You are on page 1of 137

A

COURSE

FIRST
IN

MATHEMATICS
FOB

STUDENTS

TECHNICAL

HY

P.
IIM

J. HALEE,

I.K"

IVKKK

Hl-HJKCTS

I-M.1NKKRIM1

IN

A.I.E.E.

B.Sc., A.M.I.MECH.E.,
\\'

I UK

L.C

C.

IIACKNfcY

AND

A.
LKfirUKH

H.
IN

B.Sc., F.R.A.S.

STUART,

MVIHKMMK'S

LONDON

AT

TUB

W.

I-.C ('.

B.

HACKNEY

INS1ITU1K

CLIVE

fg Cufortaf (preec
HIGH

ST., NEW

OXFORD
1914

ST.,W.C.

IV^'lll

PREFACE.

THIS

little book
and

simple
suitable

for

study.

It

is intended

practical course
students
is

modelled

of

requirements

who

First

the

meet

to

rudiments

the

on

are

preparing

on

for

scheme

in

for

mathematics

of

of

course

technical

all

covering

Course

Year's

demand

growing

the

usual

Preliminary Technical

Classes.
The
the

of

actual

to

should

problems
machine

form

whole

Wherever
which

to the

art

refer

which

reference

accompanying

good introduction

book.

necessary

drawings

atmosphere

quantities

concrete

The

the

to

the

the

that

of the

many
of

the

"

reading

"

drawings, plans, etc.


methods

Graphical
chapter,

the

as

the

studying

student

should

given

make

in the

calculations.

differs in

correlation

the
too

strongly

models

paper

of

almost

of technical

insisted
it is

solids

common

into

them.

every

drawing

upon.

important
Full

that

the

instructions

text.

Special emphasis

remembered

be

cannot

introduced

been

have

necessity for

mathematics

When

are

with

conditions.

make

must

insure

to

pervade

deal

problems

working

student

and

should

workshop

possible the

endeavoured

have

authors

that

degree.

has
From

the

although
The

laid

been

rough

on

the

importance

practicalpoint of

accuracy
estimate

view

is essential

may,

in the

in

of

mate
approxi-

it must
all

cases

be
it

end, be quite

PREFACE.

VI

the

near

as

the

cases

truth

data

every

example

is

only

not

habit

of

scheme
first

the

Institutes,
West

the

As

County

Council

Lancashire

have

HACKNEY

the

Education

Riding

of

it

taken

to

no

way

no

INSTITUTE,
October

10,

part

in

all

cover

result

forming

as

of

requirements

the

the

in

Preliminary
Union

of

Council

of

Cheshire

and
the

County
of

Union

National

the
for

necessary

explicitly

state

responsible
in

invaluable

practice.
to

the

of

estimate

to

Teachers,

bodies.

lecturers
is

is

check

rough

Mathematics

Yorkshire,

are

it

Committee

examining

Council

in

found

of

authors

are

be

in

the

but

workshop

examination

regulations

recent

and

year

apply

mental

rough

itself,

will

work

similar

other

and

of

in

successful

to

Course

Technical

the

check

useful

This

most

with.

begin
to

in

for

leisure,

at

to

encouraged

be

works.

essential

The

approximate

should
he

made

calculation

only

are

student

The

the

as

its

for

employment
them

in

that

the

the

contents

of

the

London
with

accordance

London

County
of

this

book

publication.
P.

J.

A.

H.

H.
S.

CONTENTS.

1'AUK

CHAPTER

I.

DECIMAL

MEASUREMENT:

FRACTIONS

I
.

II.

VULUAR

FRACTIONS

III.

POWERS

AND

Hi

ROOTS

2*2
...

IV.

V.

USE

RATIO

..

...

...

"!KAPHS

P\PF,K:

JSgUAKED

OF

*JS

PROPORTION

AND

38
...

VI.

ANGLES

FKIUKKS

PLANK

AND

48
...

VII.

VI1L

CIRCUMFERENCE

USE

IX.

OF

AREA

AND

OF

..

...

OKCLK

,r"6

FORMULAE

63

PROCESSKN

ALCEBRAIC

08
..

X.

SIMPLE

84

EQUATIONS
.

XI.

XII.

COMMON

SOLIDS

XIII.

drRAPHS

XIV.

SIMULTANEOUS

ANSWERS

92

WEICIITS,

DENSITIES,

RELATIVE

OF

...

SlMPLE

FUNCTIONS

KOUATIONS

AND

VOLUMKS

101

109

114

120

CHAPTER

MEASUREMENT

line

the
scale

If

an

reveal

should

country

and

inch,"

"

it would

this

In

the

if

we

are

is

inches

three

written

frequently

into

quarters
and

2|"

2f

inch, it is

we

readily

in
If

3").

that

say

and
that

that

seen

the

inches,

the

inches

two

three

say

inches

inches,

subdivided

were

length

required

if

even

they
did

they

would

they

whatever

that

unlikely

very

question,
suppose

could

line

between

lay

".

it is

Now

thus

length

this

to

between

lay

of

graduated
the

to

applied

were

length

of

I-

measured

(a length

some

length

Vie.

and

the

kind

accustomed

scale

the

that

fact

determine

to

apply

inch

an

FRACTIONS.

asked

were

Fig. 1, we

in

it.

to

called

AVG

"

shown

DECIMAL

Measurement.

I.

it

meet

be

the

will

subdivisions
the

the

line

in

unreasonable

be
which

case

every

fit

exactly

would

of

to

likely

was

to

arise.
far

By
the

the

divided

inch

application

of

2"

j^"

was

had
be
of

tenth

equal
the
F.

convenient

most

to

of
one

small
c,

MATHS.

into

such
+
an

ten

scale

small

inch

to

parts
line

the

piece,

less

subdivided

hundredth

piece

equal

which

of

"

was

than

inch.

left

difficulty is

called

would

into
an

this

of

out

way

"

Now

this
"

over

that

each

tenths,

By

tenths."

show
-A".

means

from

have

to

The

its

length
we

suppose

of

these
the
our

would

length
former
1

MEASUREMENT

measurement

could

Tgrj"t.jjjywoul(i

be determined.

now

the total

bring

2" -f
is about

This

by
a

mechanical

some

hundredth

latter

of

lind

inch

of

the

that

inch), it is

an

there

us
suppose
measurement.

The

the

length of

was

but
result.

have

must

wo

very

than

less than

above

^et

of the last
becomes

"

3
1000

'

convenient

of

means

method

might

small

yJ0".

in

"T

(the

likelythat

still another

was

_L.

simpler

length given

The

tenths

into

piecejust measured

this time

100

ii?

micrometer)

more

small

there

"

_i_
I

10

this is

Now

Decimals."

"

""

T"

were

eye, but

excess
length
-f^o"
line
of
the
now
length

or

of

measured
O"

unaided

subdivided

be

exactly10V' a^ a^" \}U^


pieceleft over
(or perhaps under),
that

the

microscope

not

was

with

go

could

length

of the line to

-70".

(eg. a

means

an

60"+

its

Suppose

length

can

we

as

thousandths

being

should

we

far

as

FRACTIONS.

DECIMAL

ment,
measure-

settingdown

of

2'673", whicli

be written

six seven
should be read "two, decimal
The dot between
three."
the two and the six simply indicates that the figureor figureson

left constitute

the

whole

"

the

successively indicate

while

number,"
number

those

right

hundredth*),

tenths,

of

the

on

thousandths, etc., of the unit.


Think

of

fours, but

such

number

quite well

know

we

value, for the first has


Each

four

left hand.

has

only one

they

value

of 400

and

tenth

the value of its

The

passed.

Here

that

rule holds

This

point is

444*4444.

as

good
values

both

5
II

II

-12 "5

II

II

seven

all the

same

II

of 40

only.
the

neighbour on

and

after the

down

be written

lo

not

the second

before

might

have

have

we

|0

10
|0

|o

"*io

12

JS

II

II

mal
deci-

thus

"

444-4444
We

thus

see

line between
those whose
The
one

that the decimal

the

values

student

is

are

should

of the inches

doing this

digitswhose

now

point is
values

less than

one.

make

an

now

is divided

described.

into ten

no

are

inch

more

not

than

less than

unity and

scale in which

equal parts.

The

dividing

at

method

least
of

MEASUREMENT

Construct

1.

Ex.

line AB

FRACTIONS.

DECIMAL

scale of indie* and

tenths

long and
parallellines
a"d
I" respectively
1"" 2"
All
from
(See Fig. 2, which
Draw

is

rule

then

drawn

half

to

JVIark

size.)

the

proper
the aid

oft' with

of the rule the


vertical

4"

three

positionsof

the

C', /", and

lines at

K,
Draw
apart.
through the point A a line A O
of any
length making an angle
each

of

inch

one

45"

about

with

take

AB,

and
step
compasses
your
draw
9 lines
O and 6' and
then

vertical

draw

inch

An
this

student

of which

just adopted
The

By
should

in

making

Metre

The

is

one

submultiplesof this

are

distances

parts

aid

now

make

unit
unit
over

centimetre

measured
unit

by

the

same

in

used

scale

his

on

metre
centi-

one

method

is

as

that

known

system

as

the Metric

of

length in this system is known


yard in length). Multiplesand

and

kilo-metre

hec to- metre

deca-metre

the

scale.

in

taken

Europe

are

scale for himself

into tenths
the inch

of

the

of

the

standard

(it is rather

small

other

is divided

centimetre

System.

which

by

Join
equal divisions.
divisions
just made,
cut AC, as shown.
the

through
slopinglines

these

in many

centimetre.

ruler the

as

unit

is the

ten

OC

parallelto

lines where

country, but

called

along this line any

named

follows

as

1000

metres

100

metres

"

10 metres.

