key life
stages of the parasites in a variety of
source media. The PCR primers and antibodies that had the desired specificity
and sensitivity were selected and then
activities concentrated on optimising
protocols for the practical detection of
trematode DNA or antigens. Finally experiments were conducted to develop
freeze-dried reagent test kit for trematode DNA and antigens.
Finally to ensure good communication
between partners, biannual workshops
were held and a website was set up and
hosted by FAO to encourage information exchange and provide an area for
the posting of outputs from TREMKIT.

Results and outcome

Development of PCR tests for detection of trematode DNA
The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is
a diagnostic technique based on amplification of DNA that makes up the genetic
material of most organisms. The most
critical factor in this diagnostic technique controlling specificity is the pair
of primers that should only bind properly to the target DNA, and it is from
these two sites that DNA amplification
in vitro proceeds. Research on this objective started by testing a published set of
Ov-specific PCR primers for their specificity and sensitivity. Unfortunately, the
primer set was found to cross-react with
other trematodes likely to be found in the
same areas. Hence a new set of Ov primers was needed. A total of four primers
were tested and one combination was
selected, which detected specifically the
equivalent of 10-8 g of DNA in a sample
of fish. Although this is adequate for
detection of infected fish, a substantial



improvement was needed for the detection of infected humans through testing
of faecal samples. Detection down to 1015g was achieved by adapting the PCR
test to a nested-PCR format.
Two sets of primers were developed
for Cs, which could detect down to 109g- 10-15g depending on the primer
set and whether a nested PCR test was
included. Development of primers for
Of was initially hampered by a lack of
genetic material. However, during the
time course of the project, primers to a
COI gene sequence were published for
Of and UD evaluated these and found
them to be able to detect as little as 1011 g in a one-step PCR.
All primer sets selected were tested
extensively for cross-reaction to closely-related trematode species, common
helminths which may occur in the
same patient and for parasite host species (several snail and fish species). No
cross-reaction was found to any of the
host species, or related parasite species for the final selection of Ov, Of
and Cs primers.
A general ITS2-targeting PCR primer
set able to detect all Opisthorchiidae
known to be pathogenic to humans was
also developed. These primers, termed
OP1/OP2, showed no cross reactions
to other digenea or intermediate host
DNA, although a different size PCR
product was generated in Fasciola hepatica. This primer set was also capable
of detecting 10-15g of genomic DNA in
a one-step PCR reaction.
For all the best primer sets selected
work was then carried out to identify
the best methods for extracting DNA
from fish, snails and human faeces.
Testing DNA primers for the three
trematode species for detection of key
life stages of the parasites in a variety
of source media, and selection of protocols for practical detection

The distribution of trematode metacercariae in fish intermediate host is

not uniform but greatly varies among
samples of fish. The average number of
metacercaria per fish is approximately
1-2 cysts, but the size of the fish host
will vary greatly with some host species
being quite large (10-20 cm in length,
50-80 gram weight). Thus the first step
for detection of trematode infection in
fish hosts is to remove the fish muscle
by enzyme digestion to enable the metacercariae to be concentrated. Detection
of trematode infections in humans faces
similar detection problems; microscopic examination of faeces for trematode
eggs is the traditional parasitological
method, but as the egg is small in size,
infections are easily missed.
Existing methods for the extraction
and clean up of DNA extracted from
metacercariae in fish were found to be
adequate, requiring only simplification
of the process to enable more rapid
testing. However, faecal extraction and
clean-up protocols available at the start
of the project were found to be inadequate and not capable of providing
sufficient sensitivity for the detection
of trematode DNA in human faecal
samples. Development of extraction and
clean-up methods for DNA from human
faeces was found to be challenging, with
commercial clean-up kits such as the
QiAmp stool kit (manufacturer: Qiagen)
only enabling detection of infection at
about the same level as by standard
microscopy (i.e. about 10 Ov eggs per
gram). Several extraction and clean-up
methods for detection of Ov were tested
and an improved protocol developed.
The DNA extraction and clean-up methods selected/developed for fish, snails
and particularly faeces resulted in a
considerable improvement in the ability to detect both Ov and Cs, both of
which became detectable at much lower
levels (1015 g DNA and 0.5 egg/g faeces) than was previously possible by
microscopic examination.


The PCR tests were shown to be able to

detect patients infected with only one
worm. Results from several field trials
in Asia also showed that PCR detected
Ov infection in 76.6% of patients, who
did not have detectable eggs in stool
samples suggesting a much higher sensitivity compared to the conventional
microscopic examination.
Development of a freeze-dried reagent
test kit for trematode DNA with internal controls
For kits to be widely distributed stored
for extended periods in hot climates it
is necessary to lengthen the shelf-life
of PCR reagents which can be achieved
by shipping them in a dried state. The
project produced two different methods for drying down reagents; one
method was based on freeze-drying the
TREMKIT reagents, whereas the other
was similar, but with no need for a
cryo-freezing stage. These techniques
would be available for a potential PCR
kit manufacturer if they did not have
their own suitable technology. It was
not pursued further during this project as it became apparent during the
course of research that freeze-dried
reagents were not currently needed by
laboratories interested in carrying out
PCR detection of Ov and Cs. Therefore,
it was decided to concentrate research
effort on areas that had proved problematic, namely suitable extraction and
clean-up methods for faecal material as
described above.
Development of antibody-based test
kits for the detection of fish-borne
Production and testing of antibody
cell lines took place at two centres
(KKU and IPD). Extensive testing of cell
lines was carried out using excretorysecretory (ES) antigen obtained from
in-vitro culture of adult worms. At both
locations, hybridoma cell lines were
cultured in a variety of media to select

those cell lines with the highest growth

rates. Promising cell lines were then
tested for their reaction to the antigen.
On average, only about 20% of cell lines
showed promise and reacted to the ES
antigen. After testing over 100 clones, 4
Mab cell lines were selected for final development by KKU for Ov detection and
5 Mab cell lines were selected by IPD
for detection of Cs. All the selected Mab
clones were tested for cross-reaction
to other common parasites that co-exist with Cs and Ov. No cross-reactions
were observed.
Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay
(ELISA) detection systems for Cs and
Ov antigens were developed. A biotinavidin ELISA sandwich gave the best
results for detection of Cs antigen, with
the horseradish peroxidase ELISA being
much less sensitive and not suitable for
use in a practical test kit. The opposite
was found for the selected Ov MAbs
where the biotin-avidin system was
found to be at least 5-times less sensitive than the horseradish peroxidase
detection system.
Development of a freeze-dried reagent
kit for the detection of trematode
Development of a lateral flow device
(LFD) was evaluated for the Ov antibodies using the lateral flow kit format
developed by The Central Science
Laboratory (CSL, UK) for field detection of plant viruses. The principle of
the LFD is based upon a similar standard sandwich assay format as seen in
some pregnancy-testing kits. It relies
upon the capture of target antigen or
compound between an immobilised
line of target specific antibody on nitrocellulose membrane (Test line) and
a coloured latex-antibody conjugate to
display a visible confirmation of target
presence. A line of anti-species antibody is incorporated into the device to
provide visual verification of latex flow
(Control line), resulting in two lines as


an indication of positive detection and

a single line for a negative result.
More favourable results were obtained
for the monoclonal than polyclonal antisera, but a problem of false positive
detection in buffer alone was experienced. A range of modifications were
made to try to achieve a better sensitivity and specificity of detection. The
components were also assembled into
device format to get a true idea of their
performance. Nevertheless false positive reactions were still experienced
with buffer alone and altering antibody
concentrations on the test line and the
inclusion of buffer additives failed to
eliminate these false positives. A slight
distinction between a positive and negative sample was visible, but the faint
differences seen would not be adequate
for a diagnostic test. In the future,
evaluations using a more concentrated
supply of a couple of different MAbs
need to be performed, together with
testing of a wider range of conditions to
determine those required to adapt the
Ov antibodies into a test kit format.
Technology implementation plan
TREMKIT developed a number of new
technologies and the implementation
plants for these are described below:

Monoclonal antibodies (Mab) and

polyclonal antisera have been developed for Cs and Ov for the purpose
of copro-antigen detection for diagnosis of opisthorchiasis. Patents
have been applied for with regard
to the Mabs.

PCR primer sets have been developed for Ov and Cs and evaluated
for Of. Patents have been applied
for Cs primers. To visualize PCR
products an ELISA-based visualization technique has been developed
that can be performed in a microtitre plate, and hence is amenable
for automation. Capture probes



have been designed to the Ov and
Cs PCR products, which are bound
to microtitre plates. CR products
are generated that are labeled with
digoxigenin, and these PCR products
are captured onto the microtitre
plate by the probe. Compared to one
step PCR, the microtitre plate based
detection systems were found to be
50-100 times more sensitive.


To assist the development of PCR

kits, two different technologies
have been developed for construction of room temperature stable
reagents. No patents have been applied for but this technology would
be made available to any interested
manufacturer of the trematode PCR
test kits.
All primer sets are ready for adoption into PCR-based test kits, which
could be used in medical diagnostic
laboratories for detection of human
infections, or by fish inspection
laboratories to determine the safety of fish for human consumption.
The practical utilisation of such
PCR tests will require promotional
activity to inform the potential users regarding the benefits of highly
sensitive detection, e.g. infected
persons can be detected early enabling treatment to be started and
the risk of cholangiocarcinoma to
be reduced.

format. The methods developed by

TREMKIT would be suitable also for
many different parasites found in
faecal material.
TREMKIT was a successful project that
achieved all its main objectives. Specific
and sensitive PCR primer sets and
monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies were developed for the fish-borne
trematodes Opisthorchis viverrini (Ov)
and Clonorchis sinensis (Cs). A PCR
test that detects all human pathogenic
Opisthorchiidae was also developed
and a published method for PCR detection of O. felineus (Of) validated as
specific and sensitive. DNA and egg extraction and clean-up procedures were
developed for fish, snails and faecal
material. Patent applications have been
made where appropriate.

Selected Publications
Chen, X, Z. Feng & L.Z. Qiu, 2004. Advance in
research on diagnosis of Opisthorchis viverrini.
Parasitic Diseases Foreign Medical Sciences, 31:1-5.
Dong Y.T. & Feng Z., 2003. Advance in research
on immunodiagnosis and molecular biology of
Clonorchis, sinensis. Parasitic Diseases Foreign
Medical Sciences, 30:08-113.
Lu, J.Y., Xu X.N., 2006. Advance in research
of PCR detection for food-borne trematode.
Parasitic Diseases Foreign Medical Sciences,
Mller, B., J. Schmidt & H. Mehlhorn, 2007.
Sensitive and species-specific detection of
Clonorchis sinensis by PCR in infected snails and
fishes. Parasitology Research, 100(4):911-914.
Mller, B., J. Schmidt & H. Mehlhorn, 2007. PCR
diagnosis of infections with different species of
Opisthorchiidae using a rapid clean-up procedure
for stool samples and specific primers.
Parasitology Research, 100(4):905-909.
Parvathi, A., H. Sanath Kumar, B. Kenchanna
Prakasha, Jieyuan Lub, Xuenian Xub, Wei
Hub Zheng Feng, Indrani Karunasagar &
Iddya Karunasagar, 2006. Clonorchis sinensis:
Development and evaluation of a nested
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay.
Experimental Parasitology, 115(3):291-295.

PhD students:
TREMKIT has taken all diagnostic tools
to the stage where they are ready for
use by health authorities in endemic areas in SE Asia and China for diagnostic
and epidemiological studies. The detection of Ov and Cs has been greatly
enhanced by the work of TREMKIT and
this should improve detection and control measures.

Boris Mller (UD) and Ms Ammini Parvathi were

financed by this EC grant and expect to submit
their theses shortly.

GenBank submissions
Sequence data on Clonorchis sinensis (7
sequences, GenBank Accession number
AY586613- AY586618) and Opisthorchis viverrini
(8 sequences, GenBank Accession Number
AY786353- AY786359 and AY584735). These
are unique sequences with no homology to the
sequences presently available in the database.

To survey the transmission of the

parasite and inspect snail and fish
samples for Cs/Ov infection, DNA
extraction and cleanup methods were developed by TREMKIT.
Similarly in order to remove PCR inhibitors from human faecal sample
and extract the target DNA (in this
case liver fluke DNA from the parasite eggs), methods for faecal DNA
extraction and clean up were developed. The TREMKIT consortium
will explore commercial interest
in adapting these methods into kit






Dr Susan Seal

Prof Iddya Karunasagar

Natural Resources Institute

Central Avenue
Chatham Maritime
Kent ME4 4TB
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1634 88 36 02

University of Agricultural Science,

Mangalore College of Fisheries
Dept of Fishery Microbiology
Mangalore 575 002



Prof Paiboon
University of Khon Kaen
Faculty of Medicine
123 Mitraparb Road
4002 Khon Kaen

Prof Heinz Melhorn

Heinrich-Heine University
Dept of Zoomorphology, Cell Biology
and Parasitology
Universitaetstrasse 1
40225 Duesseldorf

Prof Feng Zheng

Chinese Academy of Preventative
Institute of Parasitic Diseases
207 Jin Er Road
200025 Shanghai




La recherche halieutique et le dveloppement
durable des ressources naturelles marines de
lAfrique de lOuest: Quels enjeux?

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5me Programme Cadre

Duration and Type of Project

01/08/2001 31/01/2002 (6 mois)
Mesure daccompagnement

Dr. Pierre Failler
United Kingdom

Contexte et Objectives
La pche en Afrique de lOuest a subi
des mutations considrables depuis ces
trente dernires annes. Lexploitation
et la valorisation des ressources
halieutiques sont devenues un enjeu de dveloppement national tant
conomique que social. Ainsi, la pche,
picentre des politiques de dveloppement en Afrique de lOuest, est de
moins en moins matre de son prsent
et encore moins de son avenir.
Lobjectif principal de cette mesure
daccompagnement (MA) tait de
sinterroger sur les enjeux prsents et
futurs de la recherche halieutique dans
un cadre du dveloppement durable
des ressources naturelles marines de
lAfrique de lOuest. Les objectifs spcifiques taient:
1. Renforcer le dialogue entre la recherche halieutique et les acteurs
concerns par le dveloppement
durable des ressources renouvelables marines en Afrique de lOuest

2. Organisation et tenue dun sminaire de travail relatif aux dfis

auxquels la recherche halieutique
doit faire face;
3. Rdaction des options viables pour
le dveloppement de nouvelles
formes de recherche halieutique en
Afrique de lOuest.

Le sminaire de travail intitul La

recherche halieutique et le dveloppement durable des ressources naturelles
marines de lAfrique de lOuest: Quels
enjeux?, sest tenu du 24 au 26 septembre 2001 Conakry, Guine. La
mesure daccompagnement a mobilis
plus de 30 des chercheurs et gestionnaires des pches europens, canadiens
et des pays ouest africains.
Le programme du sminaire a t structur autour de trois grands thmes:

2. Porter une rflexion de fond sur les

dfis de la recherche halieutique
face des changements contextuels
intensifis et les volonts publiques
de dveloppement durable des ressources naturelles.

Le fil conducteur du plan de travail fut
la rflexion autour des enjeux de la recherche halieutique au dveloppement
durable des ressources renouvelables
marines. La MA tait organise en 3
modules de travail:
1. Analyse de lenvironnement contextuel et des nouveaux axes porteurs
pour la recherche halieutique;



Rsoudre la question de laccs

la ressource, lobjectif tait de proposer des mcanismes pour que la
relation Homme Ressources soit le
plus harmonieuse possible au sens
que les objectifs de conservation de
la ressource et ceux de la maximisation des bnfices obtenus de son
exploitation soient concomitants.
Les besoins de la recherche en sciences sociales et sa place dans le
cadre actuel de la recherche halieutique en Afrique de lOuest,
le secteur de la pche se situe
aujourdhui dans un contexte international sous linfluence des
marchs internationaux et la pression croissante des institutions. Par
ailleurs, le secteur de la pche est
aujourdhui partie intgrante des
politiques macro-conomiques. Il
devient impossible de traiter autant
de considrations comme de simples donnes exognes.



La construction dun savoir commun, afin daller plus loin dans la

comprhension des dynamiques naturelles et humaines qui affectent le
fonctionnement des cosystmes.

Les prsentations et les dbats conduits
tout au long des trois journes de travail, ont permis de dfinir deux enjeux
majeurs et concomitants.
Le premier enjeu majeur de la recherche
halieutique est damliorer la dfinition
des conditions de la rgulation de laccs
la ressource. Lajustement de la capacit de pche la disponibilit de la
ressource cesse dtre une solution mcanique mais devient un objet dtude
Le deuxime enjeu majeur de la recherche est dlargir son cadre de rflexion,
prenant en compte les interactions systme pche extrieur. Le sminaire
a permis de mesurer quel point la
recherche en sciences sociales stait
laisse enferme dans des schmas
rducteurs, contrairement dautres
disciplines qui ont ouvert leurs champs
danalyse et puis dans les disciplines
proches ou lointaines, de prcieux
matriaux pour leur renouvellement.
Les pressions extrieures poussent
aujourdhui les portes du secteur des
pches des pays de la sous-rgion.

Un rsultat important issu directement de ENJEUX tait la prise de

conscience des gouvernements des
pays de lAfrique de lOuest dintgrer
le commerce dans les politiques de
gestion des pches. Dailleurs ENJEUX
servi de base llaboration du programme de sensibilisation de ENDA
Tiers Monde (Environnement et
Dveloppement du Tiers Monde) relatif
aux effets du commerce sur les secteurs des pches en Afrique de lOuest.
Ce programme a dbut en 2002 et se
poursuit jusquen 2006.

Pierre Failler
University of Portsmouth
Boat House No 6, College Road
H.M. Naval Base
Portsmouth PO1 3LJ
United Kingdom

Tel: +44 2392 84 40 85

Fax: +44 2392 84 46 14

Principale publication
Ce rapport prsente les rsultats du
sminaire de travail:
Failler, P., M. B, A. Doumbouya & N. Lcrivain
(ds.), 2002. Initiative de recherche halieutique
ACP-UE. Compte-rendu du sminaire de travail:
La recherche halieutique et le dveloppement
durable des ressources naturelles marines de
lAfrique de lOuest: quels enjeux? Conakry,
Guine, 24 - 26 septembre 2001. Bruxelles, Rapp.
Rech.Halieut. ACP-UE, (11):155 p.

Lamlioration de la gestion des ressources halieutiques doit passer par le

rapprochement des objectifs des diffrents acteurs du processus de dcision
et par le dveloppement des aptitudes
intgrer les nouveaux intervenants et
les nouvelles formes de reprsentation.
Ces objectifs seront atteints travers
des programmes favorisant le dialogue
et la cration de flux dinformation entre les diffrents acteurs ainsi que le
rapprochement des savoirs.




Symposium on Inland Fisheries Management
and the Aquatic Environment, Windermere,
United Kingdom, 12 - 15 June 2002

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/06/2002 to 30/04/2003 (11 months)
Accompanying Measure

Context and Objectives


This accompanying measure aimed at

covering travel costs and subsistence
allowance for participants from Eastern
Europe who presented papers and/or
posters at the EIFAC Symposium on
Inland Fisheries Management and the
Aquatic Environment.

The Symposium on Inland Fisheries

Environment: the effects of fisheries
management on freshwater ecosystems was held in Windermere, United
Kingdom, from 12 to 15 June 2002, in
concomitance with the Twenty-second
Session of the European Inland Fisheries
Advisory Commission (EIFACAC). One
hundred and fourteen participants from
27 countries attended the Symposium;
29 experience papers and 29 posters were presented. The Symposium
considered biological, environmental,
social and economic impacts of fisheries management of lakes and rivers.

The Symposium objectives were:

To bring together inland fisheries experts to exchange knowledge

among countries and to present,
in reviews, an appraisal of fisheries management activities and their
impact on the environment, constraints on their application, issues
and options regarding their utilisation and the benefits and problems
associated with these activities.

To identify constraints and gaps in

our knowledge that affect the application of fisheries management
activities in inland fisheries.

To recommend and promote action

to improve the management of inland fisheries to the benefit of the
aquatic environment.

To provide guidelines for the policy

formulation, planning methodology
and evaluation of future fisheries
management activities.

Dr Heiner Naeve
Food and Agriculture Organization
of the United Nations





Main Conclusions
and Recommendations
The Symposium highlighted that traditional fisheries management is not
always successfully implemented in
European inland fisheries. Moreover,
the trend away from traditional management of fisheries resources towards
integrated management of the ecosystem emphasizes the need to develop
new participatory approaches.
Many issues and approaches highlighted
had fundamental implications to the EU
Water Framework Directive because of
the need to improve the status of fresh
water bodies in the future. Global environmental changes should be recognised
for future management approaches.

Goals for restoration projects should

be fully evaluated and realistic targets need to be set. Post monitoring
of rehabilitation projects is further
recommended as a component of the
evaluation procedures, to ensure the
effectiveness thereof.
Risk assessment based approach needs
to be adopted for all fisheries management activities. The strength of
legislation and regulation should relate
to the potential risk of the management

Heiner Naeve1
Food and Agriculture Organization of
the United Nations
Via delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Roma
Tel: +39 06 57 05 64 42
Fax: +39 06 57 05 30 20

Mechanisms need to be established

for the common management of international water bodies, where they do
not already exist. Where such international mechanisms do exist, these
need to be reinforced.

Existing fisheries regulations need enforcement. Improved communication

and education programmes on protection and conservation need to be
developed for inland waters.
There is a general need for guidelines
readily understandable for stakeholders
as well as for fisheries administrators.
New guidelines need to be developed for
biomanipulation and existing guidelines
for stocking and introductions should
be updated and incorporated into the
regional, national and local level policy.
For certain species, such as the sturgeons improved protocols for stocking
need to be developed and implemented.
All stakeholders should be included in
the consultative and decision- making
processes for management and conservation of inland fisheries resources.
Opportunities for artificially stocked
fisheries as well as restoration and enhancement of existing fisheries should
be identified.

Now retired from FAO.




Room to Manoeuvre: Gender and
Coping Strategies in the Fisheries Sector

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/07/2003 to 31/12/2003 (6 months)
Accompanying Measure

Dr. Elizabeth Bennett
United Kingdom

Context and Objectives


Although the role of gender in the development process is still contested

in some quarters, by the end of the
20th century large institutions such as
UNDP, the World Bank and IFAD had
acknowledged that gender did indeed
matter to the development process (in
much the same way that institutions
were acknowledge to matter). Gender
is defined as the social role of men
and women in society (as distinct from
their sex). Improvements in the knowledge and understanding of the impact
of gender on development in different
arenas (governance, agriculture, housing etc.) have been made, but much still
needs to be done more systematically
within the context of the fisheries sector, particularly in West Africa.

The main activity of this accompanying measure was the workshop in

Benin, convened in collaboration with
the Sustainable Fisheries Livelihoods
Programme (SFLP). SFLP is implemented by the FAO mostly with UK funding
and based in Cotonou. The workshop
brought together 14 participants from
Europe (France, Madeira/Portugal, UK)
and Africa (Guinea, the Gambia, Benin,
Niger, Nigeria, Sao Tome and Principe
and Tanzania). Participants came from
fisheries organisations, universities,
research, administration, development
and non-governmental organisations.

In order to contribute to the debate on

the role of gender in fisheries, a workshop was organised in Cotonou, Benin,
from 1 to 4 December 2003. The workshop had two key aims:
To bring into the open knowledge on
the roles and social space occupied by
women in the fisheries sector and to
examine how gender roles and spaces
in the sector have changed, evolved
and sought out room to manoeuvre in
relation to challenges (environmental,
social and economic) now facing those
dependent upon fishing.

Through extensive discussions coping strategies in evidence in the region

were identified. From there, recommendations were drawn up on what could
be done to strengthen such strategies.

Results and Outcomes

The challenges, changes and recommendations can be summarised as
The Challenges facing fishing communities were identified as



increased pressure on fish stocks

and their ecosystems (through rising human population and increased
world demand for fish and fishery
products impacting on communities
in West African countries - Guinea,
Senegal, Gambia for example);
environmental impacts due to
climate change (drought in sub-Saharan African for example);
health implications from AIDS/HIV
(a recently recognised phenomenon
in fishing communities) and


economic impacts including rising

costs and the effect of men moving
into traditionally female activities
as profit margins increase.

A variety of coping strategies emerged.

Evidence of communities working together in times of crisis was evident
from a number of presentations, as
was evidence that men and women
work closely together through family networks during times of hardship.
Women were also reported to be
seeking improved life-skills (literacy,
numeracy, advocacy) to help protect
their livelihoods; they were setting up
micro-businesses (vegetable gardening,
aquaculture and brewing) and organising informal credit schemes. What
became apparent, however, was that
despite efforts to improve working
conditions, many communities came
up against structural barriers that
prevented effective institutional and
financial coping strategies from being
developed to their best effect: the lack
of institutional support for womens
organisations and the lack of access to
credit in West Africa were the most frequently reported barriers.
Based on these challenges and coping
strategies, recommendations to policy
makers were dominated by the need for
institutional inputs:

dissemination of basic literacy skills

to enable great participation in the
fisheries management process;
capacity building of organisations;
improved cross-sectoral links and
supported links between the grassroots and the ministerial interests
in fishing communities.

Prominent among the request for social

inputs were sensitisation of men and
women to the importance of gender for
community development.

Top of the required economic inputs

were: improvement of womens access
to information regarding markets and
improved capacity building for alternative income generating activities.
Discussion throughout the workshop
raised a number of key issues about
gender and development:
Access to resources (based on the evidence presented) is not itself a problem.
Although women do not, as a rule, fish,
it is rare that women are barred from
engaging in fishing (they are often involved in household scale aquaculture
production) and men can, and do, engage in the marketing of fish products.
What is more, women often have better access to physical capital than men,
owning extensive fleets of boats and
primary capital for trading. The key
problem, however, appears to be the
ability to control those resources. A key
to improving control is to improve the
institutional setting at both the community level (better equipping men and
women to know their rights) but also at
the governance level (improving the distribution and representation of women
within governance institutions).
Institutional organisation of women
varies widely throughout the region
with some countries demonstrating
excellent organisational structures
(Benin, Niger), others where organisations exist, but are not well supported
(Senegal for example) and yet others
where degree of officially recognised
organisation is poor or none existent
(Gambia and Guinea, for example). The
reported dearth of data and information on the level and extent of womens
organisations in fishing communities
was highlighted as a particular problem for future capacity-building work
in this area. Organisations and institutions (in whatever form) are often an
important entry point for development
initiatives and the degree of capacity
of these bodies will likely impact upon


the success of any development initiatives and their uptake.

Positive outcomes: The example from
Tanji (Gambia) and Tafouka (Niger) provide strong evidence that despite the
crisis situation that many rural, artisanal fishing communities find themselves
in, positive change is possible and
often results spontaneously after an
initial project initiative has been completed (as was the case in Tanji with
successive EC supported development
projects). Although cultural attitudes
to gender roles in the long term have
not necessarily changed, the immediate
consequences of excluding women from
the decision making processes and the
financial and economic impact that this
can have on a community are now better
understood in these two communities.
The value of literacy The need for improved literacy and training amongst
women came to the fore in many presentations. This comprises not only
literacy in terms of the ability to read
(and thus be able to participate with
legal reforms of fisheries management
and governance of the resources) but
also in terms of basic business skills.
The women in Tanji (Gambia) were
given basic numeracy and accounting
skills which allowed them to better
manage their businesses to the overall
benefit of all in the community.
The potential impact of the workshop could be wide and varied: from
the production of written reports and
journal articles that disseminate both
the activity of the workshop and associated research to the development of
new networks and alliances across the
south and north-south links too. It was
clear during presentations and discussions that womens organisations in
both the EU and Africa face similar
problems although the scale may differ and it was also clear that there are
many lessons to be learned between
the two continents in terms of capacity




building, training and organisation of

womens groups.
As a result of the workshop, a number
of linked articles have been produced
by participants that are being disseminated throughout the West African
region through the SFLP Bulletin and
directly. These articles pick up on issues raised in the workshop. Articles
have also been published in Samudra
and Yemaya in 2004. The two magazines are published by the International
Collective in Support of Fishworkers
based in India and have wide dissemination. An article based upon the policy
recommendations has been published
in Marine Policy in 2005.

Selected Publications


Bennett, E., H.R. Valette, K.Y. Miga & M.

Medard, (eds.), 2004. Room to manoevre: gender
and coping strategies in the fisheries sector.
Portsmouth, IDDRA, 154 p.
Bennett, E. & K. Olomu, 2004. Room to
Manoeuvre. Benin, Yemaya, 15.
Bennett, E. & K. Olomu, 2004. A room to stretch
out. India, Sumadra, 37:6-9.
Bennett, E., 2005. Gender, fisheries and
development. Marine Policy, 29(5):451-460.

Elizabeth Bennett
Northern Road Cosham, 88
Portsmouth PO6 3ER
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 781 6769178

The full project report is being promoted through the One-Fish portal hosted
by the FAO at




Damage of coral reefs by recreational

activities - restoration strategies and
the development of novel markers for
environmental stress

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/12/1996 to 30/11/1999 (36 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Werner Mller
Johannes Gutenberg Universitt Mainz

Context and Objectives

More and more research studies are
oriented towards the impacts of recreational activities. These studies identify
and evaluate the effects of runoff and
sewage discharges from tourist resorts,
recreational fishing and boating impacts, effects of SCUBA and skin diving,
the effects of human trampling on coral
reefs and sediment resuspension. These
studies clearly show that recreational
activities by visitors are usually characterised by non negligible damage, both
directly and indirectly. The main objectives of the proposed research were:

To carry out a long term quantitative account of species diversity in

4 different localities along northern
Red Sea coral reefs (Hurghada, Ras
Muhammad, Nueiba, Eilat). To establish an active restoration protocol
by following the success of sexual
and asexual coral recruits in situ.

To establish an ubiquitous reefstress bioassay (HSP70) and to

assess the stress loads from tourist
activities in different reef localities.

To provide the scientific community and decision-making authorities

with data for best assessment towards the active conservation of
Red Sea coral reefs.

The activities relied on the use of stress
proteins as indicators for environmental
stress and on two different types of recruits (sexual and asexual) for gardening
denuded reef areas, as well as on mariculturing of propagules and adult coral
subclones in nursery sites in situ.
The methodology included field surveys to study population dynamics
of hermatypic corals at four localities
using two techniques: (a) The use of


marked line transects at fixed intervals

of 1 m on flat areas and at intervals
of 1 m depth on reef slopes down to
35 m depth. (b) The use of a series of
photographs taken from permanently
marked 1 m quadrates. Using these
photographs, it was possible to follow individual colonies and estimate
growth rates, mortality, species diversity, and more.
In addition, studies concentrated on
the subject of coral reef restoration by
following the success of both coral larvae and coral fragments transplanted
in different habitats within the reef (use
of sexual and asexual recruits).
Stress reaction of the corals was assessed by determination of anthozoan
HSP70-RNA and protein using molecular biological and immunological
The abundance and diversity of corals
was studied in the selected sites along
the Red Sea. Physical factors were measured and most dominant ecological
parameters were studied.

Results and outcome

Coral reefs are among the most diverse
and productive biological ecosystems
in tropical marine environments. An
active restoration protocol by following the success of asexual coral recruits
in situ was successfully established, as
well as an ubiquitous reef-stress bioassay. The results of the study provided
valuable data to the scientific community and the decision-making authorities
for best management and assessment
towards an active conservation of the
Red Sea coral reefs. It was possible to
develop a test kit for the quantitative
assessment of the heat shock protein
70 (HSP70) on protein level. This assay
was based on antibodies which recognized the coral proteins quantitatively.
Other scientists and also institutions



have used that test kit as a routine assay. In addition, primer sequences had
been developed which could be used
in other corals for a routine analysis
of the expression of the HSP70 on the
transcripional level.
Status and Results 2002: Further research undertaken completed the
initial efforts in the INCO project and
an innovative approach, cell culture of
corals, was developed. By applying this
system it was possible to study the effect of UV-light on the cell metabolism.
More precisely, the effect of UV-A on
the expression of an UV-inducible gene.
Such a marker would allow a sensitive
determination of the effect of adverse
irradiation on the cell viability. These
tools in hand could be applied as an
early warning system for environmental
stress. Artificial reefs were re-created
and it could be verified that within a period of four weeks new seedlings were
able to grow. This approach will be applied in the further research, combining
both strategies a successful re-creation
of the coral reefs would be feasible, especially around the area of Hurghada.
The stress markers (HSP) had been use
as a rational guide for the selection of
the site, where the artifical coral cultures have been implemted. In addition,
it was determined that the metabolic
rate, in response to UV-irradiation,
decreased. This result was likewise
imperative, for the selection of the locations at which the recreation field had
to be established. It was concluded that
the biological markers, which are based
on meolecular sequence data, represent
very suitable tools for a quantitative
assessment of the stress-response in
corals. The utilization of those techniques for a quantitative assessment
of the stress-response and protection
molecules in corals became possible
and feasible.


Selected Publications
Ammar, M.S.A., & A. H. Nawar, 1999. Coral
populations at GASUS 2 and EL-FANADIR sites,
Northern Red Sea and their major controls.
J.Egypt.Ger.Soc.Zool., 28:47-57.
Mller, W.E.G., R. Batel, M. Lacorn, H. Steinhart,
T. Simat, S. Lauenroth, H. Hassanein & H.C.
Schrder, 1998. Accumulation of Cadmium and
Zinc in the Marine Sponge Suberites domuncula
and its potential consequences on single-strand
breaks and on expression of heat-shock protein:
A natural field study. Marine Ecol.Prog.Ser.,
Schrder, H.C., R. Batel, S. Lauenroth, H.M.A.
Hassanein, M. Lacorn, T. Simat, H. Steinhart &
W.E.G. Mller, 1999. Induction of differential
DNA damage and expression of heat shock
protein HSP70 by polychlorinated biphenyls in
the marine sponge Suberites domuncula. J.Exptl.
Mar.Biol.Ecol. 233:285-300
Wagner, C., R. Steffen, C. Koziol, R. Batel, M.
Lacorn, H. Steinhart, T. Simat & W.E.G. Mller,
1999. Apoptosis in marine sponges: A biomarker
for environmental stress (Cadmium and
bacteria). Marine Biol., 131:411-421.
Wiens, M., C. Koziol, H.M.A. Hassanein, M.
Shokry, A.H. Nawar, M. Eisinger, I.M. Mller &
W.E.G. Mller, 2000. Induction of heat-shock
(stress) protein gene expression by selected
natural and anthropogenic disturbances in the
octocoral Dendronephthya klunzingeri. Aquatic
Toxicol., 245:265-276.
Wiens, M., C. Koziol, H.M.A. Hassanein, R.
Batel & W.E.G. Mller, 1998. Expression of the
Chaperones 14-3-3 and HSP70 induced by PCB
118 (2,3,4,4,5-Pentachlorobiphenyl) in the
marine sponge Geodia cydonium. Marine Ecol.
Prog.Ser., 165:247-257.

Werner Mller
Institut fr Physiologische Chemie
Abteilung Angewandte
Johannes Gutenberg Universitt
Duesbergweg 6
55099 Mainz
Tel.: +49 6131 392 59 10
Fax: +49 6131 392 52 43

Baruch Rinkevich & M. Levi
Israel Oceanographic & Limnological
Research Institute
Tel Shikmona
Po Box 8030
31080 Haifa

Rolf Bak
Netherlands Institute for Sea Research
Landsdiep 4
PB 59
1790 AB Den Burg
The Netherlands

Hussein Kamel Badawi

National Institute of Oceanography
and Fisheries
101 Kars El-Ainy Street


Development of methodologies for the

assessment and management of groundwater
resources and risks in coastal zones

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/09/1996 to 31/12/1999 (40 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Joao Paulo Lobo-Ferreira
Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia Civil

Context and Objectives


The research intended to contribute to the

minimisation of environmental risks due
to rapid economical growth of the Pearl
River Delta region (Macau-GuangzhouHong-Kong region) and the Dalian
Peninsula region. These two regions have
very different climatic, hydrogeological
and socio-economical characteristics.

The project activities were divided into

different work packages:

In this context, the specific objective

of the project was the development of
conceptual scientific tools and sound
models. These were to be applied to
two-case study areas in China addressing: (1) groundwater management policy
and optimisation mathematical tools,
(2) groundwater resources quantitative and qualitative databases and (3)
groundwater vulnerability to pollution
assessment and mapping. Further targets of this project included: (4) research
on the case-study regions water supply,
wastewater and solid waste, including
perspectives on (5) integrated approaches for sustainable development policies
and (6) methodologies for minimising
environmental impacts and for monitoring groundwater in landfill areas.
1. groundwater management policy and
optimisation mathematical tools,
2. groundwater resources quantitative
and qualitative databases and
3. groundwater vulnerability to pollution assessment and mapping.
Further targets of this project included:
4. research on the case-study regions
water supply, wastewater and solid
waste, including perspectives on
5. integrated approaches for sustainable development policies and
6. methodologies for minimising environmental impacts and for monitoring
groundwater in landfill areas.


1. Development of appropriate management

and practices towards the optimisation of the existing groundwater
resources. It included: suggesting
long term development strategies
which allow the system to change in
a way that converges on the optimal
solution through a series of practical intermediate stages; establishing
methodologies for operational control on a short term basis using
the more appropriate models and
graphical tools.
2. Research on intrinsic groundwater
vulnerability to pollution, aimed
at the minimisation of environmental risks to groundwater. To
increase the access to information
on groundwater, a hydrogeological
data-base, INVENTOR, was developed for the selected coastal zones
of China.
3. Partners experience related to the
research on an integrated approach
towards sustainable development
policies for water supply, wastewater and solid waste sectors, and the
protection of natural groundwater
resources. In order to support the
protection of natural groundwater resources and the development
of recommendation were adopted
for the drafting of an original EUPRC Coastal Groundwater Project:
Regulation and Standards for Water
Supply and Waste Water Treatment.
4. Two-way transfer of know-how between the EU and China was a major
concern of this project. This was
achieved thorough: (1) the exchange
of scientific staff from China to
Portugal and to the UK, (2) the exchange of scientific staff from Dalian


to Guangzhou and vice-versa, and (3)

the exchange of scientific staff from
China to Macau and vice-versa.

Results and Outcomes

Groundwater vulnerability to pollution was successfully measured in
the Guangzhou-Huaxin basin and the
Dalian Peninsula using the DRASTIC index method. This method requires data
based on: Depth to water table (D), Net
aquifer Recharge (R), Aquifer media (A),
Soil media (S), Topography (T), Impact
of the vadose zone (I) and Hydraulic
Conductivity of the aquifer (C).
Based on the expertise gathered during
this project, and taking into account the
hydrogeological data usually available
in China, we recommend the application of the DRASTIC groundwater
vulnerability index for pollution assessment of coastal and inland regions
of China. The project also involved the
development of methodologies for the
sustainable operational and strategic
management of groundwater resources. These methodologies have been
applied to the Guangzhou-Huadu basin
and the Dalian Peninsula.
A new modelling approach was developed by the University of Birmingham,
ZOOM2D, it is capable of modelling
wells at the scale of the borehole whilst
still simulating groundwater flow in a
regional aquifer efficiently. This model
was successfully applied to the Chinese
study areas.
A Draft contribution for discussion with
the Guangdongs Province National
Environmental Protection Agency (NEPA)
on Sustainable Development Policies
for the Water Supply, Wastewater and
Solid Waste was developed.

This delineation allows administrators

to direct their resources to those more
vulnerable areas where careful management of limited resources is more
critical. Assessment of vulnerability to
pollution of the Dalian Peninsula is important to determine feasible strategies
to protect the groundwater and prevent
the pollution of groundwater in the future. Also, it can help to mitigate some
of the problems which have been created in the past. Because prevention is
the key to ensure that future practices
do not result in groundwater contamination, it is now more important than
ever to use planning and management
tools to help recognise the places where
certain activities pose a higher risk to
the very limited groundwater resources
of Dalian Peninsula.
The formulation of an optimisation
algorithm was applied to the Dalian
Peninsula. The optimisation objective
researched in Dalians case study was
the minimisation of the cost of transporting water from the wells to the
demand centre.
For similar reasons to those in the
Guangzhou-Huadu basin study, the
groundwater flow model of the Dalian
aquifer does not yet reproduce the field
behaviour adequately. This is due to
limitations in the hydrogeological data
and the lack of historic water level data
against which to compare the simulated model output. Consequently, the
results from the optimisation model,
which are linked to the simulation model, can not yet provide optimal patterns
of abstraction on which to base real
management strategies at this stage.
However, whilst the examples in this
project are presented to illustrate the
application of the optimisation model,
they do show that saline intrusion can
be reduced significantly by redistributing the abstraction.

The results achieved in this project

helped the identification of areas, which
are more or less vulnerable than others.




Selected Publications
and Papers
Jackson, C.R. & A.E.F Spink, 1999. Local grid
refinement using object oriented programming.
Paper presented to the International Workshop
Development of Methodologies for the
Assessment and Management of Groundwater
Resources and Risks in Coastal Zones. EU - PRC
Coastal Groundwater, Guangzhou, China, 2-4
August, 1999, and in the Seminrio sobre guas
Subterraneas. Lisbon, Portugal, 15-17 December,
1999. Portuguese Water Resources Association.
Leitao, T.E. & J.P Lobo-Ferreira, 1999.
Methodologies for Minimising Environmental
Impacts and for Monitoring Groundwater
in Landfill Areas. Paper presented to the
International Workshop. Development
of Methodologies for the Assessment and
Management of Groundwater Resources and Risks
in Coastal Zones. EU - PRC Coastal Groundwater
in Guangzhou, PR China, 2-4 August, 1999, in
Macau, 5 August, 1999, and in the Seminrio
sobre guas Subterrneas. Lisbon, Portugal, 1517 December, 1999. Portuguese Water Resources
Lobo-Ferreria, J.P., 1999. Development of
Methodologies for the Assessment and
Management of Groundwater Resources in Coastal
Zones. In Lobo-Ferreira, J.P. & F.J. Tilak-Viegas
(eds.), 1999. Proceedings of the S&T Co-operation
with Asia in the Area of Sustainable Management
of Natural Resources. A Co-ordination Meeting,
China 1998. Beijing, China, 24-27 November, 1998.
Lisboa, LNEC, CD-ROM.
Oliveira, M.M. & J.P Lobo-Ferreira, 1998.
Cartografia Automtica da Vulnerabilidade de
Aquferos com Base na Aplicao do Mtodo
DRASTIC. Paper presented to the 4 Congresso da
gua. Lisbon, Portugal, March. 1998. Portuguese
Water Resources Association.
Wan, Y., M. Wang, X. Wang, B. Zhu, X. Zhang,
1999. An Introduction to Groundwater Flow
Modelling. Paper presented to the International
Workshop Development of Methodologies for
the Assessment and Management of Groundwater
Resources and Risks in Coastal Zones. EU - PRC
Coastal Groundwater. Guangzhou, China, 2-4
August, 1999.
Wan, Y., X. Wang, X. Zhang, J.P Lobo-Ferreira J.P.
& M. Oliveira, 1999. Assessment of Groundwater
Vulnerability to Pollution using the DRASTIC
Method: The Case Study of GuangzhouHuaxian Basin, P.R. China. Paper presented
to the International Workshop Development
of Methodologies for the Assessment and
Management of Groundwater Resources and Risks
in Coastal Zones. EU - PRC Coastal Groundwater.
Guangzhou, China, 2-4 August, 1999, and in the
Seminrio sobre guas Subterraneas. Lisbon,
Portugal, 15-17 December, 1999. Portuguese
Water Resources Association.



Joao Paulo Lobo-Ferreira

Andrew Spink

Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia

Avenida do Brasil 101
1701-066 Lisboa
PortugalTel: +351 218 44 30 09
Fax: +351 218 44 30 16

School of Civil Engineering

University of Birmingham
PO Box 363
B15 2TT Birmingham
United Kingdom



Jiti Zhou
Environmental Engineering Institute College of Chemical Engineering
Dalian University of Technology
158 Zhanshan Road
116012 Dalian

Xiu Juan Zhang

Environmental Science Institute
South China University of Technology
510641 Guangzhou

Orlando Botelho
Training, Documentation and
Information Department
Hydraulic Division
Laboratorio de Engenharia Civil da
22 Rua da S
10 Macau

Yang, Q., M. Luam, J.P. Lobo-Ferreira, 1999.

Assessment of Groundwater DRASTIC
Vulnerability to Pollution using GIS, In: Bento
J., E. Arantes e Oliveira & E. Pereira (eds.), 1999.
Proceedings of the International Conference on
Enhancement and Promotion of Computational
Methods in Engineering and Science (EPMESC
VII). Macau, China, 2-5 August, 1999. Elsevier,



Anthropogenically induced changes in
groundwater outflow and quality, and the
functioning of Eastern African nearshore
Context and Objectives
Groundwater is a resource of enormous significance in terrestrial and
coastal ecosystems. Not only in riverine
areas, but everywhere along the coast,
a dynamic balance exists between the
seaward outflow of groundwater and
salt water intrusion into coastal freshwater aquifers. In the Eastern African
coastal zone, withdrawal of groundwater occurs in many places to supply
an increasing number of beach hotels
and settlements of the local population.
Concomitant with a withdrawal induced decrease in groundwater levels;
it is also likely that these waters exhibit
elevated nutrient and pollutant concentrations. This is largely due to poor soil
conservation and agricultural practices
as well as inappropriate disposal of effluents into pits or sink holes.
Despite this increasing anthropogenic
pressure on groundwater reservoirs,
little information exists regarding the
importance of groundwater for ecological processes and structures in the
nearshore environment. However, it can
be expected that the diffuse groundwater outflow in non-riverine coastal
areas will potentially affect nearshore
marine ecosystems by (1) moderating saline conditions; (2) by delivering
nutrients such as N, P and Si used by
primary producers; and (3) by delivering pollutants.
The key objective of the GROFLO project was to assess the significance of
changing inputs of groundwater and the
anthropogenic substances it contains for
Eastern African nearshore ecosystems.
To meet the general objective of the
project, three more specific objectives
were pursued:

To construct a model of groundwater

flow along the Eastern African coast.


To elucidate differences in nearshore community structures and

ecosystem functions in relation to
groundwater outflow.
To elucidate the importance of
groundwater as a vector of anthropogenic inputs into the coastal zone.

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project


01/11/1996 to 31/07/1999 (33 months)

Joint Research Project

The key activities involved:

Constructing a model of groundwater flow along the Eastern African

Elucidating differences in nearshore community structures and
ecosystem functions in relation to
groundwater outflow.

Dr. Marten Aizo Hemminga
Royal Netherlands Academy
of Arts and Science
The Netherlands

1. Groundwater flow and the productivity and vitality of lagoon

2. Groundwater flow and macrobenthos in seagrass systems.
3. Search for changes in groundwater flow as recorded by elemental
changes in biogenic carbonates.

Elucidating the importance of

groundwater as a vector of anthropogenic inputs into the coastal zone
1. Groundwater inputs of pollutants into the coastal zone.
2. Effects of pollutants on microbial
remineralisation and community
3. Effects of pollutants on community structure.
4. Socio-economic studies.




Results and outcome

The general conclusion of the GROFLO
project was that the East African nearshore coastal ecosystem is affected by
the amount of groundwater outflow
and by its quality. The data collected
showed a strong impact of groundwater outflow on a number of components
of the back-reef lagoon ecosystem.
Sites with high groundwater outflow
displayed a lower seagrass species diversity than sites with low groundwater
outflow. Seagrasses are structuring
species, which means that they constitute an important component of the
system. Changes in seagrass vegetation
can affect the whole ecosystem. Results
also indicate that anthropogenically induced elevated nutrient inputs caused
enhanced phytoplankton cell abundance and reduced species diversity.
Furthermore, certain groups or species in the lagoon ecosystem could be
identified as indicators of groundwater
outflow. The presence of mysids was
indicative of groundwater discharge.
And, a proliferation of green macroalgae was observed at the beach sites
with groundwater influence. At present,
information on the function of many of
these species in the ecosystem of backreef lagoons is absent, which impedes
predictions of possible consequences
of changes in groundwater outflow
rates and groundwater quality.

obtained from VUB. It can be a valuable aid to coastal managers, e.g. for
use in Environmental Impact Studies to
predict effects of changes in groundwater use on the outflow rates into the
coastal zone.

Selected Publications
Hemminga, M.A., N. Marb & J. Stapel, 1999.
Leaf nutrient resorption, leaf lifespan and the
retention of nutrients in seagrass systems.
Aquat. Bot., 65:141-158.
Kamermans, P., M.A. Hemminga, N. Marb,
M.A. Mateo, M. Mtolera & J. Stapel, 2001. Leaf
production, shoot demography, and flowering
frequency of the seagrass Thalassodendron
ciliatum (Cymodoceaceae) along the East African
coast. Aquat. Bot., 70(3):243-258.
Kamermans, P., M.A. Hemminga, J.F. Tack,
M.A. Mateo, N. Marb, M. Mtolera, J. Stapel and
A. Verheyden, 2002. Groundwater effects on
diversity and abundance of lagoonal seagrasses
in Kenya and on Zanzibar Island (East Africa).
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 231:75-83.


Salim Mohammed
Institute of Marine Sciences
University of Dar es Salaam
PO Box 668
Dar es Salaam

Luiz Saldanha2

Kenya Marine and Fisheries Research

PO Box 81651
80001 Mombasa

Philip Polk (retired)

Vrije Universiteit Brussel
2 Pleinlaan 2
1050 Bruxelles

Domingos Zefanias Goye

Universidade Eduardo Mondlane
Po Box 257

Ron William Johnstone

Address at time of printing: Stichting Het Zeeuwse Landschap
Landgoed Landlust, Dorpsstraat 100A, Postbus 25, 4450 AA
Heinkenszand, The Netherlands

Passed away


Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts

And Science
Vierstraat 28
P.B. 19121
4401 EA Yerseke

Johnson Kazungu


Marten.A. Hemminga1

Laboratorio Maritimo da Guia

Institute of Marine Research
Estrada do Guincho
2750 Cascais

The socio-economic studies provided

valuable baseline data on water usage patterns. Analysis of the water
quality of the wells yielded results on
levels of contamination with microorganisms, nutrients and pesticides
that call for caution.
The groundwater model that was developed during the GROFLO project,
proved to be an indispensable tool
for the field studies. The model is
now available on CD-ROM, and can be


Stockholms Universitet
Svante Arrheniusvaeg 14-16, Frescati
106 91 Stockholm


Interdisciplinary methodologies for

the sustainable use and management
of coastal resource systems:
EU-ASEAN coastal transect applications
Context and Objectives
Coastal transects demonstrate well the
physical, ecological and economic features of the coastal zone as well as their
functional linkages and interactions. It
is, however, often difficult to acquire
or to extract quantitative information
for the necessary wide range of subject matters from diverse disciplines.
Moreover, dynamic changes from one
state of the system to another are not
easily captured. To help to overcome
these problems SimCoast has been developed as a rule-based expert system
for supporting integrated coastal zone
planning and policy using fuzzy logic.
The general objectives of this Concerted
Action were:

To support the implementation

of SimCoast for the sustainable management and governance
of coastal zone resources in the
ASEAN (Association of Southeast
Asian Nations) region.
To facilitate information synthesis
and analysis of integrated coastal
zone management processes for
resource managers, scientists, planners and policy-makers.

The main activities involved the collation and assessment of information and
the subsequent development of rules
within a fuzzy logic expert system to
examine the impacts of human activities
and social processes on coastal systems
at selected sites throughout the ASEAN
region and more broadly in Europe.
The main vehicle for the concerted action was a series of four workshops in
the ASEAN region and Europe, in which
the partners sought to test and develop
SimCoast in relation to real-world
problems and situations. Six activities
arose out of the workshops:


description of selected coastal

ASEAN sites and identification of
key issues.

Project Number
and Framework Programme

and establishment of institutional

4th Framework Programme

description of generic policies and

development trajectories.

Duration and Type of Project

elaboration and further development of SimCoast.

establishment of an research and

development R&D network.

definition of areas of highest priority for future S&T co-operation with

EU partners.

01/09/1996 to 31/08/2000 (48 months)

Concerted Action

Prof. Jacqueline McGlade
Centre for Coastal and Marine Sciences
United Kingdom

Four concerted action workshops were

1. Managed Ecosystems, 18-22 August
1997, Makati City, Philippines
(33 participants). Hosted by the
Philippine Council for Aquatic and
Marine Research and Development
- Department of Science and
Technology (PCAMRD-DOST).
2. Construction & Transport, 1015 December 1997, Ha Long Bay,
Vietnam (26 participants). Hosted
by the National Centre for Social
Sciences and Humanities of Vietnam,
Human Geography Research Council
3. Industrial Development, Kiel, 14-21
March 1999, Kiel, Germany (35 participants). Hosted by the University
of Kiel.
4. Major Environmental Inputs, 20-26
June 1999, Singapore (35 participants). Hosted by the National
University of Singapore.


During the period of the concerted

action several other SimCoast workshops were sponsored by the partners
and other collaborators including
Management of the Recovery of the Gulf
of Maine Ecosystem, 17-19 September
1997, Naragansett, USA (40 participants
from industry, academia and government); 21 September 1997, Los Angeles,
USA (10 participants from academia
and the city planning department);
Integrated Coastal Zone Management,
13-17 July 1998, the Ocean EXPO in
Lisbon, Portugal (70 participants);
Impacts of coastal zone development
on biodiversity, 30-31 July 1998, Accra,
Ghana (25 participants from government, industry and academia).
The SimCoast software was distributed on CD for the first time at the
Oceans Expo in Lisbon. However, further significant changes, meant that
the final software was not generally distributed until the Singapore workshop
in June 1999. The time between the
Vietnam and Kiel workshops was used
to undertake the considerable task of
documentation, testing and data entry.
The rules generated in each workshop
together with key-words and the thesaurus were checked for consistency
and placed in the database: more than
5000 rules were generated overall.


Results and outcomes

Selected Publications

This project fulfilled its objectives

and provided a number of interesting
advances in the understanding of environmental and social interactions in
coastal zones, especially in the ASEAN
region. Problems encountered have
been overcome sufficiently well to implement the WPs.

During the course of the project several

key presentations were made at international conferences, including JRC-Ispra
Space Applications Centre, November
1996; ICZM Conference, June 1997,
Manila, Philippines; State and Federal
Ministers Meeting, June 1997, Penang,
Malaysia; American Association for
the Advancement of Science, January
1997, Seattle, 2000 Washington DC. In
addition, results from the SimCoast
project were presented to the ASEAN
Science and Technology Committee and
at the ASEAN S&T Conferences.

Through the workshops and other conferences, the results of this project
were widely disseminated. A number
of individuals in each ASEAN country
and in the EU are now familiar with
the approach to decision-making supported by SimCoast, and a number
of research projects have subsequently
been funded in developing and developed countries. The basic structure
of SimCoast was also used in the
GEF International Waters Large Marine
Ecosystem programme. The evaluations
by partners at the end of each workshop, suggested that initial problems
of administration and implementation
were overcome.
There was an active collaboration with the Gulf of Guinea project
(IC18T960094) Impacts of environmental forcing on marine biodiversity and
sustainable management of artisanal
and industrial fisheries in the Gulf of
Guinea, specifically in the development of additional rules and scenarios
for coastal zone management. The results from this project were tested in a
SimCoast workshop that was held immediately after the final Gulf of Guinea
workshop in Accra.

The major contributions from this

project were the collated site specific
datasets, the expert system rules identifying the effects of human activities
on features and processes in coastal
areas and the increased understanding
achieved by the partners of how to deal
with uncertainty and risk.
Hogarth, A.N. & J.M. McGlade, 1998.
Development of SimCoastTM. Tambuli, 4:34-35.
ISSN 01 18-4687.
Anon, 1999. Fuzzy logic to manage coastal
regions. SimCoastTM solves planning and
development problems. International Ocean
Systems Design, 3:4-7
McGlade, J.M., 1999. Ecosystem analysis and the
governance of natural resources. pp 309-341. In
McGlade, J.M., (ed.) Advanced Ecological Theory.
Blackwell Science, Oxford.
McGlade, J.M., 2001. Governance in coastal
systems. In: McGlade, J.M., K. Koranteng, P.
Cury & N. Hardman-Mountford (eds). The Gulf
of Guinea ecosystem. environmental forcing &
sustainable development of marine resources.
Elsevier, Amsterdam.
In total, 30 conference papers were produced
and presented at the four workshops. In
addition, a number of PhD and MSc theses using
outputs from SimCoast were completed, and
a CD-ROM of rules, images, user-handbook and
software produced.





Jacqueline M. McGlade1

Harald Rosenthal2

Centre for Coastal and Marine Sciences

Directorate Office
Plymouth Pl1 3dh
United Kingdom

Institut fr Meereskunde an der

Universitt Kiel
Dsternbrooker Weg 20
D-24105 Kiel


Amapan Pintukanok
Natural Resources Management
Office of Environmental Policy and
Rama VI


Ninh Pham Van

Brendan Keegan
Martin Ryan Marine Science Institute
University College of Galway
University Road

Centre for Marine Environment Survey

Research and Consultation
National Centre for Science and
Vien Co Hoc
Doi Can Street 224

Nontji Anugerah
Research & Development Centre for
Indonesian Institute of Science
Pasir Putih 1 Ancol Timir
Jakarta 48011

Nguyen Ngoc Tuan

Human Geography Research Center
Center for Oceans Research and
Tran Xuan Soan 27

Choo Poh-Sze
Aquatic Ecology Branch
Fisheries Research Institute/
Department of Fisheries
Batu Maung
11960 Penang

Cesario Pagdilao
National Aquatic Resources Research
and Development System c/o PCAMRD
Alfonso Eusebio Building
BPI Economic Garden
Los Baos Laguna 4030

Chou Loke Ming

Reef Ecology
Department of Zoology
Faculty of Science/ National University
of Singapore
Lower Kent Rd
0511 Singapore


Coordinator moved from University of Warwick to CCMS/

NERC during project. Address at time of printing: Executive
Director, European Environment Agency, Kongens Nytorv 6,
1050 Copenhagen, Denmark.


The Cuu-Long project on the Mekong Delta
Vietnam Pilot phase 1996-1998

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/09/1996 to 31/08/1998 (24 months)
Joint Research Project

Prof. Kim Dan Nguyen
Universit de Caen
Basse Normandie

Context and Objectives


The CUU-LONG Project (CLP) addressed

issues of environmental concern in the
Mekong Delta Coastal Zone (MDCZ) to
provide a scientific basis for the sustainable development of the Mekong
Delta and its adjacent Coastal Zone.
The project complemented other projects coordinated by the Mekong River
Commission (MRC) in conducting research on the environmental impact of
land-based human activities with special emphasis on marine processes. The
CLP pooled together the expertise of
scientists in Asia and Europe and, for
the first time, brought together research
institutions in Vietnam and Thailand
within a marine research programme.

The key activities carried out in each

sub-project were:

The Cuu-Long project objectives on a

short term basis addressed the following issues:
1. Fate of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the MDCZ and their
impact on primary production and

Sub-project I: Carbon nitrogen cycles

and fertilisation /eutrophication

Quantification of the influence

of the rivers nutrient discharge
on the productivity of the adjacent sea and on the occurrence of

Understanding the dual effect of

increase of nutrients and decrease
of light, caused by turbidity in the
water column, on primary production processes.

Understanding the role of the

sediment as a sink of organic materials and as a source of dissolved
nutrients enhancing the primary

Sub-project II: Contamination

2. Sources, levels and fate of key organic and inorganic contaminants

in the MDCZ.

3. Main processes affecting erosion,

sediment transport and sedimentation in the MDCZ.

Evaluation of the levels of key organic

/ inorganic contaminants in sediments
and of their possible sources.
Understanding the role of sediments
as a sink of contaminants as well as
a secondary source of contaminants
and of dissolved nutrients (in relation with sub-project I).
Study of contaminant migration
related to sediment transport
(evaluation based on the model for
cohesive-sediment transport in the
MDCZ developed in sub-project III).






Analysis and synthesis of the existing and new field data to provide a
quantitative assessment on the state
and the mechanisms of erosion and
accumulation in the MDCZ.


Developing robust predictive numerical models to provide a basic

scientific conceptualisation with a
view to understand the main hydrodynamical and sediment-transfer
processes occurring in the lower
Mekong Delta and the adjacent
coastal seas.

Assessing the response of material

transport and cycling in deltaic environments to human activities on

Elaboration of a map of the current

state of erosion and accumulation
in the MDCZ.

