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Equipment Assessed

Networks and equipment assessed and qualified for Standards

compliance and interworking include Switching, Transmission,
Wireless and Synchronisation products from many of the
major manufacturers including:
Alcatel-Lucent, Ascom Timeplex, Cisco, Cray, Datum, Ericsson,
ECI Telecom, Fujitsu, Marconi, Motorola, NEC, NET, Newbridge
Networks, Nokia-Siemens, Nortel, Oscilloquartz, PKI,
Stratacom, Symmetricom, Tellabs, Teltrend.

Pendulum WM-11
Sync Audit Tests
Tests can include:
Fast frequency and phase (TIE) measurements
Spot check or 24 x 7 (long term) monitoring
MTIE and TDEV Characterisation
Equipment and network limits testing for PRC, SSU and SEC
outputs & PDH distribution outputs
Noise Generation testing for PRCs, SSUs and SECs
Input wander tolerance and noise transfer (with a suitable
function generator)
Phase response during input reference switching and
Frequency stability
Phase transients
Jitter testing
Complex Standards tests are easily accomplished by
combining key features of the Symmetricom TimeMonitor
software, Pendulum WM11, Acterna ANT-20 and SyncWatch.
In general, Chronos adheres to the guidelines for wander
measurements given in Appendix II of O.172 (03/99). These
Synchronised Wander Measurements
In this test, the equipment under test is provided with the
same reference clock as the sync test set.
This enables wander generation of the equipment or Network
to be analysed.
Non-Synchronised Wander Measurements
This test normally applies where there is a need to examine
the short to medium term network performance.
O.172 states that the stability of the two clocks has to be at
least one order of magnitude better than the quality to be
measured. Frequency difference between the two clocks can
be seen as a slope on the TIE graph and can be removed with
some types of post processing software.

Chronos tailors each Sync Audit to the specific requirements

of the customer. Each Audit follows a similar phased
Preliminary meeting to discuss the scope and objectives of the
Testing period, normally determined through discussion (from
a couple of days to a month or more).
Report preparation and report presentation and results
analysis with recommendations.
The final report will compare test results against the
Standards and make recommendations regarding network
planning, architecture and solutions for improving the
transport quality and making the network more resilient.
Chronos can also provide network planning advice and
consultancy following the Sync Audit.
Worldwide Availability
Chronos Sync Audit have been conducted in Europe including
the UK, Ireland, Denmark, Germany and Russia; and outside
Europe in The Philippines, Malaysia, Latvia, Australia,
Singapore, USA and Canada Chronos Sync Audit test experts
are able to travel to site at short notice ensuring a fast,
efficient service, no matter where in the world you need us.
Sync Audit can either be carried out on a trouble-shooting or
planned basis. Chronos also offers it as an annual or biannual
Health Check. This is an excellent way of pre-empting possible
fault conditions. Sync architecture must evolve as the network
grows and changes and a regular sync Health Check will
highlight changes necessary.
The new challenge of integrating new technology into core
and access network infrastructure means that there are many
potential pit falls from a sync. perspective. The Sync Audit
consultancy testing service not only identifies problems, but
offers solutions as well.

Case Study No 1
The Challenge - A large multi-national telecommunications Manufacturer has a major customer in a European country with
significant problems in his private telecommunications network. Customer blaming Manufacturer, but the Manufacturer is
pretty sure his equipment is okay. What does he do?
The Solution - call in synchronisation experts Chronos Technology Limited who conduct a Sync Audit at key locations in the
The Sync Audit is carried out to identify the quality of the synchronisation at various modes in the Customers network,
particularly where leased lines are provided either at E1 or 64k rates from the local national carrier.
The Result - comprehensive test report presented to the Carrier, where the Carrier admits that his network was not
configured correctly, and synchronisation traceability was lost to the national primary reference clock. The SDH
synchronisation activity was re-configured, and the Customers problem was solved.
Case Study No 2
The Challenge - A large multi-national telecommunications Manufacturer has been experiencing problems in the field
interfacing its equipment to the new generation of SDH telecommunications networks. The equipment uses a Phase Lock
Loop (PLL) clock recovery circuit. This is going out of lock on an intermittent basis and causing frequent alarms on the
central management system. Customers are concerned about the equipment behaviour, and are looking for a solution to
stop the alarms.
The Solution - Call in synchronisation experts Chronos Technology Limited who provided a Phase Lock Loop evaluation
consultancy and SDH network effect simulations on the equipment. Tests were carried out to identify the behaviour of the
various Phase Lock Loops based on the clock recovery circuits which receive their synchronisation from an incoming E1
2048 Mbit/s traffic carrying tributary. The Phase Lock Loop circuits were subjected to SDH pointer sequences and the
resulting behaviour characterised.
The Result - A comprehensive test report was presented showing evaluation of the different PLL circuits when subjected to
wander, noise and pointer adjustment hits typical of telecom circuits, and as specified in relevant ETSI Standards.
Manufacturer now able to establish a way forward to reduce sensitivity of the equipment to spurious effects evident in
payload out of an SDH network.
Case Study No 3
The Challenge - A large non-UK based global telecoms operator has grown its network around the world. It has installed
and inherited different types of network equipment in many different countries. It already has a synchronisation platform
in place, however, it wants a concise report examining the local architecture at each point of presence and its behaviour
with regard to received and delivered sync.
The Solution - Call in synchronisation experts Chronos Technology Limited who carried out a Sync Audit at 11 sites around
the globe. All the testing was completed within one continuous 4-week period by one of the Chronos experts moving from
country to country.
The Sync Audit was carried out at each site. Tests were done on Switches, SDH transmission equipment and interconnects
with other carriers. During the testing process, problems such as local architecture and sync loops were identified and
cleaned up as the project progressed
The Result - A comprehensive test report was prepared with local network diagrams including interconnection architecture
for each site. Recommendations were made both for improvements on a local basis and strategically on a global basis. The
report was presented to a panel including key management and directors at the operator's HQ outside the UK.