"

METRE.
deci- metre

-"6metre

centi-metre

milli-metre

metre

It

will

be

noticed

the

that

in the

differ

prefix,
only
in
printed
heavy type
ployed.
frequently embeing most
names

those

Fig. 3 (which
half
size) shows

Fig. 3.
inches

appliedto

lengthto

be

measured.

We

see

is
a

at

drawn

to

scale
once

of

that

MEASUREMENT

the

lies between

length

FRACTIONS.

DECIMAL

2*4"

2*3" and

this is sometimes

and

should
2'3 +
It is very
important that the student
persevere in mentally dividing up the last tenth into ten equal
parts and so "estimating"the value of the second figureafter
written

"

in the

the decimal

Fig. 3 it is

in

shown

above

than

5.

fall short

to

of this

is estimated

length
With

little

obtained

should

estimate

might

we

with

make

so

to be

appears

to be

it to be

7, but

put

we

the

on

edge

practicethis

followingexercises

1.

millimetres

into inches

rule should

the

and

6, and

the

the whole
it

case

hence

figureafter

second

seems

the whole

the student
of

the

is

student

estimatingit.

of

requiresa
and

centimetres
The

inch.

an

into inches,J-and

followinglines ;

decimal

the

and

la.

and

tenths

be divided

Draw

in this

great accuracy in measurements


serious efforts to get into the habit

edge into

one

nearly-|of

2*30".

Exercises
For

over

case

than

more

required figureis greater

the

down

the

examining

length passes

the

hence

and

if its distance

Now

distance

that

seen

half of the last division

On

measurement.

each

rule divided
on

other

the

other

side of the

-*$.

line must

be

set out

lengths being:" 0-5", 1-5", 1'55", 0-15", M5",

separately,
3-15"

075", 0-25", and 0712".

long and upon this line mark off consecutively


end.
the left hand
the followingdistances startingfrom
0*5",
total
distance
the
Measure
and
O-o".
1-25",0-4",0-35",0-2",1-51",
with the rule, estimatingthe final length to
5 JQ".
2.

Rule

line 5"

Fig.
3.

iJo
4.

lengthof

the lines

given in Fig.4

to the nearest

centimetre.

Eule

lengthsof
Measure
and

the

Estimate

4.

long and set out from the left hand end


each other.
2-15", 0-85",1'48",0-35",0'23" following

line 6 inches

:"

the total

write the

answers

lengthand
down

the remainder
to the nearest

from

-j"o"-

the

six inches

MEASUREMENT

and

long

FRACTIONS.

lines 1-6,4-8, 7-95, 127, 15*9, 19-1, 22*2, millimetres


in
find by the aid of the ruler their nearest equivalents

Draw

5.

DECIMAL

of

sixteenths

inch.

an

lines 2*1, 5'1, 2*54, 10*10, 11*43, centimetres long and


the rule find their equivalentlength in inches estimatingthe
Draw

6.

with

result to the nearest


in the

Decimals

how

^oVWorkshop.

Enough

"

has

been

said to show

In
system for all classes of work.
into eighths,
the earlydays of engineeringthe inch was
subdivided
suitable

is the

decimal

sixteenths, etc.,but

system
The

that

now

these

rapidlygiving way

are

taken

are

decimal

the

is in demand.

work

accurate

more

followingwords

to

from

letter written

by

James

(the pioneer of the steam


engine) about the year 1776 :"
My dear friend, congratulateme, I have succeeded in making a
inch out of truth."
In
than a J-of an
more
cylindernowhere
work
essential
tool shops where
is
micrometers
modern
accurate
which
will
used
make
correct
to yoVo" (O'OOl")
measurements
are
and in some
to xo'obV (0*0001"). The more
cases
generaluse of
Watt
"

the

decimal

work,

accurate

student

is

system

of any

branch

for
generalmethods
will now
be given.

"'i

natural

and

of this advance

consequence

wards
to-

for the

of the

the

importance
system
The
overstated.
be
cannot
engineering
dealingwith quantitiescontainingdecimals
of

Addition.
Ex.

Add

2.

In

"

0-04,

12,

the

;
together

an
settingdown
in
digits

units'

forth.

similar

care

3'7,

addition
one

column
must

and

0-42S,

of whole
and

numbers,
all the

be exercised

tens'

here

we

are

6*634.

careful to

digitsin

another

keep
and

all
so

"

12
0-04

3-7
0-428
fi-634
22-802

Sum

in an
addition
The
not containing
as
operation is exactly the same
decimals.
The
column
the right of the decimal point gave a total of 18,
on
this is if
lT8o 1 *8. The 8 is therefore put down in this column arid the
=

1 carried

foward

to the column

containingthe

units'

digits.

MEASUREMENT

DECIMAL

FRACTIONS.

It is sometimes

desirable to express
figureafter the decimal point. The
be written

whole

nearest

number

figureafter the
writing23
in

If,however,

22'8.

we

we

we

quantityas correct to one


foregoingresult would then
a

asked

are

should

write it

decimal

are

is greater than
only 0*2 in error, while

as

to express
23, since

it

the

as

the

first

It is clear that

5.

would

22

have

been

in
0*8

error.

Exercises
1. Add

Ib.

togetherthe followingnumbers

"

3-04
0-08

012
1-16

and

representinches or parts of inches, set out


a
straightline and with the aid of the ruler find
in millimetres.
equivalent

if these numbers

their

sum

on

their nearest
2.

Add

together the followingnumbers

to the first figureafter the decimal

correct

and

give the
point:

answer

"

inches

0-041

1-094
"

0-875
"

1-250
"

Find
and
3.

with the aid of the ruler their nearest

in
equivalent

inches

sixteenths.
Add

togetherthe followinglengthsin millimetres

"

19-1
22-2

49-2
41-3
11-6

Prove

your answer
in inches and tenths.

and
graphically

find their nearest

equivalent

MEASUREMENT

Sum

4.

the

DECIMAL

FRACTIONS.

followingfigures:
"

12-001
15-008
20-012

1-018
3-987

also

givethe

result to the nearest

represent inches, find from


the decimal
5.

Add

part

of the

whole

If the numbers

number.

the ruler the millimetre

to
equivalent

answer.

togetherthe following:
0-917

"

feet

0-989
"

0-976
"

0-899
,

0-524
"

Also
decimal
6.

write

down

the

to

correct

answer

figure after the

one

point.

Add

together:

"

78-54

square

inches

80-516

61-862
342-25
646-36

Give the

answer

correct

to two

after
figures

the

decimal

point.

Subtraction.
Ex.

3.

Setting it

Subtract
down

in the

27'543/rom
ordinary way

31'07.
and

subtractingwe

get :

"

31-07
27'543

3j527^

Difference
Note

that

the

3 in the

lower

line is treated

Also it is important to observe that the


broken when
the decimal point is reached.

0.

as

it would

be if it stood

continuityof

treatment

under
is not

MEASUREMENT

Ex.

1-25)

(6-631

4.

Here

the +
The
subtract.

DECIMAL

(T472

addition

sign indicates

FRACTIONS.

quantitiesbracketed

+ 0-06)

while

the

First bracket

(i'63l

Difference

5'381

Second

1 '412

sign

instructs

be treated

togethermust

us

to

first.

Ij2r"
bracket

1 "532

Sum
Result

of the first bracket

Result

of the second

5-381

bracket

1/532

37849

Difference

Result, correct

to three

figuresafter

decimal, 3 '849.

the

called the result to "four


figures"or
significant
be 3*85.
would
The result to three-figure
accuracy

Exercises
1.

Add

"

This

might

be

accuracy."
four-figure

Ic.

0-006

together

1-039
0-82

and

subtract

your

answer

the

from

sum

of the

following

3-937
3-858

Representby lines the values of each of the sums


correct to the firstdecimal placeonly.
quantities
2.

Add

of the above

0-57

together

10-52
151-60f"

and

subtract

the result from

the
expressing

the

of the

sum

result to the nearest

followingnumbers,

whole number.

1156-3
105-62
0-67

MEASUREMENT

3.

Subtract

first decimal

followingand givethe

the

place;

FRACTIONS.

DECIMAL

correct

answers

to the

"

19.719

116-504

0-580

10.5-6995

0-401

99-865

9105-682

0-981

91-104

8134001

010H

8.0801

Taking plusquantitiesas those measured to the rightand


minus
to the left,find the value of
quantitiesas those measured
the following lengths combined
0'62", + 0'31",
+ 5",
and
0-42", 1-91", 1'2". Prove your answer
arithmetically
4.