The Results and outcome

The main results and conclusions from
each subproject can be summarised as
Sub-project I: Fertilisation
and Eutrophication
Like other tropical regions, the Mekong
Delta Coastal Zone is characterised by
nutrient-limited dynamics in the dry
season. In the rainy season, nearshore
areas are 1ight-limited (high turbidity),
whereas N:P ratios suggested phosphate-limitation offshore. Recycling of
organic matter within the water column, with consequent reduction in the
pelagic-benthic coupling is efficient.
Risk of hypoxia at the sediment-water
interface and of diminishing denitrification intensity is low.
Sub-project II: Contamination
Saline intrusion, pyrite formation and
oxidation in the MDCZ have been shown
to have an effect on the water quality.
Three groups of scientists studied the
following trace metals As, Cd, Co, Cu,
Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn by carefully sampling the water, suspended matter and
sediments and by using the clean room
techniques in analysis. Overall, there
seemed to be no cause for alarm as the
levels of trace metals are generally within
the range observed for uncontaminated
waters except for regions immediately adjacent to the densely-populated
area of Can Tho and Vung Tau. Off the
mouths of the Mekong branches, elevated levels of certain metals were found.
They were suspected to be caused by
the mixing of water off the river mouths.
However, extremely high concentrations
of HgT (Total dissolved mercury) were
found at Can Tho and off Vung Tau. At
Vung Tau, this high concentration appears to be due to the direct discharge
of water from the nearby oil platforms.
Further investigation is needed in these


problem areas to confirm the existence

of this high concentration.
Priority organic contaminants were
measured in suspended matter in the
water column and sediments. The results show that the levels of PAH, PCB,
hydrocarbons and chlorinated biocides
in sediments are low in comparison with
other coastal seas. For PCBs, the Bassac
branch of the Mekong and Dong Nai
River estuary appear to be the source.
Their concentrations in water are about
ten times higher during the dry season
than during wet season.
Biomarker (C17 alkanes) distribution in
sediment and water allowed delineating
regions of high marine productivity.
Sub-project III: Erosion
and Accumulation
Comparison between model results and
observed data showed that 2-D horizontal models adequately describe the
current regime in the MDCZ under wellmixed or partially mixed conditions.
3-D models described the stratified regime of the high water discharge period
(especially in the rainy season). The results of the 3-D model further indicated
that the tidal current is not responsible
for the observed erosion in the MDCZ,
whereas waves play a dominant role.
Cycles of stratification-destratification
driven by the seasonality of the freshwater inputs from the Mekong could have
consequences relevant to the ecological
regime of the MDCZ. They have the potential to induce conditions of hypoxia
and nutrient limitation.
Higher suspended matter concentrations
were observed in the high discharge period. Turbidity maxima were observed
during both dry and wet seasons with
the maximum shifted towards the river
mouth in the high flow season.




Time series measurements of sediment

fluxes in the coastal zone indicate order
of magnitude variations with abnormally high fluxes during the low discharge
season. These high fluxes were partially
related to dredging activities in the vicinity of the observation point. Grain
size analyses on sediments showed a
decrease in the mean grain size from the
river mouth towards the south-western
parts of the MDCZ



Kim. Dan Nguyen

Jean-Marie Martin

Universit de Caen Basse Normandie

Esplanade de la Paix
14032 Caen
Tel: +33 31 45 56 15
Fax: +33 31 93 02 53

University of Hamburg
Bundesstrasse 55
20146 Hamburg


Institute for Environment and

JRC, Commission of the European
Via Enrico Fermi 1, TP 460
21020 Ispra

Venugopalan Ittekkot

Manuwadi Hungspreugs
Chulalongkorn University
Phyathei Road
10330 Bangkok

Van Ninh Pham

Centre for Marine Environment Survey,
Research and Consultation
224 Doi Can Street
Viet Nam

Ba Cuong Nguyen
IFREMER - Institut Franais de
Recherche pour lExploitation de la Mer
Centre de Brest
BP 70
29280 Plouzan




Macrobenthos of Eastern African
mangroves - life cycles and reproduction
biology of exploited species

Context and Objectives


Mangrove areas world-wide are being

depleted at an alarming rate. Studies
which highlight the socio-economic benefits and potential of healthy
mangrove systems are necessary and
particularly important.

The key activities were:

Studies on the genetic separation of

plant and animal populations are concentrated on temperate areas. There
is limited information on the basics of
growth and reproduction of key tropical
species. This kind of studies in tropical environments constitute therefore
a useful step towards contributing additional perspectives on various coastal
management options and could help to
make more sustainable use of the natural renewable resource base.

2. To study reproductive patterns and

larval growth of the above species.
3. To investigate the temporal pattern
of larval release.
4. To analyse the behaviour of the pelagic larvae leading them to settle
on the substratum.
5. To study the genetic flow between
several coastal populations of Scylla
serrata, a key species, in order to
evaluate its inter-population migratory effect.
6. To analyse the economics of human
use of the mangrove ecosystem.


4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/02/1997 to 31/01/2000 (36 months)
Joint Research Project


The main objectives were:

1. To determine patterns in population structure, along a geographic
gradient, of crab species selected
for their commercial and/or ecological importance, by means of a
standardised protocol to be developed within the project.

Standardised sampling protocols

and methods applied along the
whole geographical gradient, to
estimate macrobenthos biomass
and reproductive status of key crab
species. A new method based on a
permanent TV system was developed, together with image analysis
systems, to gain information on their
density and population structure.

Project Number
and Framework Programme

Population genetics of key species were investigated by analysing

anonymous DNA markers amplified by PCR (Polymerase chain
reaction) with single primers, RAPDs
(Random Amplified Polymorphic
DNAs). Partitioning of the revealed
variability into, within and between
population components was done.

Prof. Marco Vannini

Universit degli Studi di Firenze

Contacts with traditional authorities

to gather information on infrastructures, market facilities, social
services, demographic implications
and other activities related to mangrove exploitation. The Participatory
Rural Appraisal (PRA) was applied
to enable local people to share, enhance and analyse their knowledge
of life and conditions, in relationship with the mangrove ecosystem.

Results and Outcomes

All objectives were achieved with key
results summarised as follows:
1. From stomach content analysis, it
was demonstrate that, all along the
East African coast, the swimming
crab Scylla serrata, one of the most
commercially important species,
spends most of its time within the
mangroves feeding on macrobenthic species. In contrast, several
important prawn species were only



found as juveniles; thus for them,
mangroves act as a nursery. There
was no consistent latitudinal trend
in total crab numbers, but a marked
shift in the ratio of Ocypodidea to
Grapsoidea crabs. The former outnumbered Grapsoidea by 6 to 1 in
Mombasa, but had equal abundance
in Umtata (South Africa). For crabs
and prawns alike, the existence of a
healthy mangrove system is the basis for a sustainable management of
the stocks of these species. A standardised protocol of visual census
of macrofauna was designed and
repeatedly tested, providing comparable results independently of
the observer and locality. For the
first time, a simple method permits
monitoring and ecological surveys
to be comparable in time and space.
Validation coefficients (between
50% and 80%) show that the census
results correlate with the actual animal density.
2. For the first time, the reproductive cycles of different crab species
were compared. Different patterns
appear to dominate decapod life: periodic breeding is observed (i.e. Uca
vocans), together with both semi-lunar and lunar periodicity. The latter
is dominant in a short period of the
year (in the mangrove crab, the fiddler crab, Neosarmatium meinerti),
through most of the year with an
interruption for the rainy season
(i.e. in the small Grapsoidea crab
Sesarma ortmanni) or throughout
the year (i.e. in U. annulipes). Due to
the synchronised sampling strategy,
we can for the first time ascertain
that the observed differences in reproductive patterns are features of
the basic biology of the species and
not just latitudinal, geographical or
micro-climatic variations.
3. The results suggest a universal
pattern of semi-lunar release of
crab larvae peaking during post-



crepuscular ebbing tides. This

allowed to generalise patterns of
release around mangroves, namely
the cyclic character of the reproductive timing and its relation to the
major environmental cycles.
4. Patterns of larval fluxes and settlement in mangrove areas were
observed showing a universal
character: most species resident in
mangroves will export their newlyhatched stages to adjacent neritic
water masses, where they undergo
most of their larval development.
Return migration is accomplished
by megalopa stages. The results
indicate an interaction between
deterministic (cycles of tidal amplitude) and stochastic (wind stress)
factors in the recruitment success
of the different species.

etc. Where mangroves are seriously

threatened (Kenya and Zanzibar),
detailed enquiries showed that
people were well aware of the ecological
importance of mangroves and the
damage they inflict. However, due
to the lack of alternative sources
of revenue they will not easily stop.
Eco-tourism or similar activities are
not currently perceived as adequate
alternatives, while cattle breeding
or increased coconut cultivation
are. Unfortunately, both of these
activities are limited by the lack of
adequate financial investment (cattle) or available land (coconuts).

5. About 530 bp (base pairs) of the

mitochondrial DNA cytochrome
oxidase subunit I (mtDNA COI) were
studied. The results indicated that
gene flow is unexpectedly low and
suggest that population structuring is currently occurring. In order
to prevent inappropriate S. serrata
resource exploitation, it is therefore
advisable to refer to the local population as the appropriate short-term
management unit.
6. Human use has shaped the mangrove
ecosystem differently in the three
study sites in Kenya as a function
of population density, dependence
on mangroves for subsistence and
income and whether there were accessible economic alternatives to
(legal or illegal) use. In Zanzibar
(Tanzania), the main use of mangroves was for illegal extraction of
wood for charcoal production, while
on the Ilha da Inhaca in Mozambique
low population densities and lack
of market access limited mangrove
use to use by artisanal fishers and
small-scale gathering for firewood



Selected Publications
Bosire, J.O., F. Dahdouh-Guebas, J.G. Kairo, S.
Cannicci & N. Koedam, 2004 Spatial variations
in macrobenthic fauna recolonisation in a
tropical mangrove bay. Biodivers.Conserv.
Dahdouh-Guebas, F., I. Van Pottelbergh,
J.G. Kairo, S. Cannicci & N. Koedam, 2004
Anthropogenic impacts on mangroves in Gazi
Bay (Kenya): prediction of future vegetation
based on remote sensing, social surveys,
and distribution of trees. Mar.Ecol.Progr.Ser.

Marco Vannini
University of Florence
Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e
Genetica, L. Pardi
via Romana 17
50125 Firenze
Tel: +39 055 228 82 59
Fax: +39 055 22 25 65

Fratini, S. & M. Vannini. 2002. Genetic

differentiation in the mud crab Scylla serrata
(Decapoda: Portunidae) within the Indian Ocean.
J.Exp.Mar.Biol.Ecol., 272:103-116.

E.M: Vannini_M@Dbag.unifi.It

Fratini, S., V. Vigiani, M. Vannini e S. Cannicci,

2004. Terebralia palustris (Gastropoda;
Potamididae) in a Kenyan mangal: size structure,
distribution and impact on consuming leaf
litters. Mar.Biol., 114(6):1173-1182.


Macia, A., I. Quincardete & J. Paula, 2001.

Comparison of alternative methods for
estimating population density of the fiddler crab
Uca annulipes at Saco Mangrove, Inhaca Island
(Mozambique). Hydrobiologia, 449:213-219.
Omodei Zorini L., C. Contini, N. Jiddawi, J.
Ochiewo, J. Shunula & S. Cannicci, 2004.
Participatory appraisal of criteria for potential
community based mangrove management in East
Africa. Wetl.Ecol.Manag, 12(2):87-102.
Omodei-Zorini, L. & C. Contini, 2000. A
multicriterion analysis for the sustainable use
of natural resources in mangrove ecosystems
with the involvement of local community. In
Proceedings of the 4th European Symposium on
European Farming and Rural Systems Research
and Extension into the Next Millennium, Volos,
Greece, April 3-7, 2000.
Omodei-Zorini, L., C. Contini, F. Barbosa,
N.S. Jiddawi, J. Ochiewo, R Polidori & J.P.
Shunula, 2000. A participatory analysis for a
sustainable mangrove management. Abstract
Volume the International Meeting of Mangrove
Macrobenthos, September 7-11, 2000,
Mombasa, Kenya.
Paula, J., R. Nogueira Mendes, S. Paci, P.
McLaughlin, F. Gherardi & W. Emmerson, 2001.
Combined effects of temperature and salinity
on the larval development of the estuarine
mud prawn Upogebia africana (Crustacea,
Thalassinidea). Hydrobiologia, 449:141148.
Skov, M.W. & R.G. Hartnoll, 2001. Comparative
suitability of binocular observation, burrow
counting and excavation for the quantification
of the mangrove fiddler crab Uca annulipes.
Hidrobiologia, 449:201-212.

Richard George Hartnoll

Jos Paula
Universidade de Lisboa
Faculdade de Ciencias
Laboratorio Maritimo da Gua
Estrada do Guincho
2750 Cascais
E-M: jpaula@Bio.Fc.Ul.Pt

Winston David Emmerson

University of Transkei
Faculty of Science
Department of Zoology
P/Bag Xi
5100 Umtata
South Africa
E-M: Emmerson@Getafix.Utr.Ac.Za

University of Liverpool
Port Erin Marine Laboratory
Break Water Road
IM9 6JA Port Erin
United Kingdom
E-M: Rgh@Liverpool.Ac.Uk

Adriano Macia
Universidade Eduardo Mondlane
Department of Biological Sciences
Campus Universitario
C.P. 257
E-M: Amacia@Biologia.Uem.Mz

Renison Kahindi Ruwa

Kenya Marine And Fisheries Research
Cement Road
P.O. Box 81651
E-M: Kruwa@Lib.Ua.Ac.Be

Peter Shunula
University of Dar Es Salaam
Institute of Marine Sciences
P.O. Box 668 Mizingani
E-M: Shunula@Unidar.Gn.Apc.Org




Sustainable environmental management

strategies in South China - towards 2000 and
beyond - a case study in Shenzhen

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/12/1997 to 31/07/1999 (30 months)
Joint Research Project

Prof. Jinren Ni
Institute of Environmental Engineering
Peking University

Context and Objectives

In its national approach to AGENDA 21
(1994), the Chinese government emphasised the necessity for China to embark
on a gradual path to sustainable development through improving economic
structures and enhancing effectiveness
whilst maintaining an annual average
GNP growth rate between 8 and 9%.
As an experimental site and an important showcase area, Shenzhen City in
South China was chosen as an appropriate site for the study of economic
development, eco-efficient resources
management, waste-load control and
allocation in terms of economic structural adjustment, technologic
improvement and policy options for
environmental management.
The selected Shenzhen study area lies
in the south of Guangdong Province and
is bordered by the New Territories of
Hong Kong and the Pearl River Estuary.
With a total area of 2020 km2 and a
coastline stretching 230km, Shenzhen
has developed from a small village
prior to 1979, to become a modernised
city with a population of 3.355 millions. Since the Special Economic Zone
of Shenzhen was established in 1979,
the citys main economic indices have
increased very quickly, with the annual
GDP reaching 95-billion Yuan in 1996;
an annual increase rate of 16.4%. With
such accelerated socio-economic development, the proportion of primary
industry within the national economy
has decreased to less than 2%. A tiered
industrial system has been established
with many sectors such as chemicals,
machinery, electronics, textiles, foodstuffs, medicine and sport goods etc.
There are seven industries related
specifically to advanced and new technologies: computers and software,
new materials, biological engineering,
optical instrumentation and lasers
(Shenzhen Planning Bureau, 1997).


The general objective for this collaborative study was to reveal the dynamic
relation between the utilisation of water resources, the rapid socioeconomic
development and environmental management through a case in in South
China. The study aimed at identifying the optimum ways of promoting
sustainable use of water resources,
compatible with long-term equitable
economic growth and enhancement of
productive capacity and which is also
environmentally acceptable. It was also
a primary purpose of this research to
review the background of regional environmental management strategies in
order to implement and improve the
environmental management system of
organisations (enterprises, sectors) in
Shenzhen, so that these organisations
(enterprises or sectors) would be able
to maintain and potentially improve
their environmental performance.

The key activities undertaken included:

essential core socio-economic and
environmental problems related to
accelerated economic growth and
the companion increases in water
resource demand.

Environmental quality monitoring,

socio-economic surveys and the investigation of the present state of
water resources, data collection and
review of the existing literature.

Modelling the interaction processes

and the feedback mechanisms between socio-economic development
and water resources.

Assessment of the regional productive capacity subject to economic

structural adjustment, the resource
bearing capacity and the reduction
of waste-loads.


Training programmes and exchanges of scientists for the purpose

of promoting the transfer of information and skills between the

The methodologies used were:

Macro-economic modelling and

multiple objective analysis for optimal economic structure aimed at
sustainable economic development
with water-saving and clean industrial technology.
Material intensity analysis for ecoefficient water use and sustainable
sewage management; Application
of CD-ROM software to support

Results and outcome

For all parts of the various studies, the
year of reference taken was 1995. The
target years or the planning years used
for the predictions were 2000, 2010,
2020 and 2050; middle and long-term
development strategies beyond 2000
were also fully discussed.
Macro-economic model and multiple
objective analysis: The aim of these
models was to predict regional annual
macro-economic development scale and
growth rate; economic development in
each sector and its structural variation;
water use, and pollutant effluents under different economic patterns.
The rapid economic development has
enhanced the adjustment that has
taken place in the industrial structural changes within Shenzhen. The
overall trend of the industrial structural change is apparently a continuous
increase in the tertiary industry proportion to the total gross domestic product
(GDP) over the planning years, indicating rapid development of the high and
new technologic and tertiary industrial


groups in Shenzhen. It is predicted that

the proportion of such tertiary industry over the total GDP in 2020 will be
approximated to those in developed
countries, which accords with the
overall development target of socialeconomic activities in Shenzhen.
Although all the sectors will undergo
a rapid development in the coming 20
years, differences among the sectors
do exist. The trend of the industrial
structural adjustment heads towards
water-saving and automatic clean
technology. Development of sectors
such as manufacture of electronic and
communication equipment, which produce minimum pollutants and utilise
minimum water demand per ten-thousand-Yuan production. Other sectors
which have small water demand and
chemical oxygen demand (COD) effluent coefficients per ten-thousand-Yuan
production, e.g. manufacture of building materials and other non-metallic
mineral products, manufacture of electric machinery and instrument will be
developed significantly. On the other
hand, some sectors such as sawmills
and manufacture of furniture, mining
and petroleum refineries will be somehow restricted. By combining practical
variations in the industrial structure
and the sectoral GDP, predictions on
water demand, wastewater and pollutant effluents provide a reasonable basis
for correlating regional economic development, water resources utilisation and
environmental impact and also supply
a reliable database for subsequent total
waste-load control.
Technological improvement and the
industrial structural adjustment were
accounted for in the model predictions.
The predicted wastewater effluents in
different sectors for different planning years showed that industrial water
demand and wastewater effluents do
not directly increase with increasing
industrial production, but depend on
many factors such as economic growth

rate, technological level and industrial

structure. As an accelerated economic
development area, Shenzhen has incomparable advantages in technological
improvement and industrial structural
adjustment capability over other cities
in China. In general, the pollutant effluent will not increase as quickly as the
industrial production owing to better
and additional sewage water treatment,
reuse of wastewater and related technological improvements.
While economic growth rate will reach
10%, the pollutant effluent increase
rate will be restricted to 2-6%. The reasonable prediction of pollutant effluent
loads is not only the basis for the implementation of total waste-load control,
but also the primary part of the planning and analysis of water resources.
Reduction of resources and efficient
water use. Environmental damage in
Shenzhen is principally caused by
pollution and the processes involved
in extracting resources. Note that all
materials taken into the economy end
up sooner or later as emissions and
wastes, thus cost reduction of environmental damage requires both cut-down
of emissions and reduction of natural resources extraction. Water use in
Shenzhen is quite high compared with
other Chinese and international rates
and planned water use in 2000 and
2010 is also very high. The applicability
of advanced methods, experiences and
water efficiency technologies should be
considered for the purpose of sustainable development in Shenzhen.
Water prices in Shenzhen were still
considered too low to promote water efficiency, but the structure and
the tendency of the water policy in
Shenzhen is heading in the right direction. Wastewater charge in Shenzhen is
much cheaper than that in Germany and
in Hong Kong; although the percentage
of the wastewater charge accounted
for tap water charge is similar to Hong



Kong. With the introduction of laws

and measures in Shenzhen on water
efficiency technology, water use could
be reduced significantly. The relevant
results include three measures for
the reduction of water use in private
households such as leak detection and
repair in order to avoid losses; change
in customer behaviour; convincing
water users to give up bad habits;
introduction of water efficient technologies such as toilets, showerheads,
faucets, rainwater use, etc. As an example, laundry and dish washer machines
use up to 60 litres with water efficiency technology but can be reduced
further to 39 litres by the substitution
of drinking water with rain water or
treated grey water. These two alternatives would result in a water reduction
of up to 57% and 82% respectively.
For public water use, water with lower
quality can replace drinking water for
washing streets and vehicles, watering
or irrigating plants, making water landscapes and so on. Shenzhen Airport
could reduce its volume of water use by
9738 m3 or 62% per year by retrofitting
quite simple and inexpensive water efficient fixtures in the airport toilets
A CD-ROM software was developed for
decision support to assist in the management of regional socioeconomic
activities and to quantify their impacts
on the collection, use, treatment and reuse of water in order to harmonise the
socio-economic development, environmental protection and effective use of
water resources.


Selected Publications
Chen, X. & L. Qiao, 2000. Material Flow Analysis
of the Chinese Economic-Environmental System.
Journal of Nat. Res., 15(1):17-23.
Ellis, J.B., D.M. Revitt, Y.H. Dong, J.R. Ni, &
Z.C. Chen, 1998. Protecting the urban water
environment in the Pearl River Delta, South
China. pp. 85-93. In Wheater, H. & C. Kirby (eds.).
Hydrology in a Changing Environment. John
Wiley & Sons Ltd., London.

Jinren Ni
Peking University
Institute of Environmental Engineering
100871 Beijing
Tel: +86 10 62 75 11 85
Fax: +86 10 62 75 11 85

Ludwig, J., 1998. Water shortage in China: Ecoefficient products and resource planning are
needed. Das Magazin, 9th Volume, Issue 4.
Dsseldorf. (in German).


Ni, J.R, D.S. Zhong, Y.F. Huang & H. Wang, 2001.

Total waste-load control and allocation in terms
of input-output analysis. J.Environ.Manage.,

John Bryan Ellis
Middlesex University
Faculty of Technology
Bounds Green Road
London N11 2NQ
United Kingdom

Zhichen Chen
Shenzhen Environmental Protection
95 Hongbao Road 95
518001 Shenzhen

Stefan Bringezu
Wuppertal-Institut fr Klima, Umwelt,
19 Dppersberg
Postfach 10 04 80
42103 Wuppertal


Water management, land development

and economic diversification in Southeast
Asian deltas

Context and Objectives

Economic growth, agricultural development and population increase
have considerably endangered the
ecosystems of the three great deltas
of South-East Asia (the Red River and
the Mekong in Vietnam, and the Chao
Phraya in Thailand.
The project aimed at comparing irrigation and drainage management
systems, both at an institutional and
technical level in these three main
deltas of South-East Asia. The main objectives were:

To compare existing practices of

drainage) in the three deltas.
To evaluate their consequences on economic efficiency and
on constraints for further land

To identify conditions and results of

one common pattern of diversification (poldered raised beds system).

To propose new patterns of water


The key activities included:
1. Comparing different water management institutional designs that
existed (or have existed in the recent
past) in the three deltas, studying
the interaction between actors in
the successive levels of decision
found along the water chain and at
evaluating the water cost according
to the different designs that had
been identified: definition of the respective powers and responsibilities
of the institutions involved, impact
on financial issues, particularly the
calculation of the water tax.


2. Understanding hydraulic interrelations between different sub-areas

inside a global water management
unit and building models of hydraulic functioning. A related activity
identified number of changes in water management of some sub-areas
that better satisfied local needs.

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

3. Characterising the different technical patterns of major land
development being spread, namely
raised beds technique, specifying
its features regarding water management, in terms of quantity and
quality, identifying the conditions
of its profitability for various kinds
or groups of actors.

Results and outcome

01/03/1998 to 31/12/2000 (34 months)

Joint Research Project

Dr. Jean-Philippe Fontenelle
Groupement de Recherches
et dEchanges Technologiques

The project was conducted in three

different natural sites to enable
From the point of view of water control
institutional designs, policies and irrigation management, the main common
concern dealt with the relationship existing between farmers and state. In the
three cases this relation is conditioned
by historical political choices and
cultural context. Although the three
deltas realities are quite different from
the perspective of local willingness/traditions to organise collectively and of
farming households economic capacities, the general trend seems to be that
on one side the state tries to allocate
the resource and to combine several
competitive purposes.
The development of new agriculture activities has some impact on
water control framework which was
organised to satisfy rice production.
Local answers to changes in the socioeconomic environment led in each delta
to the development of new agricultural
patterns and associated water control
techniques. Such development is not



taken in to account by state authorities yet, but the economic and social
cost of these changes can not be left
to the localities only. It is also a question of overall economic development,
management of natural resources and
overall governance.

Selected Publications
Bui, K. & T. Nguyen, 1999. Analyse du cadre
institutionnel de lirrigation, VASI, Hanoi.
Dao, T. & F. Molle, 2000. The Chao Phraya Delta
in perspective: a comparison with the Red River
and Mekong deltas, Vietnam. pp. 399-421. In
The Chao Phraya Delta: Historical development,
Dynamics and Challenges of Thailands
rice bowl. Proceedings of the International
Conference, 12-15 December 2000, Bangkok,
Kasetsart University, IRD, Chulalongkorn
University and Kyoto University, Vol. 2.
Fontenelle, J.P. & V. Mai, 2001. Transformations
et permanence de lhabitat rural dans le delta
du fleuve Rouge: Exemple du village de Dao Xa
entre 1955 et 1993. pp 54-63. In Kleinen, J. (ed.).
Vietnamese Society in transition. Het Spinhuis,
Fontenelle, J.P., K. Bui, T. Dang, X. Luong & T.
Nguyen, 2000. Questions sur lhydraulique
agricole du delta du fleuve Rouge. pp. 199-219 In
Appui lorganisation de la production agricole
dans le Nord du Vietnam. INSA, GRET, PFR,
Maison dEdition de lAgriculture, Hanoi.
Fontenelle, J.P., T. Dao, P. Defourny & T.T. Dao,
2001. Atlas of the BacHung Hai Polder (Vietnam).
Agricultural Publishing House, Hanoi, 58 p.
Molle, F. & T. Dao, 2001. Water control and
agricultural development: Crafting deltaic
environments in Southeast Asia. Paper presented
at the Second Conference of the International
Water History Association (IWHA), The Role
of Water in History and Development. Bergen,
Norway, 23 p., In IWHA. Water Politics and
Control: Historical and Contemporary, I B Tauris,
London (2005).

Jean-Philippe Fontenelle
Groupement de Recherches et
dEchanges Technologiques
211-213 Rue la Fayette
75010 Paris
Tel: +33 1 40 05 61 45

Le Quang Minh
Can Tho University
College of Technology
Dept. Water Resources & Envt.
Eng. 3/2 Street.
Can Tho
E-M: Nhtrung@Ctu.Edu.Vn


Franois Molle


Kasetsart University Bangkok

Dept. of Irrigation Engineering
50 Phol Yothin Road
10900 Bangkok

Pierre Defourny
Universit Catholique de Louvain
Dept Sciences du Milieu &
Amnagement de la Terre
Rue de la Croix du Sud 2 Bte
B 1348 Louvain



Pierre Yves Le Meur &

Thomas Bierschenk
Johannes-Gutenberg-Univ. Mainz
Institut f.Ethnologie & Afrikastudien
Saarstr 21
55099 Mainz
E-M: Biersche@Uni-Hohenheim.De

Thippawal Srijantr
Institut de Recherche pour le
Dept Milieux & Activit Agricole
29 Sathorn Tal
10120 Bangkok

The Tuan Dao

Vietnam Agricultural Science Institute
Agricultural Systems Dept.
Van Dien, Thanh Tri
E-M: Daotheanh@Fpt.Vn



Control of bacterial regrowth in water supply

distribution systems in water-short European
and Mediterranean countries

Context and Objectives

Results and outcome

The proposal aimed to define the conditions under which bacterial regrowth
can occur in water distribution systems
with the objective of modelling water
quality changes in distribution, thus
enabling management of water supply
operations and maintenance to give
improvements in water quality. The
specific concern was that if bacterial
regrowth occurs there is an enhanced
possibility that opportunistic pathogens such as Aeromonas pseudomonas
and others will be able to establish and
give rise to water-borne outbreaks of
gastro-enteritis. Situations in which
this may occur include enhanced water
temperatures (global warming), together with water shortages giving rise to
more polluted raw waters, intermittent
water supplies, need for household and
distribution water storage and more
likely infiltration of polluted water in
times of negative pressure.

This project enabled the collection of

physical, chemical and microbiological
data from distribution systems in UK,
Portugal and three Mediterranean countries (Jordan, Lebanon and Palestine) to
allow the bacterial behaviour in distribution to be evaluated. The study
produced a comprehensive validated
model of bacterial behaviour in distribution systems which can be used as
a decision making tool for water supplies in the Southen Mediterranean and
elsewhere which would enable water
managers to provide better water quality despite the additional problems
which global warming will engender.

The kinetics of growth and disinfection
of heterotrophic bacteria, indicators and
opportunistic pathogens were studied
studied and the growth and death rates
were incorporated into a comprehensive
model of bacteria in distribution systems. The growth of bacteria in storage
tanks in households (Jordan, Lebanon
and Palestine) and in distribution system storage (UK and Portugal) was also
taken into account, using initially heterotrophic plate counts, then indicators
and finally pathogens to quantify the
extent of bacterial regrowth.
Infiltration effects were quantified in
Lebanon and Palestine, to evaluate the
effects of the post-stagnation flush on
bacterial quality. In Palestine an epidemiological study was conducted to
attempt to quantify the health effects
of unsatisfactory water quality.


Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/11/1997 to 30/04/2001 (42 months)
Joint Research Project

Lilian Evinson
University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
United Kingdom

The main results can be summarized

as follows:
1. Distribution systems (three intermittent & two continuous) in each
country were intensively sampled
over a 2 year period.
2. Bacterial regrowth (increase in
heterotrophic plate count (HPC),
absence of bacterial indicators) was
identified only in systems with low
chlorine and long (30+hrs) retention times.
3. These conditions were fulfilled in
service reservoirs in UK in summer.
4. In household water storage tanks in
intermittent supplies, increases of
up to five orders of magnitude occurred in 7 days.
5. Tank material did not affect the
extent of bacterial regrowth, and
bacterial regrowth occurred in both
surface and ground water.
6. Biofilm develops over many months
in most pipework, and allows conditions for growth of slower growing
bacteria, which can then be released
into the water.



7. Sudden changes of velocity cause detachment of biofilm and consequent

increase in bacterial numbers.
8. In systems with intermittent flow
the water quality is often poor
when flows restart, due to infiltration of contaminants in the
unpressurised period.
9. A plug flow model of bacterial
growth and death in distribution
has been developed, calibrated, and
used to evaluate different bacterial
control strategies in service reservoirs and storage tanks.
10. 1A sophisticated Lagrangian model
(Performance-Q) incorporating the
bacterial kinetics has also been
developed and used to explore the
bacterial regrowth in water distribution systems.
In addition to the scientific progress
made during the project, fruitful relationships were developed between the
research groups in the Mediterranean
countries and the water supply undertakings. This was particularly important
because there was a lack of basic information needed to manage the water
distribution system, such as pipe location, number of customers, water
pressures etc.

Information System (GIS), starting with

only the most sketchy information.

Lilian Evison

Selected Publications
Coelho, S.T. & S. James, 2001. Performance-Q.
Event-driven water Quality simulation for
distribution networks. Users Manual. Available
from the Perf-Q website:
portugues/ estudos/perf-q/Perf-Q%20Manual.doc
Evison, L. & N. Sunna, 2001. Microbial Regrowth
in Household Water Storage Tanks. Journal
AWWA, Vol. 93(9):8594.
Menaia, J., R. Alves, S. Sanches, G. Santos & E.
Mesquita, 2003. Monitoring the active sessilecolonisation of two drinking water distribution
systems based on the protein contents in native
biofilm samples. Water Sci.Technol., 47(5):169-73.

University of Newcastle Upon Tyne

Cassie Building, Claremont Road
Newcastle-upon-Tyne NE1 7RU
United Kingdom

Sergio Teixeira Coelho
Laboratrio Nacional de Engenharia
101 Avenida do Brasil 101
1799 Lisboa

Annan Jayyousi
An Najah National University
Khatab Street
PO Box 7
Palestinian Authority

Nawal Sunna
Water Authority of Jordan
PO Box 2412
11118 Amman

Fuad Hashwa
The project has been a catalyst in
stimulating a two-way cooperation in
overcoming these problems. In Jordan
this cooperation was easily achieved
since the researcher and the water undertaking were all together in
Water Authority of Jordan (WAJ). In
Palestine and Lebanon, where information on the distribution systems vas
very limited, the cooperation between
universities and water undertakings
achieved remarkably fruitful results.
For instance in Lebanon, during the
project period, it was possible to map
and hydraulically model the distribution
system at Nakkash using a Geographical


Lebanese American University

Jbeil - Blat
PO Box 36
10 Byblos


The impact of invasive grass species on
the structure, function and sustainable
use of coastal and inland sand dune
ecosystems in Southern Africa
Context and Objectives


In Southern Africa, two examples of

introduced, invasive grass species
and their effects on the sustainability
of natural ecosystems were studied.
Ammophila arenaria (Marram grass),
originating from North-Western Europe
was introduced for sand stabilisation
of coastal sand dunes along the Cape
coast of South Africa. In the USA, New
Zealand, and Australia, this grass species has a reputation of a notorious
invader, replacing indigenous vegetation and changing ecosystem functions
following introduction. Cenchrus biflorus, is invading the Kalahari inland
sand dune savanna of Botswana. It
originates from India and also occurs
in other continents (e.g. Australia). It is
a nuisance to farmers and local inhabitants, as it hurts cattle and wildlife.

The main activities and methodologies

used were:

The general objectives were:

1. To study the invasion characteristics, the population biology of the
invasive species in their new territories, the genetic characteristics and
plasticity, the effect of the invaders
on native vegetation, as well as on
the soil ecosystem.
2. To provide management prescriptions for the wise use and, if
appropriate, control of both invaders without a concomitant threat
to ecosystem function, biodiversity
and wildlife.

Field studies on the ecology of

plants and vegetation combined
with analyses of the invasion history and molecular analysis of the
genetic structure within and between populations of both species.
Field surveys combined with greenhouse experiments in order to
determine the response of the invasive plant species on the local soil
pathogens and mutualistic soil organisms (mycorrhizal fungi).

Results and outcome

In South Africa, Ammophila arenaria
has much less genetic variation between
populations than in Europe, where it
originates. The absence of specific soil
pathogens provides the A. arenaria
with an enemy free space. Nevertheless,
the ability of A. arenaria to invade
South African coastal dunes is limited,
because of abiotic constraints, especially high temperatures and low rainfall.
When there is no additional nursing
carried out, in the end, sand dune stabilisation with A. arenaria does not much
affect vegetation succession, sand dune
structure, and dune functions, because
the planted grass does not expand
naturally. However, it should still be
discouraged to use A. arenaria for dune
stabilisation, because it is exotic and
the risk of invasion after a lag period
remains. Studies on the ecology and applicability of native plant species have
now started to provide South African
dune managers with local alternatives.

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/10/1997 to 30/09/2000 (36 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Wim Van der Putten
Royal Netherlands Academy
of Arts and Science
The Netherlands


Cenchrus biflorus is an effective invader

because of its spiky seeds and because
plants may produce thousands of seeds
per square metre. Molecular analyses
have shown that the recent invasion





of C. biflorus in the Kalahari savanna

originates from another source than
the populations that have been present
for a number of decades. Therefore, invasion is a continuous process and new
introductions may be more invasive
than previous ones. Intense land use
was found to increase proneness to invasion of the Kalahari savanna because
it enhances the proportion of disturbed
soil creating conditions where the invasive grass thrives. Extensifying the
use of infested land is an efficient tool
to get rid of C. biflorus. Recent invasions may be counteracted by pulling
out plants or by preventing seed set
through mowing. Cenchrus biflorus is
efficient in the use of local mutualistic
soil fungi and it does not accumulate
soil pathogens of its own. The response
of local soil communities to C. biflorus
has the potential to affect plant community processes, but the results are
idiosyncratic, as some species benefit
and others are impaired.

Selected Publications
Bond, J.M., E.M. Veenendaal, D.D.Hornby & A.J.
Gray, 2002. Looking for Progenitors: A Molecular
Approach to Finding the Origins of An Invasive
Weed. Biological Invasions, 4(4):349-357.
Brinkman, E.P., H. Duyts & W.H. van der Putten,
2005. Consequences of variation in species
diversity in a community of root-feeding
herbivores for nematode dynamics and host
plant biomass. Oikos 110:417-427.
Hertling, U.M. & R.A Lubke, 1999. Use of
Ammophila arenaria for Dune Stabilisation
in South Africa and its Current Distribution
-Perceptions and Problems. Environmental
Management, 24:467-482.
Hertling, U.M. & R.A. Lubke, 2000. Assessing the
potential for biological invasion the case of
Ammophila arenaria in South Africa. S.Afr.J.Sci.,
Knevel, I.C, T. Lans, F.B.J. Menting, U.M. Hertling
& W.H. Van der Putten, 2004. The role of
the enemy release hypothesis and the biotic
resistance hypothesis in the establishment of
the alien Ammophila arenaria in South Africa.
Oecologia, 141:502-510.
Van der Putten, W.H., G.W. Yeates, H. Duyts,
C. Schreck Reis & G. Karssen, 2005. Invasive
plants and their escape from root herbivory:
a worldwide comparison of the root-feeding
nematode communities of the dune grass
Ammophila arenaria in natural and introduced
ranges. Biological Invasions, 7:733-746.
Veenendaal, E.M., B.R. Sekhute, B. Ripley & A.
Bums, 2000. Cenchrus biflorus: Alien or Sahelien?
Investigations into the invasive properties
of an alien annual grass in the Kalahari. pp.
83-92. In Ringrose, S. & R Masundire Chanda
(eds.). Towards sustainable management in the
Kalahari region - some essential background
and critical issues. Directorate of Research and
Development, University of Botswana Gaborone,

Wim Van der Putten
Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts
and Science
22 Boterhoeksestraat 48
P.B. 19121
6666 ZG Heteren
The Netherlands

Alan Gray
Natural Environment Research Council
Wareham - Dorset BH20 5AS
United Kingdom

Roy Lubke
Rhodes University
Lucas Avenue
6140 Grahamstown
South Africa

Elbert Marinus Veenendaal

University of Botswana
Private Bag
PO Box 0022
10 Gaborone




Prediction of the resilience and recovery
of disturbed coastal communities
in the tropics

Context and Objectives

High population growth rates and increased economic activity of South East
(SE) Asian countries create increasing
pressure on natural resources and extensive environmental deterioration.
SE Asian coastal ecosystems are an
important source of renewable natural
resources and are widely deteriorated
by increased pressure from diverse
human activities (urbanisation, industrialisation, fishing, aquaculture, farming,
transport). Knowlegde of the structure
and function of coastal ecosystems is
essential to improved environmental management of renewable natural
resources that will assure long-term
productivity of coastal ecosystems and
sustainable development of SE Asian
countries. Although there is an increasing knowledge of the deterioration
process of SE Asian coastal ecosystems
and the consequences for the life of
coastal communities, the mechanisms
by which ecosystem recovery is attained and the factors that control that
recovery are largely ignored. We lack
fundamental knowledge to model the
resilience of coastal ecosystems to increased pressure from human activities
and, therefore, to predict the level of
human pressure that is sustainable and
predict pathways and rates of recovery
of deteriorated coastal ecosystems.

To model the resilience and recovery of plant communities:

recolonisation, changes in the
structure of communities under
pressure, and successional patterns
during recovery.
To determine how the spatial
fragmentation of disturbed plant
populations of SE Asian coastal ecosystems affects their reproductive
success, genetic diversity and ability to recover.
To establish and model the resilience
and recovery of the food webs supported by the plant communities.

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/10/1998 to 31/03/2002 (42 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Carlos M. Duarte
Instituto Mediterrneo de Estudios


Such prediction tools are essential components of the success of environmental

management plans aiming to the sustainable development of SE Asian coastal
communities. The main goal was to develop models predicting the resilience
of SE Asian seagrass and mangrove ecosystems against human pressure. This
involved the following objectives:

To determine the sediment and water column conditions necessary to

support plant communities and to
determine the resilience of key habitat conditions to support plant life.





Results and outcome

The key activities involved:

Comparative analyses of the contrasting ecosystems selected in The

Phillipines; Bolinao (Pangasinan, NW
Luzon) and Ulugan Bay (Palawan);
and Vietnam, Ha Long Bay (Quang
Ninh) and Con Dao Islands. The
objectives were achieved through
correlative analyses of habitat,
plant and associated fauna characteristics among vegetated and
non-vegetated sites along gradients
of human perturbation.
Detailed field studies to elucidate
the causal relationships involved
in the resilience, and to obtain
the parameters needed to formulate the predictive models. This
included in situ field studies and
field experiments in coastal plant
communities along a range of fragmentation and patch separation,
where the rates of clonal growth,
patch formation and patch growth
of the different species were estimated, and the pattern of spatial
occupation was described along
ranges of human disturbance.
Integration of the knowledge
acquired into general models predicting the resilience and recovery of
SE Asian coastal plant communities.
Field experiments to verify the
causal relationships drawn and to
test the models.

Mangroves were positively affected

by siltation while seagrasses were
negatively impacted by siltation
and aquaculture activities.
Recovery of areas affected by siltation may take years to decades in
sheltered areas, where sediments
will function as sources of silt and
organic matter to the water column
for long periods of time.
Seagrass recruitment showed high
inter-annual variability, and mortality of the recruits was high. The
recovery of seagrass cover in disturbed areas was low (33 % or less of
total surface) in 2-3 years, and likely
constrained by the slow recovery of
sediment conditions. Populations
of mangrove seedlings and saplings
were not in demographic equilibrium at the annual scale which
suggests that recovery of disturbed
mangrove stands may proceed at
decadal temporal scales.
In SE Asia the mangroves and seagrass meadows did not directly
provide food for the local fauna
and food webs were reliant on other primary producers, which need,
however, the seagrass to develop.
Nutrient enrichment and light reduction threaten the health of
seagrasses and hence the communities that rely on them for structure
and growth.

Selected Publications
Agawin, N.S.R. & C.M. Duarte, 2002. Evidence of
direct particle trapping by a tropical seagrass
meadow. Estuaries, 25:1205-209.
Agawin, N.S.R., C.M. Duarte & S. Agust, 2003.
Abundance, biomass and growth rates of
Synechococcus sp. in a tropical coastal ecosystem
(Philippines, South China Sea).Estuarine, Coastal
and Shelf Science, 56:93-502.
Coulter, S., C.M. Duarte, S.T. Mai, H.T. Nguyen,
T. H. Hoang, H.G. Le & N.H. Phan, 2001.
Retrospective estimates of net mangrove
(Kandelia candel) production. Mar.Ecol.Progr.Ser.,
Duarte, C.M., 2000. Marine biodiversity and
ecosystem services: an elusive link. Journal
of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology,
Duarte, C.M., U.Thampanya, J. Terrados,
O. Geertz-Hansen & M.D. Fortes, 1999. The
determination of the age and growth of SE Asian
mangrove seedlings from internodal counts.
Mangroves and Salt Marshes, 3:51-257.
Gacia, E., C.M. Duarte, N. Marb, J. Terrados,
H. Kennedy, P. Kennedy, N. Cayabab, M.D.
Fortes & N.H. Tri, 2003. Sediment deposition
and production in SE-Asia seagrass meadows.
Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 56:909-919.
Gacia, E., H. Kennedy, C.M. Duarte, J. Terrados, N.
Marb, S. Papadimitriou & M. Fortes, 2005. Lightdependence of the metabolic balance of a highly
productive Philippine seagrass community.
Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and
Ecology, 316:55-67.
Ha, H.T., C.M. Duarte, N.H. Tri, J. Terrados & J.
Borum, 2003. Growth and population dynamics
during early stages of the mangrove Kandelia
candel in Halong Bay, North Viet Nam. Estuarine,
Coastal and Shelf Science, 58:435444.
Halun, Z., J. Terrados, J. Borum, L. KampNielsen, C.M. Duarte & M.D. Fortes, 2002.
Experimental evaluation of the effects
of siltation-derived changes in sediment
conditions on the Philippine seagrass
Cymodocea rotundata. Journal of Experimental
Marine Biology and Ecology, 279:73-87.
Huong, T.T.L., J.E. Vermaat, J.T.Terrados, N.V.
Tien, C.M. Duarte, J. Borum & N.H. Tri, 2003.
Seasonality and depth zonation of intertidal
Halophila ovalis and Zostera japonica in Ha Long
Bay (Northern Viet Nam). Aquat.Bot., 75:147-157.
Kennedy, H., E. Gacia, D.P. Kennedy, S.
Papadimitriou & C.M. Duarte, 2004 Organic
carbon sources to SE Asian coastal sediments.
Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science, 60(1):59-68.
Lacap, C.D.A., J.E. Vermaat, R.N. Rollon & H.M.E.
Nacorda, 2002. Propagule dispersal of the S.E.
Asian seagrasses Enhalus acoroides and Thalassia
hemprichii. Mar.Ecol.Progr.Ser., 235:75-80.
Lacap, C.D.A., J.E. Vermaat, R.N. Rollon, H.M.E.
Nacorda & M.D. Fortes, 2000. Implications of
the short seed dispersal in the seagrass Enhalus
acoroides (L.F.) Royle. Biol.Mar.Medit., 7(2):83-86.





Olesen, B., N. Marb, C.M. Duarte, R.S. Savela &

M.D. Fortes, 2004. Recolonization dynamics in
mixed seagrass meadows: The role of clonal vs.
sexual processes. Estuaries, 27:770-780.



Carlos Manuel Duarte Quesada

Tri Nguyen Hoang

Padilla, C.N., C.M. Duarte, J. Terrados, L.

Kamp-Nielsen,J. Borum & M. D. Fortes, 2004.
Growth, recruitment and mortality of mangrove
(Rhizophora sp) seedlings under contrasting
sediment conditions in Ulugan Bay, Palawan,
Philippines. TREES, 18:589595.

Instituto Mediterrneo de Estudios

CSIC-Univ. Illes Balears
C/ Miquel Marques 21
07190 Esporles (Islas Baleares),
SpaiTel: +34 971 61 17 25
Fax: +34 971 61 17 61

The Vietnam National University,

Center for Natural Resources and
Environmental Studies
7 Ngo 115, Nguyen Khuyen



Rollon, R.N., H.M.E Nacorda & J.E. Vermaat, 2003.

Sexual production in SE Asian seagrasses: the
absence of a seed bank in Thalassia hemprichii
(Bolinao, NW Philippines). Aquat.Bot., 75:181-185.
Thampanya, U., J.E. Vermaat & C.M. Duarte, 2002.
Colonization success of common Thai mangrove
species as a function of shelter from water
movement. Mar.Ecol.Progr.Ser., 237:111-120.
Vermaat, J.E., R.N. Rollon, C.D.A. Lacap, C.
Billot, F. Alberto, H.M.E. Nacorda, F. Wiegman &
J. Terrados, 2004. Meadow fragmentation and
reproductive output of the S.E. Asian seagrass
Enhalus acoroides. J. Sea Res., 52:321-328.

Ester Serrao
Universidade do Algarve
Instituto do Mar
U.C.T.R.A. - Un. Algarve, Gambelas
8000 Faro

Hilary Kennedy
University of Wales Bangor
School of Ocean Sciences
Menai Bridge LL59 5EY
United Kingdom

Jens Borum
University of Copenhagen
Freshwaterbiological Laboratory
Helsingorsgade 51
3400 Hillerod

Jan Vermaat
Institute for Infrastructure. Hydraulic
& Environment Engineering Westvest 7
P.O. Box 3015
2601 DA Delft
The Netherlands

Miguel Dino Fortes

University of The Philippines
College of Science, Marine Science
G.T. Velazquez St.
P.O. Box 1
1101 Diliman, Quezon City




Toxic Cyano Bacteria

Occurence of toxic cyanobacteria waterblooms
- impact on water environments and
potential human health risk. Environmental,
physiological and genetic mechanisms involved
in toxins production
Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/11/1998 to 31/03/2002 (41 months)
Joint Research Project

Prof. Alain Dauta
Universit Paul Sabatier De Toulouse III

Context and Objectives


The toxic cyanobacteria waterblooms in

freshwater environments are a growing
problem in agriculture, aquaculture, human health through drinking water and
recreational uses. Due to toxic effects,
water and health are the first area of
concern. For humans, the main exposure
routes are skin contact, oral ingestion
or inhalation (e.g. during bathing). Main
consequences are allergic reactions,
dizziness, fever, gastro-enteritis, hepatic illness, leading to liver cancer in case
of chronic effects. The objectives of the
project were to provide results necessary to develop a set of strategies to
deal with toxic cyanobacterial blooms.
The specific objectifs were

Various tasks were undertaken to meet

the objectives:


Toxic Cyano Bacteria

Field studies, routine sampling, survey of particular lakes, screening

and evaluation of toxicity in blooms
(Brazil, France, Greece, Israel,
Morocco, Spain).

Isolation of strains and taxonomy

(Brazil, Greece, Israel, Morocco,

Ecophysiological studies of cyanobacteria from strain cultures

(Brazil, Finland, France, Morocco).

Toxins were recovered from cultures (Finland, Israel).

Study of toxins: new toxins, structure, standard production and

genetic definition (Finland, Israel,

Effects of toxins (toxicity levels) and

food chain (Brazil, Finland, Greece,

Updating and focusing methods

(Finland, Greece, Israel, Spain,).

Cyanobacterial bloom prediction

using modelling (Brazil, France,
Greece, Spain).

Cyanotoxin biosensor development

(France, Greece).

Web site development associated

with the project.

To determine the toxicity of blooms

in water bodies.

To assess the toxicity risk in order

to reduce human health risk.

To initiate a monitoring process of

a crisis period.


Results and outcome

The project facilitated the exchange of
methods between the partners; some
toxin analysis methods were updated
or improved, specially the high-performance liquid chromatography HPLC
preoxydation method for saxitoxin
analysis, the Protein Phosphate PP1
assays for microcystin analysis, and
the standard procedure for analytical
methods and purification of cyanobacterial toxins. The use of Artificial Neural
Network ANN was sucessfully tested to
predict the occurrence of cyanobacteria blooms. A new way of detection of
anatoxin was proposed using a biosensor. A standard methodology for field
surveys (screening or routine sampling)
was proposed. From field sampling, new
strains were isolated and were made
available for the scientific community
(Brazil=65, Greece= 64, Morocco=8,
Spain=33 strains). A special focus was
placed on Aphanizomenon ovalisporum and its toxin: cylindrospermopsin,
specially its pattern of production,
the description of the structure of the
cyanobacterial hepatoxin and the assessment of its toxicity.

(adenylation domain) and for microcystin synthetase mcyE gene region to

identify and quantify toxic Microcystis
by real-time PCR. The effects of toxins
on the food chain were studied through
mortality and reduction of the reproduction rate caused by Microcystis and
Oscillatoria (bloom and culture extracts)
on Daphnia magna or mice bioassays.
Bioaccumulation of microcystins was
studied in Tilapia rendalli, evidence
showed that fish muscle tissue contained concentrations of microcystins
close to or above the recommended
limit for human consumption (0.04g. The results were communicated to Water Authorities from the
different countries involved in the research. Recommendations were given
to improve controls for drinking water or bathing area and alert levels, as
well as for the implementation of the
existing legislation in Spain and Greece.
Cyanobacteria and cyanotoxins were
incorporated in a new regulation for
Brazil, and microcystin level started
being controlled in drinking water in
France and Morocco

A new isomer and chlorinated derivatives of hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin

were isolated, suggesting new ways of
treatment of drinking water and assessing its consequences.
The target and the toxicity of hepatotoxin
cylindrospermopsin (Aphanizomenon,
Israelian strain) was determined, also
the LD50 values for Cylindrospermopsis
raciborskii (Brazilian strain). Toxic
strains could not be distinguished
from non-toxic ones by morphological
features, molecular methods such as
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) were
used in characterisation of cyanobacteria. A number of cyanobacteria were
identified by sequencing the 16srNA
genes, designing primers for substrate
specificity of peptide synthetases


Toxic Cyano Bacteria


Toxic Cyano Bacteria


Selected Publications
and Papers
Banker, R., S. Carmeli, M. Werman, B. Teltsch,
R. Porat & A. Sukenik, 2001. Uracil moiety is
required for toxicity of the cyanobacterial
hepatotoxin cylindrospermopsin. J. Tox. &
Environ. Health, 62:101-108.
Banker, R., B. Teltsch, A. Sukenik & S.
Carmeli, 2000. 7-Epilcylindrospermopsin,
toxic minor metabolite in the cyanobacerium
Aphanizomenon ovalisporum from Lake
Kinneret, Israel. J. Natural Products, 63:387-389.
Boumnich, L., M. Derraz, B. Naji & A. Dauta,
2001. Influence des facteurs hliothermiques
et nutritionnels sur la croissance de Microcystis
aeruginosa Kutzing isole de la retenue
eutrophe El Kansera (Maroc). Annales Limnol.,
Carmichael, W.W., S.M.F.O. Azevedo, J. An, R.J.R.
Molica, E.M. Jochimsen, S. Lau, K. Rinheart, G.R.
Shaw & G.K. Eaglesham, 2001. Human fatalities
from cyanobacteria: chemical and biological
evidence for cyanotoxins. Environmental Health
Perspectives, 109:663-668.
Devic, E., D. Li, A. Dauta, P. Henriksen, G.A.
Codd, J.L. Marty & D. Fournier, 2002. Detection
of Anatoxin-a(s) in environmental samples
of cyanobacteria by using a biosensor with
engineered acetylcholinestreases. Applied and
Environmental Microbiology, 68(8):4102-4106.
Ferao Filho, A.S., S.M.F.O. Azevedo & W.R.
Demott, 2001. Effects of toxic and non-toxic
cyanobacteria on the life history of tropical
and temperate cladocerans. Freshwater Biology,
Lahti, K., J. Rapala, A.L. Kivimaki, J. Kukkonen,
M. Niemela & K. Sivonen, 2001. Occurrence of
microcystins in raw water sources and treated
drinking water of Finnish waterworks. Water
Science and Technology, 43:225-228.
Lyra, C., S. Suomalainen, M. Gugger, C. Vezie, P,
Sundman, L. Paulin & K. Sivonen, 2001. Molecular
characterization of plantik cyanobacteria of
Anabaena, Aphanizomenon, Microcystis and
Planktothrix genera. Int.J. System.Evol.Microbiol.,
Magalhaes, V.F., R.M. Soares & S.M.F.O. Azevedo,
2001. Microcystin contamination in fish from
the Jacarepagu Lagoon (RJ, Brazil): Ecological
implication and human health risk. Toxicon.,
Rapala, J., K. Lahti, L.A., Rasasnen, A.L. Esala,
S.I. Niemela & K. Sivonen, 2002. Endotoxins
associated with cyanobacteria and their
removal during drinking water treatment. Water
Research, 36:2627-2635.
Sanchis, D., D. Carrasco, C. Padilla, F. Legans,
E. Fernndez-Valiente, F. Fernndez-del-Campo
& A. Quesada, 2002. Spatial and temporal
heterogeneity in succession of cyanobacterial
blooms in a Spanish reservoir. Annales de
Limnologie., 38:173-183.
Vardaka, E., M. Moustaka-Gouni & T. Lanras,
2000. Temporal and spatial distribution of
planktic cyanobacteria in lake Kastoria, Greece, a
swallow urban lake. Nord J. Bot., 20:501-511.


Toxic Cyano Bacteria



Alain Dauta

Sandra Azevedo

Universit Paul Sabatier
118, route de Narbonne
31062 Toulouse Cedex 04
TEL: +33 561 55 67 24
FAX: +33 561 55 60 96

Departamento de Biologia
Nucleo de Pesquisas em Produtos
Universidad Federal do Rio de Janeiro
221949 900 Ilhal do Fundao R.J.


Antonio Quesada
Departamento de Biologa
Facultad de Ciencias
Canto Blanco
228049 Madrid

Kaarina Sivonen
Dept. Applied Chemical and
Viiki Biocenter
900014 Helsinki

Thomas Lanaras
Department of Botany
Aristotle University
109 54124 Thessaloniki

Assaf Sukenik
Ygal Allon Kinneret Limnological
Po Box 447
14950 Migdal

Mustapha Derraz
Dpartement de Biologie
Universit Moulay Ismal
BP 4010, Bni MHamed
50003 Meknes


Assessment of mangrove degradation and

resilience in the Indian subcontinent:
the cases of Godavari estuary and
South-west Sri Lanka
Context and Objectives
The general objective of this project
was to contribute to the understanding of fundamental ecodynamics of
mangroves and adjacent waters and
to estimate mangrove resilience to human impact in two contrasting settings
of the Indian sub-continent: the large
mangrove ecosystem associated with
the delta of the Gautami-Godavari in
Andhra Pradesh, India, and the array of
smaller, fragmented mangrove systems
along the South-west Sri Lankan coast.
These mangrove ecosystems differ
significantly in terms of hydrodynamics, biogeochemical functioning and
trophic interactions, biodiversity and
socio-economic dependency by the local population.

The main activities included:

To contribute to the understanding of fundamental ecodynamics of

mangroves and adjacent waters and
to estimate mangrove resilience to
human impact.

To document the spatial and seasonal variability of floral and faunal

community composition in the mangrove ecosystem of the Godavari
Delta and within Sri Lanka., as controlled by ambient surface water
quality and groundwater flow.

To establish the spatio-temporal

(decadal) dynamics and regeneration potential of mangroves.

To detect the functional linkages

between aquatic fauna (fish and
shellfish) and mangroves: trophic
interactions and role of refuge.

To document the socio-economic

role of mangroves regarding forestry and fisheries resources and
to assess human dependency on
the mangrove ecosystems of the
Godavari Delta and in Sri Lanka.


Field studies to assess the spatial

variability of aquatic flora and fauna as a function of freshwater flow.
Modelling of the freshwater flow.

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/11/1998 to 31/12/2002 (50 months)
Joint Research Project


The specific objectives were:

To evaluate mangrove - aquaculture

interrelations, specifically to assess
appropriation of ecosystem services
by aquaculture.

Study of the spatio-temporal dynamics of flora and vegetation. Estimation

of global and specific tree density
and generation of a physiognomic
and floristic description of the mangroves in relation to natural events
(e.g. changes in river course) and
impingement by man. Retroactive
assessment of mangrove physiognomy and floristic composition via
stereoscopic aerial photographs
covering the last fifty years for Sri
Lanka. Assessment of the functional
linkages between aquatic fauna (fish
and shellfish) and mangroves and
the role of mangroves as refuge.
Study of the trophic interactions.

Evaluation of the economical significance of the mangrove environment.

Evaluation of capture fishery production sustained by mangrove
forests. Evaluation of the impact
of different land use decisions (e.g.
shrimp farming) on capture fishery
production. Study of the extent of
wood extraction.

Construction of a data bank using

ARC/Info GIS. Making data available
under ARC/View format.

Evaluation of the importance of

prawn farming and its impact on the
whole ecosystem. Study of the dependency of shrimp cultures on both the
local mangrove and other supporting

Prof. Frank Dehairs

Vrije Universiteit Brussel


systems. Evaluation of the ecosystem areas needed for sustaining the

shrimp production. Evaluation of
the effects of (over)fishing of natural prawn seed. Identification of the
limitation for further expansions of
aquaculture practices. Identification
of specific shrimp culture systems
and mangrove areas suitable for
fishery valuation.

Results and outcome

Decadal changes in coastal geomorphology and/or mangrove cover and
composition as well as resident faunal
communities (e.g. macrobenthos) were
evident both in the Godavari Estuary
and in the fragmented mangrove lagoons along the Sri Lankan coast. Within
the closely guarded Coring Wildlife
sanctuary (Godavari Delta) there is still
some luxuriant vegetation implying better management practices. Observed
changes occurred from both local anthropogenic disturbances (wood extraction,
construction of aquaculture ponds, etc.)
and as indirect effect of distant causes,
in particular the construction of dams
and the resulting impacts on freshwater
flows and sedimentation patterns. From
a different perspective, it should be
noted that the observed highly dynamic
nature of these mangrove forests and
their potential for rapid aerial extension
indicates that their resilience to anthropogenic impacts is high in the sense that
new areas may be (re)colonised, either
naturally or artificially, given that the
right environmental conditions and recruitment areas were present.

the relevant management bodies should

address. Following the tsumani that hit
the region on 26 December 2004, the
protective value of the mangroves is certainly another dimension shedding light
on the service in terms of sea defences.