Sync Audit

Sync Audit

Verifying the Sync Performance of Networks and Equipment




Standards Compliance
The Sync Audit, enables verification of Standards compliance on many key network elements. These include
Primary Reference Clocks (PRCs), Synchronisation Supply Units (SSU) and Equipment Clocks in Switches - both
electrical and optical, Cross Connects, Multiplexers and other communications equipment. The following are the
main Standards which relate to synchronisation of telecom networks. The move to next generation network (NGN)
technology has meant that new Standards must evolve. ITU Study Group 15/Q13 is working on a number of new
Standards for packet based network synchronisation as are the IEEE with PTP Standard - 1588-2008 and the IETF
EN 300 462-1-1

Definitions and Terminology for Synchronisation Networks

EN 300 462-2-1

Synchronisation Network Architecture

EN 300 462-3-1

Control of Jitter and Wander Within Synchronisation Networks

EN 300 462-4-1

Timing Characteristics of Slave Clocks Suitable for Synchronisation

Legacy PDH and NGN 1588-2008, PTP and SyncE

equipment must inter-work with SDH transmission
systems. Wireless Networks must utilise fixed network
transport across electrical and optical networks.
Synchronisation incompatibilities are common.
Networks evolve and technical personnel change;
Synchronisation network design may no longer be
optimised. It may be failing to deliver the
synchronisation performance throughout the network.

EN 300 462-5-1

Timing Characteristics of Slave Clocks Suitable for Operation in SDH Equipment

EN 300 462-6-1

Timing Characteristics of Primary Reference Clocks

EN 300 462-7-1

Timing Characteristics of Slave Clocks Suitable for Synchronisation Supply to Local Node


Synchronisation Interface Standard


Timing Characteristics of Primary Reference Clocks

Timing Requirements of Slave Clocks Suitable for use as Node Clocks in Synchronisation Networks


Timing Characteristics of SDH Equipment Slave Clocks (SEC)


Control of Jitter and Wander Within the Optical Transport Network (OTN)


Timing and synchronisation aspects in packet networks propose Jitter and Wander limits as
portions of the G.823 limits to be assigned to Circuit Emulation Islands. Most revolutionary
proposal is for Synchronous Ethernet lockable to an external reference. Also proposes standard
test scenario CES equipment

IEC 61588

Jitter and Wander Measuring Equipment for Digital Systems which are Based on SDH

IEEE1588 : Precision clock synchronisation protocol for networked measurements and control


Supply to SDH and PDH Equipment

To address equipment and network problems, Chronos

Technology has developed Sync Audit, a programme
specifically designed to troubleshoot and characterise
the Synchronisation performance of telecom networks
and network elements. Chronos Technology have been
actively engaged in carrying out sync audits for 15 years
and have unrivalled expertise in this discipline. We
deliver practical real world solutions and not just
theoretical responses.
Using commercially available specialist test equipment
and/or the Chronos SyncWatch Solution, our Sync Audit
experts conduct a thorough assessment which will
pinpoint any problems. A Sync Audit will analyse
networks and equipment, verifies their compliance to
Standards and locate problems.
solutions are proposed providing the information
necessary to achieve a quick and efficient fix.

Potential Clients
Chronos has developed its Sync Audit to be flexible, offering
a number of specific applications suitable for either telecom
equipment manufacturers, carriers or private network
Testing of compliance to Equipment Standards
Provides Test results to verify compliance with bid
Identification of design limitations
Measurement of equipment noise transfer characteristics
Equipment installation, commissioning and diagnostics
Carriers & Private Networks
Identify the link between service performance problems
and poor network sync provision
Verify your network conforms to the Standards
Identify poor sync feeds from interconnect partners
Identify problematic or noisy network elements
Track down phase transients and non-systematic noise
Evaluate manufacturers equipment in tenders
Prioritise sync feeds at important nodes within the
Network planning support
Equipment installation and commissioning testing
Fault finding and sync loop tracking
Resolve contention and interworking issues between
different manufacturers equipment

Efficient and simple sync testing
Swift isolation of network or equipment problems
Delivers tangible evidence of synchronisation
Provides instant awareness of sync issue
Adaptable to multiple deployment and budget scenarios
Cost effective

Synchronised Wander Measurement Test

Chronos Technology Limited Stowfield House Stowfield Lydbrook GL17 9PD United Kingdom - +44 (0)1594 862200

Chronos Technology Limited Stowfield House Stowfield Lydbrook GL17 9PD United Kingdom - +44 (0)1594 862200

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