"

"

"

also find the value


5.

"

Subtract

the

in centimetres
of

sum

from

your

ruler.

millimetres

12'699
11-785
9-271

from

the

sum

of

4*191

cm.

5-892
"

7-213
"

Give

the result to the nearest

your
6.

millimetre.

is correct and
find from
your answer
in inches and tenths.
ruler the value of the answer

Prove

that
graphically

Subtract

the

of

sum

171-961
501-615
170-310
0-625

_0715
from

the

sum

of

"

5061710
1-052
785-147
356-256

Express the

result to the nearest

whole

number.

10

MEASUREMENT:

FRACTIONS.

DECIMAL

Multiplication (ordinarymethod).
Ex.

Multiply15-362 by 3

5.

21.

15-362
3-21
lf"3fc"

80724

Tlie decimal

point is

and the rule is :

placed until

not

product is

the

pleted
com-

"

Count the total number

offiguresafterthe decimal pointin both


then mark
numbers whose productis required,
offthis number from
the righthand end ofthe result.
Whether
the

decimal

common

two

the student

point he

sense

check.

one
quantities,

than

uses

this

should
The

rather

or

never

above

any other

method

for

placing

fail to

applythe following
exampleobtains the productof

largerthan

15 and

the other

one

larger

productshould
be somethingover 45, and this approximatevalue is sufficiently
the true result to prevent our
near
making a foolish mistake in
placingthe decimal point.
In practical
work it is highlyprobablethat the above product
would
case
only be requiredto three-figure
accuracy, in which
3.

about
is

now

It is perfectly
obvious to anyone

half the labour

obtained

Contracted
Ex.

6.

to

of the calculation

that the

was

wasted.

The

result

three-figure
accuracy by the

Method

of

Multiply 15'362

Multiplication.

by 3'21

correct

to

three

significant

figures.
Since

we

require three-figure
accuracy
In order

to do this

we

must

aim

at

keeping four

only retain four hgures


in the upper line (calledthe
multiplicand"). Hence in settingdown the
ia
fifth
crossed off,thus :-"
the
2)
(
a
figure
problem
in the result.
figures

"

15-36^
3-21

46-OSi

we

need

12
10

MEASUREMENT

DECIMAL

"

100, 1,000, etc.)merely


(i.e.
decimal point towards
the right.

FRACTIONS.

has

effect of

the

the

moving

Thus

15736

10

157-36

15736

100

1573-6

1-5736

Similarly
15-736-

10

15736"

100

15736

1000

0-15736

0 015736.

Exercises

Id.

Multiplythe followingnumbers

1.

method

only

giving

the

correct

answers

together by
to

three

the

contracted

significant
figures

"

151-6

1-06

by 15*9,

3-1416

5*99,

17-256

by 61-9,

0-0965

by

by 3-1416,

0 981.

by
and
2. Multiply together the following numbers
give the
first
after
the
the
decimal
correct to
answers
figure
point:
7-956 by 55-99,
235-6 by 0*0591,
0-5621 by 155732,
109 by 0'109,
5673
0-995 by 0-995,
by 6731.
"

together :
Multiply the followingnumbers
0-324 by 0-342,
0'212 by 0-212.
0-464 b/ 0-464,
In each of the above
examples multiplythe answer
by 07854
to the third figureafter the decimal
and give the result correct
point.
3.

4.

"

If 0*39370

is the

factor

5.

If

25-394,

of

inches

is

metre

and

decimal

point.

write

equal to

it to

give the values

inches, convert

39*370113
correct

and

to inches

the

the

nearest

0'962.

199*56,

2-5409,

in centimetres

measurement

inches, find the value

12*65, 279, 67, and 0*95 metres.

"

method

6.

which

to convert

in centimetres

followingmeasurements

iJ-o":-

by

multipliedby

be

must

Use

to the first

in

the contracted

figure after

the

Multiply together the following,but in each case try to


down
first and
the approximate answer
then calculate the

result

by

the

contracted

decimal

point.

6*456

6-4516,

8-064

method

38*70,

to .the

0-155

first

figure after the

10*76, 96'87

1.395.

MEASUREMENT

DECIMAL

13

FRACTIONS.

Division.
Ex.
It is
decimal

58742

Divide

8.

by

good plan always

point

in the

to arrange
to have
one
This can
always be

divisor.

by some
dividing

or

16*27.

of 10, and

power
the same

multiplied or divided by
10 in the above example we

of

digitonly before

the

plying
accomplished by multithe dividend

course

must

be

quantity. Dividing both quantitiesby

have

"

l-627)r"'8742(3-(il
4881

9932

1700
1627
73
The

positionof

consider

that

wo

the

when
point should present no difficulty
2
1 and
dividing a quantity (l'G'27)between

decimal

are

another

(5 '87,etc.) between

Note
down"

that

5 and

6.

figuresin the dividend

when

there were
more
no
added
to the remainder
a 0 was
to prevent this process
beingcarried on
of
to confine the result to the number

Contracted
Ex.

9.

Divide

wo

into

in each

As

case.

there

to

"bring

is

nothing

be exercised
must
care
indefinitely,
required.
significant
figures

Division.
15'25

by

3*1416

correct to three

significant
figure*.

in the divisor when


It is usual to retain only four figures
three-figure
When
accuracy is required. The fifth figure(a 6) is therefore discarded.
the discarded figureis largerthan 5 we add 1 on to the last retained figure.
thus :
The problem is now
set down
"

3T^)15-250(4-86 nearly.
12-568

2:""82

2^"12
170
Result

It will be observed
last

digitin

the divisor

that instead
is discarded.

decidinghow

result.

many

of

adding

4*80.

0 to each

remainder, the

exercise great care


should be retained in a
figures
significant

Significant Figures.
in

three-figure
accuracy,

to

"

The

student

must

14

MEASUREMENT

is

Here

example :

can

"

workman

finds it to be

cylinderand
and

inch

one

as

FRACTIONS.

DECIMAL

This

7J".
equals

centimetres.

J" equals
by multiplying 7-125" by 2'54.

the workman

y" and

he therefore

Therefore

it is

It should

four

might

have

be noted

contains

three-figure
accuracy
figures.

we

at least

been
to

Divide
1

and

express

that

if

Pal't"f

work

significance
centimetre.

millimetre

in

as

involves

throughout

error.

18 pl centimetres.
three

subtraction,then

or

to five

to

or

get

significant

le.

decimal

is 18*09750

to the nearest

calculation

addition

no

must

as

real

the result

express

Exercises
1.

originalmeasurement

correct

more

here

steps and

the

made

xooVoo"

to

result

the

to have

figuresare

be correct

must

metres,
required in centi-

centimetres, and

ordinarymethod

all these

If

the measurement
Now

the

lengthis

"'54

0-125", the result will be obtained

Multiplyingthis by

of

the diameter

measures

"

1 by 8,
1 by 100.
1 by 16,
by 4,
represent lengths in inches, draw lines to represent

by 2,

If the results
them.
Find

2.

1 divided

the value

Explain the

results

of

"

by 25, 1 by 40, 1 by (40 x 35),


where possible.
graphically

by

64.

Divide:"

3.

25-4

by 32,

in decimals

by 5-392,

Use

314

the contracted

by

method

first figureafter the decimal


4.

Find

25

the value

J6_

01'

0125'

Explain

from

by 0-874,
givethe answers

0 '094, 75*24

of the

and

8816

by

111-9.
to the

correct

point.

following:
"

0-37'

16

25'

the results the effect of

Q-37

0125

0-1

169

number

'

169*

less than

unity

in the denominator.
5.

Find

the value

of the

accuracy
followingto three-figure

0785

divided

by

78-5.

"

MEASUREMENT

Try

write

to

Find

6.

approximate

an

the

commencing

1'

28'

Express

of the

Find

results

aid

correct

three-figureaccuracy.

to

of the

If.
of the

sum

following lengths

with

the

0-375", check

and

decimals

into

and

adding together.

of 20*8, 3' 111, and

sum

2*54

and

together 2-56", 078",

Add

2.
the
to

"

Jf", "", -"", 0625",


by converting -J-f",
J", and Ty

results

then

:"075",

ruler

of the

the

value

the

before

case

-18'

Exercises
1.

in each

969-6

(H)64"

the

down

answer

following

1-56

22

"22

15

FRACTIONS.

calculation.

value

the

DECIMAL

centimetres.)

1-67", and

5'191

the

Express

the

subtract

centimetres.

(An
both

in

answer

from

sum

inch

is

equal

centimetres

inches.
3.

Find

the remainder

2-015",
If

in centimetres
To

Find

5.

075

/176-5\

TO.

6.

Find

decimal

value

the

/56-13\

v
x

the

with

answer

kilometres

the

of the

following:
fI-9\ and also
,

value

point :
(0-78 x

the

miles

of the

ruler.

must
Prove
:

"

be

that

2975,

both

10-65,

kilometres.