The ecological services provided by

mangroves as a whole are difficult if
not impossible to express in monetary
terms, and focus was laid on estimating their value as a support system for
fisheries. For the Godavari Estuary, this
service was valued at 2,700 US$ per ha,
which extrapolates to ~90,000 US$ annually for the entire area.
In terms of management, these issues
implied the implementation and enforcement of the protected status of the
mangroves in the Godavari Delta, and
reconsidering the status of currently
unprotected areas the latter does not
imply that human utilisation should be
completely banned. In Sri Lanka, the
lack of an integrated policy for the highly fragmented and erratically managed
mangroves is a major concern which




Selected Publications
Bouillon, S., T. Moens, I. Overmeer, N. Koedam &
F. Dehairs, 2004. Resource utilization patterns of
epifauna from mangrove forests with contrasting
inputs of local versus imported organic matter.
Marine Ecology Progress Series, 278:77-88.
Dahdouh-Guebas, F., S. Hettiarachchi, D.
Lo Seen, O. Batelaan, S. Sooriyarachchi, L.P.
Jayatissa & N. Koedam, 2005. Transitions in
ancient inland freshwater resource management
in Sri Lanka affect biota and human populations
in and around coastal lagoons. Current Biology,
Dehairs, F., R. Rao, P. Chandra Mohan, A.V.
Raman, S. Marguillier & L. Hellings, 2000. Tracing
the carbon and nitrogen flow in the mangrove
ecosystem of the Gautami - Godavari Delta, Bay
of Bengal (India). Hydrobiologia, 431:225-241.
Jayatissa, L.P., M.C. Guero, S. Hettiarachchi &
N. Koedam, 2002. Changes in vegetation cover
and socio-economic transitions in a coastal
lagoon (Kalametiya, Sri Lanka), as observed
by teledetection and ground truthing, can be
attributed to an upstream irrigation scheme.
Environment, Development and Sustainability,
Moberg, F. & P. Rnnbck, 2003. Ecosystem
Services in the Tropical Seascape: Ecosystem
Interactions, Substituting Technologies, and
Ecosystem Restoration. Ocean and Coastal
Management, 46:27-46.
Raut, D., T. Ganesh, N.V.S.S. Murty & A.V. Raman,
2005. Macrobenthos of Kakinada Bay in the
Godavari Delta, East coast of India: Comparing
decadal changes. Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf
Science, 62:609-620.
Rnnbck, P. & J.H. Primavera, 2000. Illuminating
the Need for Ecological Knowledge in Economic
Valuation of Mangroves under Different
Management Regimes a Critique. Ecological
Economics, 35:135-141.
Rnnbck, P., M. Troell, T. Zetterstrm & D.E.
Babu, 2003. Mangrove Dependence and SocioEconomic Concerns in Shrimp Hatcheries
of Andhra Pradesh, India. Environmental
Conservation, 30:344-352.
Satyanarayana, B., A.V. Raman, F. Dehairs, P.
Chandra Mohan & C. Kalavati, 2002. Mangrove
floristic and zonation patterns of Coringa,
Kakinada Bay, East coast of India. Wetlands
Ecology and Management, 10:25-39.
Verheyden, A., F. Dahdouh-Guebas, K. Thomaes,
W. De Genst, S. Hettiarachchi & N. Koedam, 2002.
High resolution vegetation data for mangrove
research as obtained from aerial photography.
Environment, Development and Sustainability,




Frank Dehairs

Nils Kautsky

Vrije Universiteit Brussel

(Dept. Of Analtyical and Environmental
Pleinlaan 2
1050 Bruxelles
Tel: +32 2 629 32 60
Fax: +32 2 629 32 74

Stockholm Universitet
Svante Arrhenius Vaeg 21 A
106 91 Stockholm



Gerard Van Der Velde

Katholieke Universiteit Nijmegen
Radboud University Nijmegen
Institute of Water and Wetland
Toernooiveld, 6525 ED Nijmegen
The Netherlands

Danny Lo Seen
French Institute of Pondicherry
11 Saint Louis Street
PO Box 33
605001 Pondicherry

Sanath Hettiarachi
University of Ruhuna
20060 Matara
Sri Lanka

Chandra Mohan, Akur Vasudevan

Raman & Changati Kalavati Marine
Biological Laboratory
Andhra University
530003 Waltair


Measuring, monitoring and managing
sustainability: The coastal dimension

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/12/1998 to 30/11/2002 (48 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Ligia Noronha
Goa, India


Context and Objectives

Coastal areas today, especially in developing countries, are sites of high
human pressure with implications for
local ecosystems and people. In this
context, this research was conceived
and implemented to understand the
nature of the drivers of coastal change
and how this change can be managed to
ensure improved and continued human
The main objectives of this project were
(i) to understand how societal driving
forces interact with the natural systems
to result in impacts on coastal resources
in India, (ii) to identify the key variables
affecting the use of coastal resources,
(iii) to examine the policy matrix in
place, and (iv) to identify the information requirements and decision-making
instruments necessary for more effective local management.

Activities to meet the objectives were
based on investigations of how societal driving forces - demographic,
commercial and market, cultural and
technological - interact with the ecosystems to result in impacts on coastal
resources of India. The project involved
detailed socio-economic and ecosystem
health research in the three selected
locations representative of the three
dominant development drivers:



The project had three phases: Phase I:

Expert meeting, Literature Review, and
Development of a framework of coastal
vulnerability indicators and Selection
of study areas; Phase II: Data Collection
and Analysis in the selected study areas;
Phase III: Model building and Integration,
Policy Analysis and Development of GIS
based decision tools.

Results and outcome

The project strengthened research capacity of the partner countries. It is
expected to have significant uptake
and use by people within and outside
the scientific community. Widest possible dissemination has been done,
through meetings, journal articles, a
multi-authored volume on the work on
tourism, discussion with state and local
governments and placing results on the
project website (
teri-wr/coastin/) to encourage research
uptake and application.
The ecosystem impacts observed from
human activity in the study areas and
key variables of influence identifided
for type of impact were:
North Goa



Activities comprised an identification

of the key variables affecting coastal
resources in the context of these drivers and locations, an assessment of the
type and extent of demands placed by


various societal drivers on coastal resources and the coastal environment

under the present and alternative
growth strategies, a diagnostic assessment of the policy in place and the
development of tools necessary for effective coastal management.

Land use and cover changes:

Population and population movements,
remittance income, demand from
tourism, lower personal dependency
on the ecosystem, insufficient knowledge of ecosystem values, lower
personal as compared to community
valuation of ecosystems, short time
horizons, zoning rules and need to


preempt their enforcement, changes

in legal rules that had implication
for management regimes, local politics and the power configurations,
political economy of the state and
the rent seeking behaviour that relate to construction activity.

Groundwater stress: Increased demand from population growth (both

host and tourist), lack of policy to
regulate access and use, technology
of extractive equipment, economic
activity, insufficient attention to
the attributes of the system, development of a water market to service
tourism; the sewage disposal system and no protection zoning.
Degradation of beaches, coastal vegetation: Population, user behaviour,
rule enforcement, absence of waste
management, short time horizons
of the tourism industry.
Land form changes: both due to
natural and human factors.
Poor water quality in creeks: sewage
outfalls, accumulated garbage.

East Godavari

Mangrove conversion: increased

population pressure and use of
mangroves for building houses, firewood, and fencing; some reclamation
for aquaculture and agriculture, and
poor rule enforcement.

Rising trend in groundwater: rainfall, seepage from canals, field

channels and return flow from irrigation, insufficient knowledge of
aquifer vulnerability, absence of
regulation of rising levels based
on conjunctive use of surface and
ground water.

Reduced groundwater quality: potassium in agricultural area due to

clay mineral dissolution or due to
leaching of chemical fertilizers or
both; high nitrate use is recorded,
but this does not show up in the

A framework of indicators of coastal vulnerability to threats from

development which, if used, would
enable a wider public awareness of
the problem worked on and could
be used to monitor coastal changes
in India over time.

Deterioration of coastal and surface

water quality: poor rule enforcement and direct discharges from
human activity, substantial discharge of untreated effluents, high
use of nitrates and phosphates.

A framework for an integrated

analysis of the social and ecological
dimensions of coastal development

Decision tools to study impacts of

choices in selected locations, which
can be used for more effective local
coastal management in Goa, Thane
and East Godavari.

Indicators of drivers and pressures.


Change in land cover, reduced greenness: very high human pressure and
need of land for settlements and

Polluted coastal waters :industrial

effluents and municipal sewage releases, poor rule enforcement.

Groundwater quality tested very
close to the industrial effluent
The groundwater supply is not a
constraint as all the industries are
provided with the surface water by
pipe coming from outside the watershed. But the very large quantity
of water used in the industrial sector poses a threat to groundwater
environment by its mixing in the
subsurface, poor rule enforcement.

A method for stakeholders to obtain a quick and composite picture

of pollution levels in various marine
An approach to developing scenarios
using multi-stakeholder concerns.
A management policy for groundwater using optimisation techniques
and protection zoning.

Some of the deliverables of this project could be used to study other Indian
coastal regions and can even be adopted for the South and South East Asian
Region countries, which have similar
economic, social and environmental
contexts as India.
More specifically the following would
be of use to the scientific and the nonscientific community:





Selected Publications
COASTIN A Coastal Policy Research Newsletter:
Seven issues of the newsletter for this project
were published and circulated to over 500
researchers, policy makers and institutions.
Noronha, L. et al. (eds.), 2002. Coastal Tourism,
environment, sustainable local development.
Teri. New Deli, 47p.
Chachadi, A.G. & J.P.C. Lobo-Ferreira, 2001.
Sea water intrusion vulnerability mapping of
aquifers using the GALDIT method. pp. 143-155.
In Elango L & Jayakumar R. (eds.). Modelling in
hydrogeology. Allied Publishers Limited, New
Delhi. UNESCO, 3-7, Dec. 2001. ISBN 81-7764218-9.
Jorge, R., N. Loureno, C. Machado & L.
Rodrigues, 2002. Measuring, monitoring and
managing sustainability in Indian coastal areas:
the socioeconomic dimension. Proceedings of
the Conference Littoral 2002: The changing
coast, Porto, Faculdade de Engenharia da
Universidade do Porto.
Krijgsman, B. & J.P. Lobo-Ferreira, 2001.
A Methodology for Delineating Wellhead
Protection Areas. Lisboa, Laboratrio Nacional
de Engenharia Civil. Informao Cientfica de
Hidrulica, INCH 7:76 p.
Lobo-Ferreira, J.P.C., M.C. Cunha, A.G. Chachadi,
K. Nagel, C. Diamantino & M.M. Oliveira,
2002. Aplicao de Modelos de Optimizao
para Satisfao das Necessidades Hdricas de
Infra-Estruturas Tursticas na Zona Costeira
de Bardez, em Goa, ndia. Porto, Associao
Portuguesa dos Recursos Hdricos, 6.
Congresso da gua, 18-22 March, 2002, 15 p. (in



Maria Ligia Noronha

Nelson Lourenco

Tata Energy Research Institute (Teri)

Western Regional Centre
Sindhur Building
First Floor
La Citadel Colony
Doa Paula, Goa 403004
Tel: +91 832 245 6064
Fax: +91 832 245 6053

Universidade Nova de Lisboa

Socinova-Gabinete de Investigaao em
Sociologia Aplicada
Avenida de Berna, 26
1069-061 Lisboa


Laboratorio Nacional de Engenharia

Depto. de Hidraulica
Avenida do Brasil 101
1799 Lisboa Codex


Joao Paolo Lobo-Ferreira


Anna Lleopart
Instituto Cartografic de Catalunya
Parc de Montjuic
08038 Barcelona

Enrico Feoli
Universita degli Studi di Trieste
Dipartimento di Biologia
Via Giorgieri 10
34100 Trieste

Kalidas Sawkar
National Institute of Oceanography
403 004 Doa Paula

A.G. Chachadi
Goa University
Dept. of Geology
S.P.O. Goa University
403205 Taleigao Plateau




Appropriate marine resource management

and conflict resolution in island ecosystems.
Test case: marine invertebrates and the
co-existence of conservation, tourism and
fisheries interests
Context and Objectives


By their very nature island ecosystems

often have more in common with each
other than they do with neighbouring
mainlands. This project was drawn
on the diverse research capabilities
of four distinct island-based partners,
two based in Europe and two in Latin
America/Caribbean, creating a network
to focus on key issues related to marine
resource management and conservation. The two host island ecosystems,
although geographically distinct, have
a number of common issues relating
to their economic reliance on tourism
and fisheries and their need for good
(conflict free) conservation management if long term sustainability is to
be achieved. The islands in question
are the ecologically unique Galapagos
of the eastern Equatorial Pacific and
the tropical Caribbean archipelago of
San Andrs.

The key activities involved:

The research aimed to strengthen and

promote local capabilities for conflict
resolution and co-management of resource utilisation and conservation;
strengthen and promote local capacity in parallel with education, science
and management; and provide sound
technical information for informed conservation and management decisions.

1. Technical Assessments

Spiny Lobster

Improve the technical basis for

management of marine invertebrate
fisheries and tourism.

Evaluate the application of AGORA

(Assessment of Group Options with
Reasonable Accord) conflict analysis to marine conservation in Latin

Improve local capabilities in marine

research and conflict management.


and Ecological

Duration and Type of Project

Review of historical data and

market prices. Monitor landings of spiny lobster at major
ports in Galapagos/San Andrs
and monitor processing plants.
Record catch details (e.g. fishing effort, weight, sex, length).
Accompany fishing vessels on
trips to assess catch and effort. Diving surveys to record
lobster biological, habitat and
environmental data. Tagging
and recapture of lobsters.
Onshore holding. Training.
Diving assessment

01/10/1998 to 31/03/2002 (42 months)

Joint Research Project

Dr. Jonathan Side
Herriot Watt University
United Kingdom


Desk study information gathering (and field studies to fill

gaps) to assess the impact of
coastal tourism developments
in Galapagos and San Andrs.
Interviews with local stakeholders. Environmental impacts
matrix compilation. Assessment
of stakeholder interaction and
identification of areas of marine resource conflict. Assess
the effects of tourist boats and
fishing activities. Training.

Fishing and Tourism

4th Framework Programme

Developments, Tourist Fishing and
Resource Utilisation

The specific scientific and technical

goals were:

Project Number
and Framework Programme


Desk study information gathering on the structure and

socio-economics of tourism and
fisheries in Galapagos and San
Andrs. Stakeholder interviews


and conduct of questionnaire


Legislation and Policy Analysis

Desk study information gathering on historical and existing

legislation and policies related
to the management of the coastal and marine environments
of Galapagos and San Andrs.
Stakeholder interviews. Project
management. Production of

Identification of possible commercialisation options for the

artisanal fisheries of Galapagos
and San Andrs. Review of
existing practice and chain
of custody. From literature
reviews and observation identify commercialisation options.
Conduct of stakeholder consultation on identified options;
record responses.

Management Options


Record developments in fisheries

management within Galapagos.
Production of deliverables.

2. Case Study Stakeholder



3. AGORA Questionnaire Development

and Analyses

Fisheries Marketing

Galapagos. Observe the establishment of the stakeholder forum in

San Andrs. Gather information
from stakeholders on marine resource management issues. Capture
value expressions.

Establishment of
Stakeholder Input



Meet with stakeholder representatives in San Andrs and discuss

aims and purpose of research.
Establish stakeholder forum in San
Andrs, and Old Providence and
Santa Catalina. Conduct meetings
of the forums. Discuss progress
of research with stakeholders in

Identification of possible stakeholder respondents in Galapagos
and San Andrs. Observation of
the AGORA process in San Andrs
by Galapagos partner. Identify case
studies. Adoption of the AGORA
process for Galapagos. Development
of a draft questionnaire and pretesting. Refine questionnaires. Conduct
interviews. Training.

Results and outcome

The research brought together European
and Latin American/Caribbean research
institutions, strengthening local capabilities in marine resource management
as well as improving existing technical information. This was achieved
through direct contact between project
researchers, a continual exchange of scientific expertise including established
scientists and research students, and
the conduct of training programmes in
modern approaches to fisheries management and environmental impact
assessment. Research undertaken as
part of this project contributed to:

An improved understanding of the

lobster fisheries in Galapagos and
San Andrs.

A realisation of the extent to which

is impacting on these specially
designated marine areas, with recommendations for action.

An assessment of the degree to

which local management policies
and legislation require strengthening in order to enable successful
implementation of these measures.

A more accurate knowledge base

of the thinking of local fishermen
and tourist organisations towards
current and proposed management

These achievements provided a solid

background to the host institutions, in
terms of the implementation of future
regulations and policies, most notably
the Special Law and marine zonation
scheme in Galapagos, and the Marine
Protected Area project closely linked
with the recent designation of the
San Andrs Archipelago as a UNESCO
Biosphere Reserve.
In parallel with technical studies, a
Multi-Criteria Environmental Evaluation
and Conflict Analysis methodology,
AGORA, was implemented in Galapagos
and San Andrs, in both instances associated with proposed zonation schemes
in marine protected areas. This tool
is an evaluation and decision support
system, which can lead to preference
rankings of a set of alternative policies and can also be used to facilitate
the value debate, leading to the generation of information that can assist
stakeholders in finding possibilities
for co-operation for maximising their
collective benefit. In San Andrs, the
process was embraced from the start by
local scientists and stakeholders, with
the establishment of fora, the capturing
of stakeholder values and questionnaire development and analysis. The
results provided invaluable information
for future management of the zonation
process. The process in San Andrs was
closely monitored to assess its applicability for Galapagos, the main reason
being that in Galapagos there already
existed a participatory management
process and a wariness regarding the



introduction of new conflict resolution

tools. However, as the process advanced
in San Andrs, it became apparent that
its use in a similar case study regarding
marine zoning in Galapagos would yield
interesting information. The process
was therefore adopted in Galapagos with
the blessing of the local Participatory
Management Board, the Junta. Both
the CDRS and CORALINA have expressed a wish to pursue the use of
AGORA within the overall management
of their respective marine protected
areas. What was apparent from an examination of both island groups was
the degree to which local stakeholders
have become involved in guiding plans
on future management of their islands
resources. Local islanders in San Andrs
placed themselves squarely behind
plans for Biosphere Reserve designation
and are willing to participate proactively in its planning and regulation.
Similarly, a longer standing participatory process, existing in Galapagos, has
contributed to the development of the
marine reserve management plan and
the Special Law. The Law proscribes a
Ministerial Council, which has in turn
provided the co-management regime to
the Participatory Management Board a
legal framework.
The project directly influenced the
development of a marine protected
area initiative in San Andrs, and led
to further collaboration between partners including the pursuit of a second
phase project.

Selected Publications
Bustamante, R.H., G. Reck., B. Ruttemberg & J.
Polovina, 1999. The Galapagos spiny lobster
fishery. pp. 210-220 In Phillips, B. & J. Kittaka
(eds.). Spiny Lobsters: Fisheries and Culture.
Fishing News Books, Blackwell Science.
Bustamante, R.H., E. Espinoza, F. Nicolaides,
J.C. Murillo, C. Chasiluisa, B. Ruttemberg, R.
Andrade, S. Torres, V. Toral, J. Barreno & M. Piu,
1999. Fishing in the Galapagos Marine Reserve:
A summary review for 1998. pp. 43-49 In
Galapagos Report 1998-1999. Trama publishers,

Jonathan Side
The International Centre for Island
Herriot Watt University
Old Academy, Back Road, Stromness,
Orkney Islands, Scotland, KW16 3AW
United Kindom
Tel: +44 185 685 06 05
Fax: +44 185 685 13 49

Toral, M.V., R.H. Bustamante, J.C. Murillo, E.

Espinoza, F. Nicolaides, P.C. Martinez, I. Cedeno,
B. Ruttenberg, J. Moreno, C. Chasiluisa, S. Torres,
M. Yepez, J.C. Barreno, R. Andrade, L. Figueroa
& M. Piu, 2000. La pesca artesanal en Galapagos
1999. pp. 53-61. In: Galapagos Report 19992000. Trama Publishers, Quito, Ecuador. WWFFundacin Natura. In Spanish.


Espinoza, E., J.C. Murillo, M.V. Toral, R.H.

Bustamante, F. Nicolaides, G.J. Edgar, J. Moreno,
C. Chasiluisa, M. Ypez, J.C. Barreno, S.A.
Shepherd, J. Viscaino, M. Villalta, R. Andrade,
A.F. Born, L. Figueroa, P. Guerrero & M. Piu, 2001.
La pesca en Galpagos: Comparaciones de las
capturas entre 1997-2000. pp. 55-64 In Informe
Galpagos 2000-2001. Quito, WWF-Fundacin
Natura. In Spanish.

Institute of Marine Biology of Crete

PO Box 2214
71003 Iraklion

Howard, M., 2001. Sustainable tourism planning

for Old Providence and Santa Catalina Islands:
the importance of carrying capacity analysis.
Tourism, 49(4):285-298.
Howard, M., E. Connolly, E. Taylor & J. Mow
(2003). Community-based development of
multiple-usemarine protected areas: promoting
stewardship and sharing responsibility for
conservation in the San Andres Archipelago,
Colombia. Gulf and Caribbean Research,
Baine, M., M. Howard, S. Kerr, G. Edgar & V. Toral,
2007. Coastal and marine resource management
in the Galapagos Islands and the Archipelago of
San Andrs: issues, problems and opportunities.
Ocean and Coastal Management (Special Issue),
Heylings, P. & M. Bravo, 2007. Governance of
the Galapagos Marine Reserve: assessing how
co-management is functioning in a major marine
protected area. Ocean and Coastal Management
(Special Issue), 50(3-4):174-208.
Mow, J.M., E. Taylor, M. Howard, M. Baine, E.
Connolly & M. Chiquillo, 2007. The Archipelago
of San Andrs: towards new paradigms and new
partnerships in the management of its most
important commons: the sea. Ocean and Coastal
Management (Special Issue), 50(3-4):209-222.

Kaith Siakavara


June Marie Mow Robinson

& Elizabeth Taylor (current Director)
Corporacin para el Desarrollo
Sostenible del Archiplago de San
Providencia y Santa Catalina
Via San Lus, The Bight
San Andrs Isla

Graham Edgar &

Veronica Toral
Fundacin Charles Darwin
Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz

Davos, C.A., K Siakavara, A. Santorineou, J. Side,

M. Taylor & P. Barriga, 2007. Zoning of marine
protected areas: conflicts and cooperation
options in the Galapagos and San Andres
archipelagos. Ocean and Coastal Management
(Special Issue), 50(3-4):223-252.
Viteri, C. & C. Chavez, 2007. Legitimacy, local
participation and compliance in the Galapagos
Marine Reserve. Ocean and Coastal Management
(Special Issue), 50(3-4):253-274.



Estuarine Specific Transport and
Biogeochemically linked interactions for
selected heavy Metals and Radionuclides

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/1/2000 to 30/09/2003 (36 months)
Shared Cost Action

Dr. Justin Brown
Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority

Context and Objectives

Biogeochemical interactions, where
freshwater meets seawater, clearly
play an important role in the transport
of contaminants through estuarine
systems. The Arctic Monitoring and
Assessment Programme (AMAP) report
provided a comprehensive overview of
the state of knowledge regarding contaminants in the Arctic, it stated that
the greatest radiological threats to human health and the environment in the
Arctic are associated with the potential
for nuclear accidents and failures in the
containment of the large inventories of
radioactive materials in storage, such
as high-level liquid and solid wastes.
One specific threat was identified as
migration of radionuclides from major
uncontained sources in the drainage
basins of the Ob and Yenisey rivers.
In addition, Russian studies cited in
the AMAP report concluded that many
pollutants, including heavy metals, enter the Arctic through river input from
north-flowing rivers such as the Ob and
Yenisey. Most of these pollutants accumulate in river mouths and estuaries
before spreading into the Arctic marine
basin. An understanding of the processes controlling the transport and fate of
contaminants in estuarine systems was
therefore a prerequisite for predicting
the protracted transfer to the Arctic
seas and natural living resources.
The aim of the ESTABLISH project was
to model the biogeochemical behaviour
and impact on man of selected heavy
metal and radionuclides (collectively
referred to in the text as contaminants)
in the Yenisey Estuary.

The objective was to be achieved through
the following activities, including:



1. Measurement of contaminant levels

in the environment - estuarine waters, sediments, tidally-inundated
areas and biota.
2. Simulation of the transport of
aqueous phase and sedimentbound contaminants in the Yenisey
3. Identification of the biogeochemical
reactions at the salt-water/freshwater interface.
4. Determination of the long-term fate
of contaminants through the study
of the spatial distribution of radionuclides and heavy metal in sediment
deposits, using tangential flow ultrafiltration techniques to explore the
significance of radionuclide transport in colloidally bound form.
5. Assessment of the uptake to biota
and the use of these biota by humans for the estuarine aquatic
environment and at the terrestrial
land/marine interface in order to
appreciate, at a basic level, the impact of contamination levels on
man and the environment.

Results and outcome

The project was largely successful in
addressing project objectives. Progress
has been made within several scientific areas. Three successful field
expeditions were held during the project duration. This includes work on
board the R/V Akademik Boris Petrov
in the summers of 2000 and 2001 and
additional terrestrial field surveys conducted on areas affected by ocean-land
interactions in 2001 and 2002. Our
understanding of the short-term behaviour of radionuclides in the aquatic part
of the Yenisey estuarine system has developed markedly within the last few
years through the analysis of samples
and the simulation work undertaken


using different modeling tools. The

colloidal fraction of the radionuclide
Pu is significantly higher than the levels recorded earlier for open Arctic sea
areas. Low 240Pu/239Pu atom ratios
were generally observed in association
with dissolved phases (colloids and low
molecular mass species) and higher ratios were observed in association with
particulate phases.
It was also established that high
molecular mass dissolved humic compounds are prone to flocculation and
subsequent sedimentation at the freshwater-saltwater interface in the Yenisey
Estuary. An inverse relationship was observed between salinity and dissolved
organic carbon (DOC). Within the DOC
pool, high molecular mass colloids appear to be prevalent and may therefore
strongly influence the transport of
contaminants within this system. Field
observations showed that vertical salinity and temperature gradients in the
Yenisey Estuary can be very sharp and
occur when strong off-shore surface
flows lead to the penetration of high
saline waters into the estuary.
Results from the Hamburg Shelf Ocean
Model HAMSOM model showed that
the south-westward bottom current
along the Tamyr coast is very persistent
during the summer months and that this
flow may be responsible for carrying saline water towards the Yenisey Estuary,
thus enhancing vertical stratification. A
pool of saline water formed from this
source, in front of the estuaries, may
then feed a bottom flow that penetrates
the estuary as a salt intrusion. Russian
experts were able to identify the conditions necessary for the formation of a
salt intrusion whereby enhanced surface offshore transport is compensated
by an on-shore near bottom flow that
penetrates into the estuary. Sediments
deposits were extensively studied during the project duration. Heavy metal
and radionuclide contamination levels were well documented along with

concomitant information on lithology

(mineralogy and grain-size) and sedimentation rates. Heavy metal studies
included estimation of the riverine contribution to Kara sea bottom sediments
and revealed additional technogenic
sources of contamination based on
trace element concentrations in sediments. Activity of Pu radionuclides in
sediments increased in the inner estuary
zone leading to the preliminary conclusion that a river-derived Pu source
exists. 137Cs vertical distribution in
sediments enables reconstruction of
historical releases from different radiochemical enterprises. Recent data
(2001-2002) on 137Cs concentrations in
top layers of bottom sediments proved
its significant decrease due to radioactive decay and the new deposition of
less contaminated sediments.
This indicates that Krasnoyarsk Mining
and Chemical Combine KMCC have
ceased to be the active source of radionuclide contamination in the Yenisey
Gulf. Terrestrial investigations performed provided additional information
on the radionuclide and heavy metal
distributions in floodplain and coastal
areas depending upon site location,
distance from the sea and site-specific
geomorphological and lithological features related to the recent history of
the studied areas.
A large amount of new information
has been generated on biota present
in the estuary by looking, for example,
at aspects of biodiversity, structure
and biomass of benthic communities
and at human utilisation of different
biological resources. Bottom communities have not revealed any significant
changes since the time of previous
studies carried out in the early 1990s.
Some changes recorded in the bottom
community composition, biodiversity
and biomass were within the range of
natural variation occurring in the sea.
Data was compiled on levels of radionuclides and heavy metals in biological


components of both the terrestrial and

aquatic food-webs and models were also
applied to simulate behaviour of radionuclides in some of these food-chains.
Results from basic impact assessment
undertaken within this project have
suggested that the impact of both
heavy metals and radionucldies on man
and the environment can be considered
negligible in most cases.

Selected Publications
Harms, I.H. & M.J. Karcher, 2003. Pathways of
anthropogenic radionuclides in the Northern
Oceans, Chapter 10, In Scott, E.M. (ed.). Modelling
Radioactivity in the Environment, section 2:
Modelling Applications. Elsevier, ISBN: 0-08043663-3, 450 p.
Harms, I.H., M.J. Karcher & H. Burchard, 2003.
The application of hydrodynamic circulation
models for simulating oceanic dispersion of
radioactivity. Chapter 3, In Scott, E.M. (ed.).
Modelling Radioactivity in the Environment,
Section 1: Models and modeling. Elsevier, ISBN:
0-08-043663-3, 450 p.
Harms, I.H., U. Hbner, J.O. Backhaus, M.
Kulakov, V. Stanovoy, O. Stepanets, L. Kodina
& R. Schlitzer, 2002. Salt intrusions in Siberian
river estuaries: Observations and model
experiments in Ob and Yenisei. In Stein, R.,
K. Fahl, D.K. Ftterer, E.M. Galimov & O.V.
Stepanets (eds). Siberian river runoff in the Kara
Sea: Characterisation, quantification, variability
and environmental significance. Proceedings in
Marine Science, Elsevier Amsterdam 2003, ISBN
0-444-51365-5, Vol. 6:484 p.
Karcher, M.J., S. Gerland, I.H. Harms, M. Iosjpe,
H.E. Heldal & P.J. Kershaw, 2004. The dispersion
of 99Tc in the Nordic Seas and the Arctic
Ocean in the 1990s according to model results
and observation. Journal of Environmental
Radioactivity, 74(1-3):185-198.
Kodina, L.A., S.V. Ljutsarev & M.P. Bogacheva,
2001. Sea ice particulate organic carbon isotope
composition as a tracer of the source of
sedimentary organic material captured with the
Arctic drifting ice (examplified with POC of the
drifting ice from the Barents sea). pp. 244-256 In
Lisitsyn, N.P., M.E. Vinogradov, E.A.Romankevich
(eds). Experience of system oceanologic studies
in the Arctic. Publ. House Scientific World
Korobova, E.M., N.G. Ukraintseva, V.V. Surkov
& J.B. Brown, 2003. Geochemical study of the
tundra landscapes in the Yenisey delta and gulf
area. pp. 601-606 In Philips M. & S. Springman
(eds). Permafrost. Proceedings of the Eight
International Conference on Permafrost. 21-25
July 2003, Zurich, Switzerland. A.A. Balkema
Publishers, Lisse. 2003. Lucas U. Arenson. V.1.
Skipperud, L., D.H. Oughton, L.K. Fifield, O.C.
Lind, S. Tims, J. Brown & M. Sickel, 2004.
Plutonium isotope ratios in the Yenisey and Ob
estuaries. Appl.Rad.Iso., 60:589-593.




Stein, R., K. Fahl, K. Dittmers, F. Niessen &

O.V. Stepanets, 2003. Holocene siliciclastic
and organic carbon flaxes in the Ob and
Yenisei estuaries and the adjacent inner
Kara Sea: quantification, variability and
paleoenvironmental implications. pp. 401-432
In Stein, R., K. Fahl, D. Futterer, E.M. Galimov &
O.V. Stepanets (eds.). Siberian river run-off in
the Kara Sea. Characterization, quantification,
variability and environmental significance.
Proceedings in the Marine Science, Elsevier.
Stepanets, O.V., A. Borisov, A. Ligaev, G.
Solovjeva, E. Sizov & V. Komarevsky, 2003.
Radionuclides in the water column and surface
sediments of the Ob and Yenisei rivers and
adjacent Kara Sea shelf. pp. 149-161 In Stein
R., K. Fahl, D. Futterer, E. M. Galimov & O. V.
Stepanets (eds.) Siberian river run-off in the Kara
Sea. Characterization, quantification, variability
and environmental significance. Proceedings in
the Marine Science. Elsevier.



Justin Brown (coordinator)

and Per Strand (director) Norwegian

Mikhail Novitsky

Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA)

Department for Environmental
Protection and Emergency Response
P.O. Box 55
1332 sters
Tel: +47 6716 25 00
Fax: +47 6714 74 07

Department of Physics of the
Atmospheric Boundary Layer and of
the Mathematical Modelling
Lenin Str. 82
249038 Obninsk

E. Galimov
Vernadsky Institute of Geochemistry
and Analytical Chemistry (GEOKHI)
Russian Academy of Sciences
Kosygin Str. 19
117975 Moscow

Ingo Harms
University of Hamburg
Centre for Oceanic and Climates
Institute of Oceanography (IOH)
Bundesstrasse 53

MikhailYu. Kulakov
Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute
Department of Oceanography
Bering Str. 38
199397 St. Petersburg

Deborah Oughton
Agricultural University of Norway
Department of Plant and
Environmental Sciences
P.O. Box 5026
1432 s





Context and Objectives

The Caspian Sea, surrounded by the
five littoral countries, is the largest
land-locked body of water on earth.
The isolation of the Caspian basin,
its climate and its sea characteristics
like salinity gradients, have created
a unique ecological system. Today
the Caspian Sea environment faces
significant environmental pressure.
Overfishing, discharging wastewater
and exploration and production of gas
and oil among others put great pressure on this unique ecosystem and
many Caspian biota are threatened by
over-exploitation, habitat destruction
and pollution.
Five countries Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan,
Russia, Turkmenistan and Iran share
the natural heritage of the Caspian Sea.
Despite their political and social diversity, the people of the region share
a common concern for the Caspian.
However, the links between science and
policy are weak at present and should
be strengthened in order to achieve a
more adequate trans-national approach
to environmental administration and
management. A first step is bringing together representatives of many relevant
environmental institutions, serving the
scientific community in the field of
environmental (data & information) administration and management, within a
Scientific Network (CaspScience-Net).

To develop and establish a Caspian

Scientific Information System, for
environmental data and information management, based on World
Wide Web Technologies, in order
to improve the implementation
of integrated (environmental and
administrative) management information, and help to provide a
tool for effective exchange of information, accessibility of data and
information, and communication.

Caspian Sea Scientific Network
The Caspian Scientific Network met on
regular basis, every four months over
the project period to discuss the following subjects:

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/03/2001 to 28/02/2003 (24 months)
Coordinated Action

Peter Davis
Marine Information Service Maris B.V
United Kingdom


organisation and developments to

be undertaken with regard to operation and maintenance of the
Caspian Scientific Network

possibilities for exchange of data,

information and knowledge
required data and information,
needed for the activities and targets
of environmental policies, research,
spatial planning, combating of pollution, remediation measures, etc.,
including determination of source
holders and the availability and access to these data and information

The objectives of this project were:

To initiate and establish a co-operative Caspian Sea, trans-national

Scientific Network of environmental data and information centres/
services within the Caspian Sea
countries, to strengthen the quality, service and overall performance
of environmental science and environmental data and information
management; both at a regional, national and international level.

co-ordination and tuning of data

formats, data exchange and nature
of data

public, social, industrial, environmental requirements to data &


developing of framework, mechanisms and practices for advocacy

and lobbying to local national and
international authorities



identification of priority environmental issues

development of strategies and
plans to increase the environmental
awareness and public involvement
and participation in decision making processes
Final product: Quality Status Report
on the Caspian Sea Environment Data & Information Provision.

Caspian Scientific
Information System
The system is based on state-of-the-art
Geographical Information System (GIS)
technology, providing a map-based interface to end users, it includes:
1. Central Meta-Directory: the following meta-directories were created

efficiently support the production

of thematic maps.

Results and outcome

The Network brought together scientists from environmental organisations
and institutions within the Caspian Sea
Region, from the New Independent States
(NIS) Russia, Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan,
Turkmenistan (2 organisations from
each country) and scientific representatives from Romania and Bulgaria (in the
Pre-Accession phase to the EU), Norway
(associated country) and the Netherlands,
United Kingdom and Greece (EU Member
States), with expertise on environment
and information technology.

Datasets, including Organisations

Directory of Research Projects



Project/Cruise Summary Reports

Campaign Forms

2. User Interface for Central MetaDirectory: to provide options for

accessibility and usage of the data
needed to support the development
of effective action plans.
3. Application Layer: to facilitate
processing and presentation of
environmental data and information, largely based upon GIS for
geographical interfacing in order to




The Caspinfo website was successfully

launched and the established network
worked beyond this project in monitoring the Caspian Sea using satellite
pictures and mathematical models of
water circulation to interpret results.




Identified priority environmental issues in the Caspian Sea

Contributed to increased environmental awareness and public
involvement into the Caspian Sea
environment through an extensive end-user consultation and
targeted promotion and dissemination Activities

Stimulated and enlarged the exchange of and accessibility to

environmental data and information required for the protection and
rehabilitation of the Caspian Sea
environment and sustainable development of the Caspian Sea Region

Made available data and information

into the databases of the CASPINFO
System; as well as through public
and user-friendly accessibility of
these data and information through
the internet.

Developed a scientific report of

the Caspian Sea environment, including recommendations for its

Meta-directories related to environmental datasets, within the

Caspian Sea Region.


Peter Davis
Marine Information Service Maris B.V.
1 Dillenburgsingel 69
PO Box 5807
2263 HW Leidschendam
The Netherlands
Tel: +31 703 17 09 61
Fax: +31 703 90 35 46


A. Stevenson
Natural Environment Research Council
Murchison House, West Mains Roads
Edinburgh EH9 3LA
United Kingdom

Tor Bakken
Norwegian Institute for Water Research
19 Brekkeveien 19
P.O. Box 173
Oslo 0411

Gennady Panin
Water Problems Institute - Russian
Academy of Sciences
Gubskin Street 3
Moscow 117971
Russian Federation

Asen Konsulov
Marine Biology and Ecology
Institute of Oceanology - Bulgarian
Academy of Sciences
Parvi Maj 40
Varna 9000

Oleg Musin
Department of Cartography and
Moscow State University
Vorobievy Gory
Moscow 119899
Russian Federation

Ramiz Mamedov
Institute of Geography
Centre of the Caspian Sea Problems
G. Javid Avenue 31
Baku 370143

Timur Berkeliev

V. Lyubartsev

Catena Ecology Club

Repina Street, 8-A, Ap. 12
Ashgabat 744005

Marine Hydrophysical Institute

Ukrainian National Academy of Science
Kapitanskaya Street 2
Sevastopol 335000



Ludmila Shabanova
Caspian Sea Oil and Gas Pollution
Problems Committee
K. Marks Street 81
475000 Kokshe Tau

C. Laban
Netherlands Organisation for Applied
Scientific Research - Tno
Prins Hendriklaan 105 Department:
3508 TA Utrecht

Amankul Bekenov
Laboratory of Hydrobiology and
Institution of Zoology
Akademgorodok, Zoology Institution
Almaty 480060

Institute of Geology and Mineral
70 Messoghion Street 70
Athens 11527

Habibulla Atamuradov
National Institute of Deserts, Flora &
Bitarap Turkmenistan 15
Ashgabat 744000

Nicolae Panin
National Institute of Marine Geology
and Geoecology
Dimitrie Onciul Street 23-25
Bucuresti 70318

Arif Islam-Zadeh
Environmental Rehabilitation of
Sumgayit Centre Ecopark
Nizami Street 16
Sumgayit 37200

S. Ryanzhin
Institute of Limnology
Russian Academy of Sciences
Sevastyanova Street 9
Sint Petersburg 196105
Russian Federation




Meeting on

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/01/2000 to 30/09/2000 (9 months)
Accompanying Measure

Prof. Marco Vannini
Universit degli Studi di Firenze

Context and Objectives


Despite the relatively large number of

meetings on mangroves and mangrove
ecology held over the past few years,
insufficient attention has been given
to the macrofauna and macrobenthic
species. Between 1997 and 1999 seven
institutions from Africa and Europe
undertook research on the macrofauna of mangroves in Kenya, Tanzania,
Mozambique and South Africa Macrobenthos of Eastern African
mangroves: life cycles and reproductive
biology of exploited species (MEAM,
IC1896027). The results achieved under
this research project helped to bridge
gaps in our knowledge of the mangrove
macrofauna. To extend these results
and to try to reach a larger number of
researchers on this topic, a Meeting on
Mangrove Macrobenthos was planned
and took place in September 2000 in
Mombasa, Kenya.

The workshop was held in Mombasa,

7-11 September 2000. Eighty two
researchers from the following countries participated: Austria, Australia,
Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Denmark,
Ecuador, India, Italy, Japan, Kenya,
Mozambique, Portugal, South Africa,
Sweden, Tanzania, The Philippines,
United Kingdom and the USA. A total of
nineteen researchers came from developing countries.
The three day workshop covered various topics such us Brachyuran ecology,
biodiversity and faunistic studies, ecological role of decapods and other
animals, mud crab biology, larvae and
reproductive cycle, molluscs management and exploitation, feeding ecology
of fishes, birds and prawns and other
invertebrates. A field excursion to Mida
Creek was organised during the second
day of the Workshop.

The objectives were:

1. To spread the results of the EU
INCO-DC Project (MEAM).
2. To standardise the approach to
studies of the ecology and biodiversity of mangroves throughout the
world to support future research.
3. To allow researchers from developing countries, especially from
the Western Indian Ocean (WIO), to
participate actively in the Mombasa





Results and outcome


Contributions focussed on benthic

mangrove macrofauna, the animals living in association with mangroves for
all or part of their life histories. Crabs,
prawns and molluscs were the major
taxa involved. The results of the meeting
were very stimulating and fruitful and
gave rise to a special edition of Wetlands
Ecology and Management. In addition,
the Australian participants decided to
organise, in 2006, a second analogous
meeting (MMM-2) in Australia, underscoring thus that a periodical experience
exchange in the field of mangrove macrobenthos was necessary.

Vannini, M., S. Cannicci & R. Hartnoll (eds.), 2002.

Mangrove Macrofauna. Wetlands Ecology and
Management, Special Issue, 10(3):161175.

Marco Vannini
University of Florence
Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e
Genetica, L. Pardi
via Romana 17
50125 Firenze
Tel: +39 055 228 82 59
Fax: +39 055 22 25 65
E-M: Vannini_M@Dbag.unifi.It

The project contributed to one of the

main objectives of the INCO Programme,
confirming the International Role of
Community Research and promoting
the international RTD co-operation,
reinforcing their capacities in the field
of science.




Biodiversity and Sustainable Exploitation in
Tropical Coastal Ecosystems

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/01/2000 to 30/09/2000 (9 months)
Accompanying Measure

Prof. Marco Vannini
Universit degli Studi di Firenze

Context and Objectives

Results and outcome

Ecological and biological research on the

tropical continental shelf and coastal
ecosystems is still needed in order to
contribute to the conservation and sustainability of biological diversity and to
assess alterations due to human impact
and global environmental changes, success with impact depends largely upon
the ability of communicating research
results to policymakers and having appropriate capabilities for action in place.

The workshop was successfully held in

Brussels on 19-23 May 1999. Scientists
from major WIO Fisheries authorities and research institutions could
exchange ideas and knowledge with
European researchers represented
by socio-economists, biologists and
fisheries experts with a long-lasting
experience in research on tropical
coastal ecosystems, fish restocking,
crustacean biology, and integrated
coastal management.

The main objective of this project was to

draw together researchers and decision
makers from industrialised and developing countries into the same projects
and programmes, to facilitate links and
create long-lasting partnerships. In this
context, a workshop was organised
for selected European and developing
countries scientists and enterprises
interested in research on sustainable
aquaculture and other environmentally
friendly production systems.
The workshop objectives were:

To increase the interaction between

European experts on lobsters fishery and exploitation, with WIO
(Western Indian Ocean) experts and

To examine and discuss the condition of lobster stocks in the WIO

area and explore possible enhancement strategies.

To create a permanent network between European and WIO lobster


A detailed general discussion and

smaller specific panels on lobster recruitment, reef crustacean restocking,
population genetics of marine animals,
socio-economic evaluation on the project, allowed the participants to focalise
on the state of art of WIO lobster stocks
and their exploitation.
WIO spiny lobsters are represented by
five species, all belonging to the genus
Panulirus: P. homarus, P. versicolor,
P. longipes, P. penicillatus and P. omatus. Within the Palinuridae family only
members of the genus Panulirus occur
on shallow water reefs, other genera
are restricted to deeper waters or more
temperate areas.
Their presence within these habitats
makes all these species of commercial
interest, especially P. penicillatus and
P. longipes. In the WIO these spiny lobsters are rare in intertidal areas but
may be more common in lagoons and
shallow coral reefs, where the species
exhibit different habitat preferences.
Most are scavengers and many are
preyed upon by octopus. Although no
studies have been undertaken in the
WIO area, it is known that Palinurids
has a large larval development.
The pelagic phyllosoma larva may pass
through up to 20 stages and spend over
a year in the plankton. After it moults
to a single puerulus stage, it settles on





the bottom. At the juvenile stage it has

similar habits to an adult.
Participants agreed that apart from preliminary studies, no specific work had
been done on the ecology, reproductive
and larval biology of the five species.
Scientific knowledge on the basic biology of this commercially important
crustacean was considered essential
for any project dealing with lobster restocking based on larval settlement and
possible enhancement.

representatives pointed out that the objective would be to reverse these trends
taking into account social and economical factors in the area.
A permanent network was created and
is active among most BIOSET participants who structured a project which
aimed at the protection and restocking of valuable lobster resources in
the Western Indian Ocean. Interactions
between participants for future collaboration was widely successful

Marco Vannini
University of Florence
Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e
Genetica, L. Pardi
via Romana 17
50125 Firenze
Tel: +39 055 228 82 59
Fax: +39 055 22 25 65
E.M: Vannini_M@Dbag.unifi.It

Current exploitation of spiny lobster

was considered by local researchers
and fisheries managers as of high value and purely exploited by artisanal
fishery, which provides a direct economic value to coastal communities
in the area. The lobster fishery is unregulated, basic management measures
such as a minimum landing size do not
exist. From the evidence available, it appears that the general pattern of larval
recruitment-stock exploitation balance
may be much more complicated than
expected. Future studies would need to
rely also on good oceanographic expertise together with population genetic
sound studies.
Spiny lobster aquaculture has always
been constrained by the great difficulty of larval rearing. Though this has
been accomplished in the laboratory,
it is commercially impracticable for
the foreseeable future. Consequently,
commercial aquaculture is only based
on ongrowing wild-collected juveniles.
This has been done in India Singapore,
Thailand and the Philippines before,
but not in the WIO.
Several presentations showed that
there was a general trend of decline of
lobster stocks due to the overall overfishing with a possible exception of
isolated sites in Mozambique, which
had previously been studied. Currently
stocks are under great pressure and
catches are declining. WIO Institution




Policy options for the sustainable use of
coral reefs and associated coastal ecosystems

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/05/2000 to 31/01/2001 (9 months)
Accompanying Measure

Dr. Heidi Wittmer
Georg-August University of Gttingen

Context and Objectives

Coral Reefs, one of the most diverse

and fragile ecosystems on earth, are
increasingly being destroyed. With the
objective to reverse this global trend,
essential knowledge for the conservation and rehabilitation of coral reefs
has been accumulated over the past
decades, and valuable technical options
have been developed. However, as long
as the framework conditions leading to
the destruction of coral reefs and associated ecosystems persist, sustainable
management and rehabilitation efforts
will hardly be successful. Policy options for the sustainable management
are only feasible if they allow reconciling the requirements of conservation
with the economic and social demands
of the people relying on these natural
resources. By its very nature, this challenge of managing coral reef ecosystems
sustainably calls for international and
interdisciplinary approaches.
With this background, an INCO-DEV
International Workshop on Policy
Options for the Sustainable Use of Coral
Reefs and Associated Ecosystems was
convened 19-22 June 2000 in Mombasa,
Kenya. The workshop offered a platform
for subject matter experts from various
regions of the world to share their expertise and experience and to identify
research needs to improve policy options
for the sustainable use of coral reefs and
associated coastal ecosystems.
The objectives of the workshop were:



To create a forum of exchange and

establish a network to facilitate future co-operation.

To review the lessons learned from

recent approaches in coral reef ecosystem management.

To assess transdisciplinary issues

of managing coral reefs and coastal

To identify priorities for social,

economic, and policy research and
research co-operation aiming to
promote the management of reefs
for sustainable benefits.

Four panels consisting of thematically
discussions debated key research and
management issues of coral reefs and
associated ecosystems, and derived
policy implications:
1. The first panel dealt with the
economic valuation of coral reefs including a session on tourism as one
of the potentially sustainable uses
with high economic significance.
2. The second panel presented technical
options to improve reef assessment,
reef conservation, and reef rehabilitation and identified conducive
policy framework conditions for
implementing these options.
3. The third panel reviewed experiences with the essential role of
stakeholder participation in coral
reef management and highlighted
the associated policy processes.
4. The fourth panel discussed current
experiences and future challenges
of establishing conservation networks at the national, regional and
international levels.



Results and outcome


Challenges and opportunities were

derived from each panel session as
well as policy relevant research issues.
Policy options discussed during the
workshop included:

Wittmer, H. & Z.Hassan (eds.), 2001. Proceedings

of the INCO DEV international Workshop on
Policy Options for the Sustainable Use of Coral
Reefs and Associated Ecosystems. Mombasa,
Kenya, 19-22 June 2000. Brussels, ACP-EU
Fisheries Research Reports., (10):239p. ftp://

Regulating fisheries: creating incentives for sustainable use.

Developing markets for sustainable

marine products.

Enhancing tourism development in

a sustainable way.


Policy options to improve the

institutional set-up for coastal

Heidi Wittmer1
Interdisciplinary Centre for Sustainable
Development (IZNE)
University of Gttingen
c/o IRE, Waldweg 26
D-37075 Gttingen


Three main issues concerning research needs were intensely discussed

throughout the workshop: the type of
information policy makers need, the
contribution of social sciences and how
research can contribute to a better implementation of policies. The workshop
concluded by identifying issues for future research collaboration

Address at time of printing: Umweltforschungszentrum,

Permoserstr. 15, D-04318 Leipzig, Germany




Estuaries and coastal areas.
Basis and tools for a more sustainable

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/01/2002 to 06/06/2005 (36 months)
Shared - Cost Action

Dr. Agustn Snchez-Arcilla, Centro
Internacional dInvestigacio dels Recursos
Costaners (CIIRC), Spain


Context and Objectives

Coastal areas and estuaries are important ecosystems with peculiar features
that favour the settlement of population
and the development of anthropogenic
activities like industry, fisheries, tourism, agriculture or transport among
others. In many countries, sewage
from industrial or domestic origin and
irrigation waters with high nutrient
concentrations, are discharged into
these areas creating or aggravating the
pollution and eutrophication problems
of these ecosystems, with the associated environmental degradation.
The general objective of the project
was to improve the existing knowledge
on the different processes involved
in estuaries and coastal waters use
and degradation. This would allow increasing reliability of predictive tools
and defining a set of indicators supporting the design of effective policy
interventions for a more sustainable
development of these areas. Two study
cases were chosen due to their high
natural and economic interest, the
Patos Lagoon in Brazil and Jcar estuary in Spain.
The Jcar is an estuary in a microtidal
environment, mostly stratified and with
a low river discharge. Its coastal area
presents moderate wind and waves and
the estuary carries a high nutrient load
plus moderate loads for other pollutants,
giving rise to eutrophication problems
and the formation of macro-aggregated
structures, which deteriorate the water
quality in adjacent beaches. This induces considerable damage in the main
economical activities of the area such
as agriculture and tourism. The spatial scales involved in the problem are
small to medium. The Patos Lagoon has
a more dynamic behaviour and most
of the time a vertically well-mixed water column. The influence of waves and
wind is minor compared with freshwater discharges, which are the main flow



driving mechanism. It also presents a

high nutrient load and moderate load
for other pollutants, although trace
metals show higher concentrations than
in the Jcar area.
The specific objectives were:

To carry out integrated observations

of the more relevant bio-physical
and socio-economic magnitudes in
the two estuaries / coastal zones.

To increase the understanding of

the physical, chemical and biological processes involved in the
pollution of estuarine and coastal
environments as well as their social
and economic determining factors.

To adapt, validate and evaluate a

suite of numerical (hydrodynamics,
water quality and economic) models.
To design and further test, costeffective tools able to measure the
economic value of environmental
damage, foresee the effects and
determine the social impacts of alternative policy interventions (for
an effective water management of
such coastal environments).

To provide a reduced set of parameters describing synthetically the

state of health of an estuary or
coastal area.

To provide a series of scientifically-supported alternative policy

interventions and guidelines oriented to the improvement of coastal
water management.

To strengthen the technology

transfer from EU countries to
Latin America and support human
resource development in Latin
American partner countries.



The main activities were:

Field data acquisition and


Natural processes and socio-economic analysis.

Preparation of tools and guidelines for integrated estuary/lagoon

Project management, capacity building, dissemination and exploitation.

Results and outcome

Among the results achieved during the
project, the following are emphasised:

large range of theoretical flushing

times for Saco da Mangueira.

It was apparent that water transport

in and out of Saco da Mangueira is
principally controlled by the wind
direction and duration rather than
river discharge. The strongest correlation with flushing is with winds
blowing out of the Saco. In contrast
to the results obtained for the flushing of Saco da Mangueira, modelled
results from simulations conducted
with a unit tracer imposed throughout the entire Patos system showed
river flows to be more dominant
than winds. Therefore, the quickest
flushing of the Saco da Mangueira
will occur during times of low river
flow and long periods of wind from
the SW sector.

All available historical water quality

data sets for the Patos Lagoon area
were compiled.

From the assessment of the data

it was clear that the most likely
sources of water quality problems
in the Saco da Mangueira were associated with eutrophication. This
arises when high levels of nutrients (mainly inorganic nitrogen and
phosphorus) are present, leading
to a potential for excessive algal
blooms. This potential for eutrophication in the Saco is enhanced by
the relatively long flushing times.

A series of different management

scenarios were modelled to investigate the flushing characteristics
and the water quality of the lower
estuary and Saco da Mangueira by
comparing different loadings from
discharges of industrial and domestic effluents at several locations
and under a range of hydrodynamic
conditions. From these simulations,
great knowledge about the system
behaviour was gained. The three
sets of scenarios modelled were:

Numerical modelling.

A structured and quality controlled

collection of previously available
and newly observed (interdisciplinary) data for the Jcar area in Spain
was assembled and used for national/international diffusion
Regional diffusion

The wind/current patterns

Cullera Bay were characterised.

Jornadas Ambientals. Eines per a

la gesti i conservaci de les zones
humides i el litoral (2003). Cullera
City Council, Valencia, Spain.
National diffusion
VII Jornadas Espaolas de Ingeniera
de Puertos y Costas (2003) Almera,
IV Congreso Ibrico de Gestin y
Planificacin del Agua (2004). Tortosa
City Council, Tarragona, Spain.
International diffusion
Join ECSA 35 ERF Symposium
(2003), San Carlos, Sonora, Mxico.


The importance of wind as the main

driving factor in Cullera Bay was
established, because other possible
driving factors had negligible effects
(tide), affecting only a very localised
area (waves, usual river discharges),
or are infrequent (storm surges,
river floods).
Through the observations and the
numerical simulations, the hydrodynamic pattern of Cullera Bay, whose
complexity is probably due to the
particular morphological conditions
of the bay, was determined. In this
pattern, eddies and circulation cells
are frequent and, as a consequence,
particles released in this area have
difficulties to leave it. This implies
that the bay acts as a sink of particles (sediments, nutrients and
pollutants), conditioning the water
quality of the area and favouring
the possibility of algal blooms.

Environment 2010, Situation and

Perspective for the European Union
(2003), Porto, Portugal.
3rd IAHR Symposium on River, Coastal
(2003), Barcelona, Spain
Morphodynamics and Water Quality
in Ports, Estuaries and Coasts
(2005), Marine Sciences Faculty,
Colima University, Mxico.

The determination of natural

(physical and bio-chemical) and
socio-economic processes under
different scenarios for the Jcar
area were carried out.

An assessment of water exchange

time scales within the Patos Lagoon
focusing on the semi-enclosed embayment of Saco da Mangueira were
completed. The results show a very






Modifying the entrance to Saco

da Mangueira to investigate the
impact on the flushing characteristics by widening the entrance
or creating a deep channel from
the entrance to the main Access
Channel of the estuary.
Investigating the impact on water
quality in the Saco da Mangueira
by comparing the existing water
quality with results obtained by
altering the pollutant loadings
and outfall locations of the main
domestic sewage discharge of Rio
Grande by extending the outfall
2 km to the 10 m depth contour
of the estuary access channel,
relocating it at the southern end
of Saco da Mangueira, reducing
the pollutant loadings to represent secondary treated effluent,
or removing the outfall.
Investigating the impact on
Saco da Mangueira water quality by removing the discharge
from the fertiliser plant.

From the numerical simulations

and the analysis of satellite images,
the best areas for the development
of aquaculture activities in Saco
da Mangueira, particularly shrimp
farming, were identified.

3D numerical simulations of Saco

da Mangueira hydrodynamics were
compared with 2DH modeling.
Preliminary results show the validity of 2DH assumption for this
shallow water body.

The spatial and temporal distributions of heavy metals in Saco da

Mangueira sediments were studied,
as well as the potential re-suspension (pick up) due to wind waves.
From this study, it was concluded
that the South sector of Saco da
Mangueira could be a proper place
for aquaculture activities.


A quantitative, integrated and anthropogenic model for evaluating

the socio economic performance
of coastal ecosystems has been
validated and applied to Patos and
Jcar areas under four alternative
scenarios each.

Improved knowledge on the natural/socio-economic processes in

estuarine areas has been gained.

A set of indicators has been proposed to define the water quality

in aquatic environments, similar to
those studied here.

A set of specific measures/guidelines has been proposed to solve

the water quality in both studied

The co-operation between European

and Latin American research teams
has been strengthened, creating ties
that are expected to continue after
the projects conclusion.

Selected Publications
Cupul-Magaa, L.A., C. Msso-Aranda, A.
Snchez-Arcilla, J.P. Sierra-Pedrico, J.L. FermnAlmada, I. Romero & S. Falco, 2006. Distribucin
bacteriolgica en el agua de mar en la Baha
de Cullera, Espaa / Bacteriological quality of
seawater in Cullera Bay, Spain. Ciencias Marinas,
Mestres, M., A. Snchez-Arcilla, J.P. Sierra, C.
Msso, J. Gonzlez del Ro & M. Rodilla, 2004.
Basis and tools for a sustainable development
of estuaries and coastal areas. A case study
from Cullera Bay. Management of Environmental
Quality, 15(1):25-32.
Pagot, M., L.F. Niencheski, M. Corral, G. Hillman,
A. Rodrguez, A. Friendrich, M. Scavuzzo, C.
Oron & M. Baugarten, 2004. Anlisis de material
en suspensin con apoyo satelital en la Laguna
de los Patos Brasil. Cuadernos del CURIHAM.
Tagliani, P.R.A; H. Landzuri, E.G. Reis, P.R.A.
Tagliani, M. Asmus & A.S Arcilla, 2003.
Integrated coastal zone management in the
Patos Lagoon estuary: Perspectives in context
of developing countries. Ocean and Coastal
Management, 46(9-19):807-822.





Agustin Snchez-Arcilla

Paulo R.Tagliani

International Centre for Coastal

Resources Research
Jordi Girona, 1-3 Edifici D-1
08034 Barcelona
Tel: +34 9 32 80 64 00
Fax: +34 9 32 80 60 19

Fundaao Universidade Federal Do Rio

Depto de Oceanografia-Laboratrio de
Avenida Itlia Km8, s/n (Campus
96100-900 Rio Grande



Julio Gonzlez del Rio

Universidad Politcnica de Valencia
Departamento de Ingeniera Hidrulica
y Medio Ambiente
Camino de Vera s/n
46022 Valencia

Caroline Fletcher
HR Wallingford Ltd
Ports and Estuaries Department
Howbery Park
0X10 8BA
United Kingdom

Andrs Rodrguez
Universidad Nacional de Crdoba
Laboratori de Hidrulica
Av.Velez Sarsfield 1601, Ciudad
5000 Crdoba

Max Agero
Inter American Centre for Sustainable
Ecosystems Development
Casilla 27016




Research into modelling of the impacts
of river catchment developments on the
sustainability of coastal resources, which
support urban and rural economies: the case
study of Maputo Bay Incomati River
Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/10/2002 to 31/12/2005 (39 months)
Shared Cost Action

Dr. Pedro Monteiro (scientific)
South Africa
and Dr. Marcel Marchand (adminstrative)


Context and Objectives

The Catchment2Coast project aimed
to provide an ecosystem scale understanding of the linkages that govern the
economic dependency of tropical coastal
resources on their associated river catchments (Monteiro and Mathews, 2003;
Marchand, 2003). This understanding
was to be achieved through a combination of team skills, observational
programmes and the use of high resolution models. The core hypothesis of this
project was that the most important
biophysical interactions between freshwater catchments and coastal domains
occurred at the sub-seasonal event scale
(days). Unless these scales were resolved
the assessment of the economic consequences of those interactions would
not be sensitive, adequate or robust. To
achieve this, an explicit dynamical capability was required. This project used a
number of numerical models (coastal,
river basin and ground water), with the
required dynamical capability, in order
to implement a system scale approach
to the functional dependence of coastal systems on river basin drivers. The
shrimp (Paeneus indicus) was used as an
indicator of the ecosystem productivity response to catchment forcing. This
was a necessary simplification because
the focus of the project is on the system linkages rather than coastal food
web complexity. Secondly, shrimp Catch
Per Unit Effort (CPUE) was the best long
term proxy data for coastal ecosystem
productivity. The outcomes should however form a basis to deal with food web
complexity in the future.



