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# Hydraulic Machinery

Introduction
A device either for converting the energy held by a fluid into mechanical energy (turbines) or vice versa (pumps).
Turbines

Pumps

Pump
Elbow
Tee

Valve

## Energy of water in Motion

(1) Potential energy, that due to position or elevation
(2) kinetic energy, that due to its velocity
Potential head = z (m)
Where

kinetic head =

V2
(m)
2g

or

H = z+

V2
2g

## Total power by gross head

Pi = gHQ (Watt)
Where
Pi= total power by gross head (Watt)
H= gross head (m)
Q= discharge (m3/s)
=density of water (1000 kg/m3)
Efficiency
is measured as the ratio of energy output to input.
The overall efficiency of a hydro power plant/pump is the product of the efficiencies of its several elements.
s=12...n
Hydropower plant/pump output power
Po = sPi (Watt)
Where
Pi = Input power by gross head
Po= Output power
s= Overall Efficiency ( usually 60-80% for hydropower and 30-80% for pumps)
Hydroelectric power
Flowing water is dammed and then diverted through a mechanical device to convert the waters kinetic energy into
rotational energy which can then be converted into electrical energy in a generator.
Estimates of world hydropower gross potential based on an assessment of river flows suggest a total resource of

50,000 TWh a year. This is four times the total annual output of all the worlds present power stations.
Advantages of Hydro Power
1) Continuous low-cost production
2) No consumption of irreplaceable fossil fuel
3) Low maintenance cost
Limitations
1) High initial cost
2) Loss of land suitable for agriculture
3) Relocation of highways, railroads, even small towns.

4) No air pollution
5) Reservoir can be used for recreation
6) Low insurance and low tax

## 4) Change of local environment

5) Long transmission line

System Components
1. Hydraulic Works; 2. Power House; 3. Turbines; 4. Generators; 5. Power lines.
Classification of Hydro Plant
a) Storage plant; b) Run-of-river plant; c) Pumped storage plant
Storage Plant
has a reservoir of sufficient size to develop a firm flow
substantially more than the minimum natural flow.

Run-of-River Plant
can use water only as it comes. It is cheaper than the
storage plant of equal capacity, but suffers seasonal
variation of output.

## Pumped Storage Plant

generates energy at peak load, but, at off peak water is
pumped from the tailwater pool to headwater pool for
future use.

Turbines
A device that converts the energy in falling water into rotating mechanical energy.
Classification of Turbines
1) Impulse Turbines: use the velocity of the water to move the runner, rather than pressure.
Pelton wheel
2) Reaction Turbines: mainly use pressure rather than velocity
a) Francis turbine
b) Propeller turbine
Pelton Wheel is a disc with buckets attached to the outside edge. The jet strikes the buckets one at a time, causing
the wheel to spin.
1) must be located above the maximum tailwater level.
2) are generally only applied to high energy heads.
3) Rotational speeds can vary from 200 rpm upwards.
Francis turbine The water is introduced just above the runner and all around it and then falls through, causing it to
spin.

Propeller Turbines resemble a boat propeller running in a tube and operate on a similar principle.
Selection of Turbines
Performance (i.e. efficiency at various discharges)
Energy production
Machine cost
Availability
Powerhouse construction cost
Pumping stations
Pumps play important role in various civil engineering projects. In water supply, pumps are necessary if
gravitational flow could be not achieved. They are also used in urban sewer systems, drainage of low land,
abstraction of water from bore hole, etc.
The largest pumping station was built in California in 1960s. It has 14 pumps with discharge 8.9 m3/s/pump and
water head 587m (each pump is 67,000kW) and the whole pumping station consumes 84,000kW power.
Upstream storage reservoir