78x13x23-24x300

_8__--

following to

the

first

figure after

"

56-1)

either

"

(jg).

"

centimetres, find the

divided

or

"-

the

into

inches

0-235".

"

by 0-62137.
results in the following cases
same
miles by converting them
into

figuresgive the
212*55, and

into

T60934

multiplied by

prove

arithmetically)of

1-078",

convert

and

miles

convert

the ruler and

3.54",

dividing by 0-3937,

value
4.

(with

(76-2 x 0-86)

(5-16

1-16).

the

CHAPTER

VULGAR
Numerator

and

If this relate to

|.

it

inch

an

been

and

the

if

such

In

in

is the

one

student

long

and

is that
which

should

"draw

now

it into 8

described

in

equal
ter
Chap-

himself

that

each

verifyfor
measured

it
five

of

eighth part

the method

5.

to which

unit

divide

these

Fig.

regarding it
divided
by 8, in

The

the 8 is called

such

of

is shown

refers, it is

equal to f" as

fraction

length of 1 inch
into 8 equal parts,

inches.
line 5"

of

of

inch

an

I., and
is

idea

monly
com-

|,J,J,-^ ^, "2,

"

indicates

fraction

it indicates

most

divided

This

parts by

fraction

that

way

divisions

us

Another

case,

think

means

has

fractions
are

Let

parts.

of these

The

"

measurement
practical

multiplesof these.

6*4,and

as

in

FEACTIONS.

Denominator.

and
with

met

II.

his rule.

on

the denominator

the

and

the numerator.

Eeturning

to

Fig. 5,

subdivided

were

into

16, and

In this way
value when

it

is

that

seen

now

that

it may
be seen
the numerator

the

same

quantity.

Ex.

10.

Find

first

thing

example

For

the value

of

The
which

is

do

is to

the

L.C.M., which

other

be divided

words

both

are

f =-"",

unaltered

in

multiplied

7x3
"

r^
ID

of:
"

find

ift

denominator,

of all the fractions.


"

means

common

multiple of the denominators

called

would

remains

^lo

of the divisions

Fractions.

*+!-*
to

In

denominator

and

Subtraction

and

Addition

inch

fraction

by

if each

equal parts,the
f Avould be }".

into two

what

be

can

Least

Common

i.e.

This

number
is

Multiple."

times
some-

It

is

convenient

most

the

answer

to

purpose,

"

least"

(i.e.smallest) number

but

it is not absolutelynecessary
Now
16 is the L.C.M,
to express

example given above


multiplyby f (because
by J (because

"

the

use

17

FKACTIONS.

VULGAR

8J and

c-

Thus

(} x8\

in the

\2lT8;
8

/7xL"\

\4lT4j VSITS/ "f

way

expression becomes

the

,/3x4\
+

same

to

do

be

will
the

In

so.

in IGths

must

which

we

must

multiplied

"

12

f!4

"'

-f 3

16
~

T6~
The

should

student

correspondingto
Ex.

Find

11.

Taking

the

whole

16'
set out

along a straightline,distances
quantities,
taking 1" as the unit.

now

these

the value

numbers

of:
"

first :
3 +

Now

the

fractions

(the L.C.M.
/7x

"

of the denominators

4W/1

28

'2.

"-

x8\

is

32) :

.,

+
_

32

Result, 2|J.

This

along a

result

should

line

in

as

be

verified

Example

10.

Exercises
In

by stepping out

Use

as

the distances

the unit.

2a.

of the

should
first
followingexercises the student
find the value of the expressionby the arithmetical
method
the
result
and
then
just shown,
verify
by stepping out the
distances
line,
a
along
straight
putting in the dimensions ;
be measured
from
left to right and
"f quantitiesshould
the
in
direction.
quantities
opposite

each

"

F. c. MATHS.

18

FRACTIONS.

VULGAR

a.

-2"

+21

3"

5.

of Fractions.

Multiplication
3

miles

for

hour

per

*.

a"

6.

4J

If

"

hours, how

ig

at the

walk

man

ij

miles

many

rate

will he

of

have

this

problem is obviously12 miles,


and it is obtained by multiplyingthe velocity
(3 miles per hour)
by the time (^4hours) \^e may therefore write

travelled V

The

to

answer

Distance
Let
in

of

at the

hour

an

that he will swim

seen

far

of another

think

us

Time.

Velocity x

of

example. How
rate of f of a mile
f of f of a mile.

will
?

per hour

swim

man

It is

easily

it follows

Hence

| x -f
f means
Regarding \ as the unit and dividingit into
7 thirty-fifths.
get,1 fifth
21
fifths.
Therefore
;. 3 fifths
thirty.
3 thirty-fifths
and
3 fifths
2 sevenths
of 3

that

equal parts,we

seventh

fifths

of

thirty-

fifths.
We

are

for

Rule

in

now

the

positionto

Multiply the
of the product, and
get the numerator
of the
togetherto get the denominator

multiplythe denominators

Fractions.

of

Multiplication

togetherto

numerators

state the

"

product.
The

fraction

should

afterwards

cancelled

be

down

to

its

simplestform.
Division

of Fractions.

by another, we
multipliedby
follows that f
i.e.Answer
Rule

A. whole
forms

the

for

Fraction

are

-5-

and

fraction is to be divided

one

to

find

X
=

"

because

which, when

fraction

dividend.

divisor,gives the

divisor

the

When

"

reallyasked

(f X f )

"

From

this

it

dividend.

Division

of

Fractions.

"

Invert

the Divisor

Multiply.

number

may

be

regarded

the numerator, the denominator


such as 4^ (which is called a " mixed

as

fraction

in which

it

being 1. Thus a quantity


number
") may be regarded

20

VULGAR

the *375 is

Note

by

some

in

cases

many
be
must

no

carried

figuresis

exact

an

obtained.
Convert

14.

Ex.

equivalentof f as the 3 multiplied


10 happens to be an
exact multiple of 8, but
such relationshipexists, and
then division
of significant
until the requirednumber
on

of

power

FRACTIONS.

-fyinto
is

(Four-figure
accuracy

decimal

"

required.) Proceeding

as

before

"

12)7-0000
"5833.

student

The

decimal
viz.

:"

should

himself

for

make

equivalentsof the commonly


|,i, |,i, |, |,|.
Exercises

The
found
these
means

and

decimal

shown

by
lengthsshould then be
of the rule,using the
then measured
by means

tenths.

This

result

should

giving

fractions

of

an

the

inch,

2c.

following fractions should be


Example 14. Straightlines of
drawn
as
accuratelyas possibleby
inch scale graduated in eighths,"c.,
of the inch scale graduated in
be compared with
the calculated

equivalentsof

the method

used

table

the

in

value.
1.

To
not

If.

2|.

2.

Convert

very common
the student

Decimal

Now

15.

1".

4.

into

Vulgar

8||.

5,

6.

Fraction.

2||.
"

This

is

less
calculations,nevertheoperationin practical
know
how to proceed.

Ex.

2".

3.

should

0'1875

Convert

this is equalto

into

fraction.

"

1000

800

^
70

+
4-

10000
=

1875

10000*
From

this result

we

obtain

the decimal
Place
Denominator
a 1 followed by
decimal.
Rule."

the

quantity
as

many

in

the Numerator

noughts

as

there

and
are

for the
figures in the
use

The

result

must

be cancelled

now

21

FRACTIONS.

VULGAR

down

simplest form

to its

"

1875

1000(1
75

Cancellingby

25

Cancellingby

25

4(117

again

2d.

Exercises

Convert

following decimals
simplestform :

the

latter in their

into fractions,expressingthe

"

1. 0-25.
4.

-'

0-0625.

2.

1125.

3.

2-375

5.

1-4375

6.

0-28125.

Exercises

2e.

the answer
to a decimal.
Multiply3^f by f and convert
result
and
line
the
marking off a
by drawing a straight
Verify
this length into 9 equal parts and
Divide
length of 3-J-f"the total length of 4 of them.
measure
2. Multiply 7-fyby f and
verifyit as in No. 1, but using
1cm. as the unit of length.
3. Add
together 1J and 2T56. Multiply the sum
by " and
divide the product by |.
This problem might have been set thus
N.B.
1.

"

"

Sili+JA).
I

-|placedimmediatelyin front of the bracket indicates that


should be multiplied
by the whole quantityinside the bracket.

The
it

4.

AC?|

Simplify

1A)

:"

5. A

rod is

fraction

of the

86|" long. A length


whole length is this ?

of

21"

this,think

is cut
of

off.

What

simplecase
off
and
the
rod
8"
cut
the
were
long
portionhad been 4" ;
Suppose
this is obviouslyJ of the whole length. Ask yourself
why ? and
method
to the problem set.)
apply the same
6. A rod is 8f" long; -fof its whole
length is cut off; what
lengthremains ?
(If you

cannot

see

how

to start

"

CHAPTER

III.