Set up, running and validation of the

9 year hindcasting of coastal production in Maputo Bay
River Flow Modelling: A calibrated
model of the flows of the Incomati
River for the period 1996 2005 was

Geo Referenced Mangrove Habitat

map for Maputo bay: This was completed as collaboration between IMAR
in Portugal and UEM in Mozambique
Shrimp individual based model: a
shrimp physiology model was developed and completed as part of the
contribution by IMAR

Hydrodynamic model for Maputo Bay

that supported the understanding of
the nature ofstratification dynamics
in tidally forced tropical estuaries

Four combined field observational

programmes that served to set up
and verify the models

Catchment2Coast Framework was
developed by Delft Hydraulics and
integrates all the work packages into
a single system which allowed scenarios to be investigated. This forms
one of the key results of the project.
1 Regional Stakeholder workshop
1 National Stakeholder workshop in

1 Workshop with the Planning section of the South African Department

of Water Affairs



completed by the University of Natal

and used in the nine year hind casting of coastal productivity.

Presentation of the scientific programme at 5 international meetings

Presentation of the C2C approach as

a local action based on system-scale
understanding at the 4th World
Water Forum in Mexico, March 2006

3 Undergraduate theses and 3 postgraduate theses.


Results and outcome

Following the rejection of the hydrodynamics hypothesis, because the early
life stage of the shrimp were found to
have reached the mangrove nursery
grounds prior to the wet season flows,
the science focus shifted to the biogeochemical hypothesis.
The original formulation the biogeochemical forcing hypothesis was also
rejected through work focussing on
water column biogeochemistry. We
showed through a combination of modelling and observations that the river
was not the supplier of nitrogen to the
coastal estuarine system and could
not support the productivity needs in
the mangrove nursery. In the absence
of any oceanic or other land sources the
default hypothesis was Nitrogen fixation. The biogeochemical hypothesis
was then reformulated to focus on an
autochthonous source of nitrogen in the
form of nitrogen fixation. The important functional link between nitrogen
fixation and river flow was provided
by the work of Ravikumar et al., 2004
(JEMBE 312) from work in Indian mangroves. It showed that N-fixation was
driven by salinity dependence which
was sensitive to the spatial and temporal character of the 20 30psu range.
This provided a way of constraining the
observational strategy. The re-designed
field work, focussing on sediment water production and re-mineralization
fluxes, showed that the Avicennia mangroves, which generate most of the
N-fixation, were indeed the areas where
the greatest salinity dependence on new
production was found. The robustness
of this dynamical linkage was tested
by hindcasting ecosystem productivity
over a 9 year period 1996 2004 during which there was an acceptable time
series of CPUE, the best available proxy
for ecosystem productivity. The output
showed that the modelled productivity
was able to predict the trends in 8 of
the 9 years.

The most important scientific contributions that this work made to the overall
question of tropical river coastal ecosystem linkages were:

Identifying salinity variability N-fixation couple as the key linkage

that governs the dependency of
coastal ecosystem productivity on
river flows in low nutrient systems.
The retention character of the estuarine coastal water body physics
governs the magnitude and temporal
scale of the freshwater pulse (flood)
that initiates and sustains wet season
new production in the nursery zones.
The project made a significant
contribution to the mangrove outwelling hypothesis by showing that
the nitrogen losses from the mangrove (outwelling) were limited to
the spring tidal periods in the wet
season when physical transport
rates exceeded uptake rates by microphytobenthos in the mangroves.

Suspend harvesting of mature


Declare reserves for process diversity in the mangrove ecosystems;

Implement an initial minimum wet

season (Jan Apr) water flux of
500Mm3 for the Incomati River and
250Mm3 for the Maputo River;

Coordinate the four largest dams in

the Incomati (> 80% capacity) and
Maputo basins to achieve this;

Coordinate the Incomati and Maputo

river basins to increase resilience;

Conserve the Xinavane and Maputo

wetlands (declare conservation

Initiate prawn biomass estimates;

The implementation of all the proposed modelling platforms.

The development of the C2C computational framework (Decision
Support Tool) which articulates the
ecosystem as whole and forms the
basis for scenario exploration that
will be used for capacity building.

The approach was also generic enough to

allow other recognized impacts such as
mining effluents, pathogens, eutrophication, erosion and silting to be addressed
in a holistic way in the future. The project integrated biophysical and resource
economics models to then allow the
translation of the impacts into urban and
rural livelihoods. This work also helped
to develop the sense of an integrated
IncoMaputo system and form the basis
for a closer dialogue between river basin
managers in South Africa and coastal resource managers in Mozambique.


More specifically in terms of outcomes,

the project was able to formulate a
number of recommendations and
action points to develop ecosystem resilience for the Incomati River - Maputo
Bay system:

Use January experimental CPUE to

forecast the seasonal average




Maputo River: good flow data;

New production Hypothesis:
N-Fix Salinity relationship;

Mangrove food web and resource competition;

Salinity variability in the Bay

and mangrove domains;

Communication to all stakeholders;

Science graduates.




Application of the multiple scale modelling approach to the Lough Coastal

ecosystem in northern Ireland in the
SMILE project ( to
support the multi-user needs including
fisheries and aquaculture development.

Selected Publications
Brockway, R., D. Bowers, A. Hoguane, V. Dove
and V. Vassele, 2006. A note on salt intrusion
in funnel-shaped estuaries: Application to
the Incomati estuary, Mozambique. Estuarine,
Coastal and Shelf Science, 66:1-5.
Diehl, K., 2003. Groundwater impact on the
Coastal Zone, especially on Maputo Bay and
the mangrove ecosystem. Ernst-Moritz-ArndtUniversity, Greifswald, Germany. Study of
Environmental Ecology and Nature Conservation.
Franco, A, J.G. Ferreira & A.M. Nobre, 2006.
Development of a growth model for penaeid
shrimp. Aquaculture, 259(1-4):268-277.
Halo, I., P.M.S. Monteiro, N. Machava, A. Pascall,
2007. Biogeochemical characteristics of the
water column and boundary fluxes in the
Maputo bay system. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf
Science, in press.
Monteiro, P.M.S., A. Pascall, J-L. Harcourt
Baldwin, V. Naiken, E. Andr, R. De Paula e Silva,
In prep. Predicting the interannual variability of
a tropical coastal fisheries through a salinity N
fixation linkage and mangrove ecosystem new
production. Estuarine Coastal and Shelf Science,
April 2007.
Monteiro, P.M.S., A. Pascall, N. Machava, J.L.
Graa, E. Andr, In prep. Biogeochemical
characteristics of a tropical mangrove in
a nutrient poor river coastal ecosystem.
Estuarine Coastal & Shelf Science, April 2007.
Monteiro, P.M.S. & S. Mathews, 2003.
Catchment2Coast: Making the link between
coastal resource variability and river input. South
African Journal of Science, 99.



Antonio Hoguane
Pedro Monteiro
(science Council for Scientific
and Industrial Research CSIR
P.O.BOX 320
7599 Stellenbosch
South Africa
TEL: +2721 8882437
Fax: +2721 88882693

Marcel Marchand
Wl Delft Hydraulics
Marine and Coastal Management
P.O. Box 177
2600 MH Delft
The Netherlands
(admin. Coordinator)
TEL: +31 15 2858558
FAX: +31 15 2858710

Eduardo Mondlane Universty

Faculty of Sciences Chair of Marine
Sciences and Oceanography
P.O. BOX 257

Mike Savage
University of Natal
Private Bag X01
3209 Scottsville
South Africa

Geoff Brundit
University of Cape Town
Dept. of Oceanography
7701 Rondebosch
South Africa

Joo Gomes Ferreira
IMAR Instituto do Mar
Universidade de Coimbra
Qunita Da Torre
2829-516 Monte De Caparica

John H. Simpson
Three Graduate theses and two PhD theses were completed within this project.

University of Wales
School of Ocean Studies
Askew street
LL59 5EY Menai Bridge
United Kingdom

Rui Paula e Silva

Instituto de Investigao Pesqueira
Caixa Postal 4603




Enhancing the outreach of aquatic biodiversity
and ecosystem research in support of the
transition towards global sustainability

Context and Objectives

Throughout the world, aquatic ecosystems continue to be overexploited and
degraded as well as undervalued by
decision-makers. Availability of high
quality scientific information in a form
that can be understood by a wide range
of societal groups is of importance to
change the state of affairs. Ecosystem
management for sustainability is still in
its infancy and there is an urgent need
for tools and data. The European-based
Fishbase ( information system is the largest of its kind in
the world and is well suited to demonstrate the feasibility of significant steps
towards the knowledge society and to
explore the problems and opportunities
associated with such move. The modelling software Ecopath with Ecosim
(EwE) ( is designed to
construct trophic network models and
allows simulating the impact of various
management regimes on ecosystems.
To date EwE has been applied to a wide
range of ecosystems from ponds to
coral reefs.
The specific objectives of ECOFISH were:
Strengthening of networking among
FishBase and EwE users in Europe and
developing countries by creating a
functioning information network; coordination of research among ECOFISH
partners (25 scientists from 19 countries) with a view to enhance relevance
for global and regional sustainability;
increasing the impact of research co-operations through dissemination of results
to other scientists, decision makers and
the public at large; involvement of the
interested public (such as anglers and
divers) in monitoring fish biodiversity.

1. Identification and implementation

of indicators for sustainable use of
aquatic ecosystems;
2. Reaching the public with quality
information on sustainable use of
natural resources and involving
special interest groups (e.g. anglers and divers) in monitoring of
3. Integration, harmonisation, and
analysis of biodiversity databases,

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/07/2002 to 30/06/2004 (24 months)
Accompanying measure

4. Integration of biological databases
with ecosystem models, such as
FishBase with EwE models, to improve ease of use as well as quality
of models.

Other activities included:

Strategic alliances with respective

organisations in Europe and in developing countries

Facilities for easy uploading of observations through the Internet

Dr. Rainer Froese

Institute of Marine Research
at University of Kiel


A web-based information system

with different interfaces for different user groups

Traditional means such as presentation at relevant conferences and


Public relation activities aimed at

traditional mass media (press, radio, TV).

A Steering Committee supervising the
Ecofish work programme met once per
year. Expert workshops on the following topics were organised:





Results and Outcomes

The following achievements of the
ECOFISH project deserve special


The FishBase-Ecopath workshop

brought the respective architects
and their programmers together
and laid out a path towards tight
integration of the largest database
and the most widely used modelling
tool for Ecosystem-based Fishery
The Indicators workshop resulted
in a publication in a primary journal
with follow-up Poster at the Fourth
World Fisheries Congress, a summary
in the influential Sea Span Newsletter,
and an invitation for an article in the
ICES Newsletter. The idea of let the
fish spawn has caught on e.g. in the
Philippines (Poster, Ruler) and in
Senegal (size at first maturity set as
minimum landing size).
The Databases workshop resulted
in an in-depth analysis of concerns
of data owners with respect to making their data publicly available and
options to address these concerns;
the analysis is expected to have wide
influence in the communities that are
struggling to make biodiversity data
available, such as Global Biodiversity
Information Facility (GBIF) and
Information System (OBIS).
The Outreach workshop led to
ongoing collaboration with the
European Union of Aquarium
Partners workshop led to ongoing
contacts with the aquarium industry (Sera and JBL) and the Marine
Stewardship Council.
A large INCO strategic research
proposal under FP6 for reconciling multiple demands on
coastal zones with 37 partners


from 7 European and 15 developing countries was developed

and submitted. It has meanwhile
been approved and the project
INCOFISH started in July 2005.
Most of the objectives laid out in the
original ECOFISH proposal have been
achieved and some have been overachieved. Some results such as the
translation of the FishBase web portal
into 12 languages were not planned for
and were obtained in close collaboration
with other EC projects e.g. European
Network for Biodiversity Information
(ENBI). Not achieved was the publication
of scientific analyses making use of the
new integration between FishBase and
ECOPATH; true integration proved to
be more demanding than anticipated
and respective re-design of the structure of diet information in FishBase is
still ongoing.

Rainer Froese
Institute of Marine Sciences
Dsternbrooker Weg 20
24105 Kiel
TEL: +49 431 600 4579
FAX: +49 431 600 1699

Froese, R. 2004. Keep fishery management
simple. ICES Newsletter, 41:9-10
Froese, R., 2004. Keep it simple: three indicators
to deal with overfishing. Fish and Fisheries,
Froese, R., B. Samb & M.D. Barry. 2004. An
assessment of status and trends in major
fisheries using three simple indicators. Poster
presented at the 4th World Fisheries Congress,
May 2-6, Vancouver, Canada
Froese, R., D. Lloris & S. Opitz, 2004. The need to
make scientific data publicly available concerns
and possible solutions. pp. 268-271 In M.L.D.
Palomares, B. Samb, T. Diouf, J.M. Vakily & D.
Pauly (eds.). Fish biodiversity: Local studies as
basis for global inferences. ACP-EU Fish.Res.Rep.,
(14):283 p.
Stergiou, K.I., P. Karachle & D. Bobori, 2004.
Fishbase - the fantastic electronic world of fish.
Hellenic Fishing News, June 2004. In Greek and
Contributions to FishBytes. Newsletter of the
Fisheries Centre. University of British Columbia,
Opitz, S., 2003. Ecofish strengthening
partnerships (March/April 2003)
Opitz, S., 2003. Ecofish update: sustainable
indicators (May/June 2003)
Opitz, S., 2003. Ecofish workshops in Crete and
Barcelona (Nov./Dec. 2003)


Integrated Ecological Coastal Zone
Management System

Context and Objectives

Ecologists and social scientists have
only recently realized that in order to
fulfill the requirements for sustainable
development, human beings have to
be explicitly incorporated as structural
components of ecosystems. Indeed,
the clear distinction between natural
and managed ecosystems is slowly
fading-away, leaving us with the task of
re-writing ecological theory in order to
incorporate anthropogenic pressure.
ECOMANAGE aims to develop an integrated management system for coastal
zones and apply it in three contrasting
coastal ecosystems: an estuary with
mangroves in Brazil, a fjord in Chile
and a large estuary with wide intertidal
areas in Argentina.
The Santos Estuary, in Brazil, is home
to the biggest port in Latin America.
Five hundred years of urban, industrial and port use have highly changed
this ecosystem. Originally mangroves
extended all over the estuary and the
coastal region surrounding it, and even
though there are still some well preserved areas the ecosystem is under
severe environmental stress due to its
location downstream from Sao Paulo (a
city of 15 million people) and Cubato
a major industrial area.
The Bahia Blanca Estuary is a mesotidal
coastal plain estuary in Argentina. It
is a less modified coastal system than
the previous one, but still ports, towns
and industries are located mainly in
the northern boundaries of the estuary. The estuary is characterized by the
presence of various channels, fine sand
and silt-clay sediments and low depth.
The Aisen Fjord is located in one of the
largest estuarine areas of the world: the
Chilean austral fjords. The fjord supports a large salmon farming industry;
it receives the liquid residues of Puerto
Aisn (a town of 37000 people). It is

also home of a large seaport (Puerto

Chacabuco). Recently, a multinational
company requested the Chilean government authorization to install a large
industrial complex near the fjord (an
aluminium processing plant), which
threatens the areas fragile ecosystem.
Although both the central and regional
Chilean governments state that one
of the main characteristics of its environmental policy is wide citizens
participation, there is no stakeholders
agreed model for this ecosystem.

The project had 3 main components:
1. The physical-ecological and socioeconomic system (PHES-system),
supported by field data and state
of the art modelling tools will describe ecosystem processes and will
forecast its behaviour under different scenarios of socio-economic

Project Number
and Framework Programme
6th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/12/2004 to 30/05/2008 (42 months)

Prof. Ramiro Neves
Instituto Superior Tcnico


2. A Spatial Decision Support System

(SDSS) will integrate all information
and will provide tools for providing
answers to decision-makers, researchers and stakeholders.
3. Index analysis involving spatial and
temporal variably will play a vital
part in focusing and illuminating the
significance of environmental changes and the progress to sustainable
development in the complex coastal
systems studied in the project.
The three coastal zones show conflicting
interests between urban, industrial and
agricultural pressures and environmental maintenance. Relationships between
the origins and consequences of environmental pressures will be described
using a Driving forces, Pressures, State,
Impacts and Responses (DPSIR) framework and indexes will be used to assess
links between DPSIR elements.




Participatory methods were applied
for interaction with stakeholders in
order to establishing study scenarios
and indexes for socio-economic and
ecosystem analyses and to measure
environmental impacts of management
decisions. Field data and modelling
results were included into a Spatial
Decision Support System (SDSS) for
simplifying the assessment of the impact of management scenarios and
evaluate their performance.

Results and outcomes

The ECOMANAGE project focused
on three estuarine systems in Latin
America: Santos Estuary and Bahia
Blanca in the Atlantic coast, and Aysn
Fjord in the Pacific coast. Together, they
represent key coastal zones regarding
their integrated management. All show
conflicting interests between urban, industrial and agricultural development
and environmental conservation. Thus,
beyond their differences, they share
some of the major regional environmental concerns: transformation of the
landscape and seascape with the loss
of natural patrimony, increased human
waste and industrial disposal including
those from aquaculture activities.
With this background, the main
achievements of ECOMANAGE project
can be summarized in the following
major themes:
1. Identification of the main drivers
and pressures
From heavily populated area of Santos
Estuary to the near-pristine water conditions of Aysn Fjord, the work developed
in the project has cover a wide range of
ecological and socio-economical conditions, and their inevitable conflicts and
challenges in management. These systems share some similarities and also
some conspicuous differences. These
settings meant sometimes the use of



different approaches and methodologies to address site-specific issues.

3. Testing development scenarios /

management options with models

Based on the DPSIR framework, it was

possible to identify the large-scale human drivers of change in each site, and
to link them to impacts on the state of
the system through the pressures. The
first step in the DPSIR framework was
the definition of the driving-forces that
lead to environmental pressures. For
this first step, the major stakeholders
where identified and also their values,
interests and possible conflicts between them. A synthesis of the major
outcomes of this process is presented
in Table 1.

Model application developed during

ECOMANAGE project have been combined with the DPSIR framework with
the objective of improving communication and understanding of the nature of
the problems, thus helping in the decision making process. This was achieved
by simulating different development
scenarios for each site or by testing
the outcome of different management
policies in the ecological state of the
system. These studies have addressed
the housing and population growth
effects on the Santos Estuarine system, sewage related problems in Bahia
Blanca, and the effect of aquaculture
waste products on the bottom water of
Aysn Fjord.

2. Set up, calibration and validation of

numerical models
A major outcome of ECOMANAGE
project has been the set up of numerical models to all the study sites. The
MOHID modelling platform has been
used to simulate the major processes
of these distinct estuarine systems.
Also, groundwater and watershed modelling applications were developed. The
models have been calibrated and validated with historical field data sets and
whenever needed, sampling campaigns
were made to complement insufficient
data. The use of models have made
possible to clarify causes and effects
in environmental processes, the distinction between anthropogenic and
natural contamination sources and their
respective impact at each site. In addition, modelling results have proved to
be important to complement data from
traditional experimental research methods and have become an essential tool
during the project for understanding
complex processes that link different
compartments of the system and to run
across the land-sea interface by linking
catchments and estuarine processes.

4. Stakeholders involvement
The project has promoted strong public
involvement of stakeholders by giving
them the opportunity to participate in
decision-making processes, leading to
the establishment of a straight cooperation between project partners and the
main stakeholders in the studied areas.
The totally new conceptual framework
brought by ECOMANAGE improved the
better understanding of the management issues in the three sites and lead
to specific answers to local problems
with generic methodologies. Outcomes
of the project were of significant interest to both scientific and water
resources management communities in
all sites. ECOMANAGE project has help
in the public education and consensusbuilding processes and has promoted
and encourage public awareness and
participation by making information
widely available. A significant outcome
of including local stakeholders has
been a renewed cooperation pointing
to future work and development of the
work started during the project.


5. International,


A main achievement of ECOMANAGE

is certainly the combined effort to
achieve better management strategies
for the study areas. Public and private
institutions at each site have made part
of the effort, working side by side with
the scientific staff of the project. The
project also provided the opportunity
for a significant number of students
to pursue their academic degrees, and
for the collaboration of researcher
from other institutions and universities. Many areas of expertise have been
blended in the work of ECOMANAGE,

including fields as ecology, water pollution, ecotoxicology, hydrodynamics,

modeling, groundwater, economics
and social sciences.
6. A decision support system
Another major product of the project
was a site-specific knowledge base on
estuarine and basin management, and
a spatial decision support system to
provide guidelines for restoration and
sustainable development of the sites. In
the ongoing work started in the project
this system will help to identify policy
alternatives and assess their impact
on the management objectives. During

the project this was conducted largely

by technical experts, with input from
stakeholders in the form of selecting
the experts and defining their terms
of reference. In the future this tool will
help to evaluate and choose preferred
policy alternatives between competing objectives and methods, allowing
stakeholders to state their preferences
(value-based information) for different
outcomes, based on good information
(factual or technical information).

Table 1. Major socio-economical features of the

ECOMANAGE study sites.


Santos Estuary

Baha Blanca

Aysn Fjord


Industrial and port activities

Population growth

Agricultural activity
Industrial and port activities
Population growth

Salmon Farming


Petrochemical park
Refineries and terminals
Fertilizer plants
Thermoelectric plant
Metal industries
Port activities

Petrochemical park
Refineries and terminals
Fertilizer plants
Thermoelectric plant
Several industries (meat and fish
factories, leather and textile plants,
Port activities

Salmon fish farming

Artisan fishing


Urban and industrial pollution (wastewater effluents

discharges with and without

Urban and industrial pollution

(wastewater effluents discharges
with and without treatment)

Organic inputs
(associated with fish feed and
faecal pallets), sediments from
terrestrial systems

Major impacts

Habitat degradation (loss)


Local bottom modification

of the system

Occupation (housing)
Recreation (bathing in the
bay area)
Food source

Food source

Food source

Overall State

Highly modified
Heavily Polluted


Near pristine, unpolluted


Regional government
Industrial consortiums
Port authorities

Regional government
Industrial consortiums
Port authorities

Regional and national

Salmon farmers





Selected Publications


Eduinetty Ceci Pereira

Moreira de Sousa

Books and book chapters

Ramiro Neves

Bachmann, P., L. Delgado & V. Marn, 2007.

Toward the integrated ecological management
of coastal zones in Chile: Contributions of the
ECOMANAGE project. Salesianos Impresores S.A.,
Santiago, Chile, 93 pp.

Universidade Tcnica de Lisboa

Instituto Superior Tcnico
Mechanical Engineering
Av. Rovisco Pais, n 1
1096 Lisbon
Portugal Tel: +351 218 41 73 97
Fax: +351 218 41 94 23

IOUSP - Instituto Oceanogrfico da

Universidade de So Paulo
Praa do Oceanogrfico, 191
Cidade Universitria Butant
05508-900 So Paulo

Marn VH and Delgado, 2005, The ecosystem

management of living marine resources: an
eco-social challenge, pp. 555-570 In E. Figueroa
(editor) Biodiversidad marina: valoracin, usos y
perspectivas, Editorial Universitaria, Chile.
Neves R, Baretta J and Mateus M (eds), 2008.
Perspectives on Integrated Coastal Zone
Management in South America, IST Press,
Lisbon, Portugal.



Jos Chambel Leito

Bachmann PL, Delgado LE, Marn VH, 2007,

Analysis of the citizens participation concept
used by local decision makers: the case of
the Aysn watershed in southern Chile. Int.J.
Sustainable Development, 10:251-266.

HIDROMOD, Modelao em
Engenharia, Lda. (SME) TAGUSPARK,
Ncleo Central, 349
2780-920 Porto Salvo

Grecco, L.E., A.O.Marcos, E.A.Gmez, S.Bott &

J.Marcovechio, 2006. Natural and anthropogenic
input of heavy metals in sediments from the
Baha Blanca Estuary (Argentina). Journal of
Coastal Research, SI 39:1021-1025.
Marcovecchio, J.E. y L.D.Ferrer, 2005.
Distribution and geochemical partitioning of
heavy metals in sediments of the Baha Blanca
estuary, Argentina. Journal of Coastal Research,
Marn VH, Delgado LE, Bachmann P, 2007,
Conceptual PHES-system models of the
Aysn watershed and fjord (Southern Chile):
Testing a brainstorming strategy. Journal of
Environmental Management, DOI:10.1016/j.
Popovich, C.A., C.V. Spetter, J.E. Marcovecchio &
R.H. Freije, 2008. Dissolved nutrients availability
during winter diatom bloom in a turbid and
shallow estuary (Baha Blanca, Argentina).
Journal of Coastal Research, 24:95-102.
Popovich, C.A. & J.E.Marcovecchio, 2008. Spatial
Variability of Phytoplankton and Environmental
Factors in a Temperate Estuary of South Amrica
(Atlantic Coast, Argentina). Continental Shelf
Research, 28: 236-244.
Yarrow MM & Marn VH, 2007, Toward
conceptual cohesiveness: a historical analysis of
the theory and utility of ecological boundaries
and transition zones. Ecosystems, DOI: 10.1007/
Yarrow, M.M., A. Tironi, A.A. Ramrez & V.H.
Marn, 2008, An applied assessment model to
evaluate the socioeconomic impact of wter
quality regulations in Chile. Water Resources
Management DOI 10.1007/s11269-008-9241-0.





Johan Wijnand Baretta

Noctiluca Marien-Wetenschappelijk
v. Polanenpark 212
2241 RX Wassenaar

Joo Lobo Ferreira

LNEC -Laboratrio Nacional de
Engenharia Civil
Avenida do Brasil 101
1700-066 Lisbon

Enrico Feoli
UNITS - University of Trieste
Piazzale Europa 1
34127 Trieste


Aureo Emanuel
Pasqualeto Figueiredo
UNISANTA - Instituto Superior de
Educao Santa Ceclia
Universidade Santa Ceclia
Rua Oswaldo Cruz, n 266
11 045907 city missing

Jorge Marcovecchio
IADO - Instituto Argentino de
Complejo CRIBABB. Florida 4000,
Edificio E-1
8000 Baha Blanca

Victor Hernan Marin

UCHILE - Universidad de Chile
Las Palmeras 3425, uoa

Manuel Contreras
CEA - Centro de Ecologa Aplicada
Av. Suecia 3304, uoa



Discovery Modelling Mediation Deliberation
InterfaceTools for Multistakeholder Knowledge Partnerships for the Sustainable Management of Marine Resources and Coastal Zones
Context and Objectives
Policies to encourage research, knowledge exchange and science applications
for sustainable development must address urgent social needs and also
complex and difficult issues where
knowledge is incomplete, values are in
dispute and stakes are high. The traditional conception of a largely oneway
traffic of information from the experts
to the public (and from developed
countries to the developing ones, etc.)
is being replaced by a more reciprocal partnership among those involved
in the process. Such partnership necessarily is constructed through close
dialogue and co-operation of scientists
and technical experts with policy makers, implementers and stakeholders,
including full participation by experts
with local knowledge in developing
countries. This cannot happen by a
cloistered approach to science and
technology. Partnership for capacity
building must respect the environmental and social circumstances of the
host societies, and the variety and tensions within these societies. People in
all places and all walks of life have expertise in a range of practical matters.
Mobilising knowledge for sustainable
development therefore requires attention to the forms of knowledge sharing.
The goal overall of the PASARELAS
Project was to contribute to development of a North-South capacity for the
production, deployment and exchange
of research and communication tools
at the interfaces of different sectors of
society in the field of environmental governance and sustainable development.
With close reference to the concomitant
and CENSOR, the consortium allied multi-stakeholder participatory
approaches with the possibilities of
the new multimedia information and
visualisation technologies for the development of mediation or dialogue
tools that encourage engagement of individuals and groups as stakeholders

in environmental policy, management

and governance processes for coastal
zones, marine protected areas and associated fisheries resources.

Learning about environmental governance challenges was promoted through
participation in procedures (real or simulated) of selection and deployment of
indicator systems (e.g. computer supported visualisation of scenarios and
territories, and multi-criteria evaluation
of alternative scenarios for land use, for
ecosystem protection and management,
for fisheries regulation and marketing,
etc.). The multimedia tools and participation processes were demonstrated
through exploitation of data, models
and institutional knowledge from ongoing INCO-DEV research projects,
engaging policy authorities, territorial administrations, higher education,
private sector interests (e.g., fisheries,
tourism, coastal zone agriculture), with
outreach perspectives to civil society
in its various forms. Documentation
was produced using on-line resources,
CDrom, printed documents, and popular media (posters, video presentations,
etc.). An important goal was to define in
technical and legal terms, the basis for
a permanent education-training-outreach programme including pedagogic

Project Number
and Framework Programme
6th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/01/2005 to 30/06/2007 (30 months)
Specific Support Action

Prof. Martin OConnor
Universit de Versailles
Saint-Quentin-en-Yvelines, France


1. disseminated as free web-based

2. as products to be made available
through public good exploitation agreements for teaching and
learning contexts including schools,
3. as basis for professional services
useful to research institutions,
companies, community networks
and regulatory agencies.





To this effect, four major events were convened bringing together partners in the
PASARELAS project, the other INCO-DEV
projects and stakeholders from within
the different regions. These took place
in July 2005 in Corsica (France), in March
2006 in Dakar (Senegal), in September
2006 in Concepcin (Chile) and finally in
March 2007 in Venice (Italy).

Results and outcomes

The results are knowledge products
and their dissemination useful for
the understanding of coastal systems
and supporting policy formulation on
priorities set by bi-regional dialogue
between Europe, Africa, Caribbean and
the Pacific, Asia and Latin America and
encouraging new avenues of coastal
zone management in following up on
the orientation of the World Summit for
Sustainable Development. Instead of
generating stand-alone products, much
of the conceptual work and learning
enabled by the PASARELAS project has
been embedded in other projects and
printed and on-line deliberation support software.



Martin OConnor

Joachim Spangenberg

Universit de Versailles Saint-Quentinen-Yvelines

47 boulevard Vauban,
78047 Guyancourt Cedex
Tel: +33 1 39 25 53 75
Fax: +33 1 39 25 53 00

Sustainable Europe Research Institute

Schwarzspanierstrasse 4/8
1090 Vienna


Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona

Facultat de ciences economiques i
Edif. B
08193 Bella Terra


Giuseppe Munda


Malcom Eames
Policy Studies Institute
100 Park Village East
NW1 3SR London
United Kingdom

Carlo Giupponi
Fondazione ENI Enrico Mattei
Campos Santa Maria Formosa
Castello 5252
30122 Venice

Enrico Feoli
University of Trieste
Piazza Europa 1
34127 Trieste

Gilberto Carlos Gallopin

Economic Commission for Latin
American and the Caribbean*
179-D Santiago
E-M: (* subcontractor)




Jim Ewing

Diaw Tahirou

Weng Tat Chan

University of Dundee
Gardyne Road Campus
DD5 1NY Dundee
United Kingdom

Universit Cheikh Anta Diop (UCAD)

Ecole Suprieure de Polytechnique,
B.P. 5005, Dakar

National University of Singapore

Tropical Marine Science Institute
14 Kent Ridge Road




Jeroen Van Der Sluijs

Heqin Cheng

Rainer Froese

Universiteit Utrecht
Faculteit Scheikunde
Copernicus Institute Development and
Padualaan 8
3584CH Utrech
The Netherlands

East China Normal University

State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and
Coastal Research
Zhongshan North Road 3663
200062 Shanghai

University of Kiel
Leibniz Institute for Marine Research,
Dstembrooker Weg 20
24105 Kiel




Patrice Cayre
Anil K. Gupta
Society for Research & Initiatives for
Sustainable Technologies & Institutions
PO Box 15050 Ambawadi
380015 Ahmedabad

Institut de Recherche pour le

Direction du dpartement de
ressources vivantes
209-213 rue La Fayette
75480 Paris cedex 10

Paul Jeffrey
Cranfield University
School of Water Sciences
Mk 43 Oal Bedfordshire
United Kingdom

Ussif Rashid Sumaila

University of Namibia
Department of Natural Resources and
13301 Windhoek

Jaime Mendo
Universidad Nacional Agraria La
456 Lima 100
Avenida la Universidad s/n - La Molina

Pierre Failler
University of Portsmouth
Boat House No 6, College Road
H.M. Naval Base
Portsmouth PO1 3LJ
United Kingdom

Wolf E. Arntz1
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and
Marine Research
Comparative Ecosystem Research
27515 Bremerhaven


Retired at the time of printing





Developing ubiquitous practices for
restoration of Indo Pacific reefs

Project Number
and Framework Programme
6th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/01/2005 to 31/12/2008 (48 months)

Dr. Baruch Rinkevich
National Institute of Oceanography

Context and Objectives


Coral reefs are renowned for their spectacular diversity and have significant
aesthetic, protective and commercial
value. However, many reefs around the
world are increasingly threatened, principally from human activities causing
excess inputs of sediment, nutrients
and pollutants. The worldwide decline
of coral reefs, including reefs of the
Indo-Pacific region, has raised the need
for urgent development of adequate
restoration methods. Yet, efforts to
conserve degrading reefs have failed to
produce significant results and rehabilitation measures have not successfully
compensated for the fast degradation.
Assuming that anthropogenic drivers of
degradation can be acted upon, active
restoration requires specific knowledge
and techniques. Moreover, development
of such techniques opens new avenues
to culture corals that are otherwise
(over)harvested in the wild for the international trade in ornamentals.

A consortium of seven groups (from

four European and associated countries
that include research institutions and
an SME entity and three Asian partners)
is teamed up for four years to collaborate on restoring Indo-Pacific coral reefs
under the strategy concept of gardening of denuded reefs areas. In this
two-step restoration measure, first, a
large pool of farmed corals and spats
is established and cultured on low-profile nurseries and then, nursery-grown
colonies are transplanted to degraded
reef sites. This will be studied simultaneously in four Asian reef areas and by
the SME under ex-situ conditions. The
partners have been teamed as pairs
(Asian-EU/AC), each pair working in a
specific site area. The use of branches,
coral nubbins and planula larvae will be
studied together with the importance
of coral branch sizes for 3-D structures
of developing colonies. The management of knowledge will be based on
joint programme activities and annual
meetings, each at a different reef site
where theoretical and applied aspects
of the work will be discussed. In a startup workshop, the knowledge that exists
will be shared with the Asian partners.
A final project workshop (month 48)
will summarize the outcomes for the
partners and for five additional invited
Asian partners from other countries.

The major objectives of this research

1. To establish underwater coral
nurseries specifically adapted to
different Indo-Pacific reef localities.
2. To develop ubiquitous protocols
for nubbin and spat usage in reef
3. To develop novel protocols (3-D
structures in new colonies) for reef

Expected Results
and outcome
Expected outputswill:

4. To initiate and assess reef restoration by the use of different coral

sources at locations where degradation has occurred.
5. To strengthen Asian partners capacity in relation to reef restoration



1. Help in addressing a major environmental and socio-economic challenge

in tropical Asia, the sustainable use/
restoration of coral reefs.
2. Help business and research organisations in the European Union
and countries associated with the
Framework Programme to have


access to knowledge and expertise

existing elsewhere in the world.
3. Help ensure Europes strong and
coherent participation in research
initiatives conducted at international level in order to push forward the
boundaries of knowledge and help
to resolve major problem in partner
4. Contribute to implement EU policy
regarding CITES regulation.

Shaish, L., A. Abelson & B. Rinkevich, 2006.

Branch to colony trajectory in a modular
organism: Pattern formation in the Indo-Pacific
coral Stylophora pistillata. Developmental
Dynamics, 235(8):2111-2121.
Shaish, L., A. Abelson & B. Rinkevich, 2007.
How Plastic Can Phenotypic Plasticity Be? The
Branching Coral Stylophora pistillata as a Model
System. PLoS ONE, 2(7):e644. doi:10.1371/
Vicentuan, K.C., J.R. Guest, M.V. Baria, P.C.
Cabaitan, R.M. Dizon, R.D. Villanueva, P.M.
Alio, A.J. Edwards, E.D. Gomez & A.J. Heyward,
2008. Multi-species spawning of corals in northwestern Philippines. Reef Research, 27(1):83.

5. Contribute to the development of

a new industry that will, in the future, circumvent the need for coral
import and will open a new avenue
for the export of environmentallyfriendly material to other countries
outside Europe (such as the US,
Japan and Canada).
6. Help in bringing together parts of
the fragmented community of coral
reef biologists in Europe and connect them with partners in Asia.

Alasdair James Edwards
University of Newcastle-upon-Tyne
School of Biology
3 Kensington Terrace
Newcastle-uponTyne, NEL 7RU
United Kingdom

Edgardo D. Gomez
University of The Philippines
Marine Science Institute
Velasquez Street in UP Campus
1101 Diliman, Quezon City
The Philippines

Roberto Danovaro


Consorzio Nazionale Interuniversitario

per le Scienze del Mare
Marine Sciences, Polytechnic University
of Marche
Via Brecce Bianche
60131 Ancona


Selected Publications
Amar, K.O., N.E. Chatwick & B. Rinkevich, 2007.
Coral planulae as dispersion vehicles: biological
properties of larvae released early and late in
the season. Marine Ecological Progress Series,
Danovaro, R., L. Bongiorni, C. Corinaldesi, D.
Giovanelli, E. Damiani, P. Astolfi, L. Greci & A.
Puceddu, 2008. Sunscreens cause coral bleaching
by promoting viral infections. Environmental
Health Perspectives, DOI 10.1289/ehp.10966
Dizon, R.M., A.J. Edwards & E.D. Gomez, 2008.
Comparison of three types of adhesives in
attaching coral transplants to clam shell
substrates. Aquatic Conservation: Marine and
Freshwater Ecosystems, DOI 10.1002/aqc.944

Loke Ming Chou

Baruch Rinkevich
Oceanographic and Limnological
National Institute of Oceanography
Marine Biology and Biotechnology
Tel-Shikmona, POB 8030
31080 Haifa
Tel: +972-4-856 52 75
Fax: +972-4-851 19 11

National University of Singapore

Biological Sciences
14 Science Drive 4
117543 Singapore City

Hansa Chansang
Phuket Marine Biological Centre
51 Moo 8, Sakdidet Road, PO Box 60
83000 Phuket

Precht, W.F., 2006. Coral reef restoration

handbook. CRC Press, 363 p.

I. Meseri

Raz-Bahat, M., J. Erez & B. Rinkevich, 2006.

In vivo light-microscopic documentation
for primary calcification processes in the
hermatypic coral Stylophora pistillata. Cell and
Tissue Research, 325(2):361-368.

Red Sea Corals

Mobile Mail Galil Maaravi
22805 Kibbutz Saar

Shafir, S., J. van Rijn & B. Rinkevich, 2006. Coral

nubbins as source material for coral biological
research: A prospectus. Aquaculture, 258(14):444-448.





Sustainable options for people,
catchment and aquatic resources

Project Number
and Framework Programme
6th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/12/2004 to 31/03/2008 (40 months)

Dr. Joao Gomes Ferreira
IMAR Institute of Marine Research


Context and Objectives


SPEAR aimed to develop and test an

integrated framework for interpreting
coastal zone structure and dynamics
in areas where communities primarily depend on marine resources. This
framework accounts for watershed
interactions, ecological structure and
human activities and was developed
using two case-study systems in China.
This interdisciplinary approach combined natural and social sciences and
addressed the complex scaling issues
inherent in integrated management.
The objectives were:

Two contrasting systems in China were

studied: Sanggou Bay, part of a rural
watershed already investigated in a previous INCO project, and Huangdun Bay,
located in an industrialised area south
of Shanghai. In both systems, large-scale
cultivation of seaweeds, shellfish and
finfish are of paramount importance for
community income and livelihood.

1. To develop an integrated framework that simulates the dynamics

of the coastal zone accounting for
basin effects (exchanges of water,
sediments and nutrients), ecological structure and human activities.
2. To test this framework using
detailed research models, which assimilate dispersed local and regional
data, and to develop screening models which integrate key processes
and interactions.
3. To examine ways of internalising
environmental costs and recommend response options such as
optimisation of species composition
and distributions, thereby restoring
ecological sustainability.
4. To evaluate the full economic costs
and benefits of alternative management strategies, and societal
consequences. Three strategies
were examined: business as usual,
increased economic exploitation
and ecological sustainability.
5. To provide managers with quantitative descriptors of environmental
health, including simple screening models, as practical diagnostic
tools, innovatively combining local
and regional datasets.



Research and development used existing local and regional datasets, ongoing
Chinese field programmes, archived
and contemporary satellite imagery,
with limited additional field and experimental measurements. Complementary
workpackages established the interactions between catchment use and
coastal zone. Work focused on fluxes
of nutrients, organic matter and sediments, including exchanges at the
seaward boundary and the role of ecological processes. Component models
were used to describe the interactions
both between cultivated species and
with their environments, taking into
account different levels of human interaction (e.g. resource exploitation,
basin water management practices, and
sewage discharge). Integrated modelling permitted the dynamic coupling
of economic drivers responsible for
social issues (overexploitation, usage
conflicts) with ecological models, resolving interrelations with the natural
system. This allowed realistic testing
of contrasting management scenarios.
Particular emphasis was placed on how
integrated multi-species aquaculture
(IMTA) may be used to restore and optimise sustainability by internalising
environmental costs.
Datasets and research models were
used to conceptualise, parameterise
and test screening models, which distil
the knowledge obtained from the integrated system analysis into simple and
practical diagnostic tools in support of
management for sustainability. Model


validation and strengthening of technological capacity was ensured through

stakeholder involvement in the project,
including in experimental manipulation
of IMTA at culture unit test sites, and
through training of young Chinese scientists, both through technical courses
and postgraduate research.
In parallel with the SPEAR project, a
number of other activities were developed as part of the SPEAR Leverage
Programme; foremost among these was
the launch of the Trophic Assessment In
Chinese Coastal Waters (TAICHI) project to evaluate coastal eutrophication
in China. This project has now assessed
four coastal bays, with a further five
planned for 2008.

include resource exploitation and other, potentially conflicting, uses such as

water management practices in the river basin, sewage discharge or coastline
modifications such as landfills.

tools for integrated assessment

and decision-making on the balance between environmental water
needs and requirements for economic development.

The socio-economic component of the

project permitted the coupling of economic drivers that are responsible for
social issues (overexploitation, usage
conflicts, and increasing demand) thus
allowing realistic testing of different
management scenarios. SPEAR quantified
the sensitivity of environmental changes
on aquaculture production, thereby
providing the rationale for minimising
environmental stressors and impacts of
changing demand on its sustainability.

3. Millennium Development Goals

(MDG) By contributing to the
stated aims of the UN MDG, in particular, this project hopes to have
contributed to integrating principles
of sustainable development into
country policies and programmes,
reversing the loss of environmental
resources, and improving the lives
of impoverished peri-urban communities in coastal zones of China.
Interdisciplinary work and training

SPEAR contributed to the three strategic areas of the 6th Framework


Main results
wand outcomes

1. Fight against poverty By supporting management of marine

resources from a sustainability perspective, allowing stable economic
development at the regional level
and supporting socially acceptable
and economically viable practice
for wider application. It also contributed to buffer employment and
reduce social penalties due to large
fluctuations in harvest yields, associated with unsustainable farming
practices and water use conflicts.

The SPEAR consortium provided a

conceptual framework for integrated
interpretation of coastal zone structure
and dynamics by means of a holistic
approach to coastal system research,
combining disciplines, techniques and
systems through the meaningful integration of patterns and processes with
widely varying scales. This facilitated
a new, system-based understanding of
the functioning of coastal zones. The
research models describe interactions
among cultivated species and between
them and their environments, including both natural coupling and various
levels of human interaction. The latter
Pacific oyster

A key achievement of SPEAR was the

involvement of the Chinese partners
in the development and application of
ecological models, at a variety of different scales. In parallel, but no less
important, was the empowerment of
young Chinese scientists, at the graduate and post-doctoral level, to apply
and further develop modelling tools.

Table 1. Shellfish harvest results and comparison

with data (tons total fresh weight (TFW) y-1)
for Sanggou Bay (top pane) and Huangdun Bay
(includes the Xianshang Gang, i.e. the connection
to the East China Sea (bottom pane).

2. EU Water Initiative By providing mechanisms for ensuring the

health of aquatic systems, and

Chinese scallop



















Chinese oyster

Razor clam

Manila clam

Muddy clam

























Ecosystem models
The integration of the various models
was carried out both online (with models
running together and interacting with
each other) and using offline coupling,
with results from one model being used
to drive another model.The main objective was to capture the scales at which
important phenomena occur, since it is
clearly impossible to use the same time
and space scales to simulate the detailed
water circulation over a tidal cycle, and
the decadal production of bivalves.
Table 1 illustrates the excellent match
between data and simulations for the
two bays; these results attest to the
quality of the modelling and the robustness of the multi-scale approach,
considering that they represent production simulated by combining physics,
biogeochemistry, bivalve physiology
and population dynamics in a set of
complex ecological models.
Screening models
A screening model is a tool which may
be useful for a fish farmer, farm manager or coastal manager. Typically these
models are easy to use and run in minutes, and support decisions such as the



Figure 1. Screening
model for carbon input to
sediments from fish culture.

assessment of the impact of a particular planning option, or classification

of the ecological status of an aquatic
system. Two examples of application of
this type of model are provided below.

growth models and screening models

for determining shellfish production
and for eutrophication assessment.

At the local scale, screening models

may be used to look at aquaculture
yields, local impacts of fish farming,
and water quality. A good example is
a particulate waste distribution model
developed for fish culture in Huangdun
Bay (Figure 1), using GIS, which provides a footprint of organic enrichment
beneath fish farms.

Requirements for input data have been

reduced to a minimum, since the model
is aimed at the shellfish farming community and local managers. Model
inputs may be grouped into data on
(i) farm layout, dimensions, species
composition and stocking densities;
(ii) suspended food entering the farm;
and (iii) environmental parameters. The
FARM model is publicly available at

Management (FARM) modelling framework applies a combination of physical
and biogeochemical models, bivalve

Figure 3. Box layout of Sanggou Bay and the

location of FARM simulation area

Figure 2. Application of FARM to calculate a mass

balance for oyster culture in Sanggou Bay


Table 2. Setup options and results of Sanggou Bay

FARM scenario


(ton TFW)



(kg y-1)


(K y-1)

Oysters in sections 1, 2 and 3






Oysters in sections 1 and 3,

section 2 empty






Oysters in sections 1 and 3,

section 2 fish cages only







The application of FARM to an oyster

farm in Sanggou Bay is shown in Figure
2, and illustrates the substitution value
of shellfish with respect to land-based
control of nutrient emissions. In a
scenario of integrated catchment management of discharges of nitrogen and
phosphorus, such as already occurs in
parts of the U.S. and in Scandinavia,
shellfish farmers in Southeast Asia may
in future be able to sell nutrient credits to their land-based counterparts, in
much the same way as carbon credits
are traded today.
Sanggou Bay Analysis of changes to
culture combinations using FARM
A farm was selected as a demonstration site, located in Sanggou Bay (Figure
3), where Pacific oyster (Crassostrea
gigas) raft culture, Japanese Flounder
(Paralicthys olivaceus) and Puffer fish
(Fugu rubripes) cage culture coexist.
Box 4 (in the model) is a polyculture
area as a whole, but may be divided into
three types of farms: shellfish monoculture farm (located in the northern part
of Box 4), shellfish farms separated by
boat channels (located in the middle of
Box 4), and shellfish fish cage IMTA
farms (located in the southeastern part
of Box 4). The three types of farms
are adapted into three setup options,

which have been simulated in the FARM

screening model.
Table 2 shows the three different options considered. The first setup
considers oysters in all sections, at a
density of 20 animals m-2, the second
considers only oysters in the two end
sections, and the third adds fish cages
to the middle section of the farm.
Notes: TPP: Total Physical Product,
APP: Average Physical Product, the ratio of output to input, PEQ: Population
Equivalents, Total income includes substitution costs of nutrient removal on
land, e.g. by reducing application in agriculture. Does not include the additional
revenue from fish cages in scenario 3.
The addition of fish cages in the middle section of the farm provides an
additional source of revenue, and the
additional input of particulate organic
matter to the downstream part of the
farm substantially increases oyster production, which in total exceeds that in
the uniform distribution used in Setup
1, and has the added advantage of reducing the local organic deposition
effects of fish aquaculture. Overall,
Setup 3 provides both the highest
profit from production activities and
the highest potential income when considering also the environmental costs




China Total




Shandong Province




Roncheng City




Sanggou Bay




Huangdun Bay
(Ningbo Municipality)





of nutrient treatment, or (alternatively)

the resale value of nitrogen credits as a
catchment management option.
Socio-economic models
The only local level data available for
marine farming systems was in Sanggou
Bay, where an average of 3.7 jobs is created for every RMB 1 million (93,300 in
2008) in gross value added. In Sanggou
Bay, macroalgal farming operations
are by far the most job-intensive with
34.2 jobs, finfish at 3.8 jobs, shellfish
(excluding abalone) at 16 jobs for every
RMB 1 million in gross value added.
In China as a whole most of the gross value is added in the production of fisheries
itself (58%), with the rest of the value
added in related industrial activities (processing, feeding, equipment, construction,
medicine and other factors) (22%) and
associated services (dealing, transportation, recreation and others) (21%) (Table
3). Different local situations are clearly
evident with a very high 73% of all gross
value added in Sanggou Bay in industry
and a higher than national average of 40%
for related services in Rongcheng. When
compared to the Rongcheng administrative area (of which Sanggou Bay forms
part) it is clear that practically all of the
value added in processing in this area
takes place in and around Sanggou Bay.

Table 3. Relative share of production, industry and

service values in fisheries capture and farming
systems in China as a whole and selected areas
under study
Sources: Calculated from World Bank, FAO,
Chinese National Bureau of Statistics, Statistics
Yearbook Rongcheng Ocean and Fisheries
Bureau, Ningbo Government Statistics.



In Huangdun Bay there is only a small
amount of value added in the service
sector (2%). Detailed data on these ripple
effects of marine farming specifically on
other sectors of the economy were not
available for this study.

For every 1 kg increase in demand

for marine farmed fish overall in
China, gross economic value will increase by RMB6.2 within the marine
farming sector.

Employment sensitivities are as follows:

The following broader socio-economic
sensitivities to changes in demand for
captured and farmed fish are apparent:

For every 1 kg increase in demand

for captured and farmed fish overall in China, gross economic value
will increase by RMB 12.3 of which
RMB 7 of value is created in the
fisheries operations itself, RMB 2.7
in related industries and RMB 2.5 in
related services.

For every 1 kg increase in demand

for captured and farmed fish in
Rongcheng, gross economic value
will increase by RMB26.7 of which
RMB7.9 of value is created in the
fisheries operations itself, RMB8 in
related industries and RMB10.7 in
related services

For every 1 kg increase in demand

for captured and farmed fish in
Sanggou Bay, gross economic value
will increase by RMB48.5 of which
RMB11.4 of value is created in the
fisheries operations itself, RMB35.2
in related industries and RMB1.9 in
related services

For every 1 kg increase in demand

for captured and farmed fish in
Huangdun Bay, gross economic
value will increase by RMB15.3 of
which RMB11.6 of value is created
in the fisheries operations itself,
RMB3.4 in related industries and
RMB0.2 in related services.

For every RMB1 million additional

gross value added in the fisheries
sector in China (marine & inland,
fishery & farming), 21.1 jobs are
For every RMB1 million additional gross value added in the fish
farming sector in China (marine &
inland), 18.9 jobs are created.
For every RMB1 million additional
gross value added in marine farming in Sanggou Bay, 3.7 jobs are
For every RMB1 million additional
gross value added in macroalgae
marine farming in Sanggou Bay,
34.2 jobs are created.

For every RMB1 million additional

gross value added in shellfish marine farming in Sanggou Bay, 0.8
jobs are created.
For every RMB1 million additional
gross value added in finfish marine
farming in Sanggou Bay, 3.8 jobs
are created.

It is recommended that a full social-accounting matrix for the Chinese economy

is used to further assess the broader socio-economic implications of changes in
the marine aquaculture sector.

Figure 4. ASSETS software (Chinese) screenshot

of the rating for Jiaozhou Bay, adjacent to the city
of Qingdao

Socio-economic sensitivities to changes

in demand for marine farmed fish are
as follows:




Eutrophication assessment
As part of SPEAR, the SPEAR Leverage
Programme encouraged an improvement of methodologies to assess coastal
eutrophication, which currently in China
is based on chemical parameters, rather
than the more holistic approach used in
the EU and US. In order to facilitate the
application of current methods, with a
focus on the Assessment of Estuarine
Trophic Status (ASSETS) approach, software was developed and distributed,
including a version in Chinese to deal
with language barrier issues.
Figure 4 shows the classification for
Jiaozhou Bay, one of four systems
which were studied in the first phase
of the TAICHI project. Despite a significant nutrient load (about 30 ton d-1
of nitrogen), the intensive top-down
control of the food web due to the cultivation of Manila clam (200,000 ton
y-1) has a significant impact in mitigating eutrophic symptoms.
The scale of coastal aquaculture in
China is far beyond anything seen in
the western world, and therefore plays
a major role in regulating ecosystem
processes. Water quality data from an
annual program with monthly measurements in Jiaozhou Bay were used
to estimate the gross removal of algae
by Manila clams. On the basis of reported bivalve stocks, these organisms
annually remove about 627 ton y-1 of
chlorophyll a, which (considering a
carbon:chlorophyll ratio of 50 and the
standard Redfield C:N ratio of 45:7 in
mass) corresponds to the removal of
almost 4,900 ton y-1 of nitrogen. This
equates to the annual discharge of
about 1.5 million people, or 17% of the
population of Qingdao, and to about
45% of the estimated 11,000 ton y-1
nitrogen load. Along with economic
benefits, the introduction of filter-feeders on a reasonable scale thus allows
for cost-effective removal of nutrients
and mitigation of eutrophic conditions,

which is more environmentally-friendly

and sustainable for a coastal system.
Consequently, environmental managers should be cautious when reducing
mariculture, since doing so could lead
to worsening eutrophic conditions.
The legacy of SPEAR
Integrated assessment of the different
components of coastal systems, contemplating land-based drivers and pressures,
uses such as aquaculture and fisheries
and impacts such as eutrophication is
a necessary pre-requisite to successful
coastal management. Work carried out
in SPEAR, which has been described in
greater detail in a book available from,
one approach to address this requirement. A key finding from this integrated
project has been that the combination of
models running at widely varying time
and space scales is at the core of a successful analysis. Using a range of models
is a requirement for scaling, but the models also act as co-validators of each other,
lending confidence to the outcomes.
The outputs from multi-year models are
not only useful in themselves, but serve
to drive farm-scale models and other
screening models of various types,
which are of interest to both the farmer
and regulator. The possibility of operating coarser scale models, such as the
EcoWin2000 ecological model, allows
users to deal with manageable amounts
of data and acceptable run-times. This
trade-off between mutiple-year simulation and spatial complexity, whilst
preserving acceptable levels of accuracy, is essential in building a bridge
with microeconomic models, which require simulations at the decadal scale.
Future developments of simulation approaches must include the linkage of
both the natural and social sciences, if
possible with explicit feedbacks. This
will allow changes in pricing linked to
production, supply and demand, to


be reflected in the attractiveness of

commercial cultivation, and provide
indicators on employment and other
aspects of social welfare. Additionally,
by factoring in the non-use value of
ecosystems, with respect e.g. to the valuation of biodiversity, a more complete
mass balance of the effective gains to
society may be computed.

Selected Publications
Borja, A., S.B. Bricker, D.M. Dauer, N.T.
Demetriades, J.G. Ferreira, A.T. Forbes, P.
Hutchings, X. Jia, R. Kenchington, J.C. Marques
C.B. Zhu, 2008. Overview of integrative tools
and methods in assessing ecological integrity in
estuarine and coastal systems worldwide. Mar.
Pol.Bull., In Press.
Ferreira, J.G., A.J.S. Hawkins & S.B. Bricker, 2007.
Management of productivity, environmental
effects and profitability of shellfish aquaculture
the Farm Aquaculture Resource Management
(FARM) model. Aquaculture, 264:160-174.
Franco, A.R., J.G. Ferreira & A.M. Nobre, 2006.
Development of a growth model for penaeid
shrimp. Aquaculture, 259:268-277.
Sequeira, A., J.G. Ferreira, A.J. Hawkins, A. Nobre,
P. Loureno, X.L. Zhang, X. Yan & T. Nickell,
2008. Trade-offs between shellfish aquaculture
and benthic biodiversity: A modelling approach
for sustainable management. Aquaculture,
Xiao, Y., J.G. Ferreira, S.B. Bricker, J.P., Nunes,
M. Zhu & X. Zhang, 2007. Trophic Assessment
in Chinese Coastal Systems - Review of
methodologies and application to the Changjiang
(Yangtze) Estuary and Jiaozhou Bay. Estuaries
and Coasts, 30(6):1-18.






Joo Gomes Ferreira

Anthony Hawkins

Instituto do Mar
Universidade Nova de Lisboa
2829-516 Monte de Caparica

Plymouth Marine Laboratory

Prospect Place
The Hoe
Plymouth PL1 3DH
United Kingdom



Dongzhao Lan
Third Institute of Oceanography
178 Daxue Rd.
Xiamen 361005

Martin de Wit
CSIR Environmentek
P.O. Box 320
Stellenbosch 7599
South Africa

Trevor Telfer
University of Stirling
Institute of Aquaculture
Stirlingshire FK9 4LA
United Kingdom


SPEAR Legacy Programme

Joo Gomes Ferreira


Instituto do Mar
Universidade Nova de Lisboa
2829-516 Monte de Caparica

Anders Stigebrandt
University of Gothenburg
Box 100
40530 Gteborg



Suzanne Bricker
Johannes Smits
P.O. Box 177
2600 MH Delft
The Netherlands

NOAA/Center for Coastal Monitoring

and Assessment
1305 East West Highway, Floor 9
Silver Spring, MD 20910



Mingyuan Zhu

Alice Newton

First Institute of Oceanography

State Oceanic Administration
6 Xianxialing Road, Hi-tech Industrial
Qingdao 266061

Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia

Universidade do Algarve
Gambelas Campus
8000-117 Faro


Xiaojun Yan
Ningbo University
Banlu Zhang,
Ningzhen Road, P.O. Box 71
Ningbo 315211




Transboundary networks of marine
protected areas for integrated conservation
and sustainable development: Biophysical,
socio-economic and governance assessment
in East Africa
Context and Objectives
The goal of TRANSMAP was to develop
scientific knowledge for the creation
of transboundary networks of MPAs
in the East African region in particular
relating to type, size and location of
reserves, which together can maintain
ecological functions, resource-uses and
future socio-economic developments.
To achieve this, the following specific
research objectives were addressed: (1)
to gather and synthesise existing knowledge and databases; to map habitat
types and coastal land- and sea-uses;
(2) to assess the fundamental biophysical data, namely through biodiversity
evaluation, including an assessment of
species and habitats important for conservation purposes; (3) to evaluate the
sources of human income, especially
those derived from natural resources,
current socio-economic needs and their
traditional framework; (4) to assess the
institutional, legal and policy frameworks
for decision-making, and operational assessment and state of management; (5)
To develop options for zoning plans for
each case study area.

Following the project main objectives,
activities were targeted to the acquisition of the interdisciplinary knowledge
for the creation of transboundary conservation areas. Specifically, activities
were focused on (1) the production of
an extensive and complete compilation
of diverse existing information integrating the various sources of habitat
and resource use information, address
basic knowledge gaps and merge all information in an appropriate GIS system,
mapped from biophysical, socio-economic and governance data; (2) studies
on the biodiversity patterns and habitat
condition in the considered areas, including basic biodiversity along nested
spatial scales, biodiversity hotspots and
connectivity potential; (3) an analysis of

sources of income and uses of natural

resources by local populations, including gender issues and assessment of
expected socio-economic development
scenarios in a multi-criteria analysis; (4)
an analysis of governance frameworks,
namely policy, legal and institutional,
and assessment of operational and state
of management; (5) the development of
options for zoning in the considered
marine transboundary areas, using
computer-based algorithms modulated
by research data and stakeholder validation of options.