Gate

pump

Valve
Delivery pipe

Suction pipe
Screen
Sump
Intake

A pumping station

## Classification of pumping stations

1) Abstraction from surface sources: Water is fed from an open-surface sources such as a canal, a river, or a
reservoir, often through a sump and intake. The water level may change over a large range and sediment trapping
structure may be necessary.
2) Water supply from treatment plant: Treated water from treatment plants is usually supplied to a distribution
network or a storage tower-reservoir through a pumping station. The water is clear and free from sediments, hence
no screen and sediment settling structure is needed.
3)Stormwater puming: Stormwater is full of suspended sediments and a coarse screen shall be installed before the
pumps intake. The pumping station is used intermittently.
4) Sewage (untreated) pumping: A sewage pump should be able to pass all solid matter through its system.
Stagnant areas or corners must be avoided.
5) Abstraction from borehole: The pumps used are normally less bulky (around 100-400 mm diameter), which
could be fitted into well diameter of 150-600mm.
References
Kay, M., 1998, Practical Hydraulics, E&FN Spon
Novak, P., Moffat, A, Nalluri, C. and Narayanan, 1996, Hydraulic structures, Second Edition, E & FN Spon,

Hydraulics III
Tutorial Sheet 1
Hydraulic Machinery

1. Each day 600m3 of water is pumped by 10m to a tank above the ground. Calculate the amount of power required
to do this (assume the system is 100% efficient and there is no energy loss in the pipeline).
(Answer: about 0.7 kW)
2. A Hydraulic power plant takes in 30m3/s of water through its turbine and discharges it at V=2m/s at atmospheric
pressure. The head loss in the turbine and conduit system is 20 meters. Estimate the power extracted by the
turbine.
(Answer: 23.5 MW)

Elevation 150 m

Water

Turbine
2m/s

Elev. 50m

3. A power plant is to be built on a stream capable of utilising a flow up to 1 m3/s with a gross head of 40m at 78
percent overall efficiency. Assume the stream has enough flow to maintain the plant working at full capacity
continuously and the power is valued at 0.05 per kilowatthour. What annual revenue could be expected from this
plant?
(Answer: 134,000)
4. Water is being discharged from a reservoir through a turbine. Determine the elevation of the water surface in the
reservoir that would be required in order for the turbine (with efficiency of 80%) to generate 45kW of power.
Neglect minor losses. Assume = 0.02 for all pipes. ( h f =

LV 2
2gD

(Answer: 73.2 m)

Elevation = ?

Water

Q=0.28 m3/s

Turbine
20 m 600 mm diameter

50 m 300 mm diameter
3

Q=0.28 m /s

Elev. 50.0 m

Water

Fluid Dynamics
Tutorial Sheet 1
Hydraulic Machinery
Solutions
1. Convert discharge to m3/s

## Q = 600 / 24 / 3600 = 0.007m3 / s

P = gHQ = 1000 9.8110 0.007 = 686W 0.7 kW
2. Set up the energy equation between the reservoir surface and the turbine outlet

V12
V2
= z2 + 2 + hL + H
2g
2g
2
2
+ hL + H
so 100 =
2g
z1 +

## With hf=20m, so H =100- 20 -0.2 = 79.8 m

Power extracted by turbine will be

## P = gQH = 1000 9.81 30 79.8 = 23.5MW

= gQH/1000 kW
= 0.7810009.81140/1000
=306.1 kW
Annual revenue=P365240.05=134.1103
So the annual revenue from this plant will be 134 thousand pounds.
3) Power output P

4) Set up the energy equation between section 1 and 2 (1 at the upstream reservoir and 2 at the downstrean pipe
exit)

z1 +

V12
V2
= z2 + 2 + hL + H
2g
2g

## P = gQH , i.e. 45000 = 0.8x1000x0.28x9.8H

H= 20.5 m
Section 1 at the upstream reservoir where incoming water velocity can be treated as zero
Section 2

V22
Q2
=
2 = 0.05m
2g 2g(3.14 0.3 0.3)

## So the energy equation will be z1 + 0 = 50 + 0.05 + hL + 20.5

The energy loss along a pipe is h f =

LV 2
2gD

In this case,

hL = hf =
+
2g 0.3
2g 0.6
=

## 0.02 50 3.962 0.02 20 0.992

+
= 2.66 + 0.03 = 2.69m
2g 0.3
2g 0.6

V12
0
2g