POWERS

Squares.
when

used

is

whose

square

Now

if

accustomed

are

with

dealing

are

we

frequently
of

We

"

the

is 1 foot
a

of

speak
"

of

this

by

that

divided

other

this

read

way

we

36

forth,

is

the

see

is
little

the

In

index.

that

and
each

to

which

32,

62

92

equals
81

and

quantity

the
Fig.

of

this

as

called

this

so

YARD

being

In

6.

number

squared,"

"

FOOT

of
each

square
is convenient

It

(3x3).
write

FOOT

the
in

feet

in

Fig.

in

feet

square

three

words

were

square
three
rows

be

we

square

square

into

shown

as

row,

INDEX

area

long,

is 9

area

with

squares

feet

the

up
would

there

YARD

its
if

feet, for

frl

the

mean

is 3

edge

whose
know

unit

long.

square

and

area,

we

"

Measure

Square

"

measurement

foot

square

edge

ROOTS.

to

"

consider

we

AND

presenting
re-

of

area

6.

square.
Cubes.
=

5x5x5

whose
the
=

just

In

"

125,

is

edge
fourth)

32, but

no

the

and

units

3x3x3x3=

same

is

53, which

way

this

represents

the

long.

Following

the

81, and

geometrical meaning

can

25

be

read

"

of

volume

idea

same

cubed,"
a

34

cube

(3

2x2x2x2x2

given

to

such

sions.
expres-

to

POWERS

We

ft,=
12

now

can

12

144

1728

1003

and

ft.2 for square

forth.

so

Powers.

spoken of

sometimes

raised to the power


Ex.

16.

nearest

1 foot

12", 1 sq.

10,000 sq.

12 X 12
100 centimetres
1 cubic

and

cm.

It is the custom

cm.

foot and

of

some

cm.3 for cubic centimetre

'

Instead

"

1003

1,000,000 cubic

people to write

since

inches, and 1 cubic ft.


since 1 metre =
Similarly

square

sq. metre

2"

BOOTS.

it is that

cubic inches.

(cm.), 1
metre

how

see

12

AND

square

of

speaking of

as

3 raised to the power

of 3 is 4:i =
has

square

the

as

square
of 2.

4
Similarly

64.

edyeof 4/Y.Sin-.,
find

ati

of 3," it is

"

its

to the

area

foot.

might be expressed by (4ft. Sin.)-, but


square
be squared it must
be expressed in one
expression can
Tho
should
student
note
unit only (i.e.
either feet or
inches).
very
the
ft.
a
nd
the 3 in.
4
1("
is
to
that
it
(=
ft.-),
carefully
square
wrong
make
(" 9 in.-)and add the results together He must
up his mind which
The
before

of this

area

such

an

in feet
in inches, or (2) to work
be the more
convenient, (1) to work
will
be
in
The
latter
better
this
3
in.
decimal.
as
a
y\ ft.
case,
ft.
0-25
ft.
J
is therefore
of the square
The area
(4*25)-sq. ft. Contractingso as to
decimal
the
have :
after
have only one
we
figure

will

and

"

"

"

4-2$
4

16-8
8

Result

The

area

the

should

Ex.

square

17.

foot, 18 It.3.

apply a rough check


had
a
length between 4
square
4- (16) and
therefore lie between
should

student
of

side

to nearest

Find

long. (Resultto
Convertingthe

of

the volume

cubic

the nearest

inches

1| in.

to decimal

||

ft

cube

of

whose

to this result.

and
5-

feet,and

(25) sq.

edge

is 7

foot.)
a

ft.

foot

i
-

"

ft.

G'123 ft.

The
its

ft.

ft. 1| in.

24

have

7*125, and

by

7*125

to contract

final

the

our

Hence

first

the

product

will be affected.

final result

after
figures

two

="

the

product.
the

otherwise

(7'125)Jcub. ft. That is,we have to multiply


product obtained is multipliedby 7*125. Now we
working so as to obtain one figureafter the decimal in
cube

of the

volume

The

ROOTS.

AND

POWERS

must

Let

us

contain
therefore

than

more

aim

at

this,

getting

in the first product.

the decimal
321

7-125
1

234

7-125
49-8751
"712
"142

_03fy|
50'7"6

(7-125)2
(to the

Result

check

Rough
7

cubic

nearest

7 is roughly 50, and

will be rather

50

than

more

7:{,and

350.

of keepcarefullynote the necessity


ing
in
in
order
to
both
figures
multiplications
get
four significant
three significant
figuresof the result accurate.
student

The
the

foot),3("2 ftA

volume

The

"

(7'125)3

3W-6

should

very

Exercises

1.

G-iven that

1 inch

in 1 sq. in.

cm.

2.

Given

3.

(To
4.

Find

the

the nearest
Find

the

1 metre

Find

of

area

sq.

6. Find

(To the

number

use

39'37

square

of

cubic

cubic

datum

use

in.,find the number

whose

edge

is 3 ft.

centimetres

given in

of cubic

of

No.

feet in 1 cubic
given in No. 2.)

datum

the volume

nearest

of square

of sq. in.

7" in. long.

foot.)

the number

figureaccuracy,

find the number

accuracy.)
(Four-figure

(Three-figure
accuracy,
5.

cm.,

accuracy.)
(Three-figure

that

in 1 sq. metre.

2'54

3a.

cm.)

cube

whose

in

cubic

in.

1.)
(Three-

metre.

edge is

15'63

cm,

long.

AND

POWERS

Boots.

"

root

"

"

of

plied
quantitywhich multinumber.
the
A
produces

number

25

ROOTS.

is that

a
by itself
given number
of times
called a
which is sometimes
root is indicated by the symbol ^
"radical
sign." Thus "9 is read "the square root of 9," and
must
look for a quantity which, multiplied
we
by itself,gives9,
viz. 3.
The
root
square
si^nis so frequentlyused that the 2 is
the cube root of 8
usually omitted.
Again \/8 indicates
"

"

which

is 2, because

because
(v/8l)

Square
Ex.
The

2x2x2

3x3x3x3

8, and

4th

is the

root of 81

81.

Boot.
Find

18.
number

the square

root

of 221841-0.

off in pairs,starting
digitsmarked
the decimal
point to the left for unit digits,and to the right for
numbers
less than unity. In the followingexample the lines and columns
marked
and the operation explained below
are
:"
be set down

must

and

the

from

I*.

A.

Line

1st

22

4
.

2nd
,,

....

3rd

87

| IS | 41

Hi

'

"

|
'

""4i

Oth

471

'

600
941

,,

..'{**

.,

""th

C.

618

,,

4th

1)41

.,

Thenumbcr

Find,

having

by

off

marked

quantity

Place
in

Cojunm

its digitsmarked
the
largest number

had

trial, the

on

the

left

Column

it in

Place

A.

its square
digits. This

off in

pairs is placed in Column

square

(in this

case

of which

22).

is less than
is the number

B.
the
quired.
re-

(which is reserved for the result)and also


(16) under the 22, subtract and bring down

A
brings us to the third line. In Column
pair
down
it
to
this
line.
Find
trial
8
double
the 4 and
the
that
bring
by
Place the 7 in Column
C and also on the right
"divides into 61, 7 times.
A.
Now
hand
side of the 8, making 87 in Column
multiply 87 by 7 and
and
subtract
the
under
down
the next
618,
bring
pair of
put the result
with
the last digitdoubled
the 87,
A
bring down
digits.In Column
(making 94) and put it in the fifth line. Repeat the process adopted in
line 3 and the final result is given as 471.
the

In
beside
on

of

next

line

the

the 8 and

divides

into

also in column

out
being multiplied

too

61

C.

7 times, the 7 being placed


Now
it often happens that

largea number

is obtained in line 4,

26

POWERS

in which

AND

ROOTS.

figure(in this case a 7) has to be replaced


by a smaller one which is found by trial. This is illustrated in
the followingexamples.
As a rough check we may
regard the result as rather less than
of
the
which
is
500,
250,000. This is sufficiently
near
square
the originalnumber
is
841
show
that
result
to
at
our
(221,
-0)
least

the

case

sensible

new

one.

quantity dealt
When
perfect square.
The

carried

into

19.

Ex.
This

in

such

this

example happened

is not

the

decimal, obtainingas

the

case,

be

to

root

be

may

significant
figuresas

many

required.

be

may

with

Find

the square

be looked

may

upon

as

of 352.

root
352-00.

Marking off pairs we

get

"

18-70

check, 1876

Eough
number

20

nearly

Original

400.

(20)-

352.
2O.

Ex.

is

Find

the square

of 2.

root

accuracy.)
(Foiir-Jiyure
1-414

If

the student

and

^5

v^50

obtains

approximate

he will find them

4/25~"T2

Eough check,

7-

values

of considerable

^5*

5^2"=

for

the

V%t

V~

Thus

use.

49, which is nearly50.

1-414

7'07

CHAPTER

OF

USE

Scales.

there

On

"

will

be

IV.

PAPER

SQUARED

looking
the

seen

at

of

drawing

word

under

such

in

Ki".

the

inch.

obtained

l"e

may

scale

weight

such

or

even

In

Fig.

the

graph
copper
chart

is

days
was

sold

of

what

cost

of

the

obtained
at

c"76

or

the

three

per

placed

upon

in

have

"

ton,

scale

it

scale

as

7.