Project Number
and Framework Programme
6th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/01/2005 to 30/06/2008 (42 months)


Main results
and outcomes
In addition to contributions to the
scientific literature, the central outputs are options for zoning plans
for two contrasting situations, which
encompass a significant fraction of
the biogeographical range of the region that integrate the results of the
biophysical and socio-economic assessments, adapted to accommodate
the local, regional and governance
frameworks. Scientifically validated
knowledge about the natural and social context of the regions considered
is expected to progress considerably
and will be shared well beyond the scientific community through interaction
between researchers and end-users
structures. It is expected that this will
inform policy development. Moreover,
intra-regional links were enhanced, a
necessary condition for the management of the common natural heritage
in the context of social acceptability
and economic viability.


Prof. Jos Paula

Universidade de Lisboa




International, crossdisciplinary teamwork
One main achievement of TRANSMAP
was certainly the combined effort made
towards better management of coastal
zones: Over 70 scientific staff from 12
institutions from 6 countries, including 3 developing countries, have joined
in this effort. They included renowned
senior scientists as well as PhD, MSc
and undergraduate students and
technicians. Their areas of expertise
included such diverse fields as marine
biology and marine ecology, modeling,
GIS experts, taxonomy, biogeography,
socio-economics, social sciences, and
international law. Most workshops held
during the project have included potential end-users and established good
relationships with related INCO projects such as PUMPSEA, and with other
related projects and initiatives such
as the TFCA Transboundary project
in Mozambique and Tanzania. One of
the main achievements of TRANSMAP
Project, with special emphasis on the
socio-economic component was to
stimulate further research collaborations between European and African
researchers. Examples of this include
projects examining the resilience of
coastal social-ecological systems to
climate change in East Africa funded
by the Leverhulme Trust, involving
and the Mnazi Bay-Ruvuma Estuary
Marine Park; the link between
coastal and marine ecosystems and poverty alleviation, involving ODG and ORI,
funded by the UK Natural Environment
Research Council (NERC); and migrant
fishers and fishing in the Western
Indian Ocean, involving ODG and UEM,
and funded by the MASMA programme
of the Western Indian Ocean Marine
Science Association (WIOMSA).

Project website (www.transmap.fc.ul.

pt) and the TRANSMAP Meta-database
(\WP2), where
more than 800 records were added
by the end date of the Project (June
2008). This database provides a number of functionalities including data
entry, records validation as well as
record searching capabilities. Baseline
definition for this task is designed to
collate and assess all the available information describing the ecological
and socio-economic characteristics of
both regions included in the project.
In order to achieve this target, information was gathered, interpreted and
processed to build a comprehensive

data set, which is of direct application

to the overall projects objectives. For
example, lists that detail coastal and
marine resources can potentially now
be represented spatially on a map.
Thus, detailed spatial land-cover data,
preliminary ground units and data for
baseline mapping have been identified,
sourced and documented. The metadata descriptions for these primarily
public domain datasets are available
from the TRANSMAP metadata-base
website, and can be accessed from the
project website. Using Landsat satellite
imagery, habitats were discriminated
and mapped.

Objective 1
One of the first products to be released
to the public, was the TRANSMAP




Objective 3
The socio-economic research undertaken as part of TRANSMAP Project
focused on three main areas of
research:assessing the importance of
marine resources for livelihoods;
1. mapping resource use patterns;
2. eliciting
perceptions, values and concerns in
relation to coastal resources and
their management.

This platform is available for the general public from the TRANSMAP WEBGIS
(link in the Project website). This map
server is a simplified TRANSMAP GIS
for public use, were GIS data and maps
of the information that was produced
can be see. It is also intended to allow
the public to interactively query the
data and to download information and
save pictures of the maps.
Objective 2

The livelihoods research found that,

with the exception of local communities
in South Africa, households in the transboundary areas depend considerably
on natural resource-based activities,
with fishing-related activities forming
an important component of livelihood
strategies. Although it is a known fact
that many coastal communities depend
on fisheries, the research determines
quantitatively the level of dependence,
contributing to anticipate not only the
livelihood impacts of management
measures, but also the implications of
resource loss and mismanagement.

The designation of MPA networks

should minimise conflicts with existing users. This requires taking
into account resource use patterns.
TRANSMAP Project made an important
contribution to creating knowledge
about these patterns, specifically with
regards to the most important fishing
grounds and fishers movements in
northern Mozambique, including migratory routes. The research described
the cross-border movement of fishers
and trade flows between from Tanzania
and Mozambique, both of which have
important implications for transboundary marine conservation.
Objective 4
The governance team has collected and
synthesized into standardized tables
the relevant instruments to be considered: global instruments, regional
instruments, ratification of global
instruments, ratification of regional
instruments, Mozambican, South and
Tanzanian national legislation were
made available through public reports. A possible series of options for
transboundary MPAs in the region that
represent different degrees of political
commitment between the three African

The project has addressed several core

research modules regarding biodiversity
in the target region. It mapped habitats, and for each main habitat (corals,
mangroves, seagrass meadows, sand,
mud and rocky shores) a number of
biodiversity proxies were studied along
the considered geographical range,
identifying gradients and contrasts. It
mapped areas and species of particular
conservation interest, such as corals,
dolphins, marine turtles and wetland
bird fauna. It further developed studies for assessing connectivity between
habitats, a key issue when designing
size and distance between conservation
units. For this were used several tools,
including genetic and morphometric
differentiation in model organisms, and
migration capacity of reef fishes.




countries was developed. This continuum of commitments between the three
countries (Mz - Mozambique, SA - South
Africa and Tz - Tanzania) is depicted
in the scheme below. The TRANSMAP
Project has also collected and synthesized the relevant instruments for MPAs
management, from multilateral to the
three local instruments. These documents have been made public through
the Project webpage.
Objective 5
Options for zoning plans for each
case-study area were produced using
dedicated software modelling different approaches in what regards MPAs
main objectives. The use of the systematic methods in close relation with the
Project GIS data has produced a tool
and a TRANSMAP Project zoning plans
user manual that has been provided to
local stakeholders directly involved in
the establishment and the management
of MPAs. This decision making tool
provides not only the relevant GIS data,
but also some important guidelines in
what regards the software modelling
options. These central outputs present
alternative schemes for the zoning of
the target transboundary areas, derived
from the computer-based systematic
approach, modulated by iterative processes regarding socio-economic and
governance constraints. It contributes
for the effectiveness of the establishment of networks of Marine Protected
Areas in the region, by providing
relevant information, mapping and
methodological guidelines.

Selected Publications

The TRANSMAP Project dissemination
has been made through several means,
from local media to international
broadcast media for the region, with
special emphasis to the general public. Scientific Papers, Leaflets, Booklets,
Popular articles, Lectures, Lecture handouts, Conferences, Education Support,
Media (TV + Radio Show / Press releases), Posters, Deliverables (on-line/CD/
Hard Copies), Decision making tools
(handbook), have been produced with
different levels of information targeted to Politicians, Managers, Scientific
Teachers, Communities, Stakeholders
and General Public.

Bandeira, S., C. Macamo, J. Kairo, F. Amade, N.

Jiddawi & J. Paula (submitted). Evaluation of
mangrove forest structure, condition and analysis of main drivers of degradation in the Eastern
African region. Aquatic Conservation.
Chircop, A., D. Dzidzornu, J. Guerreiro & C. Grilo
(in press). The Maritime Zones of East African
States in the Law of the Sea: Benefits Gained,
Opportunities Missed. African Journal of International & Comparative Law.
de Abreu, D.C., J. Paula & A. Macia (submitted).
Connectivity between tropical coastal habitats:
using stable isotopes in juvenile penaeid shrimps
and potential food sources. Marine Biology.
Ferreira, M.A., F. Andrade, P. Cardoso & J. Paula
(submitted). Coastal habitats mapping along the
Tanzania/Mozambique transboundary area using Landsat TM5 imagery. Western Indian Ocean
Journal of Marine Sciences.
Ferreira, M.A., F. Andrade, S. Bandeira, P. Cardoso, R. Nogueira Mendes & J. Paula (submitted). Mangroves along the Tanzania/Mozambique transboundary area: mapping change
(1995-2005) and identifying its drivers. Aquatic
Penha-Lopes, G., P. Torres, A. Macia and J. Paula,
2007. Population structure, fecundity and
embryo loss of the sea grass shrimp Latreutes
pymoeus (Decapoda: Hippolytidae) at Inhaca
Island, Mozambique. Journal of the Marine Biology Association of the UK, 87:870-884.
Rosendo, S. & K. Brown (in press). Coastal conservation and development in frontier areas:
challenges in Mozambique. Coastal Management.
Schleyer, M.H., A.H.H. Macdonald, D.E. Starzak,
B.Q. Mann, J. Paula, I. Silva, A. Costa, A. Macia &
D. de Abreu (in press). Studies on reef connectivity within the context of the TRANSMAP project.
Coral Reef Degradation in the Indian Ocean,
Status Report 2007, SIDA/Sarec.
Torres, P., G. Penha-Lopes, A. Macia & J. Paula,
2007. Population structure and egg production
of the seagrass shrimp Hippolyte kraussiana
Stimpson, 1860 (Decapoda: Hippolytidae) at
Inhaca island, Mozambique. Invertebrate Reproduction and Development, 50:145-153.
Torres, P., A. Alfiado, D. Glassom, N. Jiddawi, A.
Macia, D. Reid & J. Paula (in press). Species composition, comparative size and abundance of the
genus Littoraria (Gastropoda: Littorinidae) from
different mangrove strata along the East African
coast. Hydrobiologia.
Torres, P., G. Penha-Lopes, L. Narciso, A. Macia
& J. Paula (in press). Fecundity and brood loss in
four species of fiddler crabs, genus Uca (Brachyura: Ocypodidae), in the mangroves of Inhaca
island, Mozambique. Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK.







Jos Paula

Jos Guerreiro

Universidade de Lisboa
Laboratrio Martimo da Guia IMAR
Estrada do Guincho s/n
2750-642 Cascais
Tel: +351 214 86 92 11
Fax: +351 214 86 97 20

ICAT - Instituto de Cincia Aplicada e

Tecnologia ICAT - Edf. ICAT,
Campus da Faculdade de Cincias,
Campo Grande 1749-016 Lisboa


Olof Linden


World Maritime University

Marine Environment Management
Citadellsy 29
20124 Malm

Theodor Stewart
University of Cape Town
Dept of Statistical Sciences
Private Bag 7701
Rondebosch County
South Africa

Adriano Macia
Universidade Eduardo Mondlane
Faculty of Sciences
Department of Biological Sciences
CP 257


Hermes Pacule
David Souter
Hgskolan I Kalmar
Dept of Biology and Environmental
39182 Kalmar

Centre for Sustainable Development

for Coastal Zones
Ministry of Environment
PO Box 66
Praia de Xai-Xai



Narriman Jiddawi
Katrina Brown
Overseas Development Group
School of Development Studies
University of East Anglia
NR4 7TJ Norwich
United Kingdom

Roger Bamber
The Natural History Museum, London
Dept of Zoology
Cromwell Road
SW7 5BD London
United Kingdom

Institute of Marine Sciences

PO Box 668
Mizingani, Zanzibar

Julius Francis
Western Indian Ocean Marine Science
PO Box 3298
Mizingani Street
Hse 13644/10, Zanzibar


Rudolf van der Elst

Oceanographic Research Institute
Marine Parade 4056
10712 Durban
South Africa




Climate variability and El Nio Southern
Oscillation: Implications for natural coastal
resources and management

Project Number
and Framework Programme
6th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/10/2004 to 01/10/2008 (48 months)

Dr. Sven Thatje
National Oceanography Centre
Southampton (NOCS)
United Kingdom
(initially Prof. Wolf E. Arntz
Alfred Wegener Institute for Polar and
Marine Research (AWI), Germany)


Context and Objectives


Along the Chilean-Peruvian coast of the

Humboldt Current upwelling system,
the sustained exploitation of marine
resources within their ecosystem context, surface runoff, infrastructure and
socio-economics are significantly influenced by the ENSO (El Nio-Southern
Oscillation) climate oscillation, which
affects aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems alike. The warm phase (El Nio,
EN) has drastic effects on marine and
terrestrial biota and on artisanal fisheries. However, both EN and the cold
phase, La Nia (LN), also produce positive effects, which are not used by local
fishermen and human communities to
their full advantage.

CENSOR implements a multidisciplinary

approach aiming at a comprehensive
picture illustrating the structure and
response of the Chilean-Peruvian coastal system to ENSO. Studies on benthic
communities, pelago-benthic exchange
processes, the effects of increased rainfall in coastal systems and resource
variability under EN and LN conditions are being compiled and analysed
comparatively. Information being accumulated on changes in marine fauna
and flora due to climate variability will
enhance the understanding of ecosystem function and the processes
steering life cycles, species interactions
and genetics.

CENSOR aims at enhancing the detection, compilation and understanding of

EN and LN effects on coastal environments and resources to mitigate damage
and better use beneficial effects.

The project supports the comprehension of eco-physiological tolerance

limits of upwelling species to explain
shifts in resource availability and abundance, aiming at an improved fishery
management and resource prediction.
Biological indicators will be identified to predict and validate EN events.
Aquacultural demands are addressed
to compensate EN effects and decrease
EN dependence. Data on increased surface runoff, river discharge associated
with EN events, and their resulting effects are being integrated and analysed
on the landside.
The economic and socioeconomic consequences of all these changes, both
in the terrestrial and marine realm,
are studied. All compilations and results of the CENSOR project will be
integrated in a public database and
made available to the managers of the
coastal zone and its resources, to science, and to the public at large. The
interacts closely with the PASARELAS
Specific Support Action seeking to enhance the interface between scientific
research and social dialogue processes
with a potential to support policies conducive to sustainability strategies and
their implementation. To date, CENSOR




achievements were already presented at

numerous conferences and workshops,
as well as in the local and international
media (see:

Preliminary Results
and outcome
It is expected that the CENSOR collaboration will result in improving the
general understanding of coastal ecosystems subject to ENSO impact. It will
compile and disseminate this information widely in the public domain and
thus create a scientifically validated information exchange platform between
various actors in the coastal realm. It is
expected that this approach will inform
socially aware resource management
and environmental policy, as well as
contribute to social and socio-economic stability through stronger scientific
underpinning of social negotiation processes. The arising public knowledge
base has good potential to underpin
sustainable livelihood strategies of
human coastal populations facing the
Humboldt Current upwelling system.
CENSOR is concentrating on ENSO effects on coastal ecosystems and their
natural resources.
One of the most striking results so far
is that on a microecological scale the
response of coastal ecosystems to El
Nio conditions can greatly vary and
thus large-scale generalisations as
for the open ocean are often not applicable. Positive effects of El Nio
conditions on local shellfish stocks,
such as scallops are by far not appreciated enough by the management
systems in place. Work with different
stakeholders levels revealed that the
fishermen community is to some extent
well aware of the effects of El Nio, but
that management adjustments are not
made to adapt to change.

Furthermore, management structures

of coastal marine resources do greatly
differ between Chile and Peru, which
requires adapted management tools,
or management approaches do lack
completely. In a pilot study in the Bay
of Sechura, Peru, CENSOR has taken on
the development of management tools
for the local fishermen community and
is bridging the decision-making process
between fishermen, local authorities,
and the government. Our scientific work
revealed that much of the descriptive
data on i.e. changes in abundance of
targeted resources over time do indeed
need underpinning by process studies
and physiological and ecological data at
organismal level that allow the prediction of response capability of species
during El Nio. This is particularly important to pre-estimate the impact of
different scale El Nio events on the
availability of coastal natural resources.
CENSOR stores and analyses published
and unpublished data of any kind dealing with the ENSO phenomenon in the
PANGAEA database system (http://www., in order to preserve and
make the information available to scientists (i.e. for modelling approaches) and
the public at large. Preliminary analyses
of this database has shown that most
work dealing with ENSO is still published in local South American and Grey
Literature and that this information is
generally underappreciated by the international community, and thus potentially
hampering progress that could be made
by appreciating this information.


Selected Publications
Nauen, C.E., V. Christensen, P. Failler, S. Opitz
& S. Thatje, 2006. Recovering fisheries from
crisis or collapse: how to shorten impact time
of international research cooperation. 13 pages.
In: Proceedings of the Thirteenth Biennial
Conference of the International Institute of
Fisheries Economics & Trade, July 11-14, 2006,
Portsmouth, UK: Rebuilding Fisheries in an
Uncertain Environment. Compiled by Ann L.
Shriver. International Institute of Fisheries
Economics & Trade, Corvallis, Oregon, USA,
2006. CD ROM. ISBN 0-9763432-3-1
Pea, T.S., K. Johst, V. Grimm, W. Arntz &
J. Tarazona, 2005. Population dynamics of
a polychaete during three El Nio events:
disentangling biotic and abiotic factors.
Oikos, 111(2):253-358. DOI:10.1111/j.00301299.2005.14067.x
Salvatteci, R. & J. Mendo, 2006. Estimacin de las
prdidas bio-econmicas causadas por la captura
de juveniles de anchoveta (Engraulis ringens, J.)
en la costa peruana. Revista de Ecologa Aplicada
UNALM, 4:113-120.
Thatje, S., J. Laudien, O. Heilmayer, C.E. Nauen,
2007. Understanding El Nio The importance
of Grey Literature in coastal ecosystem research
and management. Marine Policy, 31:85-93. DOI:
Thatje, S. (ed.), 2008. Climate variability and
El Nio Southern Oscillation: implications for
natural coastal resources and management.
Helgoland Marine Research, 62 (Suppl. 1):S1-110
(ISSN 1438-387X)
Taylor, M., M. Wolff, F. Vadas & C. Yamashiro,
2008. Trophic and environmental drivers of
the Sechura Bay Ecosystem (Peru) over an ENSO
cycle. Helgoland Marine Research, 62(Suppl.
1):S15-32. DOI 10.1007/s10152-007-0093-4




Sven Thatje
National Oceanography Centre,
School of Ocean and Earth Science
University of Southampton
European Way
SO14 3ZH Southampton
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 23 80 59 64 49
Fax: +44 23 80 59 30 59

Juan Leonidas Tarazona
Universidad Nacional Mayor de San
Instituto de Investigacin de Ciencias
Biolgicas Antonio Raymondi
Faculty of Biological Sciences
Av. Venezuela Cdra. 34
Lima 100

Matthias Wolff

Dimitri Alexey Guterrez

University of Bremen
Center for Tropical Marine Ecology
Fahrenheitstr. 6
28359 Bremen

Instituto del Mar del Per

Direccin de Investigacin
Esquina Gamarra y General Valle s/n



Josep-Maria Gili

Luc Ortlieb

Consejo Superior de Investigaciones

Instituto de Ciencias del Mar
Marine Biology and Oceanography
Serrano, 117
28006 Madrid

Institut de Recherche pour le

Centre IRD Ile de France
Palo-environnements tropicaux et
Avenue Henri Varagnat, 32
75480 Paris



Walter Sielfeld
Jaime Mendo

Universidad Arturo Prat

Departamento de Ciencias del Mar
Avda. Arturo Prat No. 2120

Universidad Nacional Agraria La

Fishery Faculty
Avenida La Universidad s/n
Lima 100, La Molina



Gustavo Lovrich
Rubn Escribano


Universidad de Concepcin
Center of Oceanography for the
Eastern South Pacific
Barrio universitario s/n

Centro Austral de Investigaciones
Cientficas y Tcnicas
Laboratorio de Crustceos
Av. Malvinas Argentinas S/N, Ruta 3,
Barrio La Misin 9410
V9410BFD Ushuaia



Marcelo E. Oliva

Oscar Osvaldo Iribarne

Universidad de Antofagasta
Instituto de Investigaciones
Facultad de Recursos del Mar
Angamos 601

Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata

Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y
Laboratorio de Ecologa, Departamento
de Biologa
Funes 3350
B7600WAG, Mar del Plata


Bruno Merz
Helmholtz Society
Engineering Hydrology Section
14473 Potsdam





Mangrove ecosystems, communities and
conflict: developing knowledge-based
approaches to reconcile multiple demands

Context and Objectives

Urbanisation and development in SE
Asia is occurring rapidly along coastal
zones. Such coastal areas are important
food production centres, which are
central to the livelihoods of many poor
people. Until recently the benefits of
mangroves were generally not appreciated and undervalued. Major constraints
to informed policy and management of
mangrove ecosystems in Asia are the
lack of relevant information on the value
stakeholders ascribe to such systems and
the absence of a balanced assessment
of ecosystem functioning, livelihoods
and multiple uses. Moreover, mangrove
ecosystem management requires scientists, planners and policy makers to
deal with changing and often conflicting
demands whilst attempting to meet the
challenge of fulfilling the basic needs
of local communities. Considering the
many important resources and functions that mangrove ecosystems provide
and the support afforded to poor coastal
livelihoods, this project will address the
lack of knowledge about their status,
use and requirements for sustainable
An improved understanding of the multiple uses of mangrove ecosystems in
employment generation, asset creation,
food provision and sustaining the provision of societal support functions is
required. This project aims to develop action plans to reconcile multiple
demands placed on mangroves and adjacent coastal zones in Southeast Asia;
local and national level stakeholders will
participate in action planning, ensuring widespread support and increasing
the likelihood of implementation. New
knowledge concerning the most effective approaches to action planning
involving coastal communities and national institutions will be communicated
to agencies responsible for coastal zone
management and planning, to assist in
developing codes of practice and policies
that acknowledge and aim to reconcile

the multiple demands placed on mangroves and adjacent coastal zones.

Initially a detailed situation analysis,
involving participatory community appraisals, stakeholder and institutional
analysis, a study of the market networks
for goods derived from mangroves and
an assessment of existing datasets was
undertaken. Ecological characteristics,
structure, processes and functions of
mangroves, and adjacent coastal areas
are being assessed, enabling methods and indicators for participatory
monitoring to be developed. Livelihood
strategies of households dependent
on goods and services derived from
mangroves are being monitored to
identify conflicts and tensions between
and within livelihoods.

Project Number
and Framework Programme
6th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/08/2005 to 31/01/2010 (54 months)

Dr. Stuart Bunting
University of Essex
United Kingdom


A detailed institutional analysis involving local, national & international

organisations is characterising existing policy and legislation relating
to mangroves; the changing status
of mangroves and values stakeholders associate with them is also being
assessed. These activities are being
followed by the formulation, in collaboration with stakeholders, especially
local communities and representatives
from national scale institutions, of
Action Plans designed to reconcile
multiple demands (RMD).
The impacts of implementing these action plans on the mangrove ecosystem,
adjacent coastal areas, producers, consumers and institutions involved will
then be monitored and evaluated. New
knowledge from the project will contribute to a better understanding of the
value of mangrove ecosystems to poor
communities and help guide other communities and national scale institutions
in developing action plans to reconcile
multiple demands placed on mangroves
and associated coastal zones.




Expected Results
and outcome
Community participation is being encouraged to ensure that new knowledge
is accessible for collective decision-making and development of policies for the
equitable use of coastal zones, especially mangroves. High potential strategies
are being identified and guidelines and
policy brief materials developed to promote uptake and policy development.
All findings and conclusions are being
disseminated through appropriate communication media, project reports and
bulletins in local languages, scientific
papers, guidelines and policy briefs. This
project will lead to improvements in
the reconciliation of multiple demands
placed on mangroves and adjacent
coastal zones in Southeast Asia.

Selected Publications
Bosma, R.H., A.S. Sidik, E. Sugiharto, Fitriyana,
A.A. Budiarsa, Sumoharjo; S. Rizal & Nuryatiningsih, 2007. Situation of the mangrove ecosystem
and the related community livelihoods in Muara
Badak, Mahakam Delta, East Kalimantan, Indonesia. Universitas Mulawarman, Samarinda, East
Kalimantan, Indonesia.
Bunting, S.W., 2006a. Low impact aquaculture.
Colchester, UK: Centre for Environment and Society, University of Essex. CES Occasional Paper
2006-3. (online at:
Bunting, S.W., 2006b. Communication planning:
shared experiences from the East Kolkata Wetlands, India. Colchester, UK: Centre for Environment and Society, University of Essex. CES Working Paper 2006-SWB1.
Bunting, S.W., 2007 Regenerating aquaculture:
enhancing aquatic resources management, livelihoods and conservation. In J. Pretty, A. Ball, T.
Benton, J. Guivant, D. Lee, D. Orr, M. Pfeffer &
H. Ward (eds.). SAGE Handbook on Environment
and Society. SAGE Publications.
Bunting, S.W., 2008a. Horizontally integrated
aquaculture development: exploring consensus on constraints and opportunities with a
stakeholder Delphi. Aquaculture International,
Bunting, S.W. (in press). Assessing the stakeholder Delphi for facilitating interactive participation
and consensus building for sustainable aquaculture development. Society & Natural Resources.



Bunting, S.W. & J. Pretty, 2007. Global carbon

budgets and aquaculture - emissions, sequestration and management options. Centre for
Environment and Society Occasional Paper 20064. Colchester, UK: Centre for Environment and
Society, University of Essex. (online at: www2.
Bunting, S.W., P. van Zwieten, N. Powell, A.S.
Sidik, V. Dulyapurk, P.N. Hong & S.S. De Silva,
2007. Mangrove ecosystems, communities and
conflict: developing knowledge-based approaches to reconcile multiple demands. Paper at the
2007 European Aquaculture Society meeting,
Istanbul, Turkey.
Dulyapurk, V, W. Taparhudee, R. Yoonpundh & S.
Jumnongsong, 2007. Multidisciplinary situation
appraisal of mangrove ecosystems in Thailand.
Bangkok, Thailand: Faculty of Fisheries, Kasetsart University.
Le Xuan Tuan, Nguyen Huu Tho, Phan Nguyen
Hong, Phan Thi Anh Dao, 2007. Stakeholders
involved in mangrove management in Tien Hai
District, Thai Binh Province. National Symposium
Mangrove restoration for climate change adaptation and sustainable development Can Gio
Ho Chi Minh City, Vietnam, 26-27th November
2007 (in Vietnamese)
Lewins, R., 2006. Coastal aquaculture and development - planning for sustainability. Colchester,
UK: Centre for Environment and Society, University of Essex. CES Occasional Paper 2006Sidik, A.S. & R. Bosma, 2007. Aquaculture or
failed gold rush: situation analysis of the mangrove ecosystem and the related community
livelihoods in Muara Badak, Mahakam Delta, East
Kalimantan, Indonesia. Paper presented at the
Asian Pacific Aquaculture 2007 Conference, 5-8
August 2007, Hanoi, Vietnam.
Tran Trung Thanh & Le Xuan Tuan, 2008. Primary study on exploitation and management of
natural resources in mangrove areas in Tien Hai
District, Thai Binh Province. Proceedings of Scientific Workshops of National Institute of Meteorology, Hydrology and Environment. Ho Chi
Minh, Vietnam, June 2008 (in Vietnamese)
van Zwieten, P.A.M., A.S. Sidik, Noryadi, I. Suyatna & Abdunnur, 2006. Aquatic Food Production
in the Coastal Zone: Data-Based Perceptions on
the Trade-off between Mariculture and Fisheries
Production of the Mahakam Delta and Estuary,
East Kalimantan, Indonesia. pp. 219-236 In C.T.
Hoanh, T.P. Tuong, J.W. Gowing, & B. Hardy
(eds.). Environment and Livelihoods in Tropical
Coastal Zones: Managing Agriculture - Fishery Aquaculture Conflicts. CABI Publishing, UK, in
association with the International Rice Research
Institute (IRRI), Philippines and the International
Water Management Institute (IWMI), Sri Lanka.
VNU (Vietnam National University), 2007. Situation of the mangrove ecosystem and related
community livelihoods in Tien Hai, Thai Binh
Province. Hanoi, Vietnam: Vietnam National





Stuart Bunting

Paul van Zwieten & Roel Bosma

University of Essex
Centre for Environment and Society
Department: Department of Biological
Colchester CO4 3SQ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1206 87 22 19

Wageningen University
Animal Science Group / Aquaculture
and Fisheries
PO Box 9101, Costerweg 50
Wageningen 6701BH
The Netherlands


Sena De Silva
Network of Aquaculture Centres in
DOF Complex, Kasetsart University
Ladyao, Jatujak


Dr Neil Powell & Maria Osbeck

Stockholm Environment Institute
Risk, Livelihoods & Vulnerability
Kraftriket 2B
SE 106 91 Stockholm

Ahmad Syafei Sidik

Mulawarman University
Faculty of Fisheries and Marine Science
Jalan Muara Pahu No. 1, Kampus
Gunung Kelua
Samarinda 75119

Varaunthat Dulyapurk
Kasetsart University
Faculty of Fisheries
Department of Aquaculture
Bangkhen Chatujak
10900 Bangkok

Phan Nguyen Hong

Vietnam National University
Mangrove Ecosystem Research Division
No. 7, Ngo 115, Nguyen Khuyen




Ecosystems, Societies, Consilience, Precautionary principle: Development of an assessment
method of the societal cost for best fishing
practices and efficient public policies

Project Number
and Framework Programme
6th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/01/2005 to 31/10/2009 (48 months)

Dr. Pierre Failler
University of Portsmouth
United Kingdom


Context and Objectives

The main aim of the ECOST project is
to develop a new approach to assess
the societal cost of fishing activities
and fishing policies. By societal cost we
mean all costs linked to fishing activities: these may be ecological (alteration
of the capacity of a system), economic
(all costs linked to production, management, subsidies and external factors),
social (linked to choices made in public policy, food security and safety,
provision for national or international
markets, the eradication of poverty and
to development models (small scale
fishing versus industrial fishing).
The project has to be seen from the
wider perspective of equipping public
decision-makers and society with the
appropriate tools and methods needed
to take into account, not only immediate economic and social profits, but
also the costs engendered by fishing
activities which relate as much to ecosystems as to societies.
Work is spread over three continents
(three countries for each continent)
that are characterised respectively by
ecosystems of coastal upwelling (West
Africa), delta (Southeast Asia) and coral
reef (Caribbean). Within each region/
ecosystem (eco-region) several fisheries
have been selected as representative of
global fishing activities. Furthermore,
a marine protected area will be chosen in order to carry out comparative
analysis within the said eco-region, and
to serve as a reference point. There is
a triple advantage to such a choice:
firstly, it will facilitate the comparison
of the different ecosystems; secondly,
it will facilitate the comparison of fishing methods and management (public
policy); and thirdly, it will facilitate
the comparison of societies based on
the choices they have made and their
concerns regarding various marine resources. The main body of work will
therefore focus on the development of



a model that addresses the societal cost

of fishing activities, which can reflect
the reality of such varied and contrasting coastal regions as perceived via
their ecosystems and societies.
At the heart of the project will be the
triple theme of marine environment
- fishing activities - civil society thus
bringing together the life sciences and
the social sciences. The multi-disciplinary nature of the project is centred on
the concept of consilience in order to
gain a better understanding of situations that require the diverse expertise.

Core activities involve
(i) research into the capacity of traditional models to take into account the
reality of ecological, economic and
social effects using purely theoretical
considerations, the experience of past
application and a questioning of the
notion of value. A theoretical study of
the strengths of these models can not
be separated from an in-depth analysis
of the values of nature (resources and
functions) that underlie the present
models. This work on the notions of
value is fundamental to the definition
of societal costs: costs and values are
two sides of the same coin. The result
of this first stage of the work will be
a report which translates the degree
of significance of the use of different
models used until now and examines
the notions of value to be considered in
the measurement of the societal cost of
fishing activities.
(ii) The construction of an efficient
model for societal cost. This model is
founded on the close association of economics and ecology, and is constructed
using a model which, at present, has the
greatest potential for being applied to
the domain of fishing. It takes into account the variable nature of resources


and marine environmental changes

and can acquire a dynamic dimension,
which is necessary for any prospective
approach to public policy. The measurable result will therefore be a dynamic
model that has environmental retro-actions in relation to the ecosystem.
(iii) The production of a generic version
of the model for social impact. This will
firstly be a revision of the model according to the lessons learnt from its
experimental application to the three selected regions/ecosystems and secondly
it will consist of a multi-disciplinary
study of the biological, ecological and
economic factors that may limit the
wider application of the model to other
regions/ecosystems in the world. The
validation of the model and its generic
formulation will be accompanied by an
index of performance (in relation to the
quality of the data and the nature of the
information that has been gathered, for
example), an explanatory manual and
the analysis of the limits inherent in the
model. The measurable result will here
take the form of a generic model for
measuring societal costs accompanied
by a framework for application.
(iv) Comparison of the social costs of
fishing activities. Comparative work
carried out on three levels: firstly, work
on the ecosystem showing the repercussions of the use of distinct techniques
and practices; secondly, comparison of
the ecosystems themselves in order to
highlight the responses made by the
ecosystems to anthropic pressure; and
thirdly, a comparison of ecosystems
that have free or regulated access and
the ecosystems found within marine
protected areas. The measurable result
will be a comparative analysis of societal costs according to the means of
production, and valorisation of products and ecosystems.
(v) Exploration of options for public
policy by the formulation of certain
principles found within the framework

of the Code of conduct for responsible

fisheries. The popularisation of the
project will be the best means of making
good use of the model in the formulation of public policy linked to the future
of fishing in the regions that are heavily dependent on fishing resources. The
measurable result will be the production of an interactive CD-ROM that will
give projections of regional effects as
soon as the basic data required by the
model are available and integrated. It
is intended to be suitable for decision
makers and a wider public.
The consortium will interact closely
with the PASARELAS Specific Support
Action seeking to enhance the interface between scientific research and
social dialogue processes with a potential to support policies conducive
to sustainability strategies and their

Results and outcome

The tools and methodologies that are being developed into a coherent analytical
and scenario development framework
to will support robust management
strategies to be formulated that target
sustainability of the marine ecosystems
and greater security to fishers and fishing companies, enabling them to make
the most appropriate investment or disinvestments decisions. This, in turn, will
contribute to diminishing the vulnerability of fishing communities availing
themselves of the tools.

The results of the research will be disseminated in a number of ways. Firstly,

a series of high quality research papers
will be produced and published in influential journals. These will include
journals covering fisheries science
(e.g. Fisheries Research, ICES Journal,
Canadian Journal of Fisheries and
Aquatic Science), fisheries economics
(e.g. Marine Resource Economics), fisheries policy and sociology (e.g. Marine
Policy, MAST) and potentially a range
of other socio-economic, modelling or
decision-making journals. Key subject
specific conferences (e.g. marine science
conferences, economics and social conferences) will be attended and papers
based on the research presented. The
objective of the professional dissemination is to ensure that the research is
of top international quality.
Dissemination will also take place between fisheries scientists, economists,
sociologists through plenary meetings/
workshops held as part of the co-ordination activity in the project. These will
be open to organisations not directly
involved in the project, and will be a
conduit for the methodology and ideas
to disseminate through the key scientific
and economic community in the world.

At a more global level, the project has

potential for strategic impact on the
formulation of national and international policies regarding the governance of
ocean and costal zones resources and
ecosystems. This could lead to the development of better policies that have a
direct impact on the alleviation of societal problems that developing countries
are facing: fish availability, poverty alleviation, external debt, etc.





Selected Publications
Social Science Information / Information sur les
Sciences sociales. Vol. 46(1) March 2007. Special
Issue: Pursuing the true value of people and
the sea / Numro spcial: Res halieutica: une
r-valuation (Serge Collet, guest editor), Sage
Collet, S., 2007. Pursuing the true value of
people and the sea: introduction. pp. 5-8.
Larrre, R. & C. Larrre, 2007. Should nature be
respected? pp. 9-34
Collet, S., 2007. Values at sea, value of the sea:
mapping issues and divides. pp. 35-66.

Fall, M., A. Samba & F. Lalo, 2006. Fishing tactics

and strategies in coastal demersal trawling
fisheries in Senegal. Aquatic Living Resources,


Lalo, F., 2007. Information at the interface

between supply and demand for indicators:
the use of a model with estimated parameter
values as a base for indication in multicriteria
analyses. International Journal of Sustainable
Development, 10(2):3345.

University of Portsmouth
Boat House No 6, College Road
H.M. Naval Base
Portsmouth PO1 3LJ
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 2392 84 40 85
Fax: +44 2392 84 46 14

Nol, J.-F. & J.-Y. Weigel, 2007. Marine protected

areas: from conservation to sustainable
development. International Journal of
Sustainable Development, 10(3):233-250.

Pierre Failler

Sall, A.., P. Morand, Pche artisanale et

migration des jeunes africains bord de
pirogues: Mythes et ralits, Politique Africaine
(in submission March 2008).



Failler, P. & H. Pan, 2007. Global value, full value

and societal costs: Capturing the true cost of
destroying marine ecosystems. pp. 109-134.

Tao Jiang, Liu Yu, Li Shi-Yu, Wang Xiao-Hong,

Duan Li-jie, 2007. Simulation of the Time
Dynamics of Marine Ecosystems in the Northern
Continental Shelf of South China Sea with
Ecosim Model. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium
Universitatis Sunyatseni, 46(4):108-112.

Bavinck, M. & I. Monnereau, 2007. Assessing the

social costs of capture fisheries: An exploratory
study. pp. 135-152.

Tao Jiang, Liu Yu, Wang Lei, Li Shiyu*, Duan Li

Jie. An Energy Flow Ecopath Model of the Pearl
River Estuary Coastal Sea, forthcoming.

Sall, A., 2007. Loss of biodiversity:

Representation and valuation processes of
fishing communities. pp. 153-188.

Thorpe, A., D. Whitmarsh & P. Failler, 2007. The

Situation in World Fisheries. UNESCO-EOLSS.
Article can be accessed by going to http://www. When you reach this web-site users
from less developed countries can access both
this article # 5-05-05-04 (and all other articles
in the whole encyclopaedia) by clicking on the
section entitled Subscription Information,
then Educational Institutions from the UN list
of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) to access
the registration form. Users based in non LDCs
will have to register through their institutions
library (free trial provision 6-10 months) to
obtain access.

Christensen, V., K.A. Aiken & M.C. Villanueva,

2007. Threats to the ocean: on teh role of
ecosystem approaches to fisheries. pp. 67-86.
Lalo, F., 2007. Modelling sustainability: From
applied to involved modelling. pp. 87-108.

Doulman, D.J., 2007. Coping with the

extended vulnerability of marine ecosystems:
Implementing the 1995 FAO Code of Conduct
for Responsible Fisheries. pp. 189-237
Other journal articles and book chapters:
Chavance, P., P. Morand, L. Thibaut & M. B,
2007. Challenges and difficulties of cooperation
between fisheries information systems
Experiences in six west African developing
countries. Ocean and Coastal Management,
Christensen, V., 2007. Ecopath with Ecosim:
Linking Fisheries and Ecology. Chapter 5.
Manuscript submitted April 2007 for inclusion
in Sven Erik Jrgensen et al. (eds.) Handbook of
Ecological Modelling, Network and Informatics.
CRC Press.
Dme, M., P. Failler. Les opportunits financires,
conomiques et techniques de la relance de la
crevetticulture au Sngal. Revue Sngalaise
des Recherches Agricoles et Agro-alimentaires,
Duan Li-Jie, Li Shi-Yu, Liu Yu, Jiang Tao & P.
Failler. An Application of the Ecopath with
Ecosim Model to the Pearl River Delta Coastal
Sea.(in submission).
Failler, P., G. Van de Walle, M. Deme, D.I.
Balde, A. Dia & S. Carrier. Imperatives of the
governance of Marine Protected Areas in
West Africa. Journal of Coastal Conservation,

Yu Liu, Jiang Tao, Wang Xiao-Hong, Duan Li-Jie,

Li Shi-Yu, 2007. Establishment and Analysis
of the Ecopath Model of the Ecosystem in the
Northern Continental Shelf of South China
Sea. Acta Scientiarum Naturalium Universitatis
Sunyatseni, 46(1):123-127.

Villy Christensen
North Sea Centre (NSC)
PO Box 104
DK-9850 Hirtshals

Jacques Moreau
Ecole Nationale Suprieur dAgronomie
de Toulouse Avenue de lAgrobiopole
BP 32607,
Auzeville Tolosane
31326 Castanet-Tolosan (Toulouse)

Pierre Chavance
Institut de Recherche pour le
Dveloppement (IRD)
213, rue La Fayette
75480 PARIS Cedex 10

Maarten Bavinck
Centre for Maritime Research (MARE)
Plantage Muidergracht 4
1018 TV Amsterdam
The Netherlands

Failler, P., M. Dme. Dynamiques dexploitation

et de valorisation des ressources halieutiques
dans la Rserve de Biosphre du Delta du
Saloum (RBDS). , forthcoming.




Marleen Brans

N. Than Phuong

Associate Partners

Public Management Institute (PMI)

Katholieke Universieit Leuven
E. Van Evenstraat 2B
B 3000 Leuven

Can Tho University

College of Aquaculture and Fisheries
Can Tho University-Campus II, 3/2
CanTho City


Alfredo da Silva
Instituto Nacional de Estudios e
Pesquisa (INEP)
Complexo Escolar 14 de Novembro
Bairro Cohornel Bissau

Serge Collet
Centro di Ingegneria Economica Sociale
Contrada Vermicelli
Universita della Calabria
87036 Arcavacata di Rende (CS)

Alkaly Doumbouya
Centre National des Sciences
Halieutiques de Boussoura
B.P. 3738/39


Ulf. Wijkstrom
Food and Agricultural Organization of
the United Nations (FAO)
Via delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome

Chaoyu Wu
Zhongsdan University
Coastal and Ocean Research Centre
Guangzhou 510275

Ruangrai Tokrisna
Kasetsart University
Faculty of Economics
Department of Agricultural and
Resource Economics
50 Paholyothin Road, Jatujark
Bangkok 10900


Victor Ruiz
Instituto Tecnolgico de Santo
Domingo & el Equipo de Investigacin
Social (EQUIS)
Avenida de los Prceres, Gal
Santo Domingo
Dominican Republic

K. Aiken
University of West Indies
Centre for Marine Sciences (CMS)
Mona Campus

Benot Horemans
Department for International
Development (DFID)
Sustainable Fishery Livelihood
Programme (SFLP)
Via delle Terme di Caracalla
00100 Rome

Carl-Christian Schmidt
Organisation Economique pour le
Commerce et le Dveloppement
2, rue Andr Pascal
F-75775 Paris Cedex 16

Mahfuz Ahmed
WorldFish Center (WFC)
10670 Penang

Amadou Kane Cir

Commission sous-rgionale des Pches
B.P. 20 505

Milton Haughton
Caribbean Regional Fisheries
Mechanism (CRFM)
P.O.BOX 642, Princess Margaret Drive
Belize City




Integrating multiple demands
on coastal zones with emphasis
on aquatic ecosystems and fisheries

Project Number
and Framework Programme
6th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/05/2005 to 30/04/2008 (36 months)

Dr. Rainer Froese
Leibniz Institut fr




Context and Objectives

targeted strategic research towards reconciling multiple demands on coastal
zones. It evaluated and integrated
data, tools and concepts suitable to
contribute to achieving the goals set
by the World Summit on Sustainable
Development in Johannesburg, such as
restoring healthy fish stocks and ecosystems by 2015.

INCOFISH research activities were focusing on the following Integrated Coastal
Zone Management (ICZM) issues:
(i) document historical performance
of ecosystems to deal with the shifting baselines syndrome and provide
sound reference points for resource
restoration; (ii) provide electronic
maps for all coastal species to establish authoritative species inventories
and explore scenarios of global change
and invasive species; (iii) create spatial ecosystem models for selected
coastal ecosystems as a basis for understanding the resource; (iv) provide
guidelines and tools for best sizing
and placement of marine protected
areas; (v) research impact of ecotourism on coastal ecosystem and provide
best-practice guidelines; (vi) identify
suitable simple indicators to promote
and monitor sustainable fisheries; (vii)
provide valuation of coastal ecosystem
products and services and of different management regimes; (viii) review
legal instruments for sustainable fishing in coastal zones; (ix) revisit coastal
transects as a tool for structuring and
understanding multiple demands on
coastal zones; and (x) provide an archive and web portal for easy public
access to all data and tools relevant
for ICZM.

Main results
and outcomes
Combining an accommodating style of
coordination with strong leadership ensured that the components of INCOFISH
described below came together and
formed a comprehensive and powerful
package with the potential to improve
integrated coastal zone management. To
provide for maximum synergy between
work packages, all tools and concepts
resulting from INCOFISH research were
tested in real-world scenarios in selected coastal systems worldwide. All data
and tools are freely available online at INCOFISH achievements were presented at international
meetings and at numerous occasions
in the media, see
cross-disciplinary teamwork One main
achievement of INCOFISH is certainly the
combined effort brought towards better management of coastal zones: Over
200 scientific staff from 35 public and
private institutions from 22 countries,
including 15 developing countries, have
joined forces in this effort. They included renowned senior scientists as well
as PhD students and technicians. Their
areas of expertise included such diverse
fields as fisheries science, ecology, modeling, taxonomy, biogeography, human
history, economics, social sciences, and
international law. These colleagues had
agreed to produce at least 50 scientific
publications related to ICZM. In April
2008, more than 60 are published or in
press, more than 30 have been submitted and more than 50 are still in various
stages of preparation. Most workshops
held during the project have included
participants from other workpackages
and established good relationships with
related INCO projects such as ECOST,
PASARELAS and CENSOR, and with other related projects and initiatives such
as the Sea Around Us project in Canada
and the international Census of Marine
Life programme.


Figure1: Species richness map for 7,200 marine

organisms, with diversity hotspots indicated in
dark red.

zone species. In April 2008, 7,200 maps

for species relevant to this project were
available on the INCOFISH portal.
Success story 3 Coastal Transects
Analysis Tool (CTAM)

Success story 1 Fish ruler

One of the first products of INCOFISH
was a fish ruler that shoppers can
use to ensure the fish they buy at the
market have had a chance to spawn
before being caught. A prototype has
been developed for common commercial fishes in Germany and tested with
local fish dealers. A related press-campaign was very successful and sparked
overfishing-related contributions in
newspapers, magazines, radio and
television. A sponsor was found for
an improved version, and finally the
German Consumer Protection Agency
(Verbraucherzentrale) became interested, re-designed the ruler and took over
the campaign through its many outlets
all over Germany (see This again had a good echo in
the media. Response from fish dealers
was mostly positive.

Other INCOFISH members were running

similar campaigns in their respective
countries, e.g, in Peru where five regionally adapted types of a fish ruler called
Chikipez have been launched, or in
Senegal, where WWF Senegal has provided financial and logistical support
with the production and distribution
of a Senegalese version of the fish
ruler. The fish-ruler wizard at www. offers users a tool to build
their own individualized fish ruler.
Success story 2 Aquamaps
INCOFISH used biogeographic niche
modelling to define the preferred environmental conditions for key marine
coastal-zone species. This specific
niche information is then being used to
create standardised electronic maps of
predicted distributions for all coastal

Organizing the overwhelming amount

of information flows in the coastal zone
in a framework that provides insight
for integrated coastal zone management has been a formidable challenge.
INCOFISH presents an online tool that
tackles that problem, with standardized
information for more than 150 coastal
zone areas. The Coastal Transects
Analysis Model (CTAM) is a simple
visualisation and decision-support
tool that can assist coastal managers,
practitioners, policy makers, coastal
communities and other coastal stakeholders in addressing multiple present
and future demands in coastal areas.
CTAM analyzes interactions and flows
between natural and human systems,
with current emphasis on fisheries and
aquatic resources, using information
provided by users, coupled with literature and experts judgment.
Success story 4 Mobile seafood guide
A mobile seafood guide has been developed to help consumers to buy fish
based on whether or not it has been
caught in a sustainable way. The guide
combines information from 18 different
seafood guides published by the WWF,
the Marine Conservation Society and
others. In addition, the size at maturity
is shown to enable consumers to recognize and reject babyfish. In accordance
with a scientific assessment of the fish
stocks general condition and the fishing
grounds, the guide tells the consumer
which fish can be eaten with a clear conscience. In this context, taking the size of
Figure 2: CTAM visualization tool at





the fish into consideration is important,

as it indicates whether the specimen has
reached sexual maturity and has thus
had a chance to reproduce before being caught, ensuring the survival of the
species. The information is accessible
online via computer or, more importantly, via web-enabled mobile phones,
so that it is available anywhere at any
time. In developing the tool we have
used mainly symbols so that the guide
simultaneously serves ten languages in
17 countries. A press release on occasion of the German launch of the Fisch
im Handy was taken up by over 70 news
outlets, including half a page in the local
newspaper Kieler Nachrichten.

The INCOFISH portal

Apart from above success stories, one
of the main achievements of INCOFISH
was the launch of several new services
on the INCOFISH portal at www.incofish.
org. These include an improved Species
Information Service, a new international
Seafood Advisory, a tool to identify invasive exotics for every country in the
world, a Retailers seafood guide, a stepby-step tool for placement and sizing of
marine protected areas, an Economic &
Social Database for coastal zone fisheries, reports on legal instruments for
(sustainable) fisheries in the European
Union, India, Indonesia, Kenya, Sri Lanka,
and South Africa, and an evaluation tool
for marine ecotourism sites. The usefulness of these tools and concepts is
confirmed by an exponential increase in
visitors of the INCOFISH portal to meanwhile more than 15,000 per month.

Selected Publications


Arregun-Snchez, F., M. Ramrez-Rodrguez, M.J.

Zetina-Rejn & V.H. Cruz-Escalona, (In press).
Natural hazards, stock depletion, and decision
making in southern Gulf of Mexico fishery of
pink shrimp, Farfantepenaeus duorarum. Special
issue on Mitigating impact of natural hazards
on ecosystem fisheries. Amer.Fish.Soc.Proc.
Fairweather, T.P., C.D. van der Lingen, A.J.
Booth, L. Drapeau & J.J. van der Westhuizen,
2006. Indicators of sustainable fishing for South
African sardine (Sardinops sagax) and anchovy
(Engraulis encrasicolus). African Journal of
Marine Science, 28:661-680.
Froese, R., A. Stern-Pirlot, H. Winker & D.
Gascual, 2008. Size Matters: How single-species
management can contribute to ecosystem-based
fisheries management. Fisheries Research,

Rainer Froese
Leibniz Institut fr
Meereswissenschaften (IFM-GEOMAR)
Marine Ecology
Dsternbrooker Weg 20
24118 Kiel
TEL: +49 431 600 4579
FAX: +49 431 600 1699

Ojaveer, H. & B.R. MacKenzie, (In press).

Introduction: historical development of fisheries
in northern Europe - reconstructing chronology
of interactions between nature and man.
Fisheries Research.
Pinnegar, J.K. & G. Engelhard, 2008. The shifting
baseline phenomenon: a global phenomenon.
Reviews in Fish Biology & Fisheries, 18(1):1-16.
Sumaila, U.R., D. Zeller, R. Watson, J. Alder &
D. Pauly, 2007. Potential costs and benefits of
marine reserves in the high seas. Marine Ecology
Progress Series, 345:305310.

More than 80 others are in different

stages of the publication cycle.

Figure 3: Icons used in the

mobile seafood guide:
top = enjoy,
middle = questionable,
bottom = avoid




Silvia Opitz
Leibniz Institut fr
Meereswissenschaften (IFM-GEOMAR)
Marine Ecology
Dsternbrooker Weg 20
24118 Kiel

Ratana Chuenpagdee

Dora Ann Lange Canhos

Coastal Development Centre (CDC)

50 Phaholyothin Road
Kasetsart University
10900 Chatuchak, Bangkok

Centro de Referncia em Informao

Ambiental (CRIA)
Avenida Romeu Trtima, 388
13083-885 Campinas (So Paulo State)



Birane Samb
Stuart Banks
Charles Darwin Foundation for the
Galapagos Islands (CDF)
Puerto Ayora, Santa Cruz, Galapagos

Centre de Recherches
Ocanographiques de Dakar-Thiaroye
km 10 Route de Rufisque, B.P. 2241



John K. Pinnegar

Herbert Constante Nion Girado

The Centre for Environment, Fisheries

& Aquaculture (CEFAS), Lowestoft
Pakefield Road
Lowestoft, Suffolk NR33 OHAT
United Kingdom

Direccin Nacional de Recursos

Acuticos (DINARA)
Departamento de Biologa Pesquera
Constituyente 1497
11200 Montevideo



Francisco Arregun-Sanchez

Heqin Cheng

Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias

Marinas del IPN (CICIMAR)
Departamento de Pesqueras y Biologa
Instituto Politcnico Nacional (Playa el
Conchalito) S/N
La Paz, Baja California Sur

East China Normal University (ECNU)

State Key Laboratory of Estuarine and
Coastal Research
Zhongshan North Road 3663
200062 Shanghai

Joe Ryan


Gerd Winter

Center for Integrated Environmental

Management (CABAL S.A.)
Department of Tropical Coastal
Apartado 161

University of Bremen (Uni Bremen)

Forschungsstelle fr Europisches
Universittsallee GW 1
28359 Bremen


Mauro Figueredo
Aoes Para Preservaao dos Recursos
Naturais e Desenvolvimento
Economico Racional (APRENDER)
Entidade Ecolgica
Servidao do Jornalista, 150
88058724 Florianopolis/SC

Maria Gasalla
Secretaria da Agricultura e
Abastecimento do Estado de So Paulo
Instituto de Pesca, APTA (IP)
Rua Ana Pimentel, s/n. Parque da Aqua
05001-900 So Paulo
Contract terminated by 30th
November, 2005
See new email address under partner
IOUSP below.


Poul Holm
Syddansk Universitet (SDU)
Centre for Maritime and Regional
University of Southern Denmark
Niels Bohrs Vej 9
DK-6700 Esbjerg
Contract terminated by 28th February
See new email address under partner
RUC below.



Charlotta Jarnmark
FishBase Information and Research
Group, Inc. (FIN)
10460 Lopez Avenue, Batong Malake
Los Baos, Laguna




Carlos Bentes Rodrguez

Haigen Xu

Hernando Zambrano

Instituto del Mar del Per (IMARPE)

Demersal and Littoral Resources
Esquina Gamarra y General Valle s/n

Nanjing Institute of Environmental

Sciences (NIES)
Division of Nature Conservation and
8 Jiangwangmiao Street, P.O. Box 4202
Nanjing 210042

Fundacin Malpelo y Otros

Ecosistemas Marinos (Fundacion
Carrera 11 No. 87-51 Local 4
Bogot, D.C.


Robert Kay


International Government Solutions

2/104 Munster Road Fulham
London SW6 5RD
United Kingdom

Camilo Bernardo Garca

University of Hull (UHULL)

Maritime Historical Studies Centre
Blaydes House, 6 High Street
Hull HU1 1NE
United Kingdom

Universidad Nacional de Colombia

Facultad de Ciencias
Departamento de Biologa
Carrera 30 Calle 45

Universita degli Studi di Padova

Faculty of Engineering
Department of Chemical Processes
Via Marzolo 9
35131 Padua



Sven Kullander

Ussif Rashid Sumaila & Kevin




Lynne Shannon

Annabelle Cruz Trinidad

Marine and Coastal Management

Branch of Environmental Affairs and
Tourism (MCM-DEAT)
Foretrust House, Martin
Hammerschlag, Foreshore
8012 Cape Town
South Africa

PRIMEX - Foundation for Alternative

Management of the Environment
Rm 502, Manila Luxury Condominium,
Pearl Drive, Ortigas Center
1600 Pasig City



Henn Ojaveer

Vachira Lheknim

University of Tartu
Estonian Marine Institute (MEI)
Dept. of Fisheries Research
Vana-Sauga 28
80031 Parnu

Prince of Songkla University (PSU)

Faculty of Science, Department of
PO Box 3 Ko Hong
90112 Songkhla




Luca Palmeri




David J. Starkey

Naturhistoriska Riksmuseet (NRM)

Department of Vertebrate Zoology
Frescativaegen 40
SE-104 05 Stockholm

University of Namibia (UNAM)

Faculty of Agriculture & Natural
Department of Natural Resources &
Mandume Ndemufayo No. 340
Pioneers Park

Hugo Arancibia
Universidad de Concepcin (UNI
Facultad de Ciencias Naturales y
Departamento de Oceanografa
Barrio Universitario s/n (Cabina 10)


Nicholas Polunin

Nyawira Muthiga

The University of Newcastle upon Tyne

School of Marine Science and
6 Kensington Terrace
Newcastle upon Tyne NE1 7RU
United Kingdom

Kenya Sea Turtle Conservation

Committee (KESCOM)
Wildlife Conservation Society Western
Indian Ocean Project (WCS)
Marine Program
Kibaki Flats No. 12, Bamburi, Kenyatta
80107 Mombasa


Claire Armstrong
University of Troms (UiT)
Norwegian College of Fishery Science
Department of Economics and
Breivika, Troms

Moenieba Isaacs
University of the Western Cape (UWC)
Programme for Land and Agrarian
Studies (PLAAS)
Modderdam Road
7535 Bellville, Cape Town
South Africa


Maria de los Angeles Gasalla

Instituto Oceanografico da
Universidade de So Paulo (IUOSP)
Praa do Oceanografico, 191
Cidade Universitria, Butant
05508-900 So Paulo, SP

Poul Holm
Roskilde Universitetscenter (RUC)
Universitetsvej 1
DK-4000 Roskilde

Graham Pierce
University of Aberdeen (UNIABDN)
School of Biological Sciences
Department of Zoology
Tillydrone Avenue
Aberdeen AB 24 2TZ
United Kingdom

Gnther Reck
Universidad San Francisco de Quito
Instituto de Ecologa Aplicada
Va Interocenica y Jardines del Este




Assessing impacts of TBT
on multiple coastal uses

Project Number
and Framework Programme
6th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/03/2005 to 28/02/2009 (48 months)

Dr. Sangeeta Sonak
The Energy And Resources
Institute (TERI) (Scientific)
Dr Roberto Morabito
Ente per le Nuove tecnologie
lEnergia e lAmbiente


Context and Objectives

The proposal seeks to address the issue of degradation of coastal resources
due to organotin compounds used in
antifouling paints. This will be achieved
with the following objectives:
1. Assessment of current policy concerns and developments with regards
to the ban on using organotin compounds in antifouling paints by the
International Maritime Organization
(IMO) and its implications to fishing,
aquaculture, shipping and cruise
tourism industry
2. Assessment of the impacts of organotin-based and other existing
antifouling paints on coastal environment such as water, sediment,
mangrove ecosystem, fish and other biota
3. Investigation on alternative antifouling strategies which will be safer to
fish and marine biodiversity
4. Analysis of costs and benefits of
various antifouling systems with
organotin based and organotin free
5. Generation of decision tools for better coastal health in the context of
organotin-based antifouling paints
6. Creation of greater awareness and
capacity building.

The project reviews current national,
EU and international coastal policies
and programmes in place. It establishes
baseline data of the level of organotin in
coastal ecosystems (waters, sediments,
mangroves and animals) in order to
monitor trends in concentration of TBT
(tributyltin) in coastal environments; assesses environmental impacts of other



existing antifouling paints through literature review, participatory methods

with various stakeholders, questionnaire
surveys and interviews of key informants; assesses the environmental and
economic implications of the IMO-led
policy changes to ban TBT and analyses
costs and benefits of various antifouling
systems using organotin compounds
and alternatives. It evaluates the effect
of TBT on the biochemical composition
of microorganisms; investigates other
novel antifouling measures; isolates
microorganisms for biodegradation
of TBT; develops indicators of coastal
health; produces quality control tools
for validation of analytical data; and develops a simple biomonitoring system
to support regulating TBT impacts and
implementing legislation. It carries out
awareness raising campaigns amongst
fishers and aqua-farmers documenting
impacts of TBT on marine organisms
and disseminates information.

Expected Results
and outcome
The project, at the international level,
will inform policy debate on the environmental and economic costs and benefits
of using organotin compounds and other alternatives. The project will provide
information to the shipping and cruise
tourism industry with a list of safer alternatives to organotin-based antifouling
paints. Further, it will help development
of better tools for monitoring of TBT/
organotin compounds in costal and marine environments such as indicators of
coastal health, propose a quality control
programme, data evaluation methods,
reference materials etc. that will be helpful in monitoring coastal health beyond
the life of the project. It will explore the
possibility of developing a waste disposal strategy for TBT. It will also create
improved awareness of various levels of
society towards environmental impacts
of organotin compounds.


Figure 1. Mapping of regulations concerning


of harmful organotins in antifouling

paints used on ships. It will enter into
force on 17 September 2008. In view of
the concerns raised against the prohibition of organotin-based compounds in
antifouling paints, a review of the existing regulations on organotins as well as
of the AFS Convention with a gap analysis on the difficulties in implementation
of the Convention was carried out with
some recommendations for improved
policies. Stakeholder mapping was also
done (Figure 2 below).