Pig.

trict
disone

which

on

represent

minute,

one

The

graph.
""'s

On
hence

in

mark

zontal
hori-

being
the

in
a

first

point

the
The

month.

given

Monday

scale

The

marked

we

vertical

ton.

per

positions

weeks
:

"2"

or

ton.

per

in

follows

as

19s.

or

other) length might


a
period of time, as

copper

first

foot,"

"

longer ones.
represent
make
mile, so
might
we

is called

time,

of

size

to

""'"

in

remark

some

of a
Again, a map
is represented
by

we

made

are

pounds,

have

one

cases

any

of something
we

scale

(or

mile

represent

can

100

as

1"

lengths

that

cost

represents
market

as

which

in

similar

small

comparatively
Now,
just

which

on

and

these

In

be

ay

shown

7.

it

machinery

"full

as:

to

of

piece

and

Scale,"

"

GRAPHS.

week

on

the

scale
cating
indiposition on the horizontal
and
opposite the position on the cost scale representing
find
19s. =
Now
this
"76
19s.
to
Therefore,
"j".
the
and
."77
the
distance
between
points indicating ""76
point
off.
be divided
marked
19 of them
into 20 equal parts, and
must
This
day and so forth.
point being fixed we proceed to the next
all the points are
When
marked
line is drawn
through them
a
illustrated.
shows
the
This
line
how
at
price of
as
a
glance

copper

vertically
this day,

rose

and

above

fell

the

during

the
28

month,

better

than

any

list of

USE

OF

SQUARED

PAPER

29

GRAPHS.

figurescould do. Moreover, the price on any particular


day
could easilybe determined.
Thus, if we require the price on
above
Tuesday in the third week, we look at the graph vertically
date
that
it
the
and find
is exactlyopposite""74 per ton.

M.

T. W.

Th.

F. M.T.

W.

Th.F.

Market

the purpose
of
called,it is convenient
ruled

in squares

fainter
a

The
and

"

to have

1"

squared

sides,each

rulings,usuallyone-tenth

graph plottedon
student

should

such

should

plot the

of

"

21.

paper.

should

"

"

This

apart. Fig. 9 shows

lose
result

an

of

with

some

of this paper,

in this and

subsequent
plottinga
experiment he may

opportunityof
any

"

wire about
Delta Metal
piece of
hung on
suspended from a beam and weights were
These weights(called the load ") caused the wire to
Ex.

operation is

is paper
being subdivided by

paper.
inch

an

this

as

square

providehimself
graphs described

never
chapters.
graph representingthe
perform.

He

8.

plotting graphs

with

Th. F.

Day*.

Fig.

For

M. T. W.

8'

the

long was
free end.

stretch.

The

30

USE

amount

measured

OF

PAPER

SQUARED

GRAPHS.

of stretching(called "the extension") was


for various loads and recorded thus :

carefully

"

Load

in Pounds.

in Inches.

Extension

0-08
"H2

0'16
0-20
0-24

Plot

graph showing

the

relation

Load

between

in

the load and

the extension.

pounds.

Fig. 9.
It will be convenient
scales.
the
first decide upon
to have
our
must
scale vertical,
1 Ib. and the extension
scale horizontal, taking 1"
In the latter, each
-3^"of the scale is equivalent to
taking 1" =0'1".
extension, and consequently the second
of the
reading (0'12),for
O'Ol"
the
mark
O'l".
divisions
small
position
two
is
Fig. 9 shows
past
example,
"
The
to half size.
plotted" points are
the scales and the graph drawn
locate them
after the graph is drawn
that we
with a cross
so
marked
may
We

load

through

these

points.

be here noted that the


of this fact will be
significance
It should

chapter.

line. The
graph is a straight
dealt with in a subsequent

USB

We

now

may

extension

is divided

inch

6 Ib.

Ib.

2"

Now

ten

Ib. ; again
Take
divisions.

point representing 2 Ib., and

the

graph.

This

in

each

This
common

vertically
upwards to
will be found that this point so obtained is opposite
extension
scale,which is the extension required.
travel

Thus : to produce an
given extension.
load of 5J Ib. will be required.
is of considerable use
process of interpolation
operations.
a

for

Graph

numbers

Plotting
Fig, 10.

in F
were

Determination

to

10

and

few

square
compile the

these

of

graph showing

from

Extracting
chapter we may

It

the
Plot

22.

Ex.

division

small

the
precisely

0-22"

this

divisions into which

of these

is called interpolation, and it may


for finding the load
same
way

process

produce

of

the

the

"

-5

by

on

We

example : Find
firstlocate
must

Ib., and this is represented


point, therefore, -5 divisions past

Ib.

the

O'l"

For

would

the extension

represent 1 Ib., so

represents01

It

GRAPHS.

to find what

and

load of

the load scale.

on

each

by

PAPEE

graph

between

caused

amount

SQUARED

this

use

load

for any

be

OF

values

we

will be noticed that

their

Square

square

by the methods
followingtable :"

the

in

number

"between

the

roots.

roots

obtain

of

extension

Boots.

relation

the

employed
requiredto

be

graph

pointsmarked

described

similar

to

that

in

the

shown

last

in

for the

graph shown
obtained in Fig.8

ig. 10 are joinedby a curve, while those


lines. There is this difference
joinedby straight

in the two

32

USB

cases

in

OF

PAPER

SQUARED

GRAPHS.

matical
not regulatedby any matheprice of copper was
to
but
from
another
law,
one
price
jumped suddenly
accidental
conditions
of
such
as
supply and
consequence
:

The

"

demand.
grows

On

the

other hand, the square


numbers
root of our
graduallywith the increase of the number, and if we were

J2

I
JU

Fig. 10.

calculate

to

1'4,etc.,we
and

curve

values such as 1*2,


square root of intermediate
should find that these new
pointswould suggest the
that a succession of straightlines
prove conclusively
the

would

be wrong.
From
Pig. 10

might

be obtained

square

root of 5

for

Graph

23.

Ex.

from 1 to 10
square root of any number
the dotted lines show that the
; for example,
2*24,and that the square root of 7-5 = 2*74.

the

Given

that

lengthsbetween
If
two

could he sure
points and then

we

and

correct

1"

2*54

and

1"
the
a

cni.,

10"

graph

is

into
a

good, if not,

curve.

more

Centimetres.
draw

graph for

verting
con-

cm.

straightline,we need only plot


With
our
through them.
must
so
we
definitely,
say

straightline

cannot
experience, however, we
test by calculatingthree points. If

present
make
well

that

draw

into

Inches

Converting

points must

be

fall in a straightline
plottedin order to get the
these

USB

OP

PAPEK

SQUARED

TABLE

Fig.

11 shows

that

the

graph

33

GRAPHS.

VALUES.

OP

is

straight line.

20

'"c
8

15

10

10

2468

Length

in

Fig.
F.

C.

MATHS.

inches,
11.

34

USE

Graph
Ex.

24.

for

OF

SQUARED

Cubic

Converting

Given

PAPER

that 1 cubic

for convertingvolumes

between

Feet

foot

==

0 and

GRAPHS.

into

Gallons.

"U
gallon*,draw a graph
10 cubic feet into gallons.

70

Volume

t"

in cubic

Fig.

Krom

graph
with

our
experience of
is a straight
line.
third point.

10

feet.

12.

Example 23 it might be safelyinferred that this


However, we will make quitesure by testingib

USE

boltingtwo

In

4.

found

OF

given in

by

the table:

6'5

13-0

19-5

32*5

45

52

45

90

135

225

315

360

...

the

probable pull in Ib. when


through 180" and 270" respectively.

turned

nail

driven

was

the pullin Ib.


Force

"

through

the spanner

Determine

5.

GRAPHS.

piecesof wood togetherthe pull in Ib. was


The readings
through by the spanner.

Pull in Ib

Degrees turned

45" turned

for every
are

PAPER

SQUARED

into

requiredto

required in Ib.
the nail penetrates

an

draw

oak

board

it out

was

the

for various
found

has

spanner

depthsand

"

118

246

370

182

308

"

1*5

075

1'25

...

Distance

the wood

in inches
...

Determine
distances
6.

of

the

|-"and

force in Ib.

requiredto
1|-"respectively.

The

draw

the nail out for

grade
followingtable givesthree temperatureson the Centiscale of temperature with the corresponding
readings on

the Fahrenheit

scale

"

USE

Plot

graph

Fahrenheit
also the
7.

and

determine

per

Determine

the

...

180".

price of belting against

the
"

1|
4J

1J
3f

by

reading is

the Fahrenheit

follows:

foot in pence

temperature recorded

Centigradereading is 25", and

that

in inches

Width

when

37

GRAPHS.

the
the

when

thermometer

catalogue I find
is given as
widths

In

PAPER

SQUARED

Centigrade record

various

Price

OF

2"
6-J

2J

3"

3J

7"

9|

10|

probablepricesfor If, 2|, and 3J

inch

widths

respectively.
8.

Nettlefolds'

In

listed

pins are

follows

in inches

Length
Cost

as

find

cataloguewe
:

brass

cotter

"

1J-

...

-"$"dia.

that

2"

3J

shillingsand

in

pence

per

gross

20/6

...

26/6

50/6 62/6

38/6 44/6

32/6

74/6

by plottingthe graph what would be the cost for cotter


pins whose lengthsare respectively
2"",3J",4|",and 5|".
Find

9.
bars

The
of

Length

of

the

side

I"
in Ib

Plot
measure

10.

thread.

swing
thread.

Find

3'4

to

2"

IJ"

the

the

requiredfor

are

the

period when
a

results

the

3"

weight

of

4"

3J"

30'6

21-25

bars

41-65

T"4'4

whose

sides

4^".

of
pendulum is made
Its period (i.e.
the time
and
is
determined
fro)

Here

2""

13'6

7'65

graph and determine


respectively
3J" and

suppliedrespectingsquare

"

of

square

Weight

is

following information
steel one
foot long

light
seconds
of one
complete
different lengths of the

bullet

in
for

attached

to

"

length was

periodof 1 second.

50

cm.

and

the

length

V.

CHAPTER

EATIO

Ratio.

We

"

AND

often

meet

do

though probably we
twice
object is
one
"

their

of

the

ratio

Or

again

might

the

ratio

the

as

Thus

we

same

to

1' to

I"

will

the

we

be

12,

that

above

and

of

as

is to

is

we

to

1.
tally
men-

therefore

may

quantities of

two

We

1"

comparing

are

the

of

3:2.

or

in

that

of

12

as

we

quantities,

magnitude

or

2:1).

another

to

being ^,

as

that

mean

as

ratio

the

as

that

say

written

"

the

life,

everyday

iii

whereby
to
(generally
high
as
again
height of the one

half

like

ratio

name.

is

is the

relative

of

another,"

1"

of

magnitude

the

define

it

of

from

noted

be

will

It

of

ratio

give

as

this

idea

of

ratio

the

as

*"

be

as

12", whilst

is

ratio

1" is to
speak of the

is

other

big

as

may

the

words,

other

not

sizes

tree

PKOPOKTION.

the

same

kind.

miles

shows

13

Pig.

and

on

to

which

the

and

the

speak

of

kilometres,

the

to

representing
Drop

scale,

base

the

graph

the

mile.

This

kilometres

point of
perpendicular
the

This
miles

are

1*609

kilo, to

the

miles

the

on

graph

be

(marked

marked

have

thus

the

that

marked

miles

between
1

selected,

there

called

the

k.

relation

"we

in

1*609

are

ratio

of

for

metre
kilometres
kilo-

numbers

miles.

the

graph,
before,

as

time

we

and

note

another
from

the

represented by 3*1068,

*
or

mil$s

point

might

and

between

drop a perpendicular
right-angled triangle in

kilometres,

the

relation

point

the

showing

0*6213

to

is formed.

5 kilometres

as

taking

another

triangle

we

the

and

form

represents

and,

equivalent

is

Select

take

we

perpendicular represents

and

figure),
We

giving

1 kilometre

of

distance

kilometre

the

if

Now

kilometres.

representing

plotted

graph

the

mile.

example.
right-angled
at
graph that

which

is

again

that

satisfyhimself

Example

relation

between

stretched

21

point.
of Chapter IV.
the

load

(or in tension

as

the

times

the

extension.

representingload and

Here

plotteda graph showing

we

the

and

it is

the
graph representing
is
2*5 Jb.
correspondingload
on

is

ratio

he takes the

where
In

the

graph on a large scale, and


matter
no
always the same

the

draw

should

student

The

\W

PROPORTION.

AND

RATIO

extension

thus

again

extension.

if

called). Now

extension

we

of

of O'l",

the

load

have

take

we

point
the

numerically25

ratio

Selectingother

being
a

find that

we

is

wire

the

of

numbers

points on

the

himself that the ratio is


graph the student will be able to satisfy
always the same, and he should turn back to other straightline
test.
graphs and apply the same
ratio of the two quantities
the
he
should
find
(which
Finally,
is
shown
often called the variables)whose
are
by a
relationship
He will then
curved line,taking a number
of pointsas before.

40

RATIO

that

see

is

when

the ratio

AND

PROPORTION.

is

variables

of two

that we
should
is necessary
avoid
of speakingof the ratio of the load

It
error

discussed

example

above
load

representingthe
that

cannot

we

while

we

with

dealt

and

the

fallinginto

the

ratio

extension.

the

equalityof

as

will

loads

be

the

as

therefore, say that extension


25

Example

is

should

student

the

Ex.

25.

Draw

any
sides

Illustration

We

two

may,

the

figurehere

text, using

ments
measure-

RC.

ami

to 0*01" the

measure

Produce

the

line BA

lengthsof

7", making

to

tlie
A I)

to

(written
AC-.CB

A(]\
?

or

Is it the

same

the ratio of A E

as

to KDt

('/"/

If it is, then
there

the

AJi9 AC,
to E, making AE
"2AR, and produce the lino CA
equal to 2 AC.
What
the
ratio
of AC
the
DE.
is
DE
to
and
measure
length
join

equal
Cn

ing
represent-

of Proportion.

triangle(Fig. 14) A RC
and

we

load.

draw

described, and follow the reasoning in the


his own
made
drawing.
on

if

Chapter IV.,

between

proportionalto

which

Thus

ratios.

that

The

number*

numbers

representingthe correspondingextensions.

numbers
In

same

common

quite obvious
unlike things,

select any two loads on the graph in Example 21 of


numbers
the two
shall see that the ratio between
we
these

the

two

be defined

may

of
is

It

relationshipbetween
magnitude of those things.

Proportion

Now

graph

the extension.

to

between
relationship

express
have

can

represent the

three

their

constant

line.
straight

two

are

we

ways

equality of
writing this, i.e.

have
of

an

ratios

proportion),and

(called a

'

AC'.CRi'.AE:ED,

(\)
be read

iftliich may

is to CR

AC

AE

as

AC

,..,

(H)

ED'

CB

This

the student

as

found

has

Again,

measurement,
same

what

the ratio of AD
true

is to ED,

AE

to

to

be

true

in

one

case

is the ratio of AB-. BC

DE,

or, in

other

by direct

Is

it the

words, is this proportion

"

AB:BC::AD:DE?
If it
are

is,then the largertriangle,


ADE,

called similar

experimentwith

triangles.The

several

and

student

the

smaller, ABC,

should

repeat the

shapedtriangles.
differently

RATIO

should

He

try

now

For

AND

make

to

he will

these

of each

slide in the slot to fix them


each

ED

For

These

piece,and

material of

must

have

bolt and

nut

to

in

position. Always keep the legsat


equal length (Fig.14).*The lengths GB
of the bolt A.
according to the position

vary

instance, if EA
is fixed

must

Now

in

take

value

the
check

it

by

then

AB

ED

model.

his

on

and

AC

f along DB,
this

prove

useful

are

ends.

piecesof

side of the bolt of

and

If

the

passes."
ProportionalCom-

"

thin

requiretwo

the middle

slot down

pair of

exactlyequal length,pointed at
narrow

41

PROPORTION.

and

BC,

Find

EA.

BC

then

ED.

student

etc. ; the

proportional
compasses

These

making scale measurements.


and
a
pair of pincersor pliers

of AB,

AD,
CB,

find

the

by

measurement

value

of ED

and

measurement.

Percentages.
IV., from

"

which

Let
we

wire to stretch 0'24".

us

again

return

see

This

that
is

to

Example

21 of

load of 6 Ib. caused

nearlyJ"

and
(0'25"),

a
we

Chapter
piece of
should

42

RATIO

largeindeed

that amount

consider

PROPORTION.

AND

very
the other

if the

it would

piece of

wire

small

be

were

extension

hand,
a
long,and, on
little
Whether
it
is much
100
ft.
of
wire
or
long.
on
a piece
depends not only on its actual amount, but on its ratio to the
whole length.
made
The length of wire upon which this experimentwas
was
8 ft.,so that, with a load of 6 lb.,8 ft. (or 96") of wire stretched
venient
a
J-"(equals 0'25"). In all cases of this kind it is most con100
units.
what
would
to
have happened
to consider
1"

of wire

96 inches

Here

stretched

0*25".
0*25"

would

I" of wire

Therefore

would

100"

have

stretched

.**,"and
,

stretched

have

equals
yb

"b

Converting this to a decimal, we have a little over


might, therefore, say that this wire stretched 0'26"
term, 0*26 per cent., which
or, to adopt the usual
0-26%.
A

Ex.26.

length is

wired

me

it is knoivn, that it is not

and

What
In

the limits within

are

length of

100

the

cm.

more

which
error

and

found

thwi

0'15

fhe true

cent,

per

and

in

length of

lengthof

127 '42

the

cm.

the

cm.

error

error

may

*1"JLJ??^

have

may

.'

been

been

have

0-19

cm.,
error.