Current state of
results and outputs
1. Review of regulations in place
concerning organotins in marine

Consequential environmental impacts

of TBT led to regulation of TBT in many
countries. However, serious concerns
were raised concerning the complete
prohibition of organotin-based compounds in antifouling paints.

Organotin-based antifouling paints

were highly effective against most fouling organisms and their application
resulted in enormous savings to the
shipping industry. On the other hand,
TBT (tributyltin) in antifouling paints is
described as the most toxic substance
ever introduced in marine environment.

Therefore, though toxic impacts of

TBT are widely agreed, there was a
debate on the banning of organotins. After long deliberations, the AFS
Convention (Convention to control the
use of harmful antifouling systems on
ships) was adopted on 5 October 2001.
The Convention will prohibit the use

2. Assessment of the impacts of organotin-based and other existing

antifouling paints
Building of a database with data on the
distribution of organotin in European
marine environments is ongoing. This
database is filled with data collected
from papers, EU funded projects and
grey literature from 1997 to 2006. Only
the data produced with appropriate
quality control tools have been considered as source for the database. The
information considered in the database
is: Country, location, year of sampling,
matrix; level of TBT, DBT, MBT, MPhT,
DPhT, TPhT, others OTs; unit, QC tools
applied, Authors, Project or Monitoring
programme, Journal or Grey literature.
This database is filled with the collected and evaluated papers from 1997 to
2006. A series of templates have been
filled in with the data contained in the
selected papers. The data inserted are
(automatically) saved in the proper tables of the database. From these tables,
using appropriates filters, it is possible
to extract the information in aggregate
form (searching for compounds, for
matrices, for country etc.).

Figure 2. Mapping of relevant stakeholders




Analysis of sediment, water and animal
samples in India is also carried out. The
organotins were extracted from the samples and analysed by standard GC-MS
method. The database and the website
will be updated with this data shortly.

prepared. Identification of biomarkers for TBT contamination was also

a task carried out under this project. In the laboratory experiments
conducted to identify biomarkers in
bacterial cultures in the presence of
TBT, synthesis of some new PLFAs
in response to TBT were observed.
Such PLFAs, if found in natural conditions can be used as a signature
for the TBT contamination of the
environment. Identification of possible sentinel organisms for the TBT
impact studies is ongoing.

composition of bacteria and on exopolysaccharides produced by bacteria
is studied.
3. Investigation of alternative antifouling strategies
a) An inventory of alternative antifouling compounds that exist
is carried out.

b. A quality control programme for

validation of analytical data

b) Isolation and identification of

micro-organisms that detoxify
TBT is done
c) A working model of ceramicbased diffusible antifouling
delivery for protection of moving surfaces against biofouling
is prepared for potential application on ship hull

4. Analysis of costs and benefits of

various antifouling systems with organotin based and organotin free

This is ongoing

5. Decision tools for improved coastal

health and restoration of degraded
coastal ecosystem
a. Indicators of coastal health for assessing and monitoring of coastal
waters in the context of organotin


Imposex analysis, which is routinely

used as an indicator of the organotin pollution was challenged by
several scientist. Hence a report on
indicators of organotin pollution is


6. Creation of greater awareness and

capacity building.
Several awareness raising activities
are carried out to raise awareness in
policy makers, industry, general public
and relevant users of the coast especially coastal fishers on the impacts of
organotin compounds. This includes
workshops, focus group discussions
and general meetings with stakeholders
along the coast of India.

A lack of capabilities for analysis of

organotins in marine environment
in India was observed. Hence, a
training programme was conducted
for training of Indian laboratories
in the implementation of analytical
methods for organotin determination in water, sediment and biota.
The development of a quality control programme for validation of
analytical data is ongoing. This involves inter-laboratory exercises for
evaluation of accuracy and uncertainty of data.

c. Waste disposal

at the end of the project and disseminated to various stakeholders,

particularly policy makers.



treatment options for disposal of
TBT-contaminated waste in field
conditions is ongoing.

d. Policy recommendation at national,

regional and international level.

A report on good management policies will be prepared after taking

into account feedback from all partners and work-packages and will
include environmental, economic,
technical and managerial aspects.
This final document integrating science into policy will be produced



Selected Publications
Rajagopal, S., B.J.A. Pollux, J.L. Peters, G.
Cremers, S.Y. Moon-van der Staay, T. van Alen,
J. Eygensteyn, A. van Hoek, A. Palau, A. bij
de Vaate & G. van der Velde, 2008. Origin of
Spanish invasion by the zebra mussel, Dreissena
polymorpha (Pallas, 1771) revealed by Amplified
Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP)
fingerprinting. Biological Invasions (In press).
Sonak, S., M. Sonak & A. Giriyan, 2008.
Shipping hazardous waste: implications for
economically developing countries International
Environmental Agreements: Politics, Law and
Economics, 8:143159.
A special issue of the Journal of Environmental
Management on organotins is underway as
a part of the project output. Twelve papers
are being selected for publication. Papers
from project partners that are accepted for
publication are:
Jadhav, S., N.B. Bhosle, P. Massanisso, R.
Morabito, 2008. Organotins in the sediments of
the Zuari estuary, west coast of India.
Gipperth, L., 2008. The legal design of the
international and European Union ban of TBT
(Tributyltin) antifouling paint direct and
indirect effects.
Sonak, S., P. Pangam, A. Giriyan & K. Hawaldar,
2008. Implications of the ban on organotins for
protection of global coastal and marine ecology.
Mukherjee, A.K.V., M. Rao & U.S. Ramesh, 2008.
Predicted concentrations of biocides from
antifouling paints in Visakhapatnam harbour.

Scientific Coordinator
Sangeeta Sonak
The Energy and Resources Institute
Western Regional Centre, Sindhur
La Citadel Colony
Dona Paula 403004, Goa
TEL: +91 832 245 6064
FAX: +91 832 245 6053

Administrative Coordinator

Lena Gipperth
Gteborgs Universitet (UGOT)
Department of Law
Box 650
SE 40530 Gteborg

Gerard van der Velde

Stichting Katholieke Universiteit (KUN)
Department of Animal Ecology and
Ecophysiology Faculty of Science,
Mathematics and Informatics
PO Box. 9010
6500 GL Nijmegen
The Netherlands

Roberto Morabito
Ente per le Nuove tecnologie, lEnergia
e lAmbiente (ENEA)
Prot - Department of Environment,
Global Change, and Sustainable
Via Anguillarese, 301
00123 Rome
TEL: +39 06 3048 4933
FAX: +39 06 3048 4525

Aditya Mukherjee
National Ship Design Research Centre
Port & Infrastructure Division
Gandhigram, Visakhapatnam 530 005
Andhra Pradesh


Narayan B. Bhosle
National Institute of Oceanography
Marine Corrosion and Materials
Doa Paula - 403004 Goa

R.R. Chaudhury
National Institute of Ocean Technology
Velacherry-Tambaram Main Road
Tamil Nadu,
India 601 302
E-M :




Peri-urban mangrove forests as filters and
potential phytoremediators of domestic
sewage in east Africa

Project Number
and Framework Programme
6th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/02/2005 to 31/07/2008 (42 months)

Dr. Jos Guerreiro
ICAT Instituto de Cincia
Aplicada e Tecnologia


Context and Objectives

areas for strategic reforestation and


Extensive amounts of sewage are currently

being released into peri-urban mangroves,
but there is hardly any understanding of
the consequences. There is evidence to
suggest that mangroves filter discharged
wastewater and prevent coastal pollution, but this ecosystem service has not
been conveyed to coastal managers, nor
has the filtration capacity been exploited. The mangrove is one of the worlds
most endangered habitats: more than a
third is already lost, and the remaining is
disappearing at a rate of 2-5% per year,
with little public notice. The peri-urban
mangroves are particularly hard hit. In
this light, the overall objective of this
project is to demonstrate the ecological
and economical service that peri-urban
mangroves provide by mitigating coastal
pollution through sewage-filtration, and
to offer innovative solutions for the exploitation and management of this quality.
The project will examine two innovative
ways in which mangrove filtration can
be utilised to preclude coastal sewage
pollution: (1) facilitating sewage filtration by conserving filtering mangroves
and replanting mangroves in deforested
areas exposed to sewage (strategic reforestation and conservation), and (2)
using constructed mangrove wetlands for
sewage treatment. The project will be developed in East Africa (Tanzania, Kenya
and Mozambique).

Five main activities are being developed
in order to achieve the main goals.
1. field evaluation of evidence and effects of sewage-filtration: evaluation
of the effects of sewage-filtration by
peri-urban mangroves on ecosystem
condition and processes; development of GIS-map location of sewage
input, measurement and mapping
mangrove degradation and destruction; identification of suitable



2. Experimental development of mangrove sewage filtration technology:

assessment of effects of sewage
exposure on the ecological, microbial and biogeochemical processes;
test and refine the remediating performance of a mangrove wetland;
provide experimental results that
optimise the sewage filtering performance of constructed mangrove
3. Ecological modelling: development
of ecological models combining
field observations and experimental
results; determination of filtering
effect of mangroves with respect
to long term stability and optimal
treatment regime of mangrove
4. Socio-economics and ecosystem
goods and services: comparison of
available sewage management options from a socio-economic and
ecological perspective, and evaluation of ecosystem goods and
services provided by mangroves
exposed or not exposed to sewage;
summarise the current drivers of
mangrove degradation and destruction within the study areas.
Implementation and governance issues: conception of a strategic plan
for implementing the use of mangrove sewage filtration, transforming
PUMPSEA findings into appropriate
governance guidelines.

Main Results and outcome

The expected outcomes of PUMPSEA
have direct relevance for regional environmental managers and policy makers
working to improve the current situation in East Africa. The key findings of
the project are being made immediately


Figure 1 Plan of the Dual Cell Field Trial

Constructed Mangrove Wetland.

available to the governmental agencies

participating in the project, particularly
low-cost, low technology approaches:
strategic reforestation and conservation
of mangroves in sewage problem areas,
and constructed mangrove wetland for
sewage treatment. This mangrove wetland technology can have an important
impact also in other regions because the
trees are endemic to all tropical coasts.
The designation of mangrove areas for
strategic reforestation, conservation or
constructed mangrove wetlands should
be important for those communities,
which highly depend on mangroves,
since such new management strategies
will lead to restricted access and exploitation of the mangroves.

The consortium developed successfully

the key issue of the PUMPSEA project,
which was to test the sewage treatment
performance of mangroves and particularly constructed mangrove wetlands.
The experimental plots constructed at
Jangwani beach (a touristic area with
several hotels) near Dar es Salaam
showed very encouraging results. The
source of sewage was the Belinda Hotel
which was linked to the experimental
plots. Testing different mangrove trees,
Avicenia marina showed the best performance. The mesocosm cells were
highly efficient in removing pathogens
from the sewage. Faecal Coliforms are
generally reduced by more than 90%
during a 12 hours residence time in the
cells irrespective of sewage dosing. In

many cases coliforms were not even

detectable in the water exiting the mesocosms. The exact same pattern was
observed for Enterococci spp. with only
few or no live cells detected in the water exiting the mesocosms. Economic
results exceed expectation. Actually the
Manager of the Hotel stated, during a
stakeholder/potential investors meeting, that the Hotel was saving 200,000
Tanzanian shillings every two days
(around 22,000/yr). The consortium
negotiated with several hotels in the
area to be linked to the Dual Cell Field
Trial Constructed Mangrove Wetland
which was constructed in order to test
the methodology at a real scale. Also
the Municipality of Dar es Salaam is
identifying a peri-urban area to test the
possibilities of this new methodology
to deal with urban sewage.
The consortium GIS mapped the main
mangrove areas (both pristine and polluted) near Dar es Salaam (Mtoni and Ras
Dege), Mombasa (Mikindani and Gazi
Bay) and Maputo (Costa do Sol and Saco
at Inhaca Island). Mangrove density and
basal area, species diversity and regeneration capacity were assessed. Additional
parameters that were recorded were
the density and basal area of stumps or
basal area of cut main stems in multiple
stemmed trees as indicators of cutting
intensity. Other additional parameters
were tree height, phenology, morphology and canopy cover. The extent and
zonation of the mangrove forests was
assessed using the available remote
sensing material at the time of the field
survey (either recent satellite imagery
or historic aerial photos). At each site,
transects were taken perpendicular to

Figure 2 Gazi Bay - mapping of mangroves

mudflats, degraded areas and points of sewage
input (D15)




tidal zones dominated by particular forest types. GPS readings were recorded at
one of the corners of each plot.
All field plots were digitized in a shapefile, imported into a GIS, linked to the
field forestry measurements and spatially analyzed.
Sewage impact maps were produced
based on the available information. In
order to detect deforested and regenerated mangrove areas and to detect
changes in the mangrove forest, a
change detection analyses based on
multitemporal remotely sensed material is done in a GIS environment.
A time series of aerial photos and satellite
imagery for every site was imported and
visually analysed for change detection in
a GIS. Changes were digitized (polygon
shapefile) and labelled. For each change
type, the number of patches and the
total area is given and an area change
balance is calculated for all sites.
Mapping the suitability for strategic
reforestation is based on natural regeneration levels: the number of seedlings,
saplings and young trees in the field
plots; severity of mangrove cutting:
the number of cut stems and stumps
in the field plots; water current and
water quality; seedling tolerance to
sewage exposure. Mapping the suitability for strategic conservation is based
on estimates of current sewage filtration levels and area proximity to known
sewage outlet.
Gas and nutrient balance in the sewage
impacted Mtoni mangrove forest and
the pristine Ras Dege mangrove forest
were assessed. Sewage pollution has
had antagonistic effects on cyanobacterial diversity, abundance and N2
fixation rate at Mtoni mangrove ecosystems, since it has promoted microalgal
abundance and inhibited biological N2
fixation rate and cyanobacterial diversity. It may be concluded that sewage



pollution has caused a negative impact on cyanobacterial diversity and

N2 fixation rate at Mtoni mangrove
The differences in tree phenology indicate that Avicenia marina is more
tolerant to sewage than the other species,
suggesting its possible use in constructed wetlands. It also supports far more
fauna than Rhizophora mucronata.
The comparison between the mangroves
impacted and non impacted showed
significative differences for heavy metals in the water column, sediments
and macrofauna (oysters and polychaetes). The ecological model is being
developed containing a hydrodynamic
submodel and an eutrophication submodel. The hydrodynamic submodel
is based on bathymetry, time series of
current velocity in input rivers/streams,
freshwater discharge, rain, evaporation and the tidal dynamic of the outer
mangrove boundary. The transport/
dispersion submodel is based on time
series of nutrients concentrations in
input rivers/streams, nutrient loading
(sewage) and nutrient concentrations
from the outer boundary (ocean). The
eutrophication submodel contains the
biological description, which include
the nutrient dynamics and the system
filtration capacity.
Sewage exposure impacts on societys
dependence on goods and services provided by mangroves were analyzed.
Ecosystem goods and services supported
by East African mangroves are identified based on available data, interviews
with standardised open-ended questionnaires, as well as data on nutrient
dynamics, mangrove degradation, forest
productivity and faunal standing stock.
To secure acknowledgement of social
and cultural values, the analysis separated ecosystem goods and services into
four categories: (i) overarching functions
maintaining biodiversity; (ii) regulating

functions; (iii) production functions; and

(iv) socio-cultural functions.
Five hundred interviews in impacted and
non-impacted sites in Tanzania, Kenya
and Mozambique were made. A coded
template file for inclusion of transcript
data from each individual interview
was developed and around 90% of interview transcripts were introduced.
Special focused interviews (n=80) with
stakeholders involved in the extraction, transportation and marketing of
shrimp and forest (poles, firewood and
charcoal) resources were carried out
around Maputo. Semi-structured interviews with 48 resource users from two
Kenyan villages show marked mangrove
dependence. Respondents identified 24
ecosystem goods, and ranked a variety
of food items, traditional medicine, fuel
and construction material as very important resources. Natural mangroves
were rated significantly higher than
plantations in terms of number and
quality of products, except for mangrove poles. Nine ecosystem services
were acknowledged, with significant
differences between natural and planted mangroves. Most respondents (71%)
were positive to the plantations, and
negative attitudes were entirely based
on the perception of limited information given to the community prior to
planting. Multivariate analyses show
distinct patterns among user groups
(based on gender, occupation and locality) with respect to recognized goods
and services, knowledge of mangrove
species and plantations, and attitudes
towards threats, community management and existing plantations.
Legal and institutional frameworks were
assessed. Both international and national
instruments are being analysed according with the guidelines developed.
Relevant institutions with responsibilities in wastewater treatment and
mangroves conservation are now fully
identified in each country. Institutional


matrices were refined and new information was included.

Meetings were held (in Mozambique
and Tanzania) with the institutional
stakeholders, dealing with wastewater
treatment and sanitation, mangrove
conservation and municipalities to: a)
present the PUMPSEA Project and its
methodological approach to wastewater
treatment; b) understand the present
state of the art for wastewater treatment and methodologies at national
and local level; c) identify a joint strategy to apply constructed wetlands
methodology for wastewater treatment
in spotted areas of Dar es Salaam; d)
establish a common methodology to
implement the findings/methods of the
PUMPSEA project in a near future.
An Environmental Impact Assessment
(EIA) Study was developed and a
Scoping Report and draft Terms of
Reference were approved by NEMC (national Tanzanian Authority for EIA).
A current sewage treatment matrix was
developed and data analysed. Results of
the analysis of the current sewage treatment approach showed that in the three
countries, the most common sanitation
system is pit latrines, followed by septic
tanks. Nairobi, Rift Valley, Central and
Nyanza are the Kenyan regions with
higher percentage of population served
by sewerage systems. In the case of
Tanzania the country regions with higher percentage of population served by
sewerage systems are Arusha, Dodoma,
Tanga and Zanzibar. Maputo city is the
Mozambican region with higher percentage (13.7%) of population served by
sewerage systems.

Selected Publications
Bouillon, S., J.J. Middelburg, F. Dehairs, A.V.
Borges, G. Abril, M. Flindt, S. Ulomi & E.
Kristensen, 2007. Importance of intertidal
sediment processes and porewater exchange
on the water column biogeochemistry in a
pristine mangrove creek (Ras Dege, Tanzania).
Biogeosciences, 4:311-322.
Bouillon, S, F. Dehairs, B. Velimirov, G. Abril
& A.V. Borges, 2008. Dynamics of organic and
inorganic carbon across contiguous mangrove
and seagrass systems (Gazi bay, Kenya). Journal
of Geophysical Research - Biogeosciences, 112:
G02018, doi:10.1029/2006JG00325.
Bouillon, S, R. Connolly & S.Y. Lee, 2008. Organic
matter exchange and cycling in mangrove
ecosystems: recent insights from stable isotope
studies. Journal of Sea Research, 59:44-58.
Cannicci, S., D. Burrows, S. Fratini, S.Y. Lee, J.
Offemberg, T.J. Smith III & F. Dahdouh-Guebas,
2008. Faunistic impact on vegetation structure
and ecosystem function. Aquatic Botany,
Duke, N.C., J.-O. Meynecke, S. Dittmann, A.M.
Ellison, K. Anger, U. Berger, S. Cannicci, K. Diele,
K.C. Ewel, C.D. Field, N. Koedam, S.Y. Lee, C.
Marchand, I. Nordhaus & F. Dahdouh-Guebas,
2007. A world without mangroves? Science,
Paredes, D., P. Kuschk, T.S.A. Mbwette, F. Stange,
R.A. Mller & H. Kser, 2007. New aspects
of microbial nitrogen transformations in the
context of wastewater treatment ? a review. Eng.
Life Sci., 7(1):13-25.
Kristensen, E., 2007. Mangrove crabs as
ecosystem engineers; with emphasis on
sediment processes. Journal of Sea Research,
Kristensen, E., S. Bouillon, T. Dittmar & C.
Marchand, in press. Organic carbon dynamics in
mangrove ecosystems, a review and speculative
outlook. Aquatic Botany (Invited review paper).
Kristensen, E., in prep. Carbon balance in
mangrove sediments: the driving processes and
their controls. In: Y.Tateda & R. Upstil (eds.).
Proceedings of the International Symposium
on Greenhouse Gas and Carbon Balances in
Mangrove coastal Ecosystems.
Vannini, M., R. Rorandelli, O. Lhteenoja,
M. Elisha & S. Fratini, 2006. Tree-climbing
behaviour of Cerithidea decollata (L.), a Western
Indian Ocean mangrove gastropod (Mollusca,
Potamididae). J.Mar.Biol.Ass. UK, 86:1429-1436.

From the meetings promoted with several stakeholders and potential investors
it is now possible to state that at this
point in time Dar es Salaam Municipality
and other hotels are interested to use
the PUMPSEA trial wetland.







Jos Guerreiro

Jos Paula

ICAT Instituto de Cincia Aplicada e

Edf. ICAT, Campus da Faculdade de
Cincias, Campo Grande
1749-016 Lisboa
Tel: +351 21 750 00 06
Fax: +351 21 750 01 72

Laboratrio Martimo da Guia - IMAR

Estrada do Guincho s/n
2750-642 Cascais

Kenya Marine & Fisheries Research

Institute KMFRI Research Institute
Mikomani, English Point
80100 Mombasa



Nico Koedam

Salomo Bandeira

Vrije Universiteit Brussel VUB

Faculty of Sciences
Faculty of Sciences, Mangrove
Management Group (APNA-ANCH)
Pleinlaan 2
1050 Brussels

Universidade Eduardo Mondlane

Department of Biological Science
University Campus


Yunus Daud Mgaya

Stephen N. Mwangi


Peter Kuschk
UFZ - Umweltforschungszentrum
Leipzig Halle GmbH
Department of Bioremediation
Permoserstrasse 15
04318 Leipzig


University of Dar es Salaam,

Faculty of Aquatic Sciences and
Mlimani Campus, P.O.Box 35064
Dar es Salaam

Jamidy Hizzam Yahaya Katima

University of Southern Denmark

Institute of Biology
Campusvej 55
5230 Odense M

Prospective College of Engineering and

Technology - PCET
University of Dar es Salaam
Main Campus
P.O.Box 35131
Dar es Salaam



Marianne Holmer


Marco Vannini
Universita di Firenze
Dipartimento di Biologia Animale e
Genetica LEO PARDI
via Romana 17/19
50125 Firenze

Patrik Rnnbck
Stockholms Universitet
Department of Systems Ecology
Universitetsvgen 10
SE-10691 Stockholm

Jeremiah Daffa
National Environment Management
Tanzania Coastal Management
Tancot House 3RD Foor, Sokoine/
Pamba Road
Dar es Salaam





Main Uses of the Grey mullet as Indicator
of Littoral environmental changes

Context and Objectives


The particular status of estuaries,

deltas and lagoons in coastal areas,
located at the interface between sea
and river influences, results in highly
variable environmental and ecological
conditions that shift over space and
time. The combined effects of climatic changes and human activities have
tremendous consequences on these
ecosystems. The conservation of these
environments is one of the biggest challenges for humanity. In order to achieve
integrated environmental management,
researchers and managers try to select
relevant indicators that can be used as
tracers of the state of estuarine areas.
These indicators are generally chosen
from living species or physicochemical
parameters or a combination of both.

The MUGIL project covers four areas

distributed worldwide (Europe, Africa,
Asia and America) and involves collaborators from southern Europe (France,
Spain, Greece) and INCO partner countries (Mexico, Senegal, Benin, South
Africa, Taiwan). It is based on collecting
and collating all information available
on the species Mugil cephalus around
the world inside the four main areas
(Europe, Africa, Asia and America). There
is also a global coordination of research
actions within four research fields:
population genetics, life history traits
(growth and reproduction), migration
and physiological responses to salinity
and pollution. Through seminars and
specific workshops, MUGIL will promote
the selection of relevant methodologies
in terms of sampling strategy, analytical
methods and biological surveys shared
by the consortium. Finally the project
aims at proposing this fish as an indicator species using selected tools to
follow littoral environmental changes in
a new research proposal within the 7th
Framework Programme

Among the fish species living in estuaries, very few occupy these ecosystems in
more than one oceanic region. However,
there is one particular species, Mugil
cephalus (Mugilidae), which is found
worldwide and is cosmopolitan in both
tropical and temperate coastal estuarine
zones. This species is an euryhaline and
estuarine-dependent marine fish, able to
live in widely different habitats and reproduce at sea. The mechanisms, which
are involved in this process, are poorly
known or are studied separately in each
area. Moreover this species and related
ones support important aquaculture and
capture fisheries, especially in developing countries. The aim of the MUGIL
project is to choose the species Mugil cephalus as a biological model, to build an
observation network and to coordinate
the action of using this species as an indicator of the integrity of estuarine areas
by analysing its genetic characteristics,
life-history traits and physiological responses to changing environments.


Project Number
and Framework Programme
6th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/11/2006 to 30/04/2009 (30 months)
Specific Support Action

Dr Jacques Panfili
IRD (Institut de Recherche
pour le Dveloppement)





Expected results
and outcome

Universit dAbomey Calavi (FSA/UAC)

01 B.P. 526

Jacques Panfili

To build an observation network

around a particular coastal fish species: this gathering of expertise on
Mugil cephalus has facilitated the
correction of internet pages on this
species at

Institut de Recherche pour le

Dveloppement (IRD)
213 rue La Fayette
75480 Paris Cedex 10
Tel: +33 (0)4 67 14 41 23
Fax: +33 (0)4 67 14 37 19

To collect and collate information

available on this species around the
world within four main geographical areas (Africa, Asia, America, and
Europe) and to build a web based
database accessible through the
FishBase web-archive ( This database construction
is currently underway.


To coordinate the research action

involving the use of this species as
an indicator of the state of estuarine
areas that uses population genetics
and life history trait variations as
tracers of biological responses to
environmental constraints Different
methods for studying this biological information have been tested
and recommendations regarding
the best tool have been defined
for life-history trait, migration and
population genetic studies.

Philippe Laleye



Beatriz Morales-Nin
Universidad Islas Baleares (UIB)
Carretera Valldemossa km.7,5
07122 Palma de Mallorca

Wann-Nian Tzeng
Claude Casellas

Institute of Fisheries Science

National Taiwan University (IFS-NTU)
No.1, Sec. 4, Roosevelt Road
106 Taipei

Centre National de la Recherche

Scientifique (CNRS)
1919 route de Mende
34293 Montpellier Cedex 16



Vassiliki Vassilopoulou
Papa Samba Diouf

Hellenic Centre for Marine Research

46,7 km Athens Sounion Bd
P.O. Box 712
19013 Mavro Lithari, Anavyssos

World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF)

Western African Marine EcoRegion
9639 Sacr Coeur III
B.P. 22928


Alan Whitfield


Domingo Flores Hernndez

To propose a new research programme within the next 7th

Framework Programme call focused on the species as a model
indicator to monitor changes in littoral environments.

Universidad Autnoma de Campeche

Av. A. Melgar Entre Juan de la Barrera
y Calle 20
P.O. Box 520
24030 Campeche

South African Institute for Aquatic

Biodiversity (SAIAB)
Somerset Street
P. B. 1015
6140 Grahamstown
South Africa


Francisco Javier Garcia de Len

Centro de Investigaciones Biolgicas
del Noroeste, S.C. (CIBNOR)
Mar Bermejo No. 195, Col. Playa Palo
de Santa Rita
P.O. Box 128
23090 La Paz, B.C.S.




Cross Sectoral Commons
Governance in Southern Africa

Context and Objectives


Many Southern African natural resources are legally recognized as commons.

The governance of commons in
Southern Africa has received a good
deal of attention from both researchers and the responsible government
agencies. The objective of this Specific
Support Action is to share existing
research and experiences in the governance of large scale natural resource
commons across different ecosystem
types Southern Africa: including marine and other large water body coastal
zones; arid and semi-arid grasslands,
savannas and forest patches; and floodplain ecosystems in. The SSA builds on
existing research on commons governance done by institutions specialising
in particular resource management
problems. It takes as its starting point
the insight that addressing natural resource degradation in Africa meant
finding ways to identify, reproduce
and encourage existing positive practices of commons management across
wide scales. The dual challenge of
governance is to meet large scale problems with large scale solutions that are
rooted in local practices and to use and
ecosystem approach to integrate the
management of different types of commons, each of which may play a role
in the household survival strategies
of vulnerable populations. Experience
with governance in one type of commons can generate lessons of value to
the governance of other types of commons and for integrated governance.

The work programme consists of a series of preparatory tasks and workshops

in which researchers who have been
working on different kinds of commons
in Southern Africa comb their research
for lessons of use to other kinds of resources and then present this work at
joint workshops. The work takes pce in
two phases, each one having a theme:

Project Number
and Framework Programme
6th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

1 March 2007 28 Feb 2009 (24 Months)
Specific Support Action

1. Knowledge,
Commons Practices; and


2. Building On Existing Practices

to Achieve Effective Governance
Across Extensive Scales.

Dr. Doug Wilson

Innovative Fisheries Management

Each theme concludes with a workshop,

the Theme One workshopshop took
place in Maun, Botswana in December
2007. The project places a very strong
emphasis on dissemination of results.
On the academic level CROSCOG is
producing two special issues, one in
Development Southern Africa and the
other in the International Journal of the
Commons. For the policy making audience CROSCOG produces a policy brief
summarising the academic results. In
addition, we are combining the Phase
II workshop with a Policy Event to take
place in Cape Town in January 2009.
This event is aimed at practitioners and
policy makers as well as scholars and
the key note speakers will all be policy
makers. The International Association
for the Study of Commons and the
WorldFish Centre have agreed to act
as co-sponsors for this event. Finally
CROSCOG will be producing community information sheets for the use of
local community groups.




Results and outcome
During the first year of the project addressed the following more specific
questions as critical issues for the sustainable use of all three main types of
commons that CROSCOG is examining:
1. Tourism is having a major impact
on common resources.
Many developing countries in Africa
have offered their commons as bases
for nature-based tourism industries.
Trade-offs with the African communities living out of their commons has had
to be made. In some cases, local communities have been relocated and or denied
access to their commons and coerced
to adapt their livelihoods to tourism.
Tourism as a rapidly growing industry is
adding more dimensions to the conflicts
and trajectories of the commons.
2. The need to redress historical discrimination, particularly in respect to
race and gender, has made ensuring
the sustainability of commons much
more complex.
Africa is replete with historical cases of
discriminatory policies on access rights
to natural resources based on race,
gender and ethnicity. Political change
and recent development paradigms are
trying to address these historical multidimensional (e.g. racial, gender, ethnic)
imbalances in access to natural resources. These attempts to redress historical
discrimination have added to the complexities commons management when
they were combined with questions of
controlling access to commons to ensure sustainability.
3. HIV/AIDS has had a powerful impact on commons management.
Adaptations to the new situation include alternative livelihood strategies,
which are often found in informal sectors such as the exploitation of common



pool resources (e.g. fisheries) creating

new, dislocated workforces vulnerable
to HIV due to social disruption and
lacking access to HIV related preventive or therapeutic services. Women are
particularly affected by the livelihood
changes when they relied on agricultural activities: Engaging in sexual
transactions, which exposes them to
HIV/AIDS, is often a last resort. At the
same time, chronic illness and death
related to HIV further weakens the
productivity of affected households,
requiring new survival strategies, creating more HIV vulnerable persons.
4. 4. How traditional institutions, particularly tradiational authorities, are used
in commons governance is a critical
variable, especially in respect to sustaining practices across large scales.
The highly variable roles of so-called
pre-colonial or traditional institutions,
rules and regulations and their transformation for the management of the
commons in the context of the nation
states is an extremely important variable in sustainability outcomes.
5. The commons is a critical element
in the intersection of urbanization, the
commercialization of agriculture and
food security.
The governance and management of the
African commons is becoming increasingly complex due to multiple pressures
on commonage land and resources. Two
such pressures are rapid urbanisation
and economic transformations of the
commons. The commons traditionally
provided the resources for food security
in Africa. Economic and social transformations during and since the colonial
period have broadened the options and
threats. Urbanisation and the expansion
of non-agricultural modes of employment have made it possible for growing
numbers of people across the continent
to be food secure without producing
food themselves. In many countries,

expanding commercial farming sectors

produce much of the food usually
on land excised from the commons.
Understanding the current and potential
contribution of the commons to African
food security means understanding the
often multiple, local and migrant strategies with which people construct and
try to sustain their livelihoods.
6. Security, insecurity and displacement have strong implications for
commons management.
In Africa, insecurity related to climate
change is a relevant issue. Many issues
arise including the equity of community principles, sustainability of
natural resources and the new concept
of resource. Periods of drought when resources normally available in commons
became rarer stress resource allocation
arrangements. The poor require more
resources from the commons to compensate for poor harvests. In addition,
the insecurity issue linked to climate
change can create many other conflicts through family dislocation, loss
of solidarity, and population displacement. Papers in this theme will address,
among other things, the implications of
climate linked to the conservation and
allocation of common resources.

Selected Publications
Two special issues of academic journals are planned, one in Development
Southern Africa and the other in the
International Journal of the Commons.





Dr. Doug Wilson

Prof. Benjamin Cousins

Innovative Fisheries Management

An Aalborg University Research Centre
P.O. Box 104
DK-9850 Hirtshals
Tel: +45 9894 28 55
Fax: +45 9894 42 68

Programme for Land and Agrarian

Studies (PLAAS)
University of the Western Cape
Modderdam Road
Bellville, X17, 7535
South Africa


The Centre for Social Research

University of Malawi
Zomba, 278

Mr. Cyprian Kapasa

Aquaculture and Fisheries Information
Vision House, Plot No. 1389, Chibuku
c/o box 360246

Dr. Peter Mvula

Dr. Stephen Turner

Centre for International Cooperation
Vereniging Voor Christelijk Hoger
Vrije Universiteit
De Boelelaan 1105
1081 HV Amsterdam
The Netherlands

Mr. Friday J. Njaya

Department of Fisheries
Ministry of Natural Resources and
Environmental Affairs
Capital Hill Ring Road
Lilongwe, 593

Dr. Larry Swatuk

The Harry Oppenheimer Okavango
Research Centre
University of Botswana
Private Bag 0022

Dr. Harry Chabwela

Department of Biological Sciences
University of Zambia
National Road
Lusaka, 50110





Change, stress and sustainability aquatic ecosystem resilience in North Africa

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/12/1996 to 30/11/1999 (36 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Patrick Simon & Dr. R.J. Flower
University College London,
United Kingdom

Context and Objectives

The North African countries of Morocco,
Tunisia and Egypt possess internationally important wetland lakes that are
undergoing recent environmental change
mainly as a result of human population
pressures. The nature and consequences of these ecosystem disturbances are
poorly understood and effective environmental monitoring programmes for
most sites are virtually non-existent.
For long-term objectives of ecosystem
sustainability and nature conservation
it is essential that the biological quality
of these threatened natural resources
is maintained. All wetlands are particularly sensitive to the effects of pollution
as well as to climatic change but in
North Africa, salinization, siltation and
chemical contamination and land-use intensification are the major factors that
reduce water quality and availability
causing loss of biological diversity. Such
processes seriously stress and degrade
natural habitats but, where long-term
biological and chemical monitoring is
absent, the impacts and time-scales
of these effects are difficult to assess
accurately. However, exploration of
sedimentary records of contamination,
disturbance processes, and community composition and structure of lake
ecosystems can reveal the extent of habitat change over a range of time scales.
Linked with modern base-line surveys,
this approach allows the current ecological status of valued sites to be assessed
with regard to past conditions.
Regulated environmental monitoring
of aquatic ecosystems at the species
level is almost completely lacking in
North Africa, but reliable and relevant
information about the current status
of sites is needed by planners and conservationists. Together with knowledge
about trends in recent environmental
change such information is essential
if ecosystem quality and sustainability
are to be reconciled with development.
To address this need the CASSARINA



Project was initiated in 1996 and represents the first step in establishing
international integrity in environmental
change research in North Africa.
CASSARINA had four major objectives:

To assess the impact of land-use

practices and other changes on
nine shallow lake ecosystems in
intensively farmed coastal regions
during the 20th century.

To establish ecological baselines

and pre-disturbance communities
so that ecosystem changes during
the 20th century can be revealed for
each lake investigated.

To implement and integrate regional monitoring of aquatic organisms

and water quality with centrally imposed analytical quality control.

To establish internationally coordinated protocols for future


A combination of modern survey and
palaeolimnological techniques was
employed to help set ecological baselines for the late 20th century and
to reconstruct past environmental
changes at each of the nine sites during the 20th century. Communality in
scientific methodology and consensus
protocols for sample and data collection/ exchange were established at the
beginning of the project.
Co-ordinated sampling of water quality, phytoplankton, zooplankton and
fish and the monitoring of fixed littoral vegetation transects for each lake as
well as collection of sediment cores for
palaeoecological analysis.
Using sediment core chronologies
based mainly on radio-isotopes (210Pb


and 137Cs) and analysis of the sedimentary remains of aquatic biota

(diatoms, zooplankton, higher plants
and benthic animals), major changes
in the species abundances were demonstrated for the 20th century period.
These changes were interpreted in
terms relevant to biodiversity issues
and to water quality change.

Results and outcome

Lake contamination as assessed by
analysis of heavy metals and pesticide
residues in sediment cores was relatively small compared with some European
sites. However, significant lead contamination was noted at two sites and
the sedimentary concentrations of DDE
in Morocco and Tunisia showed a close
correspondence with known usage rates
for each country since the 1950s.
For all nine lakes, baseline data were
set for water chemistry, one lake was
acid with low salinity and all the other
sites had high alkalinity and to varying degrees brackish with NaCl usually
dominant. Total phosphorus measurements indicated that all sites were
usually eutrophic and phytoplankton
was mainly dominated by species of
green or blue-green algae. Where fish
were present, growth rates were high
with marginally highest rates in the
Egyptian Delta lakes.
Vegetation survey established littoral
vegetation sequences but only at the
Delta lakes are emergent macrophytes
still widespread. Here, their presence
is very important for isolating water
pollution. In 1998, one Moroccan wetland lake was drained completely and
the new land cultivated. The single acid
lake supports an acidophilous biota
that is unique in Tunisia but is rapidly diminishing due to increasing local
cultivation activity and inflow water abstraction in recent decades


Hydrological changes resulting from

land-use intensification during the 20th
century are the main cause of biodiversity disturbance at all nine CASSARINA
sites. These changes remain the greatest
imminent threat to the ecological integrity of remaining North African wetland
lakes. Reduction in freshwater supply
is the main, sometimes catastrophic, issue for many sites but, for several sites
(Merja Zerga and all three Delta lakes) enhanced freshwater supply by increased
agricultural irrigation and drainage has
been a significant driver of ecological
change during the 20th century.
Intensified time-space multidisciplinary
environmental monitoring of aquatic
ecosystems at the species level is identified as a key factor for effective wetland
lake management and for validating
future environmental change scenarios
in North Africa. In the 20th century,
droughts have occasionally strongly curtailed freshwater availability in North
Africa but the most persistent change
has been caused by the manipulation of
freshwater resources for human needs.
Coordinated monitoring and modelling should be integrated with satellite
surveillance for the larger lakes. These
aquatic ecosystems are a disappearing
resource yet, ultimately only through
a knowledge of their past and present
states can their true societal value be
fully estimated. CASSARINA has provided a foundation stone for wetland
lake research in North Africa that has
important implications for biodiversity
per se and for national obligations to
biodiversity responsibilities.
Overall, the project also enhanced environmental change research on lakes
and lagoons in North Africa, promoted
multi-disciplinary studies and strengthened links between North African and
European scientists. It resulted in over
12 peer reviewed publications and several institutional changes in North African
partner institutions were brought about
as a result of this project.

Selected Publications
and Papers
Appleby, P.G., R.J. Flower, H.H. Birks, N.
Rose, M. Ramdani, M. Kraiem, & A. Fathi,
2001. Radiometrically determined dates and
sedimentation rates for recent sediments in nine
North African wetland lakes (the CASSARINA
Project). Aquatic Ecology, 35:347-367.
Birks, H.H., S. Peglar, I. Boomer, R.J. Flower,
P.G. Appleby, M. Ramdani, M. Kraiem, A. Fathi,
& H. Abdelzaher, 2001. Palaeolimnological
responses of nine North African lakes to recent
environmental changes and human impacts
detected by macrofossil and pollen analyses.
Aquatic Ecology, 35:405-430.
Birks, H.H., H.J.B. Birks, R.J. Flower, S. Peglar, &
M. Ramdani, 2001. Recent ecosystem dynamics
in nine North African lakes. Aquatic Ecology,
Fathi, A., H. Abeldazer, R.J. Flower, M. Ramdani,
& M. Kraiem, 2001. Phytoplankton communities
in North African wetland lakes: the CASSARINA
Project. Aquatic Ecology, 35:281-302.
Flower, R.J., 2001. Change, stress, sustainability
and aquatic ecosystem resilience in North
African wetland lakes during the 20th century:
an introduction to integrated biodiversity
studies within the CASSARINA Project. Aquatic
Ecology, 35: 261-280.
Flower, R.J., S. Dobinson, M. Ramdani, M. Kraiem,
C. Ben Hamza, A. Fathi, H. Abdelzaher, H.H.
Birks, P.G. Appleby & S. Patrick, 2001. Recent
environmental change in North African wetland
lakes: diatom and other stratigraphic evidence
from nine sites in the CASSARINA Project,
Aquatic Ecology, 35:369-388.
Kraiem, M., C. Ben Hamza, M. Ramdani, A.
Fathi, H. Abdelzaher, & R.J Flower, 2001. Some
observations on the age and growth of thinlipped grey mullet, Liza ramada Risso, 1826
(Pisces, Mugilidae) in three North African
wetland lakes: Merja Zerga (Morocco), Garat
Ichkeul (Tunisia) and Edku Lake (Egypt). Aquatic
Ecology, 35:335-345.
Peglar, S., H.J.B. Birks, H.H. Birks, w.c.f. P.
Appleby, A. Fathi, R.J. Flower, M. Kraiem, S.
Patrick & M. Ramdami, 2001. Terrestrial pollen
records of recent land-use changes around nine
North African lakes in the CASSARINA Project.
Aquatic Ecology, 35:431-448.
Peters, A.J., K. Jones, R.J. Flower, & P.G. Appleby,
2001. Recent environmental change in North
African wetland lakes: a baseline study of
organochlorine contaminant residues in
sediments from nine sites in the CASSARINA
Project, Aquatic Ecology, 35:449-459.
Ramdani, M., R.J. Flower, N. Elkhiati, M. Kraiem,
A. Fathi, H.H Birks & S. Patrick, 2001. North
African wetlands lakes: Characterization of nine
sites included in the CASSARINA Project. Aquatic
Ecology, 35:281-302.




Ramdani, M., N. Elkhiati, R.J. Flower, H.H. Birks,

with contributions from M. Kraiem, A. Fathi
& S. Patrick, 2001. Open water zooplankton
communities in North African wetland lakes: the
CASSARINA Project, Aquatic Ecology, 35:319-333.
Ramdani, M., R.J. Flower, N. Elkhiati, H.H. Birks,
with contributions from M. Kraiem & A. Fathi,
2001. Zooplankton (Cladocera and Ostracods)
and Chironomid remains in sediment cores from
nine wetland lakes: The CASSARINA Project.
Aquatic Ecology, 35:389-403.



Patrick Simon & Roger Flower

Mohammed Mejdeddine Kraiem1

University College London

Environmental Change Research
26 Bedford Way
London WC1H GAP
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 20 76 79 75 75
Fax: +44 20 76 79 75 65

Universit Tunis II
Facult des Science Campus
1060 Tunis


University of EI Minia
Department of Botany
EL Minia 61111



Adel Ahamed Fathi


Hilary Birks
University of Bergen
Botanical Institute
Allegaten 41
Bergen N-SOO7

Mohamed Ramdani2
Universit Mohammed V
703 Charia Ibn Batota 703
10106 Rabat

Address at time of printing: INSTM Salammb, Laboratory

of aquaculture, Institute National des Sciences de la Mer Salammb, 28 rue du 2 mars 1934, Salammb 2025, Tunisia

Address at time of printing:Dpartement Zoologie & Ecologie

animales, Institut Scientifique, Universit Mohamed V, Avenue
Ibn Batouta, BP 703, Rabat-Agdal, Morocco




Geo - environmental dynamics of Pantanal Chaco: multitemporal study and previsional


Context and Objectives

The Pantanal-Chaco region is located in
the upper and middle Paraguay River
basin, straddling Brazil, Bolivia and
Paraguay. The morphology of the area
is characterised by the planaltos, a plateau gently rising from 300 to 800 m
above sea level, and by the escarpas,
escarpments developing from 500 to
200 m above sea level and reaching the
Pantanal-Chaco alluvial basin through
a narrow pediment. The PantanalChaco, one of the largest wetlands in
the world (about 200,000 km2), every
year undergoes flooding after the rainy
season. This ecosystem is highly sensitive to anthropic pressure. During the
last three decades dramatic land cover
changes occurred in the area, mainly in
the planaltos. The pristine vegetation,
made up of shrubs (cerrado) and forest, was cleared to develop agricultural
lands and pastures. Denudation of soils
induced accelerated erosion of the unconsolidated superficial formations of
the highlands, with consequences for
the flood regime and increase of sedimentation rates in the wetlands.
The main objective of the project was
to evaluate the land cover changes
that occurred in the Pantanal-Chaco
area since the 1960s, to estimate the
increase of soil loss in selected pilot
areas and to develop predictive deforestation scenarios.

The land cover multitemporal study was
performed by means of topographic,
remotely sensed and fieldwork data related to the decades of 1960s, 1980s and
1990s. A geographic database was built
by digitising topographic maps at the
scales of 1/100,000 and 1/250,000. Land
cover data from topographic maps refe
to aerial photographs of the years 19641966. They are the oldest homogeneous
land cover data available for the area.

A Digital Elevation Model (DEM) was

obtained by processing elevation and
hydrography datasets. Spatial analysis performed on the DEM allowed
to obtain a geographic database like
physiographic provinces, slope, aspect,
flow-direction, flow-accumulation, etc.
These outputs were used for geomorphologic and hydrological analyses,
soil erosion estimates and land cover
predictive modelling. Landsat TM images
related to the dry season of the years
1985 and 1996 were processed through
a procedure integrating supervised
classification and visual interpretation,
in order to obtain a multitemporal land
cover database for an extension of about
300,000 km2. The European CORINE
Land Cover project nomenclature was
tested and applied. Interpretation of
the Landsat TM images was supported
by data collected during several fieldwork missions.
The multitemporal land cover dataset reporting changes occurred in the
time spans 1966-1985 and 1985-1996
was built through pre-stratified delta
classification techniques. A statistical
analysis of the multitemporal dataset
was performed at the scales of a) the
whole project area, b) physiographic
provinces and c) municipalities, in order
to locate those areas which underwent
important changes since the 1960s.

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/12/1996 to 31/03/2001 (52 months)
Joint Research Project

Prof. Luigi Carmigniani
Universit degli Studi di Siena


The Universal Soil Loss Equation (USLE)

was applied through GIS (geographical
information system) procedures within
selected pilot areas of the planaltos, in
order to evaluate the change of potential soil loss induced by the recognised
land cover changes. The Soil and Water
Assessment Tool (SWAT), a river basin scale model developed to quantify
the impact of land management practices in large, complex watersheds,
was utilised to evaluate the impact of
both land management and changes on
water and soils in two important watersheds of the planaltos (Aquidauana
and Taquarizinho rivers). Finally,




mathematical modelling applied to the

multitemporal land cover dataset, allowed to obtain deforestation scenarios
for the year 2010.

Results and outcome

The project provided information regarding man-induced environmental
changes occurred in the last thirty years
in the Pantanal-Chaco. In the planaltos,
since the 1960s, more than 20,000 km2
of cerrado and forest (approximately
60% of the total) were cleared in favour
of agricultural lands and pastures. In
the same time span also the northern
Pantanal experienced deforestation,
while in the southern Pantanal no dramatic land cover changes occurred.
The USLE showed that in many regions
the potential soil loss induced by land
cover changes exceeds the tolerance
values, in agreement with both the large
gully erosion phenomena observed in
the planaltos and the increase of solid
discharge detected in the Taquari River
from 1977 to 1997. The SWAT revealed
that land cover changes, while inducing
only moderate variation to potential
surface water and groundwater resources, caused significant increase of
soil erosion rate.
The project also allowed to provide
methods: a) to obtain a large scale
DEM from topographic data; b) to estimate land cover changes from remote
sensing imagery; c) to identify physiographic provinces by means of GIS;
and d) to determine the topographic
factor of the USLE through semi-automatic GIS procedures. A predictive
model was also built in the form of a
geographic database providing short
to medium-term scenarios of likely effects of forest clearing.

Selected Publications
and Papers
Disperati, L., A. Rindinella, S. Virdis & R.
Salvini, 2003. Applicazione del metodo di
NDVI differencing per la valutazione della
deforestazione nel Mato Grosso meridionale
(Brasile). 7a Conferenza Nazionale ASITA Verona,
Italia, 28-31 Ottobre 2003, vol. II, 1009-1014.
Disperati, L., A.P. Fiori, M. Bocci, P.L Fantozzi &
L. Carmignani, 2000. Land-cover and soil loss
multi-temporal study in the Pantanal-Chaco
wetlands (Southern Brazil). 31st International
Geological Congress. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil,
August 617, 2000. Abstracts Volume (CD-ROM).
Geological Survey of Brazil CPRM.
Disperati, L., G. Righini, R. Salvini, A. Ciali, N.
Coscini, P.L. Fantozzi, L. Carmignani, A.P. Fiori,
A.C. Paranhos Filho & M. Bocci, 1999. Effects of
land-cover change on soil loss in the So Gabriel
do Oeste area (Pantanal, Mato Grosso do Sul,
Brazil). The EOS/SPIE Symposium on Remote
Sensing - A EUROPTO Series Meeting. 20-24
September 1999, University of Florence, Italy, pp.
Disperati, L., G. Righini, P.L. Fantozzi, S. Kozciak,
A.C. Paranhos Filho & M. Bocci, 1998. Mapping
land use change through remote sensing and
GIS analysis: the case of the Rio Verde do
Mato Grosso area in the Pantanal region (MS,
Brazil). pp. 84-89 Procceding of the 7th ICCTA International Congress for Computer Technology
in Agriculture. Computer Technology in
Agricultural Management and Risk Prevention.
Accademia dei Georgofili, Ce.S.I.A., C.N.R. &
I.A.T.A., Florence, 15-18 November 1998, A.N.A.,
Disperati, L., R. Salvini, A. Ciali, P.L. Fantozzi,
L. Carmignani, A.P. Fiori, M. Bocci & A.C
Paranhos Filho, 2002. Land Cover And Soil
Loss Multitemporal Analysis: An Application
of Geoindicators in the Pantanal Wetlands
(Brazil). In Bruzzone L. & P. Smits (eds.). Analysis
of Multi-Temporal Remote Sensing Images.
Proceedings of Multitemp 2001. World Scientific
Publishing Co. Pte. Ltd., Singapore, 217-224.
Fiori, A.P., C. Oka-Fiori, L. Disperati, A.C.
Paranhos Filho, S. Kozciak, J.A. Guedes & A.
Ciali, 2001. O processo erosivo nas bordas
leste e norte da Bacia do Alto Paraguai. Boletim
Paranaense de Geocincias, 49:63-78.
Oka-Fiori, C., S. Kozciak, A Ciali & A.P. Fiori,
1999. Estimativa da eroso dos solos da folha
de Rio Itiquira (MT/MS). Boletim Paranaense de
Geocincias, 47:31-44.
Righini, G., L. Disperati, P.L Fantozzi, U.
Pieruccini, L. Carmignani & A.P. Fiori, 1999.
Analisi della dinamica ambientale dellarea di
Rio Verde do Mato Grosso, Brasile, tramite dati
Landsat TM multitemporali. Rivista Italiana di
Telerilevamento, 14/15:33-44.
Salvini, R., L. Disperati & L. Carmignani, 2002.
Deforestation assessment and predictive modelling in the Pantanal wetlands (Mato Grosso, Brazil). 8th Annual Conference of the International
Association for Mathematical Geology, IAMG
2002, 15-20 September 2002, Berlin, Germany.
Terra Nostra, 04/2002(2):553-558.

Luigi Carmignani &
Leonardo Disperati
Universit di Siena, Centro di
Geotecnologie and Dipartimento di
Scienze della Terra
via Vetri Vecchi, 34
52027 San Giovanni Valdarno
Tel: +39 055 911 94 42
Fax: +39 055 911 94 39

Giovanni Lombardi & Paolo Barsanti
Ente per le Nuove Tecnologie, lEnergia
e lAmbiente - ENEA
Via Vasco Viviani, 23
56124 Pisa

Alberto Pio Fiori

Universidade Federal do Paran,
Departamento de Geologia Centro
PO BOX 19011,
Jardim das Amricas s/n
81531-990 Curitiba, Paran

Joo Manuel de Carvalho

Ramalho Ribeiro
Estao Zootcnica Nacional
Fonte Boa
2000-763 Vale de Santarm

Blanca Stella de Fasulli

Universidad Nacional de Asuncin
Direccin de Investigacin y Relaciones
i Coord. de Ecologa y Medio Ambiente
PO BOX 910/2064
Avenida Espaa 1098



Management of aquatic vegetation
in the Lower Senegal River Basin

Context and Objectives

After the construction of two dams in
the Senegal River (the Diama dam near
the mouth of the river, 25 km north of
the city of Saint Louis in Senegal, operational since 1988), and the Manantali
dam in Mali (operational since 1986) the
water level in the river was regulated. In
consequence, large parts of the floodplains were permanently dried up and
the brackish water in the lower part of
the river became fresh. This change in
ecological conditions led to an annually
recurrent, explosive development of the
floating aquatic weed Pistia stratiotes in
the Djoudj National Park during the first
half of the dry season.
The Park, located approximately 60 km
upstream from Saint Louis in Senegal
in the former floodplain, is artificially
flooded when inlets from the river are
opened during the rainy season. An
additional result of the changed ecological conditions is prolific growth of the
emergent weed Typha australis in the
lower part of the Senegal River. This
applies in particular to a shallow reservoir, just upstream of the Diama dam,
which was formed as a result of the construction of embankments (surface area
approximately 180 km) and the Lac de
Guiers, a lake which is about 50 km upstream of the Diama dam connected to
the river (surface area approximately
240 km). In September 1999 the very
aggressive floating weed Salvinia molesta was for the first time observed in
the Senegal River in the vicinity of the
Djoudj National Park.
The main objective of the project was to
conduct studies which could lead to an
ecologically sound, integrated control
of aquatic weeds in the Lower Senegal
River Basin. Studies were conducted on
the ecology of P. stratiotes, the feasibility to control this weed biologically by
means of the weevil Neohydronomus affinis, and the efficiency of an hydraulic
weed cutting boat to control T. australis.


In addition, maps were produced, based

on satellite data and results of a ground
data survey, to obtain a clear overview
of aquatic weed growth in the Lac de
Guiers. This lake, connected with the
Senegal River, is economically very
important as it is the city of Dakars
major drinking water supply and also
provides irrigation water for vast agricultural areas. During the third year
of the project conditions in the Lower
Senegal River Basin changed markedly
as a result of an infestation by the exotic weed Salvinia molesta. Consequently,
because of the potential disastrous effect, which this weed may bring about
to the Senegal River ecosystem, its
spread, as well as control options, were
also taken into consideration.

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/10/1996 to 31/12/2000 (51 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Arnold Pieterse
Royal Tropical Institute
The Netherlands

The key activities involved:

Ecology and management of Pistia

Efficiency of a weed-cutting boat for
Typha control
Inquiry in villages along the Senegal
River regarding the problems
caused by Typha

Growth and development of aquatic

plants in the Lac de Guiers and their
relationships with environmental

Invasion of the Senegal River by the

floating aquatic weed Salvinia molesta: spread and control options.



Results and outcome
As far as P. stratiotes is concerned, its
survival strategy in the Djoudj National
Park was studied in detail. Pistia survival
in the Park is a race between successful seed formation to permit survival
during the dry season when waterbodies dry out and death of adult plants
due to increasing salinity. Flowering of
Pistia plants was markedly enhanced by
crowding, which implies that most seeds
were formed in a dense vegetation, notably in an area near a pelican colony,
which was fertilised by excreta of these
birds. Biological control of Pistia plants
by means of the weevil Neohydronomus
affinis, was quite effective, if this insect
was released directly after flooding of
the Park when the first Pistia plants
emerge from seeds. However, because
all Pistia plants eventually die in the
course of the dry season as a result of
an increased salt content of the water,
the insects have to be released again every year. A hydraulic weed cutting boat
(model Conver 480 H) was quite effective in removing Typha stands in the Lac
de Guiers. However, due to the excessively thick stems of the Typha plants,
cutting took much more time compared
to similar operations in Europe. It was
estimated that approximately 35 hours
were required to clear one ha of dense
Typha stands. Efficiency of mowing,
which was carried out when the Typha
plants were flowering at the end of the
dry season, was not related significantly
to depth of cutting. Eventual re-growth
was relatively slow which is probably
due to a destruction of the root zone as
a result of anoxic conditions. In subsequent experiments in the former bed of
the Gorom River, which is now located
within the newly formed shallow lake
near the Diama dam, showed that there
was no significant difference between
the effect of deep and surface mowing,
when the plants were flowering at the
end of the dry season. However, early
mowing, when the plants were not yet
flowering, was-less effective, and early



deep mowing was more marked than

early surface mowing.
By means of GIS (Geographic Information
System) the extension of the halophyte
belt and occurrence of floating and submerged weeds in the Lac de Guiers were
shown in connection with environmental factors. The dominant halophyte is
Typha australis, which fills up all shallow areas. As it is restricted by depth
and exposure it may be concluded that
the northern part of lake is not threatened. An increase in the abundance of
some submerged plants may have resulted from a decreased salinity and a
more stable water level.
In September 1999 the very aggressive
floating weed Salvinia molesta was for
the first time observed in the Senegal
River in the vicinity of the Djoudj
National Park. It appeared that a stretch
of 50 km of the river had been invaded
between Rosso and the Diama dam. In
September 2000, it was also observed in
the Lac de Guiers. In the framework of
the project it was arranged that starter
colonies of the biological control agent
Cyrtobagous salviniae were transported from South Africa to Mauritania
and Senegal. This weevil is very effective against molesta and is absolutely
host specific. It was originally collected
from S. molesta, in its original habitat in
South America.

Selected Publications
Hellsten, S., C. Dieme, M. Mbengue, S.R. Kloff,
N.G. den Hollander, H. Ahonen, J. Rantakokko,
G.A. Janauer & A.H. Pieterse, 1998. Mechanical
control of Typha stands in the Senegal River
valley by means of a weed cutting boat: impact
and time input. pp. 361-364. In Monteiro A., T.
Vasconcelos & L. Catarino (eds.), Proceedings
of the 10th EWRS International Symposium
on Aquatic Weeds. Management and ecology
of aquatic plants. Lisbon, Portugal, 21-25
September 1998. European Weed Research
Society/Associao Portuguesa dos Recursos
Hdricos, Lisbon, Portugal.
Hellsten, S., C. Dieme, M. Mbengue, G.J. Janauer,
N. den Hollander & A.H. Pieterse, 1999. Typha
control efficiency of a weed-cutting boat in the
Lac de Guiers in Senegal: a preliminary study
on mowing speed and re-growth capacity.
Hydrobiologia, 415:249-255.
Hollander, N.G. den, I.W. Schenk, S. Diouf, M.J.
Kropff & A.H. Pieterse, 1999. Survival strategy
of Pistia stratiotes in the Djoudj National Park in
Senegal. Hydrobiologia, 415:21-27.
Hollander, N.G., S. Diouf, I. Schenk, L. Bastiaans,
M.J. Kropff & A.H. Pieterse, 1998. Crowding
enhances flowering of Pistia stratiotes. pp.
71-74. In Monteiro A., T. Vasconcelos & L.
Catarino (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th EWRS
International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds.
Management and ecology of aquatic plants.
Lisbon, Portugal, 21-25 September 1998. Lisbon.
European Weed Research Society/Associao
Portuguesa dos Recursos Hdricos.
Janauer, G.A., S.I Sylla, A.H. Pieterse, S. Diouf,
S. Hellsten & N. Exler, 1998. Monitoring aquatic
plant infestations by remote sensing and plant
mass estimate in Lac de Guiers, Senegal. pp.
269-272. In: Monteiro A., T. Vasconcelos & L.
Catarino (eds.), Proceedings of the 10th EWRS
International Symposium on Aquatic Weeds.
Management and ecology of aquatic plants.
Lisbon, Portugal, 21-25 September 1998. Lisbon.
European Weed Research Society/Associao
Portuguesa dos Recursos Hdricos.
Pieterse, A.H., S.K. Hellsten, G.A. Janauer, C.
Dieme, S. Diouf & N. Exler, 2002. Management
of aquatic vegetation in the lower Senegal
River basin. Verh. Internat. Verein Limnol., 28,
Schenk, I.W., N.G. den Hollander, S. Diouf,
M.J. Kropff, S. Hellsten, G.A. Janauer & A.H.
Pieterse, 1998. Seasonal advance and retreat
of Pistia stratiotes in the Djoudj National Park
in Senegal: a race between seed formation and
increasing salt concentrations. pp. 285-288. In
Monteiro A., T. Vasconcelos & L. Catarino (eds.),
Proceedings of the 10th EWRS International
Symposium on Aquatic Weeds. Management
and ecology of aquatic plants. Lisbon, Portugal,
21-25 September 1998. Lisbon. European Weed
Research Society/ Associao Portuguesa dos
Recursos Hdricos.





Arnold Hubert Pieterse

Seppo Hellsten

Koninklijk Instituut voor de Tropen

63 Mauritskade
1092 AD Amsterdam
The Netherlands
TEL: +31 205 688307
FAX: +31 205 688498

Technical Research Centre of Finland

1 Kaitovyl
PO Box 19042
90571 Oulu


Georg Janauer
Universitt Wien
14 Althanstrasse
1090 Wien

Sara Diouf
Ministre de lEnvironnement et de la
Protection de la Nature
PO Box 5135




Ecological bases for the sustainable
management of flooded tropical ecosystems case studies in the Llanos, Venezuela and the
Pantanal, Brazil

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/12/1996 to 30/11/1999 (36 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Prof. Francisco Daz Pineda
Universidad Complutense de Madrid

Context and Objectives


The project addressed the important

issue of the progressive disappearance
of wetland systems all over the world
and mainly in the neotropical systems.
Wetlands are widely transformed to
agricultural systems. In this context,
short-term aims prevail over long-term
objectives at the expense of sustainability, biological diversity and biomass

The following activities were carried

out at the two scales examined:

The aim of the project was to study the

ecological consequences of the changes
engendered by the recent intensification
of human use in the flooded neotropical
savannas. Such intensification consists
in the building of a network of dams
(mdulos) for regulating surface run
off. In addition, the project attempted
to apply various methodologies already
tested in Europe to different landscapes
and test their suitability for the context.
The research was carried out at two
complementary scales:
1. Territory: Typification of recent
changes in the last thirty years.

1. At landscape scale:
a) Habitat heterogeneity and changes
induced by changing land uses during the last 30 years. Consequences
of the dams system. Mapping and
description of the study area used
field observations, satellite imagery
and radar images.
b) Monitoring landscape changes resulting from changing land use and
transformation processes over the
last 30 years. Measuring the rate
of replacement of habitat types using old aerial photocover (1960).
The temporal changes in habitat
were represented through a GIS
(Geographical Information System).
The procedure followed three steps:

2. Ecosystem: Characterisation of the

changes in the system linked to hyperseasonality (flooding/drought)
and to grazing pressure.

Development of a
Terrain Model (DTM).


Analysis of the development

of forests elements in the
Introduction of the land use
data, ecosystem data and the
hydrological models into the

c) Water budget of the flooded savannah ecosystem.

2. At ecosystem scale:
d) Productivity and forage quality of
flooded savannahs under three different stocking rates.



Land resources inventory at

plot level. Information on species characteristics, life forms,
phenology, soil profile, floristic composition, crop of


consumable biomass, production and its relationship with

biodiversity, soil respiration,
mineral nitrogen, carbon and
nitrogen of biomass, soil microbial biomass, denitrification
and nitrogen fixation.

Animal ecology approach (major plant species consumed

through the year and their caloric values, energy efficiencies
and ratio animal diversity/wetland diversity). In the Pantanal
research focused on the seasonality of the system and the
impact of stocking density
from 0 to 0.35 cattle/ha. In the
Llanos de Orinoco the building
of dams for regulating surface
run off has increased cattle
density at the farm level.

Data have been analysed using laboratory

analysis, statistical analysis and spatial data analysis. Scales of the analysis
were 1:250,000, 1:50,000 and 1:20,000
(Pantanal) and 1:100,000, 1:60,000 and
1:25,000 (Llanos de Orinoco).

Results and outcome

The results of the project show that the
Apure catchment occupies a gradient
within the Orinoco River between old
and young deposition layers. Flooded
landscape units are found particularly
in flat zones where dikes exist. Nonflooded landscapes are more recent
and have a higher percentage of banks.
Dike building has led to smaller flooding units and a longer availability of
water in more places with possibility
for increasing cattle grazing. It has also
caused changes in the water budget and
the flooding pattern as shown by the
digital elevation model and flooding
maps. Higher evapotranspiration rates
are related to this change in flooding
pattern and the change in distribution
of natural species.
A negative aspect for agricultural landuse is that upstream of the dike, in the
wet season, cattle is concentrated and
therefore uses less land. This leads to
overgrazing translating into a change
from grassland vegetation to less palatable species and an increase in shrub
and forest. The dike building also made
it possible for natural aquatic bird
species to survive on more places in a
larger area than before. It seems that
Capybara benefited from its protection status where it occurs. Heron, ibis
and stork changed their distribution
pattern due to the increase in wetland
area. Available data confirm changes of
aquatic bird diversity.

Campo Dora. Grazing seemed to fill in

an open niche in the ecological system
and it helps to keep the system relatively stable. The faunal communities
are diverse but all species are relatively
low in numbers. In addition, the system
of bafa is a mature wetland system.
There is a high habitat diversity but all
these are small in area. This might explain the low animal numbers.
The system of the Pantanal is overall
stable except from the impact of landuse change upstream. The Taquari
River, one of the major tributaries of
the Paraguay River, is affecting the
hydrological equilibrium of the riverrelated part of Pantanal of Nhecolandia.
Although the Pantanal is normally
considered one of the less disturbed
wetland systems, it is still important to
be aware of and monitor the different
external influences. The methods applied in the Llanos to develop flooding
maps proved to be a good tool.
The Llanos have shown the same
changes as in most wetland systems
in the world, but at a much lower degree of intensity. These changes lead to
more livestock production and less distinctiveness, which results in a loss of
biodiversity. A well-preserved ecosystem should be valued both in economic
and ecological sense. Extensive cattle
raising and eco-tourism can be of great
importance for their maintenance.

From the Pantanal thematic maps, variability and changes in water level and
grazing pressure have been recorded.
The maps show vegetation patterns
and soils at regional and intermediate
scales. Spatial diversity in hydrology is
well reflected in vegetation patterns.
It shows clear differences between
the open, river-related system (Campo
Dora) and the closed landscapes of
bafa (Nhumirim). It appeared that
the system was more dynamic in the





Selected Publications
Dehorter, A. & A. Tamisier, 1999. Wintering
waterflow in Orinoccos floodplains. Evaluation
and perspectives. 6th Neotropical Ornithological
Congress. Monterrey, Mexico. Oct. 1999.
Dehorter, A. & A. Tarnisier, 1999. Los Llanos, un
refugio de invierno para el Barraquete aliazul, un
pato de America del Norte? 1st Ibero-American
Congress in biodiversity. Pamplona, Spain.
January 1999.
Prez Gutirrez, P., M.P. Martn de Agar, C.T.
Lpez de Pablo & F.D. Pineda, 2000. Analysis
of landscape changes with integrated criteria:
application to sustainable management of
natural resources. Oral paper. International
Conference on Multifunctional Landscapes.
Interdisciplinary Approaches to Landscape
Research and Management: Roskilde. p. 210.
Pott, A. & V.J. Pott, 1999. Biomassa de plantas
aquticas em lagoas na fazenda Nhurnirim,
Nhecolandia, Pantanal. Congresso Nacional de
Botnica, 50, Blurnenau, Blurnenau, Sociedade
Brasileira de Botanica, Resurnos, p. 258.
Sarmiento, G. & M. Pinillos, 1999. A conceptual
model relating ecological constraints to livestock
production in tropical American seasonal
savannas. In Mader, V. & R Jongman (eds.).
Ecological and Socio-Economic Consequences of
Land Use Changes, WIT Press Southampton.
Smith, J.K., E.J. Chacon-Moreno, R.H.G. Jongman,.
P. Wenting. & J.H. Loedeman, 2005. Effect of dike
construction on water dynamics in the flooding
savannah of Venezuela. Earth Surface Processes
and Landforms, 31(1):81-96.



Francisco Daz Pineda

Alain Tamisier

Facultad de Biologa
Departamento de Ecologa
Universidad Complutense de Madrid
28040 Madrid
Tel: +34 913 94 44 38
Fax: +34 913 94 50 81

Centre National de la Recherche

Route de Mende 1919
BP 5051
34293 Montpellier


Guilllermo Sarmiento
Centro de Investigaciones Ecolgicas
de los Andes Tropicales
Universidad de los Andes
5101 Mrida

Robert Jongman
Ruimtelijke Planvorming
Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen
13 Generaal Foulkesweg 13
6703 BJ Wageningen
The Netherlands

Arnildo Pott
Centro de Pesquisa Agropecuaria do
Embrapa - Empresa Brasileira de
Pesquisa Agropecuaria
1880 Rue 21 de Setembro 1880, Bairro
N. Sra. Fatima
PO Box 109
79320-900 Corumba




Natural resource functions,
biodiversity and sustainable
management of tropical wetlands

Context and Objectives


Tropical peatlands, especially those

situated in lowland situations are a
major target for land conversion and
development. In their natural state
these are covered in diverse rain forest and they perform a wide range of
natural resource functions. There is
little published information on these
values and attributes or how tropical
peatlands should be managed sustainably. Peatlands globally have acquired
a high profile in recent years owing
to their pivotal role in carbon balance
processes and this is particularly so
in Southeast Asia where major land
conversion projects and fire are threatening this resource.

The study design incorporated environmental audit and assessment, involving

remote sensing and extensive ground
checking. The status of the peatland
resource was established and the impacts upon it determined, prior to
preparing guidelines for its sustainable
management. Large-scale satellite survey applied sophisticated techniques of
remote sensing, including the Synthetic
Aperture Radar (SAR) satellites ERS-1/2
(EU) and JERS-1 (Japan) that could penetrate the cloud which frequently covers
this part of Kalimantan. The results of
remotely sensed vegetation, peat and
land use mapping were linked to extensive field surveys, ecological studies
and laboratory analyses. Natural, secondary, developed and degraded peat
swamp forests (PSF) were investigated.
Forest sub-types and structure were
documented, compared and evaluated, together with determination of
peatland area, peat thickness, geochemistry, hydrology and hydrochemistry,
tree biomass and nutrient dynamics in
order to understand the ecological processes and natural resource functions
of tropical peatland and the impact
of development upon these. Special
emphasis was placed upon the socioeconomic values of both developed and
undeveloped PSF and how these can be
catered for within strategies for environmentally sustainable management.

The overriding rationale of this project

was to undertake a comprehensive evaluation (including biodiversity, ecological,
environmental and socio-economic attributes) of tropical peatlands based
upon studies at different spatial scales.
At the largest scale, mapping enabled
the role of undisturbed and developed
tropical peat of Southeast Asia for carbon dioxide storage and emission to be
determined. Medium scale approaches
focused on the Indonesian Province
of Central Kalimantan (Borneo) where
there is a major Government sponsored
impetus for peatland development.
Local studies concentrated upon several adjacent peat-covered catchments
within the latter. This scalar approach
was essential in order to encompass
the ecological heterogeneity and range
of sector developments within tropical
peatland systems. Data obtained in this
study was used to prepare guidelines
for the sustainable management of
tropical peatlands based upon a model
ecohydrological catchment plan.


Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/10/1998 to 30/09/2001 (36 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Jack Rieley
University of Nottingham
United Kingdom



Results and outcome
The project major achievements and
significant outcomes:


Established the importance of

tropical peatlands as reservoirs of
biodiversity and stores of carbon.
converting this ecosystem to commercial forms of land use.
Emphasised the vulnerability of
this sensitive ecosystem to fire,
especially following drainage and
human impact.
Proved that this ecosystem is one
of the largest carbon stores in the
world and showed that major proportions of this can be transferred
to the atmosphere as a result of fire
and land use change thereby adding
to the greenhouse effect.
Reliable data are now available with
which to prepare guidelines for implementing wise use strategies for
environmentally sustainable management of tropical peatlands.
Governments in Indonesia and
Malaysia are taking note of the
above outcomes and are preparing to incorporate information into
their own policies and strategies for
tropical peatland.
Information from the project is
being provided to International
Conventions to support global
initiatives on biodiversity, conservation and climate change.
A large body of highly qualified and
knowledgeable scientists is available in both the EU and SE Asia
capable of addressing a wide range
of problems associated with tropical peat and peatlands.


The EUTROP Project was followed by

another Project (STRAPEAT) on tropical peat that incorporated the data
available into procedures to develop
strategies for the implementation of
sustainable management of peatlands
in Borneo.
The STRAPEAT Project ended in
November 2004 and was succeeded by
under the 6TH Framework Programme.
Updated information can be found in
this URL:

Selected Publications
and Papers
Boehm, H.-D.V., & F. Siegert, 2004. The impact
of logging on land use change in Central
Kalimantan, Indonesia. International Peat
Journal, 12:310.
Couturier, S., D. Taylor, F. Siegert, A. Hoffmann &
M.Q. Bao, 2000. ERS SAR backscatter: a potential
real-time indicator of the proneness of modified
rainforests. Remote Sensing of Environment,
Page, S.E., & J.O. Rieley, 1998. Tropical peatlands:
a review of their natural resource functions,
with particular reference to Southeast Asia.
International Peat Journal, 8:95-106.
Page, S.E., F. Siegert, J.O. Rieley, H-D.V. Boehm, A.
Jaya & S.H. Limin, 2002. The amount of carbon
released from peat and forest fires in Indonesia
in 1997. Nature, 420:61-65.
Page, S.E., J.O. Rieley, W. Shotyk, & D. Weiss,
1999. The interdependence of peat and
vegetation in tropical peat swamp forest.
Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society,
Series B, 354:1-13.
Salampak, Sabiham & J.O. Rieley, 2000. Phenolic
acids in tropical peat from Central Kalimantan.
International Peat Journal, 10:97-103.
Weiss, D., W. Shotyk, J.O. Rieley, S.E. Page, M.
Gloor, S. Reese & A. Martinez-Cortizas, 2002.
The geochemistry of major and selected trace
elements in a forested peat bog, Kalimantan,
SE Asia, and its implications for past
atmospheric and dust deposition. Geochemica et
Cosmochimica Acta, 66:2307-2323.

Two major international symposia were

organised and held successfully under
this project:
1999: International Symposium on Tropical
Peat Swamps, Penang, Malaysia. 250
participants. Opened by the Malaysian Minister
of Environment, proceedings were published
in 2004.
2001: International Symposium on Tropical
Peatland Peatland for people, Jakarta,
Indonesia. 250 participants. Opened by the
Indonesian Minister of Research and Technology.
Proceedings were published in March 2002.
Rieley, J.O. & S.E. Page (eds.), 2002. Peatlands
for People: Natural Resources Management
and Sustainable Management. Symposium
Proceedings, Jakarta, Indonesia, August 2001.
Mansor, M., A. Ali, J.O. Rieley, A.H. Ahmad, &
A. Mansor, 2004. Tropical Peat Swamps - Safeguarding a Globa lNatural Resource, Proceedings
of the International Conference and Workshop on
Tropical Peat Swamps, 27.-29.07.1999, Penang,
Malaysia. Penerbit Universiti Sains Malaysia, Pulau
Pinang, ISBN 983-251458-4, 356 pp.





Jack Rieley

Harri Vasander

University of Nottingham
University Park
NG7 2RD Nottingham
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 115 95132 16
Fax: +44 115 9513251

Department of Forest Ecology

University of Helsinki
P.O. Box 27
00014 Helsinki

Susan Page
University of Leicester
University Road
LE1 7RH Leicester
United Kingdom

Viktor Bhm & Florian Siegert1

Kalteng Consultants
2 Kirchstockacher Weg
85635 Hhenkirchen

Suwido Limin
University of Palangka Raya
Jalan Yos Sudarso, Tunjung Nyaho
73111 Palangka Raya

Bostang Radjagukguk
Gadjah Mada University
Faculty of Agriculture
Bulaksumur, Yogyakarta 55281

Fachrurrozie Sjarkowi
Sriwijaya University
Srijaya Negara Bukit Besar
30139 Palembang

Mashhor Mansor
University Sains Malaysia
10800 Minden




Coastal and inland wetlands in China and

Pakistan: Colonial waterbirds as bioindicators
of pollutant levels and effects

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/09/1998 to 28/02/2002 (42 months)
Joint Research Project

Context and Objectives


Public concern about the state of the

environment has dramatically increased due to the growing evidence
that pollution causes severe environmental degradation and may ultimately
pose human health risks e.g. through
accumulation effects in food webs.
Wetlands in Pakistan and China are
subject to increasing pollution from industrial, urban and agricultural sources,
there is a growing urgency to monitor

The Little Egret was used as bioindicator of environmental pollution. The

study species, is one of the most widespread predators in the wetland food
webs. The research involved the noninvasive sampling of eggs, of nestling
feathers and of their prey, assessment
of contaminants by chemical analysis of the samples. Measurement of
eco-ethological variables, for certain
wetlands exposed to industrial-urban
pollution (Karachi in Pakistan and
Pearl River Delta in China), for other
wetlands exposed to agricultural pollution (Tounsa in Pakistan and TaiHu
in China), and for wetlands thought to
be relatively unpolluted (Haleji Lake
in Pakistan and Poyang Hu in China).
These wetlands are among the largest water bodies of inland China and
Pakistan. Both, pollutant levels and
their effects were assessed.

Dr. Mauro Fasola
Universit degli Studi di Pavia


This project aimed to assess pollutant

levels and effects in selected wetlands
in Pakistan and China, using as bioindicator one colonial waterbird (the Little
Egret, Egretta garzetta) of the family
Ardeidae. Specific goals were:

To measure residues of organochlorines and polychlorinated biphenyl

(PCBs), and of heavy metals and
other trace elements.

To measure population size, breeding success of the Little Egrets, and to

record aspects of their ecology that
may be related to contamination.

To infer exposure of the Little

Egrets to pollutants and the general
bioavailability of pollutants.

To assess ecosystem-level contamination.

To identify whether concentrations

of contaminants are at levels associated with adverse effects.

To disseminate the results among

environmental toxicologists, ecosystem managers, environmental
policy formulators and legislators.

Specific techniques involved:

1. Eco-ethological observations. All
breeding colonies within each
wetland were identified and their
breeding populations censused.
Breeding success was recorded for a
sample of nests in one focal colony
for each study area, usually the biggest and centrally located colony.
Foraging habitat and prey type were
recorded during focal-animal observations of a sample of adults.
2. Sampling and preparation of material for chemical analyses. The number
of samples was optimised under the
assumption that differences exist
between unpolluted, industrial and
agricultural-polluted sites and that
within-site variance is low.


Eggs: one egg was sampled

from 10 nests at each of the 6
study sites. The samples were
analysed for organic contaminants and for trace elements


Spectophotometry (AAS) and
Neutron Activation Analysis
(NAA). Shell thickness that
could be related to contamination, was measured.

Feathers were collected from

nestlings at each of the nests
from which eggs had been collected and were analysed by
AAS and NAA.
Prey: 10 pools (of 10 individuals
each) of the 3 main prey types
were collected at each of the 6
study sites and were analysed
as for eggs and feathers.

3. Chemical analysis. Concentrations

of trace metals, of other elements
and of organic contaminants were
measured by:

AAS for Hg, Pb, Cd and Cr.

NAA for Br, Co, Cs, La, Sc, Se, Zn,
using irradiation positions of a
Triga Mark II Nuclear Reactor.
Gas Liquid Chromatography
(GLC) for Dichloro-diphenyltrichloroethane
derivates, other organochlorines (HCH+HCB, -HCH, -HCH,
-HCH, heptachlor-epoxide -endosulfan), and PCBs.

The study species is not protected internationally, and no special permits

were required for sample export.
The populations and behaviour to be
studied could be relatively simply observed. Comparability of results was
assured by the use of identical methods at each study area and by the fact
that each type of analysis (NNA, AAS,
GLC) was carried out in only one of the
three laboratories. Methods were standardised during coordination meetings


and their uniform application was guaranteed through the participation by

European researchers to fieldwork in
Asia and by Asian researchers to laboratory analysis in Europe.

Results and outcome

The main goals, assessing contamination levels and their effects at 6 study
areas, were attained and all the planned
operations were accomplished.
The project delivered the first information on contaminant levels for some
areas of South and East Asia, and detailed knowledge of the ecology of the
study species and populations.
The general conclusion was that the average level of persistent contaminants
is lower than the thresholds known to
harm wildlife, both for trace elements
and for organic compounds, both in
Pakistan and China. These results are
mostly welcomed, in that they testify a
reduced environmental contamination.
However, persistent organochlorines
(particularly DDT derivates) and trace
metals were found in most samples at
detectable concentrations. Moreover,
some of the samples showed high concentration of particular contaminants,
thus indicating that local sources of
intense contamination exist. Therefore,
a continued monitoring is advisable in
relation to these substances.

The results were disseminated among

planners, technicians and the general
public through circulation of the final
report, media coverage and workshops
in Pakistan and China in order to: (1)
stimulate improved management of
the wetlands studied; (2) contribute to
national policy formulation for pollution control and wetland conservation;
(3) contribute to the strengthening of
national pollution control regulations
and their application; (4) stimulate further monitoring of pollution in colonial
waterbirds and wetlands; (5) enhance
general awareness of the risks and
hazards of environmental pollution in
China and Pakistan.
In addition to the scientific and technical achievements, these outputs
could be useful for the management
of these important wetlands, for national policy formulation for pollution
control and wetland conservation and
for the strengthening of pollution control regulations.

Less sharp than expected were the differences in contamination between

the study sites presumably exposed to
industrial-urban pollution (Karachi and
Pearl River Delta), those presumably exposed to agricultural pollution (Tounsa
and TaiHu), and those considered as
relatively unpolluted (Haleji Lake and
Poyang Hu). Indeed, contaminants were
found in all the study areas, with rather
minor differences.



Selected Publications
and Papers
Dong, Y., Z. Gong, Q. An & M. Fasola, 2001.
Monitoring residues of organic micro-pollutants
in a wetland ecosystem in Lake Taihu, China. pp.
267-272. In Gawlik, B.M. et al. (eds.). Freshwater
Contamination in China: Current Topics of
Research. European Commission.
Fasola, M., Y. Zhang, D. Zhao, Y. Dong & H.
Wang, 2001. Age-assortative mating related to
reproductive success in Black-crowned Night
Herons. Waterbirds, 24:272-276.
Gong, Z. &Y. Dong, 1998. Studies on bioaccumulation of heavy metals and its bioindication in environment. Resource and
Environment in the Yangtze Basin, 8:163-168 (in
Gong, Z., Y. Dong & Q. An, 2001. Residue
character of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs)
in eggs of night heron. China Environmental
Science, 21:124-127 (in Chinese).
Gong, Z., Y. Dong, Q. An, H. Wang, Y. Li, K.
Yang, L. Ruan, Y. Zhang & M. Fasola, 2001.
Organochlorine residues in eggs of night
heron breeding in Yuantouzhu, Wuxi and their
functions as bio-indicator. Environmental
Science, 22:110-113 (in Chinese).
Sanpera, C., X. Ruiz, G.A. Llorente, L. Jover &
R. Jabeen, 2002. Persistent Organochlorine
Compounds in Sediment and Biota from the
Haleji Lake: a Wildlife Sanctuary in South
Pakistan. Bul. Environ. Contam. Toxicol.,
Zhang, Y., L. Ruan, Y. Dong, Z. Gong, Y. Li, H.
Wang & M. Fasola, 2000. Breeding biology of night
heron (Nycticorax nycticorax) and little egret
(Egretta garzetta) in Taihu Lake of Wuxi, China.
Zoological Research, 21(4):275-278 (in Chinese).



Prof. Mauro Fasola

Xavier Ruiz

Universit degli Studi di Pavia

Piazza Botta 9
27100 Pavia
Tel:+39 038 250 63 00
Fax: +39 038 250 62 90

Universitat de Barcelona
645 Avenida Diagonal 645
08028 Barcelona


Umar Khan Baloch


National Agriculture Research Centre

45500 Islamabad

Najam Khurshid
World-Wide Fund for Nature
Sidco Avenue Centre
74200 Karachi

Dai Nianhua
Jiangxi Academy of Sciences
108 Shangfang Road
330029 Jiangxi

Yuanhua Dong
Institute of Soil Science
Chinese Academy of Sciences
PO Box 821
210008 Nanjing



Tools for wetland ecosystem resource
management in Eastern Africa

Context and Objectives


The Lake Victoria wetlands are some

of the most productive systems in the
region and are vital to the local and
regional socio-economic development
and biodiversity. Recent modifications
in land use, overexploitation of the resource base and demographic changes
could lead to degradation of the ecosystem integrity. The ECOTOOLS project
main objective was to create tools for
natural resource management that
relate sustainable resource use to ecosystem quality and productivity. The
study sites of the project are multiuse
wetland areas of Lake Victoria which
were chosen as transitional ecosystems
with important local and regional interests (economic and social) and where
actual resource management tools are
proven to be inefficient.

The project was designed to develop indicators, monitoring and management

tools for the sustainable use of wetland
ecosystem resources in Eastern Africa.
To achieve this, the following activities
were undertaken:

The project objectives were:

To gather an integrated information
base of resource quality, resource
use, management practises and productivity of the wetland ecosystems
and ecotone.

To explore development trends and

their potential impacts on resource

To determine material and energy fluxes into and out of the


To develop ecological and economic models and indicators to

study sustainable limits of resource


5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

This project aimed at developing wise

use practises and adaptative management programmes, together with
long-term indicator based monitoring
of sub-Sahara wetland systems.

Project Number
and Framework Programme

In-depth review of available data

(ecological, social, economic) and
past literature related to local
production values and local productivity of key resources (flora and
fauna) and ecosystem functioning.
Data gathering of key ecological,
physical-chemical, economic and
socio-cultural data related to the
ecosystem functioning, land use and
resource in particular fish extraction, in particular the analysis of;
the ecotone fish habitat, the catchment land use for two study sites,
the nutrient retention capability of
littoral wetlands, the carbon and
water exchange between wetland
and atmosphere and the release of
humic substances into Lake Victoria
by the floating wetlands.

The development of ecological, hydrological and ecological-economic

models and the creation of systems based indicators and criteria
for ecosystem management The
models operated on an integrated

The development of management

tools based on the models and data
obtained in the preceding workpackages and with the support
of the local and regional actors. A
management approach was used to
conserve the ecosystems productivity and functional capacity on both
a local and regional scale.

01/11/2001 to 30/04/2005 (42 months)

Shared Cost - Action

Prof. Claudio Rossi
University of Siena




Results and outcome
The data obtained through data archaeology, field analysis and satellite
analysis was integrated into the biological/chemical and ecological analysis
and ecological/economic models that
were developed. Results have made important advances in the understanding
of the role of wetland ecotones on the
Lake ecosystem.
The ecological analysis results demonstrated a dynamic ecosystem that has
undergone through significant changes
in the last ten years. Furthermore, the
results of the analysis and historic data
demonstrated the importance of the littoral wetland areas in the biochemical
and energetic cycles of the lake inshore
areas. The quantification of the phosphorus and nitrogen retention capacities
of wetlands with different management
history and environmental stress allowed to develop ecological models of
nutrient loads, water quality analysis
of lake eutrophication and economic
models that relate wetland extension
to fisheries and fisheries income. The
analysis of the inorganic carbon cycle
within the wetlands allowed to examine productivity of wetland vegetation,
considering also the nutrient retention
capabilities of the studied wetlands.
Latent energy exchange measurements
allowed a better understanding of the
role that the areas have on local environmental conditions.

local basis was a high priority during

the project and significant efforts were
made to create a widespread interest of
regional scientists and policy makers
on the results of the project.

Selected Publications
Cozar, A. L. Bracchini, A. Dattilo & S. Loiselle,
2005. Characterization of the Ugandan inshore
waters of Lake Victoria based on temperatureconductivity diagrams. Water Resources
Research, 41
Loiselle, S. S. Simonit, et al., 2005. Development
of tools for wetland ecosystem resource
management in Eastern Africa (ECOTOOLS). In
J.T.A. Verhoeven, B. Beltman, R. Bobbink & D.F.
Whigham (eds.). Welands as a natural resource,
Vol. I. Ecological Studies, Springer Verlag.
Simonit S. & C. Perrings, 2005. Modelling the
economics of ecosystem services: nutrient
retention and fisheries in Lake Victoria.
Simonit, S. & C. Perrings, 2005. Indirect economic
indicators in bioeconomic fishery models:
agricultural price indicators and fish stocks in
Lake Victoria. ICES Journal of Marine Science,
Simonit, S. & C. Perrings, 2004. Trophic state
variables and prices in bioeconomic fishery
models: indirect economic indicators of
freshwater fish stocks. Centre for Environment
and Development Economics working paper,
CEDE/04-01, Environment Department,
University of York.

The project focused on the economic

values (fisheries, tourism, vegetation) of
two the wetland regions, Yala swamp,
and Nabugabo, historical trends of land
use and resource value were analysed.
The project contributed to the development of collaboration with regional and
international researchers; field collaborations made it possible to develop new
approaches to the study of the littoral
areas of the lake. Dissemination on a







Claudio Rossi

Michael Jones

Department of Chemical and

Biosystem Sciences
Consorzio Interuniversitario per lo
Sviluppo dei Sistemi a Grande Interfase
Via Ettore Bastianini 12
53100 Siena
Tel: +39 057 723 20 22
Fax: +39 057 723 20 04

Department of Botany
Fellows and Scholars of the College
of the Holy and Undivided Trinity
of Queen Elizabeth near Dublin
hereinafter Trinity College, Dublin
College Green
2 Dublin

Charles Perrings
Environment Department
University of York
YO1 5DD York
United Kingdom



Peter Kelderman
International Institute for
Infrastructural, Hydraulic and
Environmental Engineering
95 Westvest 7
P.O.Box 3015
2601 DA Delft
The Netherlands

Frank Kansiime
Institute of Environment & Natural
Makerere University
P.O. Box 7062

Sam Rubanza Bikangaga

Department of Planning and Quality
Ministry of Water, Lands and
Parliamentary Avenue, Plot 15, Century
P.O. Box 7096
256 Kampala

Moses M. Ikiara
Kenya Institute for Public Research
and Analysis
Bishops Road
P.O. Box 56445




The dynamics and evaluation of finger ponds
in East African freshwater wetland ecotones
using appropriate fish production techniques

Context and Objectives

The key activities were:

01/08/2001 to 31/07/2006 (60 months)

Shared Cost Action

In the riparian communities of the

Lake Victoria Basin, East Africa, there
was a perceived need to enhance
appropriate fish production in conjunction with agriculture to reduce
poverty and improve quality of life.
Fingerponds utilise innovative extensive/semi-intensive fish production
and agricultural techniques to provide
additional protein in the dry season.


The main objectives of the Fingerponds

project were to:

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

Prof. Patrick Denny and

Dr. Anne van Dam
UNESCO-IHE Institute for
Water Education, The Netherlands

1. establish criteria for optimal fish


Ponds are dug from the landward

edge of wetlands and extend like
fingers into the swamps. Soil from
the ponds is heaped between to
form raised beds for cultivation.
Seasonal flooding of wetlands will
concentrate natural fish stocks in
the ponds. As the waters recede,
trapped fish can be cultured in the
ponds enriched with natural organic
wastes (e.g. kitchen waste, manure).

Fingerponds will be located in 6 villages distributed in three countries

(Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania two
villages in each country). Within
each village the effects of additional
fringe vegetation and manure additions will be tested in a full factorial
design, yielding a total of 24 ponds.
Fingerpond construction, cultivation, security, maintenance, records
of fish catches, general husbandry,
harvesting and marketing will be
co-managed by villagers who will
receive training and supervision
where appropriate.

Training and exchange of scientists

in the framework of PhD and MSc

Local community training and capacity building

2. assess socio-economic benefits and

evaluate trade-offs between fingerponds and other ongoing activities.


3. develop and leave for use practical,

integrated fish production/ agricultural tools and guidelines.



Dissemination activities through

yearly technical and management
workshops, publication of research
papers and of three PhD theses,
an International Seminar/wrap-up
workshop and production of fingerpond management manuals/guides.



Results and outcome

Selected Publications

Results include: (i) evaluation of the systems for potential development within
wise-use wetland strategies, and (ii)
improved understanding of the ecological processes that govern production
in fingerpond systems, e.g. water and
nutrient balances, food webs isolated
in the ponds, fish yields and possibilities to optimise them, the assessment
of sustainability and productivity of the
food webs and socio-economic costs
and benefits, and integration of fingerponds into riparian farming systems
in East Africa. Key outputs are also
the three PhD theses on the different
aspect of fingerponds in East Africa:
(i) Organic manure and artificial substrate use, (ii) Sustainable integration
of fingerponds into riparian farming
systems, and (iii) Studies on Fish ecology and production.

Bailey, R., R. Kaggwa, J. Kipkemboi. & H.

Lamtane, 2005. Fingerponds: an agrofish
polyculture experiment in East Africa.
Aquaculture News 32 (October 2005), 9-10.
Institute of Aquaculture, University of Stirling,

The knowledge and expertise developed by and through the research

team, and, more particularly the skills
and know-how developed by the village communities, have been spread
through awareness programmes so that
other villages and riparian communities
may take advantage of the technology. Interaction with stakeholders and
extension services support that the
idea will catch on, evolve and be used
throughout the region. With a positive
cost-benefit analysis and adoption of
the scheme, riparian people could put
the fingerponds concept to good use,
especially households with limited resources. They could obtain protein for
domestic consumption and for trade
through controlled fishing through the
dry season.


Denny, P., J. Kipkemboi, R. Kaggwa & H. Lamtane,

2006. The potential of Fingerpond systems
to increase food production form wetlands in
Africa. International Journal of Ecology and
Environmental Science, 32:41-47.

Patrick Denny1 & Anne van Dam

Department of Environmental Resources
UNESCO-IHE Institute for Water Education
P.O.Box 3015
2601 DA Delft
The Netherlands
Tel: +31 15 215 18 28
Fax: +31 15 212 29 21

Kaggwa, R.C., F. Kansiime, P. Denny A.A. and

van Dam, 2005. A preliminary assessment of the
aquaculture potential of two wetlands located
in the northern shores of Lake Victoria, Uganda.
pp. 350 368. In J. Vymazal (Ed.). Natural and
Constructed Wetlands: Nutrients, Metals and
Management. Backhuys Publishers, Leiden. The


Kansiime, F., J. Kipkemboi, R.C. Kaggwa, J.

Pokorny & P. Denny (eds.), 2006. Practical
guidelines for constructing and operating
Fingerponds in East Africa. Wetlands Inspection
Division, Ministry of Water, Lands and
Environment, Kampala, Uganda.

Life Science Division

Kings College London
Stamford Street 150
SE1 9NN London
United Kingdom

Kipkemboi, J., A.A. van Dam & P., Denny, 2006.

Biophysical suitability of smallholder integrated
aquaculture-agriculture systems (Fingerponds)
in East Africas lake Victoria freshwater
wetlands. International Journal of Ecology and
Environmental Sciences, 32:75-83.


Pokorn, J., I. Pikryl, R. Faina, F. Kansiime, R.C.

Kaggwa, J. Kipkemboi, N. Kitaka, P. Denny, R.
Bailey, H.A. Lamtane & Y.D. Mgaya, 2005. Will fish
pond management principles from the temperate
zone work in tropical Fingerponds. pp. 382-399
In J. Vymazal (ed.). Natural and Constructed
Wetlands: Nutrients, Metals and Management.
Backhuys Publishers, Leiden, The Netherlands.

Roland Bailey1

Jan Pokorny
Enki Public Benefit Corporation
Dukelska 145
37901 Trebon
Czech Republic

Jude Mutuku Mathooko

Department of Zoology
Egerton University
P.O. Box 536
20009 Njoro

Yunus Mgaya
Department of Zoology and Marine Biology
University of Dar Es Salaam
P.O. Box 35064
Dar Es Salaam

Frank Kansiime

The technical work helped to understand some of the ecological dynamics

of the fingerponds, but adoption at the
end of the project was still slow as a
result of socio-economic conditions.

Institute of Environment & Natural

Makerere University
P.O. Box 7062






Monitoring and modelling coastal lagoons:
making management tools for aquatic
resources in north Africa

Project Number
and Framework Programme
5th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/12/2002 to 28/02/2006 (39 months)
Shared Cost Action

Dr. Simon Patrick
University College London
United Kingdom


Context and Objectives

in specialist areas of aquatic resource

monitoring and modelling.

Many North African coastal lagoons

are severely degraded yet some remain
high value aquatic ecosystems that are
important as natural resources for local human populations and contribute
substantially to regional biodiversity.
North Africas lagoons are all impacted
by a variety of environmental change
processes but human activities have
had the greatest effect during the 20th
century. Pressures resulting from these
activities are set to continue and in
many cases increase through the 21st
Century. Environmental monitoring
within North Africas aquatic ecosystems
is inadequate and management planning and policies are poorly supported
by relevant scientific information. This
proposal concerns the development
of lagoonal ecosystem monitoring (by
field survey, long-term monitoring
through field instrumentation and remote sensing) and its integration within
hydraulic/ecological modelling. It has
several aims and objectives designed to
help tackle current deficiencies.
General objectives are:

Establish and evaluate long-term

research on monitoring, measuring
and modelling sustainable development in the coastal lagoonal areas.

Assess and model the impact of human activities on water availability,

distribution and quality.



Development of early warning tools

and decision support systems that
examine with the environmental
equilibrium between the aquatic
resources of specific coastal and inland lagoonal areas.

Promote communality in research

methodology through information
exchange and by instigating training
programmes for young scientists within North African partner institutions

Forge active links with other international and national bodies

concerned with management of
aquatic (especially lagoonal) resources and to exploit further the
results of the project by widely disseminating results.

Three key sites have been selected for
the intensive task of implementing full
monitoring and modelling exercises,
secondary sites will be used to provide
reference conditions. These and associated data will be incorporated into
site specific dynamic models of lagoon
function. In order to achieve this basic aim, the skills and co-operation of
research scientists in five partner countries is required together with several
important sub-contracts to specialists
elsewhere. During the prosecution of
the project skills transfer in monitoring, modelling and remote sensing
techniques will take place between the
European and North African groups
and within the North African groups. In
the final phase of the project the models will be tested and demonstrated to
management agencies in each North
African country.
The workplan structure includes the
collection of high quality environmental data from monitoring and from
spatial survey (including water and sediment quality), identification of aquatic
ecosystem linkages and attributes,
hydrology, establishing long term monitoring, environmental reconstruction
and plant-environment interactions,
data analysis and modelling with applications to integrated management.
Additional activities include data exchange, training and quality control and
information dissemination. A series of
workshops will be needed to initially



training seminars and a www site GIS

establish common methodologies and

to check and verify on-going progress.

Results and outcome

Water quality and freshwater availability are the principal factors regulating
the quality of North African lagoonal
systems. Within key sites in three North
African countries (Morocco, Tunisia
and Egypt) hydrological instrumentation will be installed and programmes
of water quality and ecological monitoring initiated.

Implementation of an integrated
monitoring programme at each key
site to establish space-time changes
in hydroecological characteristics.
Automated measurement and best
practice procedures (from the EU
Water Framework Directive) will be
Monitoring the extent of aquatic
vegetation and water resources,
detecting long-term trends in hydroecological
conditions (including estimates of
historical water levels). Baselines
for present and past vegetation and
for open water areas.
Identification of environmental
variables controlling aquatic vegetation characteristics to generate
relationships between environmental controls and site vegetation
characteristics. Identification of
controlling variables and empirical

Selected Publications
Ahmed, M.H & A.E. Abdel Aal, 2003. Study of
molluscan shells and their enclosed bottom
sediments in Manzala Lagoon, Nile Delta,
Egypt. Bull Nat. Inst. of Oceangr. & Fish. A.R.E.,
Ahmed, M.H., D. Noha & M.A. Fahmy, 2006.
Eutrophication assessment of Lake Manzala
Egypt using GIS techniques. Journal of
Hyrdroinformatics, Hydro., 8(2):101-109.
Ahmed, M.H., S. Zaghloul, S. El Kafrawy, R.
Flower, J. Thompson & C. Chambers (eds),
2006. Proceedings of The First International
Conference on Environmental Change in
Lakes, Lagoons and Wetlands of the Southern
Mediterranean region. pp 334-342. ECOLLAW,
4-7th January 2006. NARSS, Cairo.
Ahmed, M.H. & D. Noha, 2007. Spatial
investigation of water quality of lake Manzala
using GIS techniques. Egyptian Journal of
Remote Sensing and Space Science, 10:63-86.
ISSN 1110-8923.

Robert Flower, J. Thompson &
Simon. Patrick
University College London
Department of Geography
26 Bedford Way
WC1H OAP London
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 207 679 55 45
Fax +44 207 679 75 65

E. Rassmussen

DHI - Water & Environment

Agern Alle 11
DK-2970 Horsholm

M. Saghi

El Kafrawy, S.B., M.H. Ahmed & M.M. Abu Zaied,

2006. Environmental assessment of seasonal
biological variations of Manzala Lagoon. The
First International Conference on Environmental
Change of Lakes, Lagoons and Wetlands in the
Southern Mediterranean Region. 4-7 Jan. 2006,
Cairo, Egypt.

Institut Scientifique-Universit
Mohamed V
Dept. Zoologie et Ecologie Animale
Avenue Ibn Batouta
10106 Rabat

Erik, K.R., S.P. Ole & M.H. Ahmed, 2006. A

hydrodynamic-ecological model of the Manzala
Lagoon, Egypt The First International Conference
on Environmental Change of Lakes, Lagoons and
Wetlands in the Southern Mediterranean Region.
4-7 Jan. 2006 Cairo, Egypt.


Zakaria, H.Y., M.H. Ahmed & R. Flower, 2007.

Environmental assessment of spatial distribution
of zooplankton community in Lake Manzalah,
Egypt. ACTA ADRIAT., 48(2):161 172. ISSN:
0001-5113 AADRAY.

Development of simulations for

key lagoons Model simulations of
future scenarios (concerned with
eutrophication, sea level change
and hydrologic manipulations) will
be undertaken.
Making data and model simulations
available to end-users, through


A. Amor

Institut National des Science et

Technologies de la Mer
Dpt. Aquaculture
Rue de 2 Mars 1934
2025 Salambo

F. Ayache

Faculte des Lettres et des Science

Humaines de Sousse
Dept Geography
Cite Erryadh
4000 Sousse

M. Ahmed

National Authority for Remote Sensing

& Space Science
23 Burrows Joseph Tito St. El Nozha El
1564 Alf Maskan, Cairo



Institutions and research for the Pantanal:
towards a bi-regional research agenda to
support policy institutions, legal frameworks
and social action

Project Number
and Framework Programme
6th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/11/2005 to 30/04/2007 (18 months)
Specific Support Action

Dr Rob Jongman
Wageningen UR
The Netherlands

Context and Objectives

of the Pantanal and the Upper

Paraguay River Basin (UPRB);

The project aimed to develop cooperation within the Pantanal and the Upper
Paraguay River Basin in order to develop sustainable water management
at river-basin scale and efficiency in
water use. Its background motive was
to strengthen the cooperation between
policy makers, stakeholders and scientific institutions in Brazil, Bolivia and
Paraguay and to stimulate the cooperation between these three countries,
the European Science Community and
NGOs working in the region. It has been
concluded that the need for cooperation was great as there are economic,
political and landscape ecological links
between the three countries involved:
All three are depending on wise water
management; all three have common
interests in the Pantanal for water,
shipping and economic development
and all three share this area but have
different political systems that are not
yet well coordinated. This project has
been considered of interest for Europe
as it has a long-standing tradition in
river management, biodiversity and related research. The Water Directive and
European concepts for water management have been partly guiding water
legislation in Brazil. European environmental research groups from different
countries have long-term research ongoing in the area, but cooperation and
linkagee with authorities were weak
or absent. NGOs work in the region,
but did not yet cooperate closely with
European research.
The project proposed to build an agenda
for international research cooperation
between Brazil, Bolivia and Paraguay,
the European Union teams and others.
Therefore the objective of the project
was twofold:



Developing insights into the scientific, political and socio-economic

actions, problems and solutions in
relation to sustainable management

Strengthening institutional and scientific cooperation at national and

international levels for the region.

To attain these objectives a process has

been started to bring people of all parties
together in workshops and a biregional
symposium (Latin America-Europe);
country reports and a research agenda
for the Pantanal have been developed
and reported to the Brazilian, Bolivian
and Paraguayan governments and the
European Commission. The process of
formulating this agenda has been open
to everyone, promoting transparency in
all phases of the process.

Development of a policy-supporting
research agenda has been carried out
involving representative groups in the
region. With support of enthusiastic
persons involved in the Pantanal two
preparatory workshops, a symposium
and an additional workshop in Bolivia
have been held.
A preparatory workshop in Cuiab (Mato
Grosso) with 37 participants (representing Paraguay, Bolivia, Mato Grosso and
Federal Government of Brazil) has been
held making use of a SWOT framework
(Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities,
Threats). A second workshop has been
held in Campo Grande with 35 participants (representing Mato Grosso do Sul,
Paraguay and Federal Government of
Brazil) in April 2006. Both workshops
were based on country reports for each
country and discussed the problems
and opportunities for the future.
The documents produced here have
been the basis for the Campo Grande
symposium in July 2006, where 82 participants from Brazil, Paraguay, Bolivia,
Germany and the Netherlands have


been discussing the SWOT analysis

and turned this into a research agenda.
During this Symposium use has been
made of interactive computer maps for
discussion of localised problems as well
as for identification of spatial relationships. Observers were present from the
EU representation in Brazil, UNESCO, the
Dutch embassy and the US embassy.

The Nature Conservancy, Brazil

Meetings have been organised to inform potential partners and interested

parties (not complete):

Conservation International, Brazil

The consortium was aware of the social situation in the region as well as
developments in the political arena.
The symposia and workshops had to
be organised in periods that this was
politically and socially convenient. That
meant that periods of holidays in Latin
America, Carnival and elections had to
be avoided. All politicians and other important representatives (representing,
among others, Embassies, EU representatives, larger NGOs), the press and
television have been kept informed.
In this period of 18 months of the project, the political situation was changing
in Bolivia as a result of the elections and
the referendum on decentralisation. As
the civil servants and politicians with
whom appointments had been made
changed position, special visits had to
be made to Santa Cruz de la Sierra and
La Paz. Nevertheless, the situation in
Bolivia was rather fluid at the time of
the symposium. This made the Bolivian
participants decide to organise an additional workshop in Santa Cruz de la
Sierra to validate results and enable
engagement with a broader set of people and groups. It was organised with
participation of 20 local organisations
(public sector, private sector and research groups) on 7 November 2006.
The final results have been presented by
representatives from governments and
NGOs from the three countries involved
as well as the European researchers on
24 April 2007 in a workshop in Brussels
to representatives from the European
Commission and the Embassies of
Brazil and Paraguay. The presentation

WWF Brazil, Bolivia, Paraguay, The

Netherlands, Germany

of the research agenda has been done

by the regional partners in the project
as they are considered to be best placed
to speak for the region.

Federal Government of Brazil,

Ministry of Environment, Programa
of Science and Technology (FP7
Agncia Nacional de Aguas (Brazil)

Fundacin dos Amigos del Museu

Noel Kempff (Bolivia)
Various regional NGOs in the field
of environment, agriculture and water management in Brazil, Bolivia
and Paraguay.

Results and outcome

Environmental Agency of Paraguay

(SEAM), Asuncin, Paraguay

Ministry of Environment of Bolivia

La Paz, Bolivia

Department of Hydrology La Paz,


Embassy of the Netherlands in La

Paz, Bolivia

Environmental Department of the

Prefecture of Santa Cruz, Bolivia

Brazilian Embassy in Brussels

The project produced country documents for the three countries, analysing
the political and institutional situation and results of the SWOT analysis.
These documents have been produced
in Spanish, Portuguese and partly in
English. Based on these country-focused
documents the symposium resulted in
a document with priority actions for
the region. Sustainable management
of natural resources requires an innovative way of acting with respect to
safeguarding economic development
in a restricted biosphere. It was concluded that there is a need to develop
integrated analytical approaches to
cope with the complexity and the inherent uncertainty of the natural system at
the scale of the UPRB and the Pantanal.
Consequently, it was concluded that it
is imperative to promote research activities focusing at filling these gaps,
as well as to provide tools to help making decisions such as Decision Support
Systems (DSS). This can allow stakeholders and decision makers to make
well-balanced decisions, meeting the
challenges of the integration of resource
use and natural resources management
for future generations.

Paraguayan and Bolivian Embassy
in Brussels

The Research Agenda links river management in different countries and

across borders. Research therefore

Delegation of the European Union in

Brazil, Environmental Department

Embassy of the Netherlands in

Brasilia and La Paz

Environmental Agency of Mato

Grosso (SEMA), Cuiab, Brazil


Environmental Agency of Mato

Grosso do Sul (IMA-P) Campo
Grande, Brazil



has to aim on integration of hydrology and ecology into integrated river
organisation and management, including economic, social and institutional
aspects. River systems in the Pantanal
need integration and a cooperative
management approach, which can contribute to the development of regional
and international coordinated knowledge basis. The Research Agenda has
been made to:

is part of the Hidrova Paraguay-Paran

navigation project that is considered by
the governments of Argentina, Bolivia,
Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay to be
the infrastructure backbone of plans
for integrating the regional economy.
However, the Pantanal is also the most
important evapotranspiration window
in a region where desertification and
salinisation are potential threats. The
participants concluded that a better nav-

for the regional climate and its relation

to climate change, biodiversity, agriculture and productivity of the Cerrado and
the Chaco regions are important issues
in the decision making on its future development of Latin America.

2. Assessment and mapping; this includes the international cooperation in

a monitoring system and the exchange
of data for the whole of the UPRB that is
crucial for the understanding
of human influence on the
objectives and
guidelines for sustainecosystems and can promote
able water management
international cooperation in
on the key processes in
the region. It was concluded
river systems, including
that setting up a monitoring
the role of flooding;
system and the exchange
of data for the whole of
Emphasise the role of
the UPRB is crucial for the
stakeholders, socio-ecounderstanding of human innomic
fluence on the ecosystems
national water resources
and can promote internalegislations, policies and
tional cooperation in the
policy options in the
region. Building a database
countries involved;
requires political agreement
between the regions and
Address research quesstates involved and should
tions that link ecological The delegation of the INREP project in front of the EC building Square de
include institutes which can
river processes and socio- Mees after presentation of their results.
take the responsibility to act
economic consequences
as coordinating body. This
into an institutional environment igable Paraguay River can be especially means that a cost-efficient monitoring
for river management, including the of interest for transport routes from and system should be developed, combining
interests of stakeholders.
to Bolivia. Until now, all studies and eval- enhanced process understanding, state
uations have been done by parties that of the art modelling, the necessary new
The Research Agenda for the region has are thought to have an interest in the de- technologies for in-situ measurements
been formulated based on the outcomes velopment or in the conservation of the adapted to the frequency of processes
of the INREP project. Within the major status quo. A study towards the develop- and changes, integrating measurements
themes desirable actions have been ment of the Paraguay as a waterway is, of chemical, biological, ecological paformulated to focus the action and re- however, complex and includes inter- rameters and climatic parameters at
search question. The following issues national political, economic, hydraulic, scales (temporal and spatial) of relhave been presented as major themes:
hydrological and ecological aspects. A evance to water policy of the UPRB.
rational way to help resolve the debate Links can be sought with GEO (Global
1. Environmental impacts: diagnosis and between status quo and pro-Hidrova Environmental Observation) and EUWIremediation; this includes the Hidrova parties is through hydraulic modelling LA (European Union Water Initiative
of the Paraguay River and the role of the of the river, with hydrological model- Latin America).
Pantanal for the climate of the region ling of the river basin, and an analysis
and the Plata Basin under changing cli- of the land use, biodiversity and policy
matic conditions. This issue can become consequences under supervision of an
a major case for conflicts but also for independent steering committee. The
environmental and climatic deteriora- participants concluded that analysis of
tion of the region. The Hidrova Paraguay the function of the Pantanal and the UPRB




3. Sustainable natural resources management; which includes the special way

that wetlands have to be managed by
farmers, fisherman cost-benefit analysis
and other and land as well water quality
maintenance essential for the Pantanal.
Sustainable land and water management is part of all three country reports
and the participants all concluded that
it needed to apply legislation, have incentives, guidelines and integrated
planning of land use. Farmers and land
users should learn that the catchments
they work and live with are vulnerable
to their activities, but that methods exist to maintain sustainable management
practices when regarding certain policy
and management principles. Sustainable
land and water management requires
and integrated planning of land use.
Farmers and land users new in this area
should learn that the catchments they
work and live with are vulnerable for
their activities. But there are methods
to maintain a sustainable management
practice when regarding certain policy
and management principles. Moreover,
treatment of urban and industrial
wastewater is essential for maintaining
the function of the Pantanal. A costs and
benefits study can be carried out in this
respect to solve the equation: economic
growth with reduced environmental
impacts and social conflicts. As possible research activities are mentioned
among others studies on best practices
or enterprises that are environmentally,
socially and economically compatible,
Identification, development and diffusion of productive technologies and
sustainable production chains, useful to
the UPRB society (pilot projects or demonstrative units) and development of
local technologies to promote sustainable agriculture, fishing and tourism;
4. Governance, laws, institutions and
policy; research into social interaction, stakeholder participation are of
utmost importance to understand the
complex relations in water and land

management, social participation in

the process of decision making can
long term cooperation and sustainability. Civil organisations can adapt their
working programmes to each other
and, in this way, better mobilise forces.
International and national and regional
communications and platforms of NGOs
are important to maintain and build a
society that can live in a sustainable
way. Research on social interaction and
stakeholder participation is of utmost
importance to understand the complex relations in UPRB promote social
participation in the process of decisionmaking and build platforms for mutual
long-term cooperation.
5. Sustainable development: diagnosis
and solutions; scenario models can help
to develop Decision Support Systems
being based on different options for
management, taking into account the
extent of the area, the low density of
the population and the predominant
natural processes. For decision making in the UPBR and the Pantanal sound
scientific arguments are needed, considering the anxieties and wishes of
the different stakeholders. To address
this issue, scenario models could be developed and Decision Support Systems
can be of use. Decisions will have to be
based on different options for management in the specific context. Therefore
developing scenarios using reliable and
integrated models for river management is considered crucial.

Selected Publications
Barbosa Pereira, M.P., J.M. Leeuwestein & R.H.G.
Jongman, 2006. Estabelecimento de uma poltica
conjunta de gerenciamento e de uma agenda de
pesquisa relacionada para o Pantanal INREP,
Contribuies para a identificao das Foras,
Oportunidades, Fraquezas e Ameaas para o
gerenciamento; documento do Bolvia, 28 p.
(with Spanish and English translation)
Barbosa Pereira, M.P., J.M. Leeuwestein & R.H.G.
Jongman, 2006. Estabelecimento de uma poltica
conjunta de gerenciamento e de uma agenda de
pesquisa relacionada para o Pantanal INREP;
Contribuies para a identificao das Foras,
Oportunidades, Fraquezas e Ameaas para o
gerenciamento; documento do Paraguai, 33 p.
(with Spanish and English translation)
Barbosa Pereira, M.P., J.M. Leeuwestein & R.H.G.
Jongman, 2006. Estabelecimento de uma poltica
conjunta de gerenciamento e de uma agenda de
pesquisa relacionada para o Pantanal INREP;
Contribuies para a identificao das Foras,
Oportunidades, Fraquezas e Ameaas para o
gerenciamento; documento do Brasil, 72 p. (with
Spanish and English translation)
Girard P., J.M. Leeuwestein & R.H.G. Jongman
(eds), 2007. Research agenda for the Pantanal
and the Upper Paraguay River Basin, 12 p. (With
Portuguese translation)
Goede, J., 2007. Water Use and Management of
the Bolivian Pantanal. MSc Thesis, Wageningen
University, Irrigation and Water Engineering
Group, 79 p.
Jongman, R.H.G., J.M. Leeuwestein & P. Girard,
2007. A research agenda for the Pantanal and
the Upper Paraguay River Basin. In:Bunce, R.G.H.,
Jongman, R.H.G., Hojas L. and Weel S. (eds). 25
years Landscape Ecology: Scientific Principles
in Practice. Proceedings of the 7th IALE
World Congress 8 12 July Wageningen, The
Netherlands, IALE Publication series 4, 521 p.
Moscoso, A., 2006. Taller de acciones prioritarias
para la Cuenca Alta del Ro Paraguay (regin
del Pantanal). Instituto para la Conservacin de
Ecosistemas Acuticos-ICEA, 7 p.

6. Capacity building is cross cutting

the five preceding issues involving the
identification of gaps in education,
information, technologies, methodologies, institutional frameworks and
services and followed by the provision
of support to fill the gaps. Sustainable
water management is still underdeveloped in this part of Latin America and
it needs strengthening, not only for
practical management, but also to make
decision makers aware of the potential
impact of decisions.







Rob Jongman

Jrgen Leeuwestein

Alterra Wageningen UR
PO Box 47
NL 6700 AA Wageningen
The Netherlands
Tel: +31 317 47 46 26
Fax: +31 317 41 90 00

Ecobusiness LTDA
SCRN 712/713, Bloco B, Entrada. 10,
Ap. 302,
70760-620, Braslia/D


Pierre Girard
Centro de Pesquisa do Pantanal
Universidade Federal do Mato
GrossCidade Universitria, Bloco CCBS
III, 1a andar
78060-900, Cuiab/MT

Gabriela Priante
Secretaria Estadual do Meio Ambiente
Centro Poltico Administrativo
Rua C, esquina com a Rua F
78050-970, Cuiab/MT

Mrcia P. da Mata Salles

Secretaria de Estado de Meio Ambiente
e Recursos Hdricos do Mato Grosso do
Sul - Sema/Ms
Rua Desembargador Leo Neto do
Carmo, s/n
Quadra 03 - Setor 03 - Parque dos
79031-902, Campo Grande/MS





Characterisation, utilisation and
maintenance of biological diversity for the
diversification and sustainability of catfish
culture in South-East Asia

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/11/1996 to 30/06/2000 (44 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Marc Legendre
Institut de Recherche pour le
Dveloppement (IRD)

Context and Objectives


Catfishes, and particularly the Clariidae

and Pangasiidae, are important aquatic
resources in Asia, where their culture
represented an annual production of
about 124,000 tons in 1993. Further
development of this catfish culture industry faced difficulties related to the
poorly known systematics of these fish
groups, the scarce knowledge of the
biology and aquaculture potential of
autochthonous species, the limitation
of seed supply and the declining performances reported in some cultivated
stocks. In this context, the Catfish
Asia project has focussed on two catfish families, Clariidae and Pangasiidae,
with two main goals:

The key activities were:

1. To acquire a more solid knowledge of the biological diversity of

SE Asian catfishes and to enhance
their utilisation through a correct
identification and characterisation
of valuable species and populations
of aquaculture interest.
2. To acquire sound biological bases
for the diversification and optimisation of catfish culture in the South
East Asian region.

Since November 1996, the Catfish Asia

project has been coordinated by IRD
and 6 associated research institutions,
from France (IRD and CIRAD), Belgium
(MRAC and KU-Leuven), Indonesia
(CRIFI-RIFF) and Vietnam (CTU). A part
of the research was also conducted
in close cooperation with the Agifish
Company in Vietnam and the services
of the Directorate General of Fisheries
in Indonesia, allowing real possibilities
for a rapid and efficient transfer of scientific results for their application in
the production sector.



Identification and characterisation

of species, populations and strains
using three complementary disciplines and methods: morphometry,
genetics and parasitology (specifically Monogenea). The genetic studies
included different techniques adapted to the research goals: Protein
electrophoresis, mitochondrial DNA
analysis and microsatellite DNA

Evaluation and comparison of zootechnical performances (survival,

growth, sexual maturation) by means
of culture trials carried out in experimental aquaculture stations.

Identification of environmental requirements of broodfish to attain full

sexual maturity under rearing conditions and optimisation of induced
breeding, artificial insemination and
egg incubation procedures.

Identification of the natural prey

preferentially selected by the larvae
and of their feeding requirements;
optimisation of larval rearing

Results and outcome

Many significant results were obtained
in terms of both basic and applied research. They can be summarised as
follows for the two main research fields
of the project:
Biological diversity
From the numerous surveys carried
out, reference collections of SE Asian
catfishes have been deposited in different museums. Field observations
provided better knowledge on the biology and habitats of these fishes. The



phylogenies inferred from mitochondrial DNA and allozymes clarified the

systematics of the two catfish families
studied, and provided new insights on
their zoogeography and evolution. Two
new species were discovered in the
Pangasiidae and several others are currently being described in the Clariidae,
based on genetic and morphologic
evidence. New identification keys to species have been produced and represent
essential tools to avoid misidentification of fish used in aquaculture. About
seventy new Monogean parasite species
were also discovered, most of them
being host-specific. Nine polymorphic
microsatellite markers were isolated for
Pangasius hypophthalmus and Clarias
batrachus. DNA analyses were used to
identify the small-scale genetic structure of some clariids in Sumatra Island.
They also permitted to retrace the origin of Clarias gariepinus, introduced
in Asia from Africa, and showed high
levels of inbreeding in the SE Asian cultivated stocks of this species.
Stocks of Pangasius species were
constituted from the wild and their
robustness, growth and sexual maturation were compared. This approach led
to identify a new candidate species (P.
djambal) for aquaculture in Indonesia.
Its reproduction in captivity has been
obtained for the first time, as is the case
for three other species (P. conchophilus,
P. kunyit and P. larnaudii) in Vietnam.
The artificial propagation techniques
were also optimised for Pangasius species formerly used in aquaculture (P.
hypophthalmus, P. bocourti), resulting in
significant improvement of broodstock
management, hatching rates and survival of larvae. Depending on species,
detailed or preliminary information of
the nutritional requirements was obtained. New hybrids with interesting
characteristics were also identified;
particularly in the pangasiids, but their
possible use in aquaculture now face


the problem of their fertility and potential impacts on wild fish populations.
The knowledge gained on the biology of
target species and the methodologies
developed during the project already
led to significant changes in the catfish
aquaculture production, particularly in

Selected Publications
Hung, L.T., B. Tam, P. Cacot & J. Lazard, 1999.
Larval rearing of the Mekong catfish, Pangasius
bocourti (Pangasiidae, Siluroidei): Substitution
of Artemia nauplii with live and artificial feed.
Aquat. Living Resour., 12:229-232.
Legendre, M., L. Pouyaud, J. Slembrouck,
R. Gustiano, A.H. Kristanto, J. Subagja, O.
Komarudin, Sudarto & Maskur, 2000. Pangasius
djambal: a new candidate species for fish culture
in Indonesia. IARD Journal, 22:1-14.
Legendre, M., J. Slembrouck, J. Subagja & A.H
Kristanto, 2000. Ovulation rate, latency period
and ova viability after GnRH- or hCG-induced
breeding in the Asian catfish Pangasius
hypophthalmus (Siluriformes, Pangasiidae).
Aquat. Living Resour., 13:145-151.
Pouyaud, L., G.G. Teugels, R. Gustiano, L.
Pouyaud & G.G. Teugels, 1999. Description
of a new pangasiid catfish from Northeast
kalimantan, Indonesia (Siluriformes,
Pangasiidae). Ichthyol. Explor. Freshwaters,
Pouyaud, L., G.G. Teugels, & M. Legendre, 1999.
Description of a new pangasiid catfish from
South- East Asia (Siluriformes, pangasiidae).
Cybium, 23:247-258.
Subagja, J., J. Slembrouck, L.T. Hung & M.
Legendre, 1999. Larval rearing of an Asian
catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus (Siluroidei,
Pangasiidae): Analysis of precocious mortality
and proposition of appropriate treatments.
Aquat. Living Resour., 12:37-44.

Marc Legendre
Institut de Recherche pour le
Dpartement Ressources Vivantes
213 rue La Fayette
75480 Paris cedex 10
Tel: +33 4 67 41 61 00
Fax: +33 4 67 41 63 30

Filip Volckaert
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven
59 De Beriotstraat 32 (Gelijkvloers)
3000 Leuven

Guy G. Teugels (deceased)

Muse Royal dAfrique Centrale
13 Steenweg op Leuven
3080 Tervuren

Jerme Jean Lazard

Centre de Cooperation Internationale
en Recherche Agronomique pour le
Developpement - Cirad
10 Rue Pierre Curie
94704 Maison Alfort

Teugels, G.G., R.C. Diego, L. Pouyaud & M.

Legendre, 1999. Redescription of Clarias
macrocephalus (Siluriformes, Clariidae) from
South-East Asia. Cybium, 23:285-295.


Volckaert, F.A.M., B. Hellemans & M. Legendre,

1998. The genetic variability of some catfishes
of the genus Pangasius and Clarias in SE Asia as
measured with DNA microsatellites. J. Fish Biol.,
53 (suppl. A):446.

Central Research Institute for Fisheries

2 Jl. Raya Sukamandi 2
11410 A Jawa Barat

Volckaert, F.A., B. Hellemans & L. Pouyaud, 1999.

Nine polymorphic microsatellite markers in the
catfishes Pangasius hypophthalmus and Clarias
batrachus. Anim.Genet., 30:283-284.

Nguyen Anh Tuan

Oman Komarudin

Can Tho University

30/4 Street 30/4
92000 Cantho City
Viet Nam



Aquaculture management and ecological
interaction of noxious phytoplankton
developments in the south of Latin America

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/01/1998 to 30/06/2001 (42 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Genevive Arzul
Institut franais de recherche pour
lexploitation de la mer (IFREMER)

Context and Objectives

The exponential growth of the fish farming industry in South America during
the last ten years produced important
socio-economic benefits in several
regions. For example, the salmon farming industry had reached a production
level of around 250 000 tonnes placing
Chile second in the world after Norway.
This industry and its further development is, however, adversely affected
by re-occurring noxious phytoplankton
blooms in coastal waters throughout
the regions. The implications are relevant for human and fish health as
well as engendering social and economic effects (potential losses for the
industry due to re-occurring events are
estimated to be greater than 50 million
US $). Our capability to predict harmful algal phenomena is limited because
of incomplete knowledge of both, the
dependent and independent processes
involved in these phenomena.
The overall objective of this project was
to provide management-tools in support of the sustained development of
aquaculture in the Southern Chile. The
specific objectives of the project were
to estimate the ecological impact of fish
farming on coastal seawater quality, on
benthic disturbances, and to determine
primarily how these impacts relate to
harmful phytoplankton blooms.

To achieve these objectives the key activities were:
1. In situ measurements to describe
pelagic environment in three different areas, including water quality
criteria, in particular benthic conditions used in predictive modeling
of carbon deposition under and
around farms.



2. In situ and laboratory experiments

on physiological responses of
phytoplankton species to environmental change in order to identify
parameters related to aquaculture
and climate: effects of animal excretion, uneaten fish feed, atmospheric
disturbance in term of UV.
3. The results of the above studies
were synthecized in order to derive
recommendations for aquaculture
management. These included the
development of impact indices, a predictive dispersion model to be used
in the benthic domain while also considering harmful bloom assessment

Results and outcome

The project provided a wealth of scientific data to assist in identifying the
potential role of fish farm waste on
eutrophication processes. In particular
it has been shown that the form of nutrients inputs is of great importance in
affecting phytoplankton biomass and
populations assemblage, while factors
involved in long-term climate change
may also be critical in interacting with
the overall response of phytoplankton
communities to natural and man-made
changes, but on different time scales.
The following conclusions can be drawn
from the findings:
1. The results obtained in Chile are in
accordance with the observations made
in other regions of the world where
salmon farming in coastal cages takes
place: they confirm the global change
conditions illustrated by red tides intrusion in the inland sea, and selection of
resistant phytoplankton species under
changed ultraviolet radiations exposure, a consequence of the increased
depletion of the ozone layer at times of
high productivity.


2. For Chile, it becomes urgent to carry

out a comprehensive assessment of the
mass balance contributions in nutrients
regulating eutrophication. This should
involve flux models. While site-specific
impacts can well be regulated in order
to lead to a sound risk management
and prevention strategies, it is suggested to take into account the following
scientific considerations and integrated
management options:
2.1 Salmon/seaweed
aquaculture should be seriously
considered to improve coastal water quality, by removing (converting
on or near site) the nutrient input
due to fish farming. This integrated
cultivation constitutes an interesting bioremediation by converting
organic and nutrient discharge into
production and in the same time,
enabling diversification of the fish
farming industry.
2.2 While there is quite a good understanding of the immediate, localized
impact of fish farming allowing to
set site-specific production limits
for environmental protection, there
is room for developing further
mitigation measures to control remaining avoidable consequences,
through improved husbandry techniques and through appropriate
monitoring programmes. data for
modelling the regional and area specific conditons could help improve
estimating the carrying capacity
in order to safeguard the environment and the industry in its further
development. Hydrodynamics and
production (primary and secondary
in the trophic web) are not appropriately mirrored in the present work,
for the reasons mentioned above.
2.3 The salmon farming industry in
the Chilean region does provide
a substantial nutrient source that
has the potential to influence primary productivity at least locally.


The field work however, does at the

present time not provide sufficient
evidence to conclude that the increased nutrient load through fish
farming in the region is the major
contributor to productivity and community change in the aquatic food
web. Analysing theoretical dilution
of wastes alone is insufficient to assess the fish farm impact in a local
area concerning the harmful bloom.
Better understanding how the local hydrographic regimes around
fish farming centers in southern
Chile are interlinked with the larger
events along the coastal shelf seas
is needed.
2.4 For future activities the study of
oceanographic water mass exchanges in order to gain more information
that could be used to estimate the
regional mass balance of inputs and
fluxes is recommend. A very good
understanding of the dispersive capacity within the area exploited for
fish farming along the entire Chilean
coast (including areas considered
for further development) appears
indispensable, in order to assess the
risk of harmful algal developments
associated to their deleterious effect on fish productivity and to
environmental disturbance. The
results observed under experimental conditions demonstrated that
several rare but highly toxic species
may be unintentionally promoted.
Some areas are more exposed than
others to promote the development
of harmful species: areas of low dynamics, proximity to oceanic water
masses suspected to contribute as
factor for inocculation.
2.5 Among the consequences of red
tides, the remanence of cells constitutes a risk for the future. Along
the same lines of argument, the
presence of permanent cysts as
resting stages available in anoxic
sediments under and around farms

pose a serious threat when re-suspended at the wrong time of the

season. Modelling of benthic carbon
deposition along with regulations
requiring a minimum benthic diversity (bio-turbation) is one way
to limit this risk of anoxia. Another
aspect of risk reduction to be considered in the future is co-regulation
for various industries involved in
unintentional transfer of aquatic organisms (e.g. aquaculture, fisheries,
boating and commercial shipping)
in order to reduce the associated
risks of introduction of parasites,
diseases, and resting cysts of toxic
algal species via trade. These transfer risks are real and can affect
aquaculture severely, be it through
life transport of fish for stocking,
or through the more and more globalised shipping industry. Ballast
water of the shipping industry is
one case of internationnal importance which constitute a threat not
only to environmental quality but
also to the sustainability of coastal
aquaculture development.
Monitoring the hydrological conditions
in view of phytoplankton bloom prediction, with probes sensors constitute a
promising technology for fish kill prevention within the farming industry. In
the context of a short term prediction,
the use of bio-optical methodologies
(Lunven et al., 2002) are now operational for application in exploited areas. In
the very short term, several technologies are used by fish farmers (pumps
and artificial upwelling). Additional
preventive methods are proposed
(adaptation in progress). It can be anticipated that in the future remote sensing
techniques will become also an important tool to monitor the areas of early
outbreaks of blooms, their extent over
time as well as their dissipation.
There seems still to be a need to apply
appropriate feeding technology thereby reducing unnecessary loss of feed



and unnecessary discharge of organics
and nutrients into the environment.
Improving the feeding technique and
feed conversion, working towards higher energy feeds and reducing protein
content for various size classes, would
greatly help to minimize impacts or at
least, keep impacts at the same level
while increasing overall production
in an area. The incentive for such development must come from consumer
acceptance and from eco-labelling as
the highest quality fish feed resource
is readily available in the area, and the
need for fish meal replacement is not
based on the same economic pressures
as in other regions of the world.
During the project it became obvious that improved husbandry and
management practices will lead to better environmental compatibility but
requires solid and comprehensive education of farm operators to better utilise
the available options of modern system
and farm technology for environmental protection. Improving education
and managerial skills is necessary at
farm and management level. The most
effective measure is believed to be
auto-regulation by the producers and
their organisations and through certification. The well-being of the industry
and sustained growth can only be maintained through careful and professional
management aiming simultaneously at
environmental compatibility.
These interacting environmental and
economic factors can present an incentive to achieve ecosystem preservation
and should be seriously considered by
the producers themselves as well as by
the authorities in charge of setting the
policies for aquaculture management.
While dealing with a large variety of
tasks and disciplines, the team engaged also in discussions related to
multiple resource use issues. One area
of concern not covered by the project
directly, but frequently addressed, was



the potential transmission of disease

agents and toxic algal species via other
human activities such as shipping. This
poses new threats to the environment
and the fish farming industry. The potential of harmful algal blooms (HAB)
species transmission in ship ballast water needs urgent attention and studies
need to be initiated on how to reduce
the risks of transfer of HAB species. In
particular, ballast tank sediments carry
a lot of cysts and pose potentially a
similar high risk to coastal ecosystems
by transferring harmful species as suboptimally managed large-scale cage
culture systems. The problem became
obvious during the project. For example, the Japanese microalga Chatonella
sp., first recognized in the south-eastern North Sea during 1998, caused a
first bloom in early 2001 (February to
March) subsequently being responsible for a massive kill of cultured
salmon (about 1000 tonnes) in southern Norway. Ballast water volumes
transmitted intercontinentally increase
steadily. The intended offshore ballast water exchange strategy presently
being promoted by the International
Martime Organization (IMO) through
The International Convention for the
Prevention of Pollution from Ships
(MARPOL) seems not necessarily to be
a satisfactory solution. Chances are
that new threats arise when bloom species are carried to other areas. Studies
should be initiated to follow the fate
of HAB species after release into new
habitats. In particular, survival capabilities of species while in transit between
continents should be assessed as well
as the risk arising from the release of
tank bottom sediments containing dormant cysts and other resting stages of
HAB. Considering the overall value of
the salmon farming industry in Chile,
allocating a small percentage of its value to preventive measures would give it
a considerable comparative advantage
at a global scale.

Beyond the project consortium partners Planctons Andino Lmtd (Chile)

and Coastal Resource & Management
(Germany) signed a joint venture to
offer know-how and services for monitoring, analyses, and environmental
impact assessment for the aquaculture
industry, combining expertise in benthic and planktonic systems.



Selected Publications
Special Edition (peer reviewed):
Arzul, G. (ed.), 2002. Aquaculture, Environment
and marine phytoplankton. Brest, 21-23 May
2001. Ed. Ifremer, Actes Colloq., 34:248 p.

Individual contributions from:

Arzul, G., G. Bodennec, A. Youenou & M.P.
Crassous. Effect of uneaten fish feed on the
phytoplankton growth: in vitro tests on fish feed
elutriates. pp 135-144.
Arzul, G., M. Seguel, A. Clment, A. Youenou
& M.P. Crassous. Effect of marine animal
excretions on phytoplankton growth in
laboratory experiments: the contribution of
organic components. pp 115-125.
Bodennec, G., G. Arzul, M.P. Crassous & A.
Youenou. Influence of dead fish and uneaten
fishfeed elutriates on the toxic potential of
certain microalgae. pp 145-156.
Carignan, M.O., N.G. Montoya & J.I. Carreto.
Long term effects of ultraviolet radiation on the
composition of pigment and mycosporine-like
amino acids MAAs composition in Alexandrium
catenella. pp 191-207.
Carreto, J.I, M.O. Carignan & N.G. Montoya.
Short term effects of ultraviolet radiation on
the pigment and mycosporine-like amino acid
(MAAs) composition in Alexandrium catenella.
pp 173-190.
Clement, A., A. Grnewald, A. Aguilera & X.
Rojas. Water column conditions in a fjord
subject to intense fish farming. pp 31-40.
Clement, A. & X. Rojas. Identification of the high
risk period for HAB. pp 230-231.
Guzmn, L., G. Pizarro & P. Mejias. Control of
natural phytoplankton populations by ultraviolet
radiations. pp 157-158.
Lunven, M., P. Gentien, A. Clment & G. Arzul.
Particle populations around fish farms. pp 41-56.
Montoya, N.G., J.I. Carreto & M.O. Carignan.
Effects of ultraviolet radiation on the toxin
composition of the dinoflagellate Alexandrium
catenella. p. 208.
Piker, L., P. Krost, M. Hevia, D. Petersen & H.
Rosenthal. The impact of salmon farming in the
X region of Chile on the benthic compartment.
pp 57-70.
Pizarro, G. & L. Guzman. Production in seawater
of inorganic nutrients by ultraviolet irradiation
of organic substances. pp 159-172.

Other publications:


Carreto, J.I., M. Seguel, N.G. Montoya, A. Clment

& M.O. Carignan, 2001. Pigment profile of the
ichthyotoxic dinoflagellate Gymnodinium sp.
from a massive bloom in southern Chile. J.
Plankton Res. 23:1171-1175.

Genevive Arzul

Carreto, J.I., M.O. Carignan & N.G. Montoya,

2001 Comparative studies on mycosporinelike amino acids, paralytic shellfish toxins and
pigment profiles of the toxic dinoflagellates
Alexandrium tamarense, Alexandrium catenella
and Alexandrium minutum. Mar. Ecol. Progr.
Ser., 223:49-60.
Montoya, N.J.,. M.O. Carreto, M. Carignan & H.R.
Benavides, 2004. Effects of ultraviolet radiation
on the toxin composition of the dinoflagellate
Alexandrium catenella, pp. 393-395. In
Steidinger, K.A., J.H. Landsberg, C.R. Tomas &
G.A. Vargo (eds.), Harmful Algae 2002. Florida
Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commission,
Florida Institute of Oceanography, and
Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission
Clment, A., M. Seguel, G. Arzul, L. Guzmn &
C. Alarcn, 2001. A widespread outbreak of a
haemolytic, ichthyotoxic Gymnodinium sp. in
southern Chile. In Hallegraeff, S.I., C.J. Blackburn,
Bolch & R.J. Lewis (eds). Harmful Algal Blooms,
2000. G.M. Intergovernmental Oceanographic
Commission of UNESCO, Paris, 2002:66-69.
Gentien, P., M. Lunven, M. Lehatre & J.L. Duvent,
1995. In situ depth profiling of particles. DeepSea Research, 42:1297-1312.
Hernando, M., J. Carreto, M. Carignan, G. Ferreyra
& C. Gro, 2001. Effects of solar radiation on
growth and mycosporine-like amino acids
content in Thalassiosira sp, an Antarctic diatom.
Polar Biology, 25:12-20
Hevia, M.G., H. Rosenthal & R.J. Gowen, 1997.
Modelling benthic deposition under fish cages.
J.Appl. Ichthyol., 12(2):71-74.

Department of Biogeochemistry and
BP 70
29280 Plouzan
Tel: +33 2 98 22 43 26
Fax: +33 2 98 22 45 48

Harald Rosenthal (retired)
Institut fr Meereskunde
University of Kiel
Dsternbrooker Weg 20
24105 Kiel

Jos Carreto
Instituto Nacional de Investigacin y
Desarrollo Pesquero
Casilla De Correo 175
7600 Mar Del Plata

Alejandro Clement1
Instituto Tecnolgico del Salmn S.A.
Luis Ross 548
Puerto Montt

Levent Piker
Coastal Resource and Management
Tiessenkai 12
24159 Kiel

Seguel, M., A. Clement & G. Arzul. The effect of

fish farm waste on phytoplankton communities
in southern Chile. pp 105-114.

Address at point of printing: Plancton Andino Lmtda., P.O. Box:

1036, Puerto Varas, Chile




Improvements of scallop production
in rural areas

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/12/1997 to 30/11/2000 (36 months)
Joint Research Project

Prof. Patrick Sorgeloos
Ghent University
Gent, Belgium

Context and Objectives

Coastal fishing communities need to
develop alternative sources of income
in the face of unsustainable exploitation
patterns of natural resources. Enabling
the transition from capture to culture
fisheries with appropriate scientific
knowledge in one segment (high-value
scallop production) would provide new
opportunities. Such transition from
hunting to ranching and intensive lifestock management has earlier happened
on land, but is a key challenge in the
aquatic domaine. Creation, accumulation and sharing of knowledge on basic
biology, reproduction etc. is key to enable this transition. The objectives of
the project were:
1. To determine the effects of nutrition, microbial flora, genetic
background and water quality on
the survival and quality of larval
and juvenile stages of scallops derived from hatchery cultivation and
natural recruitment.
2. To characterise and identify bacteria
that play a role in seed production,
either beneficial (improving growth,
survival and/or settlement success)
or detrimental (pathogens).
3. To determine the critical nutrients (mainly vitamins and lipid
compounds) in hatchery rearing
of scallops (broodstock, larval and
postlarval stages).
4. To assess the genetic diversity in
wild and cultivated stocks using
both traditional (allozymes) and
innovative (microsatellites and mitochodrial DNA) genetic markers.

management strategies, triploidy

induction) in scallop rearing.
6. To evaluate adapted zootechniques
on a experimental scale in rural
hatcheries and their effect on growout success in the field.

Development and preparation of specific supplement diets to supply essential/
limiting nutrients to scallop broodstock
and larvae, development of feeding
regimes for artificial diet supplementation to live algae, verification of the use
of supplementation diets for local species in Latin-America, nutritional status
and potential of seed collected in nature versus hatchery-produced seed.
Characterisation of microflora, confirmation of pathogenicity (challenge test),
confirmation of beneficial/detrimental
bacterial strains, evaluation of the potential use of selected bacterial strains
under the conditions of rural hatcheries,
microbiological analysis of the environment, microbiological safety.
Assessment of genetic resources in wild
and cultivated scallops using allozyme
techniques and novel biotechnological
markers, optimisation of the genetic
component of broodstock management
strategies, microsatellite loci and mitochondrial DNA techniques, triploidy
induction development and evaluation.

5. To improve microbial control (use

of probionts), nutrition (through
live algae as well as through the use
of artificial supplements), and genetic aspects (through broodstock





Results and outcome

Selected Publications

The following results were achieved:

Barria, R., G. Gajardo & J.M. Navarro, 2002.

Multiple-locus heterozygosity, physiological
traits and growth in a cohort of the ChileanPeruvian scallop Argopecten purpuratus
(Lamarck, 1819). Aquaculture, 204(2002):191.

Supporting with relevant scientifically validated knowledge an

activity with a great potential as
a sustainable source of income
for rural communities in South
America (Chile and Brazil) that
have switched from artisanal fisheries to mollusc growing.
Improving the predictability and
sustainability of scallop seed
Better understanding of the various nutritional, microbiological
and genetic factors determining
the success of scallop larviculture.
In particular, the genetic work
provided baseline data for genetic
improvements of scallops stocks
and the conservation of genetic
Collaboration between European
and Latin-American partners which
provided an opportunity for a high
degree of training in methodology
and strengthen the research capability both of the young researchers
involved and their host institutions.
The multidisciplinary study of scallop culture in two very different
environments has improved the expertise of the European partners.


Gajardo, G., M. Parraguez, & N. Coliheuque,

2002. Karyotypic analysis and banding pattern
of Argopecten purpuratus. Journal of Shellfish
Research, 21(2):585-590.
Nevejan, N. & M. Hauva, 2001. Effect of lipid
emulsions on larval development of Argopecten
purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819). Proceedings of 13th
International Pectinid Workshop, Coquimbo,
Chile (18-24 april 2001). pp. 53-55.
Nevejan, N., I. Saez, G. Gajardo & P. Sorgeloos,
2002. Relative importance of DHA and EPA for
Argopecten purpuratus larvae (Lamarck, 1819).
Taller Internacional larvicultura de invertebrados
marinos: Estado del arte y sus proyecciones,
Puerto Montt, Chile (7-11 Januari 2002).
Universidad Austral de Chile, pp. 21-26.
Nevejan, N., I. Saez, G. Gajardo & P. Sorgeloos,
2003. Energy versus essential fatty acids: what
do Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819)
larvae need most? Comp.Biochem.Physiol.,
Nevejan, N., I. Saez, G. Gajardo & P. Sorgeloos,
2003. Supplementation of EPA and DHA
emulsions to a Dunaliella tertiolecta diet: effect
on growth and lipid composition of scallop
larvae, Argopecten purpuratus (Lamarck, 1819).
Aquaculture, 217:613-632.
Nevejan, N., V. Courtens, G. Gajardo & P.
Sorgeloos, 2003. Effect of lipid emulsions on
production and fatty acid composition of scallop
eggs: the case of Argopecten purpuratus. Mar.
Biol., 143:327-338.
Pickerell, T., S. McConnel & D. Skibinski,
2004. Isolation and characterisation of three
microsatellite loci from the Chilean scallop
Argopecten purpuratus. Ann.Zool.Fennici,

Patrick Sorgeloos
Ghent University (RUG)
Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia
Reference Center
Rozier 44
B-9000 Gent
Tel: +32 9 264 37 54
Fax: +329 264 41 93

John A. Beardmore
University of Wales Swansea
Singleton Park
Swansea SA2 8PP
United Kingdom

Jaime F. Ferreira
Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina
Trindade S/N PO Box 476
88040-900 Florianopolis

Gonzalo Gajardo
Universidad de los Lagos
S/N Avenida Fuchslocher S/N
Po Box 933
40 Osorno



Sustainable production of mud crab Scylla sp.
through stock enhancement in mangroves

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/01/1998 to 31/03/2002 (52 months)
Joint Research Project

Prof. Patrick Sorgeloos
Universiteit Gent

Context and Objectives

Sustainable production systems, which
harness use of natural productivity of
ecosystems for production of food,
other products and services, are a key
challenge in the years to come. A variety of transition stages from production
almost exclusively based on capture
fisheries (of fish and invertebrates)
towards various degrees of control of
the production system is expected to
offer considerable gains in the future.
Interaction between capture and culture fisheries need careful attention, if
cultivated broodstock and its offspring
is not to lead to reduced genetic variability of wild populations.


To measure migrations and movements of (re-)released juveniles

throughout the life cycle and compare with cultured juvenile release.

To produce in hatchery different age

or performance classes and assess
survival and growth after release to
identify most suitable groups for
restocking purposes.

To reduce costs for production of

juveniles at economic scale under
local backyard conditions.

The key activities involved:

The main objectives of this project



An experimental study on stock enhancement of the mud crab Scylla

serrata and the possible impact of
fisheries on it. A specific biotope
with a local mud crab population
was selected in Vietnam with the
following advantages:

Confined area with control &

monitoring possibilities over the
mangrove crab population;

Agreements with local fishermen on

capture and recapture reporting;

Local partner Can Tho University

was already involved in a mangrove replantation project for this
biotope. Restocking was done with
specific batches of tagged mud crab
juveniles produced under controlled
conditions in a local hatchery. The
mark and recapture technique was
standardised and allowed to estimate fluxes of the population in
natural mangrove.

Testing of new technologies adopted

from other larviculture operations
(e.g. penaeid shrimp hatcheries)
first at experimental scale in order to improve the consistency of

To develop mud crab broodstock

maturation system, which promotes
consistent spawning of good quality larvae: optimisation of hormonal
implant, eyestalk ablation and feeding regime.
To standardise hatchery production of Scylla serrata by improving
zootechnics, feeding regime and
microbial conditions: promotion of
consistent and increased survival
rates and quality of postlarvae.

To assess survival and growth rate

of cultured vs. wild crabs after tagging and (re-)release and evaluation
of a sustainable technique for the
cultivation of mud crab.

To use recapture data to estimate

population densities of wild mangrove crabs and measure impact of
fishery effort.

To include in the above estimates

of the effect of selective fishing on
wild stocks e.g. fishing for juveniles
for pond culture, immature for fattening and adults for marketing.



production success of the hatchery operation and to guarantee

the required fry quality. Optimised
protocols were integrated in a pilotscale hatchery in Vietnam, allowing
production of specific batches and
the study of the profitability of mud
crab hatchery operations.

Results and outcome

The project accomplished:
1. A standard technique for mud crab
broodstock maturation focused
on Scylla paramamosain, the predominant species in Vietnam and
Indonesia; though more difficult
than for other species, improvements of survival to first crab instar
reached 10-20%.
2. A standard hatchery technique for
production of mud crab postlarvae
was tested in a pilot hatchery in
3. A standard tagging technique for
mud crab species was successfully
applied in the field.
4. Restocking results provided estimates of Scylla populations in
natural mangroves and the impact
of fisheries and allowed evaluation
of the success of restocking with
implications on levels of sustainable fisheries.
5. Field studies included a plankton survey and an analysis of crab landings
which provided useful information
relevant to management strategies.

Selected Publications
Christensen, S.M, D.J MacIntosh & N.T. Phuong,
2004. Pond production of the mud crabs Scylla
paramamosain (Estampador) and S. olivacea
(Herbst) in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam, using
two different supplementary diets. Aquaculture
Research, 35(11):1013-1024.
Christensen, S.M., D.J. MacIntosh & N.T. Phuong,
2002. Enhancing income opportunities in mangrove aquaculture systems by introducing semiintensive mud crab aquaculture (Scylla spp.).
Quantitative Approaches in System Analysis,
24:73 84.
Djunaidah, I.S., M. Mardjono P. Lavens & M.
Wille. 1998. Effect of light and feeding regime
on culture performance of mud crab (Scylla
sp.) larvae. International Forum on the Culture
of Portunid Crabs. Boracay, Aklan, Philippines,
December 1998.
Djunaidah, I.S., M. Mardjono, M. Wille, E.K. Kontara & P. Sorgeloos, 2001. Investigations on the
reproductive performance of mud crab Scylla
sp. broodstock: A research review. Workshop on
Mud Crab Culture, Ecology and Fisheries. Can
Tho University. Vietnam, January 2001.
Djunaidah, I.S.; M.Wille; E.K. Kontara & P.
Sorgeloos, 2003. Reproductive performance and
offspring quality in mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) broodstock fed different diets.Aquaculture
International, 11:3-15
Fortes, R.D., 1999. Mud crab research and development in the Philippines. In Keenan, C.P. &
A. Blackshaw (eds.). Mud crab aquaculture and
biology. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria,
Australia. ACIAR Proceedings, 78:216 p.
Keenan, C.P., 1999. Aquaculture of the mud crab,
genus Scylla - past, present and future. In Keenan, C.P. & A. Blackshaw (eds.). Mud crab aquaculture and biology. CSIRO Publishing, Collingwood,
Victoria, Australia. ACIAR Proceedings, 78:216 p.
Le Vay, L., 2001. Ecology and management of mud
crabs, Scylla spp. Asian Fish. Sci., 14:101-111.
Le Vay, L., V.N. Ut & D.A. Jones, 2001. Seasonal
abundance and recruitment in an estuarine
population of mud crabs, Scylla paramamosian,
in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam. Hydrobiologia,
MacIntosh, D.J., F. Goncalves, A. Soares Moser
& N. Paphavisit, 1999. Transport mechanisms
of crab megalopae in mangrove ecosystems,
with special reference to a mangrove estuary in
Ranong, Thailand. In Keenan, C.P. & A. Blackshaw
(eds.). Mud crab aquaculture and biology. CSIRO
Publishing, Collingwood, Victoria, Australia.
ACIAR Proceedings, 78:216 p.

Patrick Sorgeloos
Gent University (RUG)
Laboratory of Aquaculture & Artemia
Reference Center
Rozier 44
B-9000 Gent
Tel: +32 9 264 37 54
Fax: +32 9 264 41 93

David Alan Jones
University of Wales Bangor
School of Ocean Sciences
Menai Bridge
Anglesy LL59 EY, North Wales
United Kingdom
E-M: levay@compuserve.com1

Truong Trong Nghia

Can Tho University
Institute of Marine Aquaculture
3th of February Road
Can Tho City
Viet Nam

Endhya Kusnendar Kontara

Brackishwater Aquaculture
Development Center
JI. Pemandian Kartini
P. O. Box 1
59401 Jepara

MacIntosh, D.J., J.L. Overton & H.V.T. Thu, 2002.

Confirmation of two common mud crab species
(genus: Scylla) in the mangrove ecosystem of
the Mekong Delta. Journal of Shellfish Research,
Truong Trong, N., M. Wille M. & P. Sorgeloos,
2001. Overview of larval rearing techniques for
mud crab (Scylla paramamosain) with special attention to the nutritional aspects, in the Mekong
delta, Vietnam. Workshop on Mud Crab Culture,
Ecology and Fisheries. Can Tho University, Vietnam, January 2001.
Current e-mail:




The potential of periphyton-based
aquaculture systems in South Asia

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/10/1997 to 31/03/2001 (42 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Malcolm C.M. Beveridge
Institute of Aquaculture
University of Stirling
United Kingdom

Context and Objectives

The overall objective of the project
was to determine the technical and
economic performance of periphytonbased aquaculture systems in South
Asia. It thus addresses one of the key
constraints to the poor benefiting from
fish culture, namely limited access to
resources such as fertilisers and feeds,
while trying to maximise the efficiency
of conversion into fish.
Acadjas (brushparks) have been used
as a fishing device for centuries in lagoons and lakes in West Africa and
South Asia. Lately, the same principles,
which involve the addition of substrate upon which periphyton growth
is encouraged, were applied to brackish
water fishponds in West Africa, with
some success. The hypothesis was that
part of the nutrients lost in traditionally managed ponds was converted into
periphyton and subsequently into fish
and that because of increased grazing
efficiencies of fish, less of the primary
production is processed through the
microbial loop. As a result, this would
enable farmers to enhance fish production levels while reducing demands for
fertilisers and food.
Specific objectives included the determination of:



growth and production of periphyton in various aquatic ecosystems

(pond, beel) using different substrates and substrate conformations
and the response to fertilisation

factors which determine periphyton

quality as food for fish

the abilities of different fish species

to feed on periphyton and grazing

fish production under different

stocking density regimes

nutrient and energy budgets and

ecological footprints from different
production systems
the sustainability and economics
production for food and for reservoir restocking.

The project, which focused on indigenous fishes, comprised a number of
field and laboratory-based experimental
trials carried out in Bangladesh, India
and the Netherlands. Complementary
experimental work and training, at
technician, Masters and PhD level was
also carried out in all project partner
laboratories. Links were forged with
the development community, especially
the DFID (Department for International
Development) funded LIFE project of
CARE Bangladesh and the Government
of Bangladesh Northeast Fisheries
Extension Project.
Eight candidate species of the cyprinid family (carps and minnows),
mostly indigenous to Bangladesh and/
or India, including Puntius gonionotus
(introduced), Labeo gonius, Puntius
sophore, L. calbasu, L. rohita, L. fimbriatus, Tor khudree (reported only
for India in, and
Catla catla were selected on the basis of their feeding behaviour, ease of
breeding and market value. Functional
feeding morphology and laboratory
based trials were carried out in three
species to determine the influence of
species, body size, group interactions
and substrate type on feeding. Field
trials were conducted to evaluate the
influence of substrate type and density on periphyton and pond algal
production. Single species and polyculture trials determined the influence
of substrate addition for periphyton
production on pond fish production.
Interviews with beneficiaries of the



CARE-LIFE development project were

conducted to assess the potential of
periphyton technology to benefit the
rural poor from a sustainable livelihoods perspective.

fisheries and aquaculture, is published

in 2005 (Azim et al., 2005). Nine MSc
students, both European and Asian, and
three PhD students undertook training
in the course of the project.

Results and outcome

Selected Publications

The technical viability of periphytonbased pond aquaculture was clearly

demonstrated. Where low-medium fertilisation and feed inputs are used, the
addition of substrate with an area broadly equating that of the pond surface
results in increases in fish production
of 30-80% under monoculture and 70180% under polyculture conditions.
Although bamboo proved superior
in terms of periphyton production,
preliminary economic and social evaluations show that cheaper substrates,
such as scrap bamboo (kanchi), local
brushwood (e.g. hizol) or even jute
may be more economically sustainable.
Livelihoods analysis and experiences
from the NGO sector in Bangladesh suggest that small-scale farmers may well
adopt the technology. However, larger
scale trials with farmers and development of better indicators are necessary
in order to fully assess the relative merits of the technology.

Azim, M.E., M.A. Wahab, A.A. van Dam, M.

Beveridge & M.C.J. Verdegem (eds.), 2001. The
potential of periphyton-based culture of two
Indian major carp, rohu Labeo rohita (Hamilton)
and gonia Labeo gonius (Linnaeus). Aquaculture
Research, 32:209-216.

In addition to dissemination of information through the project web-site,

during the project period, a workshop
was held during the final phase of the
project to disseminate information
among the development community
and to provide guidelines that could be
used in implementing the technology in
a development context. The Proceedings
were distributed via the Asian Fisheries
Society. Thirty peer reviewed papers
have been published under the project
and a book, which draws heavily on information produced during the course
of the project and which also includes
contributions by leading world experts,
reviews current knowledge of periphyton, its ecology and utilisation in


Azim, M.E., M.C.J. Verdegem, M.M. Rahman,

M.A. Wahab, A.A. van Dam & M.C.M. Beveridge,
2002. Evaluation of polyculture of Indian major
carps in periphyton-based ponds. Aquaculture,
Azim, M.E., M.C.J. Verdegem, I. Singh, A.A. van
Dam & M.C.M. Beveridge, 2003. The effects of
periphyton substrate and fish stocking density
on water quality, phytoplankton, periphyton and
fish growth. Aquaculture Research, 34, 685-96.
Azim, M.E., M.C.J. Verdegem, A.A. van Dam
& M.C.M. Beveridge (eds.), 2005. Periphyton:
Ecology, Exploitation and Management. CAB
International, Cambridge, 352 p.
Huchette, S., M.C.M. Beveridge, D.J. Baird &
M. Ireland, 2000. The impacts of grazing by
tilapias (Oreochromis niloticus L.) on periphyton
communities growing on artificial: substrate in
cages. Aquaculture, 186:45-60.
Keshavanath, P., B. Gangadhar, T.J. Ramesh, J.M.
Van Rooij, M.C.M. Beveridge, D.J. Baird, M.C.J.
Verdegem & A.A. Van Dam, 2001. Use of artificial
substrates to enhance production of freshwater
herbivorous fish in pond culture. Aquaculture
Research, 32:189-197.
Keshavanath, P., B. Gangadhar, T.J. Ramesh, A.A.
van Dam, M.C.M. Beveridge, & M.C.J. Verdegem,
2004. Effects of bamboo substrate and
supplemental feeding on growth and production
of hybrid red tilapia fingerlings (Oreochromis
mossambicus x Oreochromis niloticus).
Aquaculture, 235:303-14.

Malcolm Beveridge1
University of Stirling
FK9 4LA Stirling
United Kingdom
Tel: +44 1224 29 44 10
Fax: +44 1796 47 35 23

Marc Verdegem
Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen
PO Box 338
6700 AH Wageningen

Abdul Wahab
Department of Fisheries Management
Faculty of Fisheries
Bangladesh Agricultural University
2202 Mymensingh

Perar Keshavanath
Department of Aquaculture
College of Fisheries
University of Agricultural Sciences
PO Box 527
560034 Bangalore

van Dam, A.A., M.C.M. Beveridge, M.E. Azim &

M.C.J. Verdegem, 2003. The potential of fish
production based on periphyton. Reviews in Fish
Biology and Fisheries, 12:1-31.
Wahab, M.A., M.A. Mannan, M.A., Huda, M.E.
Azim, A. Tollervey & M. Beveridge, 1999. Effects
of periphyton grown on bamboo substrates on
growth and production of Indian major carp
rohu (Labeo rohita Ham.). Bangladesh Journal of
Fisheries Research, 3:1-10.
Wahab, M.A., M. Azim, M.H. Ali, M.C.M. Beveridge
& S. Khan, 1999. The potential of periphytonbased culture of a native major carp calbaush,
Labeo calbasu Hamilton. Aquaculture Research,
Address at point of printing: FRS Freshwater Laboratory,
Faskally Pitlochry, Perthshire PH16 5LB, United Kindom. Tel:
+44 (0)1224 29 44 10 Fax: +44 (0)1796 47 35 23



Organic Pond
Analysis and management of organic
matter and nitrogen in aquaculture
ponds for a minimal waste production
and optimal efficiency

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/01/1998 to 30/06/2001 (42 months)
Joint Research Project

Prof. Johan Verreth
Wageningen University
The Netherlands

Context and Objectives


Aquaculture ponds play an important

role in world aquaculture production,
but ponds are complex systems that
are difficult to manage. Dynamic models that simulate the processes in ponds
can help in developing science-based
management procedures. The general
objective of this 42-month project was
to collect empirical data on carbon and
nitrogen fluxes in feed-driven fish and
shrimp ponds and use these to construct,
calibrate and validate a dynamic simulation model that can be developed into
a management tool. It was hypothesized
that by manipulating the carbon-nitrogen ratio of the diet and the feeding
strategy, accumulation of nutrients in
the pond sediment can be avoided.

To achieve these objectives the following activities were carried out:

Coordinating all project activities with regard to the conceptual


Collecting the information needed

for parameterisation and calibration of the model.

Validating the model, independent

testing of the model with experimental data.

Collecting data on the autotrophic

and heterotrophic production in
ponds and utilisation of these by

Developing the model into a management tool.

The specific objectives were:

1. Quantify the nitrogen and organic
carbon flows under different (quantitative and qualitative) levels of
nutrient input.
2. Investigate nitrogen and organic
carbon conversions in the water column and pond sediment along the
algal and bacterial food chains up
to the fish/shrimp.
3. Model the flows of organic matter,
carbon and nitrogen.
4. Use the model(s) for designing and
testing feed compositions and pond
management procedures that will
contribute to the ultimate goal.


Organic Pond

Results and outcome

Experiments were done to collect data
for the elaboration of a dynamic simulation model for fish production in
stagnant, feed-driven fishponds. In an
initial version of the model, fish growth
and dissolved nitrogen species were
simulated well but the model needed
improvement with respect to the accumulation of organic matter at the
pond bottom. Research then focused
on sedimentation and resuspension at
the pond bottom and on decomposition of organic matter. A new module
for organic matter accumulation was
added to the model and improved the
simulation results considerably. The
model could not be improved in the
area of utilisation of heterotrophic
microbial production by fish because
of delays in the experimental work.
Experimental data regarding decomposition of organic matter in in-vitro
pond systems became available after
termination of the project and data on



the use of microbial production by fish

were analysed in the FP5 project Zafira
calculations to evaluate the effects
of different management measures
showed that the model can be used to
develop optimal management strategies that take into account the various
interrelated processes in the pond.
The project contributed to the training
of young students. Five M.Sc. theses and
one Ph.D. thesis were elaborated under
the auspices of the project. A PhD student that started her research as part of
Organic Pond successfully finished her
dissertation in 2005 with further funding from other sources.

Selected Publications
Avnimelech, Y.& M. Kochba, 2003. Shrimp and
fish pond soils: processes and management.
Aquaculture, 220:49-567.
Avnimelech, Y., G. Ritvo, L.E. Meijer & M. Kochba,
2001. Water content, organic carbon and dry
bulk density in flooded sediments. Aquaculture
Engineering, 25:25-33.
Avnimelech, Y., M. Kochva & J. A. Hargreaves,
1999. Sedimentation and resuspension in
earthen fish ponds. Journal of the World
Aquaculture Society, 30(4):71-83.
Jimnez-Montealegre, R., Y. Avnimelech, J.A.J
Verreth. & M.C.J. Verdegem, 2005. Nitrogen
budget and fluxes in Colossoma macropomum
ponds. Aquaculture Research 36:8-15
Jimnez-Montealegre, R., M.C.J. Verdegem, A.A.
van Dam & J.A.J. Verreth, 2002. Conceptalization
and validation of a dynamic model for the
simulation of nitrogen transformations and
fluxes in fish ponds. Ecological Modelling 147:
Jimnez-Montealegre, R., M.C.J. Verdegem, A.A.
van Dam & J.A.J. Verreth, 2005. Effect of organic
nitrogen and carbon mineralization on sediment
organic matter accumulation in fish ponds.
Aquaculture Research, 36(10):1001-1014.
Jimnez-Montealegre, R., M.C.J.Verdegem,
M. Zamora & J.A.J. Verreth, 2002. Organic
matter sedimentation and resuspension in
tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) ponds during a
production cycle. Aquacultural Engineering,
Jimnez-Monteralegre, R., 2001, Nitrogen
transformations and fluxes in fish ponds:
a modeling approach. PhD dissertation,
Wageningen University, The Netherlands. pp.
185. (ISBN: 90-5808-401-9)
Meijer, L.E. & Y. Avnimelech, 1999. On the use
of micro-electrodes in fish pond sediments.
Aquaculture Engineering, 21:71-83.

Johan Verreth
Wageningen University
Aquaculture and Fisheries Group
PO Box 338
6700 AH Wageningen
The Netherlands
Tel: +31 317 48 33 07
Fax: +31 317 48 39 37

Ricardo Jimenez-Montealegre
Universidad Nacional Costa Rica
PO Box 86
3000 Heredia
Costa Rica

Omar Calvario-Martinez
Centro de Investigacin en
Alimentacin y Desarollo Agrario
S/N Sbalo Cerritos
82000 Mazatln - Sinaloa

Yoram Avnimelech
Faculty of Agricultural Engineering
Technion - Israel Institute of
32000 Haifa

Marten Scheffer
Wageningen University
Aquatic Ecology and Water Quality
Management Group
Ritzema Bosweg 32a
6703 AZ Wageningen
The Netherlands


Organic Pond


Chinese Bays
Carrying capacity and impact of aquaculture
on the environment in Chinese bays

Project Number
and Framework Programme
4th Framework Programme

Duration and Type of Project

01/11/1998 to 31/10/2001 (36 months)
Joint Research Project

Dr. Cedric Bacher


Context and Objectives


Aquaculture in Asia has a long history of combining different species in

polyculture. This embraces principles
of ecological engineering within integrated farming systems, to achieve
more sustainable solutions through the
recycling of wastes from culture cages,
culture ponds and sewage outfalls into
high-value protein crops that may be
removed for human consumption. In
China alone, the annual output from
aquaculture is more than 20 million
tons, which is 30% higher than the wild
catch, and represents more than 60% of
total global aquaculture.

Aquaculture was studied and modelled

in two bays; Jiaozhou and Sanggou, both
in Shandong Province. A metadatabase
was first constructed which synthesised
existing data from historical records,
statistics for mariculture production,
available databases and spatial information both on cultivated species and
hydrobiological characteristics. Data required to calibrate and ground truth the
models was obtained through additional
field work that involved in situ spatial
and temporal variability in natural environmental variables, measured monthly
at seven stations in each bay. Measures
included stock assessment, growth rates
and population dynamics of the cultivated species, as well as ecophysiological
measures of interactions between those
species and the environment.

The general objective of this project

was to model and define the carrying
capacity for sustainable development of
aquaculture in Chinese semi-enclosed
bays - e.g. the maximum number or biomass of cultivated species which can be
cultivated in a zone without decrease of
the yield and deleterious environmental
effects, taking into account constraints
due to cultivation practices.
Specific objectives included:
1. To improve scientific knowledge
on the interactions between aquaculture and environment in coastal
areas, including the interactions between different types of aquaculture
or exploitation of natural resources,
with an emphasis on polyculture.
2. To establish models to predict the
carrying capacity for aquaculture
and its impacts resulting from
different types of aquaculture in
different environments.
3. To provide scientific information and recommendations that
facilitate sustainable aquaculture


Chinese Bays

Findings defined the effects of temperature, nitrogen availability and light

intensity on growth of the main cultured
macroalgae, the kelp Laminaria japonica. In addition, for each main species of
cultured shellfish, which included the
Chinese scallop Chlamys farreri, the
Manila clam Ruditapes philippinarum
and the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas,
we developed separate dynamic models
to replicate responsive adjustments in
feeding, metabolism and growth across
full natural ranges of temperature, food
availability and food composition.
Models defining ecophysiological responses in each main cultured species
were coupled with hydrodynamic and
biogeochemical elements in common
geographic grids, allowing analyses
of key processes in a range of simulations at different spatial and temporal
scales, according to different modelling objectives.
At the local farm scale, towards a practical tool which could be used locally
by marine farmers to predict the effects of culture density upon shellfish


growth at different sites, a depletion

model was developed that combines
each model of shellfish ecophysiology with a one-dimensional horizontal
transport formulation.
At wider bay scales, two complementary strategies were employed to assess
environmental carrying capacities for
culture, taking into account interactions between each cultivated species,
as well as between those species and
their environments.
Firstly, a two-dimensional coupled
physical-biogeochemical model was
developed for Sanggou Bay, based on a
bathymetric grid of 1120 cells affording a spatial resolution of 500 m, to
simulate short term responses (e.g. one
year) to changes in cultivation practice.
Secondly, a box model was developed
using a quasi one-dimensional approach
without spatial variability to assess effects of culture practice on production
in the longer term. Both of these bay
scale models accounted for the same
processes: primary production, bivalve
and kelp ecophysiology and growth, exchange with the ocean, mineralisation
of detritus, particle sedimentation and
resuspension, species densities, and
times of seeding and harvesting.
Integrated assessments were undertaken using these tools to consider how
different scenarios of multi-species
culture may affect ecosystem functioning and sustainable capacities for
exploitation. The scenarios considered
were recommended by local fisheries
managers, and the outputs considered
collectively in associated workshops, as
significant contributions in the development of local fisheries practice.
Training sessions and workshops took
place throughout the project, both
in China and Europe. This included
training in database management,
ecophysiology experiments, ecophysiology and ecosystem modelling.


Results and outcomes

Elements of the models defining shellfish responses are cutting edge. In
particular, for the first time in such
models, significant adjustments were
resolved in the relative processing of
living chlorophyll-rich phytoplankton
organics, non-phytoplankton organics
and the remaining inorganic matter
during both differential retention on
the gill and selective pre-ingestive rejection within pseudofaeces. A facility
to simulate the energy content of nonphytoplankton organics was included.
This was significant, for that energy
content was very much more variable
than for phytoplankton organics, and
which represented less than 20% of all
suspended particulate organic matter.
Such resolution of the relative processing of different particle types allowed
simulation of how the rates, organic
compositions and energy contents of
filtered, ingested and deposited matter
change in response to wide differences in seawater temperature, seston
availability and seston composition.
Dependent relations predict rates of
energy absorption, energy expenditure and excretion. By these means,
resulting models were more adaptable
that past models of shellfish physiology, replicating dynamic adjustments
in feeding and metabolism across full
ranges of relevant natural variability,
and successfully simulating growth
from larvae or seed to harvestable size
under different temporal and spatial
scenarios of culture.
Measurements and simulations of the
effects of culture on hydrodynamics
indicated that disregard for physical
barriers associated with culture would
result in a serious overestimation of
the particle renewal term and thus
an overestimation of carrying capacity. Coupling the models of bivalve
ecophysiology and one-dimensional
hydrodynamics, the resulting depletion model for use by farm managers

demonstrated how shellfish density

had an increasingly negative effect on
growth in regions with higher water
residence times or lower depths, and
which could be used to establish optimal densities for aquaculture at
different locations throughout the bay.
The coupled bay-scale models were
used to simulate various culture scenarios, each scenario representing a
whole cultivation cycle, whilst depicting differences in time of seeding and/
or harvesting, according to recent
changes in aquaculture practice, including different spatial distributions and/
or densities of the main cultivated species. Findings established how coupled
models of this kind were increasingly
able to simulate the general behaviour of key ecosystem variables, both
in space and time, at least within the
context of this relatively simple marine
system, dominated by a few species.
Main innovative findings within the
content of community ecology generally included how very sensitive total
production could be to changes in the
composition, densities and/or distributions of dominant cultured species,
where changes in local density may
have effects at the bay scale.
Collective findings from different
simulations using both the 2D and
box models at bay-scale suggest that
Sanggou Bay was already being exploited close to the environmental carrying
capacity for scallop production, albeit with some potential for increased
oyster production. This reflected inter-specific competition for food, with
a competitive advantage for oysters
compared with scallops, despite being
cultivated in different areas of the bay.
Given apparent limitations on harvest
yield for scallops, a hypothetical analysis was requested by local managers
to assess whether scallop production
might be increased without changing bivalve loads, in which the total quantity

Chinese Bays


Chinese Bays

of scallops and oysters remained the

same as present, but when the scallops
are distributed over the area currently
given over for cultivation of both scallops and kelp, thereby creating areas
of combined kelp and scallop culture,
in which average scallop density is
reduced. Predictions under this alternative management scenario suggested
that oyster yield would be maintained,
yet scallop production increased by
more than three fold. This represented
an increase of nearly 50% in the total
combined yield of shellfish in comparison with current aquaculture scenario.
The change was consistent with past
observations whereby similar combinations of scallop and kelp culture had
been proven successful elsewhere, and
which we now understand is being trialled in Sanggou Bay.

Selected Publications
Bacher, C., J. Grant., A.J.S. Hawkins, C. Fang, M.
Zhu & M. Besnard, 2003. Modelling the effect of
food depletion on scallop growth in Sungo Bay
(China). Aquat. Living Resources, 16(1):10-24.
Bricker, S.B., J.G. Ferreira, A.M. Nobre, X.L.
Zhang, M.Y. Zhu, B.D. Wang, X.J. Yan, R.
Callender & G.C. Matlock, 2005. Application
of the ASSETS eutrophication assessment
methodology to four contrasting Chinese
coastal systems. ASLO Summer Meeting 2005,
Santiago, Spain.
Duarte, P., R. Meneses, A.J.S. Hawkins, M. Zhu, J.
Fang & J. Grant, 2003. Mathematical modelling
to assess the carrying capacity for multi-species
culture within coastal waters. Ecol. Model.,
Grant, J. & C. Bacher, 2001. A numerical model
of flow modification induced by suspended
aquaculture in a Chinese Bay. Can.J.Fish.Aquat.
Sci., 58:1003-1011.
Hawkins, A.J.S., P. Duarte, J.G. Fang, P.L. Pascoe,
J.H. Zhang, X.L. Zhang & M.Y. Zhu, 2002. A
functional model of responsive suspensionfeeding and growth in bivalve shellfish,
configured and validated for the scallop
Chlamys farreri during culture in China. J.Exp.
Mar.Biol.Ecol., 281:13-40.

Cedric Bacher
Institut Franais de Recherche pour
lexploitation de la Mer IFREMER
BP 5, Place Du Seminaire
17137 LHoumeau
Tel: +33 5 46 50 94 40
Fax: +33 5 46 50 06 00

Anthony Hawkins
Plymouth Marine Laboratory
Prospect Place
The Hoe
Plymouth PL1 3DH
United Kingdom

Joao Gomes Ferreira


Universidade Nova de Lisboa

IMAR Instituto do Mar
2825-114 Quinta da Torre



Mingyuan Zhu

Jon Grant

First Institute of Oceanography

State Oceanic Administration
Xianxialing Road
266061 Qingdao

Dalhousie University
Dept. of Oceanography
1355 Oxford Street
B3H 4JI Halifax



Qisheng Tang
Chinese Academy of Fishery Sciences
Yellow Sea Fisheries Res. Institute
106 Nanjing Road
266071 Qingdao

Shaodun Mou
Shandong Mariculture Institute
N. 47, Guizhou Road
266002 Qingdao

Xiuren Ning
Second Institute of Oceanography
State Oceanic Administration
9 Xixihexia Road
PO Box 1207
310012 Hangzhou

Nunes, J.P, J.G. Ferreira, F. Gazeau, J. LencartSilva, X.L. Zhang, M.Y. Zhu. & J.G. Fang, 2003. A
model for sustainable management of shellfish
polyculture in coastal bays. Aquaculture, 219(14):257-277.


Chinese Bays


Development of bio-encapsulated feed
for larval fish based on nutritionally
enriched nematodes

Context and Objectives

Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing agricultural sectors, particularly in
Southeast Asia. Fish larvae nutrition
is one of the biggest problems in larval rearing due to the fact that larvae
of many species need live food of adequate size during the first days.
The overall goal of this research was to
enhance larval fish production through
the use of a suitable feed based on nutritionally enriched nematodes. Due to
their small size and round elongated
shape the nematodes can serve as
excellent live food organism for smallmouthed fish larvae replacing the
actually used living organisms such us
rotifers and brine shrimp nauplii.
Although nematodes have been proven
to be an excellent food source for some
fish species, for aquaculture purposes
their use has not been widespread due
to problem involved in mass production.
On the other hand, large-scale production processes have been developed for
entomopathogenic nematodes.
The project integrated the different
expertise of the research teams and
an industrial participant in order to
achieve the goals.
1. Enhance the nutritional value of
nematodes (Pangrellus redivivus) as
a food source for larval fish.
2. Development of large scale, economically
process of nematodes suitable as a
food sources for larval fish.
3. Development of a kit easily and
Methods had to be developed to massproduce, to bio-load with particular
nutrients and to formulate nematodes.
The resulting nematodes were tested


on a variety of fish species. This enabled to:

Project Number
and Framework Programme

1. carry out the experiments throughout the year covering the periods in
which the different species spawn;

4th Framework Programme

2. study both warm and cold water

fish; and

Duration and Type of Project

3. evaluate the suitability for freshwater and marine species.

01/09/1998 to 28/02/2001 (42 months)

Joint Research Project

The project concentrated on a few species as described below.



Dr. Manuele Ricci

BioTecnologie B.T. S.r.l.

For the first objective Enhancement of

the nutritional value of nematodes by
adding nutritional components to their
growth medium, the effect of nutritional additives on nematode growth
and the effect of nutritional additives on
the chemical composition of bio-loaded
nematodes were determined. The effect
of bio-loaded nematodes on larval fish
survival and growth was evaluated using larvae of the following fish species:
carp (Cyprinus carpio), common whitefish (Coregonus lavaretus lavaretus),
Asian redtail (river) catfish (Hemibagrus
nemurus), Java barb (Puntius gonionotus), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis),
milkfish (Chanos chanos) and orangespotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides).
For the second objective Development
of large scale, economically feasible production process of nematodes suitable
as a food sources for fish the culture
medium and physical parameters were
optimised to obtain high and constant
yield of nematodes in 15 litre plastic
bags. The production was scaled up to
50 and 200 litre plastic bags. A down
stream process (cleaning and concentration of mass produced nematodes
to allow the formulation process) was
studied. Various materials (alginate gels,



granules etc.) were tested for nematode
formulation to confer stability in storage
and shipment. All these methods were
scaled up to the most convenient size.
For the final objective Development of a
kit easily and economically manageable
by aquaculturists, a kit for nematode
production was developed and the
chemical composition of produced nematodes determined. Selected fish farmers
or people involved in aquaculture in developing countries were interviewed, in
order to define the potential market and
to further improve the kit.

Results and outcome

The project demonstrated that the freeliving nematode Panagrellus redivivus is
a suitable live food for rearing the following larval fish species: carp (Cyprinus
carpio), common whitefish (Coregonus
lavaretus lavaretus), Asian redtail (river) catfish (Hemibagrus nemurus), Java
barb (Puntius gonionotus), bighead carp
(Aristichthys nobilis), milkfish (Chanos
chanos) and orange-spotted grouper
(Epinephelus coioides).
The use of different culture media
to produce P. redivivus affects the
multiplication (reproduction) of the
nematodes as well as their gross chemical composition and fatty acid content.
In turn, the composition of the mass
produced nematodes influences the
carcass composition of the fish larvae
as well as their performance.
The effect on amino acid composition is
still subject to confirmation. Provided
that the lipid requirements of fish larvae are known, fatty acid composition
of P. redivivus can be tailored to meet
these demands. It was demonstrated
in this project, that enrichment of the
free-living nematodes is necessary due
to the lower growth response of the
fish larvae compared to the control, in
most cases.



Moreover, the possibility to modify

gross chemical composition, fatty
acid pattern and isotopic ratios (13C,
15N) of P. redivivus opens completely
new ways for nutritional and physiological studies with fish larvae requiring
live food. The mass production of the
free-living nematode P. redivivus was
demonstrated together with its scale
up to semi-industrial size. During the
development of this technology, great
effort was put on the maximisation
of the yields and on the reduction of
the production costs. All of these targets were reached. In fact the yields
were extremely high (about 300000
nematodes/g of media) and the costs
were low.

enable fish hatchery operators to rely

on a cheap, standardised and permanently available live food for first
feeding fish larvae. The feedback received from potential customers about
this potential product, was positive,
although the kit needs refinement and
evaluation of costs. The findings have
generated plenty of beneficial information documented in academic theses
and publications in scientific journals.
scientific journals.

Low production costs were achieved

by: creating culture media based on
cheap ingredients, the small inoculum
required to start the production, the
short (12 days) production period and
the low general requirement of energetic inputs This technology is easily
transferable to those sites with minor
equipments and some experience on
basic microbiological techniques.
In contrast to entomopathogenic nematodes, the amount of culture media
residues in the final product should
be minimised in order to avoid pollution of the fish rearing water. The down
stream process was simplified during
this project by the development of a
semi-purified medium, but it is still a
very labour intensive step to clean the
mass produced nematodes.
The particular physiology of P. redivivus, which does not include a resting
stage, did not allow the development
of a formulation for long-term storage.
The formulation of nematodes based
on clay or sponge material allow