0'15
1\.

in

Therefore

in

length lies?

been

have

may

per 100",
is written

127*42

be

to

We

0'26.

urn.

100
Therefore

127-61

length.
27.

as

power

indicated

97.

Brake.

The

Find
Iforse

the Indicated

done

taken

true

longer

cm.

or

shorter

length lies between

the

than

1*27*23 nnd

at

from the

horse

largesinglecylindergas engine,

upon

power

the efficiency

as

117

of the

and

its brake

horse

engine.

represents the rate at which it will do work*


work
is being
represents the rate at which
In other
Horse
Power
is the
words, the Indicated

Pouur

Horse

in tho engine.
which
energy
and the Brake
cylinder,

rate

0'19

test is made

givesthe

and

be

is, the

may

That

cm.

Ex.

and

length

the

measured

Power

is

being

Horse

fly-wheel.The

taken

Power

from

the

is the rate

latter is

always

coal-gas, etc., in

at which

energy
the smaller because

is

the

being
of the

.44

RATIO

measured

The

called)

are

should

notice

now

6, 7, 8, 9, and

numbered

3, 2, 1, and

figurelike a semicircle
equal to those
respectively

of

case

10

consequently

are

the

of the

mean

Number.

1-42

171

1*90

1-98

the

Mean

Height

"

From

The

drag
placed on
to

as

the

1 *51

1 *57".

Exercises

2.

same

7'8f5

Dividing by

(")
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)

the

0-85

Sum

1.

be

in inches.

Length

Therefore

first 5 will

the ordinates
numbered
5, 4,

all.

of them

mean

and

down,
in the

that

perpendiculars(or ordinates, as they are


Wo
divided
their sum
by this number.

these

lengthsof
set

PEOPORTION.

AND

5a,

IV. express

the

data

The

ratio of 1" to 1

The

ratio of 1

cm.

The

ratio of 1

gallonto

The

ratio of 1 cubic

The

ratio of 1 sq. ft. to 1 sq. metre.

given in Chapter

"

cm.

to 1".

1 cubic ft.

inch to 1 cubic centimetre.

followingreadings show the horizontal load required


flat wooden
slider along, as different weights were
it

"

RATIO

as

ot threads

pitch for the


6) given in Pig.16, and
"

i
*"
decimal.

"

T"

If

these

as

Give

the

4.

The

have

screws

figures(a

two

express

both

^y^y^y^

as

both

answers

as

fractions and

AA

Fig. 10.

decimals.

as

round

distances

followingtable givesthe
are
given :

KAAAAAA
*mmmm****

Q
K
ov^l
fi
and
6, 5,
9, 8,
a

inch

per
a

diameters

screw.

respectively,
express
ratio, i.e. give their "pitch."

threads

4"

i,""

^.-.^^^^

of

inch

one

in

the

Measure

given ;

case

plot a graph.

Pitch

_.._

.^

^^

Number

and

for every

then

decimal, and

followingratio,

The

3.

result

each

express

and

the ratio between

Determine

45

PROPORTION.

AND

circles whose

"

Diameter
Distance
called

of circle
the
round
the

2"

1"

3"

4"

5"

9-42"

12-56"

15-7"

circle

ence"
"circumfer6-28"

3-14"

Plot
what

graph

is

the

and

state

ratio

circumference

of

diameter

this

both

as

fraction

(in its simplestform)


SPAN

as

decimal

for each

and
case

given in the table.


Fig. 17.
5.

shows

that the ratio of

roof.

Express the

^^

may

ratio in its

be

The

called

simplestform

sketch

the

(Fig.17)

pitch

"

for the

"

of

dimensions

given
"

(a)
(6)

when
when

the span
the span

6. Draw
a
square
the line joiningthe
a

ratio

square.

of the

with

is 95 ft. and

is 100

ft. and

2" sides.

the

height 15 ft,
the height20 ft.

Measure

the

diagonal (i.e.
its length as

oppositecorners), and express


length of a side. Repeat the test

Is it the

same

on

another

46

(Fig. 18) shows


taper per foot and per

is the

What

the

sketch

The

7.

PROPORTION.

AND

RATIO

taper

-"

"

Fig.
sketch

The

8.

18.

into millimetres

frias-

foundations

which

the

square

ft.
Draw

10.

sides AB

area

and

are

will be

AC.

Join

What

Eepeat

all

would

triangles? Try
In

testingsome

sifted through

this result

articles.

price

and

From

the

the cost

What

to

draw

per

100,000 Ib?

points of the
length of this line
problem,using another

Do

think

you

trianglein

it is the

same

the ratio

which

sieve ; T52

caught

were

percentage. On
sieve 24'97

grams

were
on

and

weighed out

the sieve.

Express

quantity
putting the same
Find
this perwere
caught.
centage.

profit of 33J per cent, on


relation between
the
Draw
a graph showing the
the sale price of articles sellingfor less than
graph find the sale priceof an article costing 25s.

priceof

In

the

135 grams

cement

shopkeeper makes

12.

as

another

through

13.

on

be different.

11.

that

tons
1-J-

the middle

the

of entirely
different shape.
triangle
for

safelycarry

requiredto carry

soil

sandy

is the ratio of the

side BO?

the

that the

will

rest

triangleABC.

any

of

that

to

What

to

the

Taper
readings
a

0162-

erecting a building it is known

In

9.

of

(Fig. 19) shows the measurements


is the taper per foot?
Convert
and find the taper in 30*48 cm.

What

Keamer.

did.

2f;

drill.

-*--

0*475

tJ

"

of

inch ?

IIA
4-

shank

an

article

for
selling

testinga pieceof wrought


8"

originallength
percentageextension

is the

of

cost

""2.
and

16s.
iron in tension

extends
on

all

the

until

it is found

it is 12T'

original
length?

long.

RATIO

An

14.

Insurance

by fire

damage

for

ANJ)

Company
annual

an

of the furniture.

value

which
of the

What

cost ""450.

furniture, how

If

47

PROPORTION.

will

insure

furniture

against

payment of 0*1 per cent, of the


would the payment be for furniture

destroying70 per cent,


compensationwould the Insurance

fire occurred

much

pay ?

Company
In

the tensile strengthsof 6


neat cement
testingsome
neat
650, 645, 610, 580, 670, and
briquetteswere
respectively
555 Ib. per sq. inch.
What
is the average
tensile strength in
this and the followingcase ?
Six briquettesmade
of one
part of
and 3 parts of sand, 250, 246, 255, 251, 262, and 278 Ib.
cement
15.

per sq. inch.


Draw

16.

determine

figureto the dimensions


its average height.
a

20.

Draw

17to

dimensions

the

given (Fig. 20),

Fig.

21.

triangle
given

(Fig.21), and determine


the average height. (The
scribed
of drawing is demethod
in Example
30,
Chapter VI.)
Trace

18.

card
into

your
the

the

tor
indica-

given (Fig.22)
vide
note-book, dibase

equal parts; measure


middle

heightof

10

into

11

each

ji

the

part and find

the average

height.

and

CHAPTER

ANGLES

Angles.

AND

Fig.

"

VI.

shows

23

FIGUEES.

PLANE

circle, with

its centre

(called the
boundary
radius
known
as
a
(plural radii). Consider
about
the point 0 after
If it rotate
the manner
in
it
the opposite direction,
will trace
clock, but
it
For
when
has
an
angle.
example
got into
0

from

drawn

Fig.

it has

OC

traced

it has

out

travelled

to

perpendicular
the

it is

but

are

the

line

each

360

of which

degrees

The

When

in

student

angle-measurer

should

quarter
angle and

circle,and
in

is called.

of

hand

the

of

OB

position of

the

is called

what

out

OA.

radius

got to
circle, and the

whole

the

line

unit

of

has

00

is said

to

be

OA.

AOD

now

radius

the

the

of the

is called

straight line, as
degrees, is usually written

is

AOB.

alright

is

23.

have
a
right angle, then, we
too large for practical purposes,

equal parts,
there

angle
through

is called

angle AOC
In

the

line

circumference)

the

to

0.

at

so

angular

measure,

it is divided

into

We

degree.

that

Fig.

an

23.

thus

see

90

that

angle of 180 degrees


(An angle, e.g. sixty

60".)
make

for himself

protractor,

as

an

ANGLES

Ex.

Draw

29.

J)raw

A B
this

(Fig. 24)

stepped

now

marking

by

out

will be found

that

3"

the

of 1|"

and

long
radius

radins

draw

the

and

7", it

semi

circle

the

mark

1J"

of

means

points C

the

FIGURES.

and

siibtliriJe into

15 degrees.

and

centre

as

PLANE

semicircle

largerthan

angles not
With

AND

middle

point O

with a A
If the radius is

semi-circle.

round

compasses

the

circumference,

(that is 180") has been divided


into 3 equal parts*,
each of which
is therefore
should
the

00".

now

point of
making

and

of

these

by placing

the compasses

13

on

an
arc
(ofany radius
and, with C as
J/fC7),
and
the
same
radius,

than

more

centre

making
first.

angle

another
If

is

the

30".
an

This

of

the

The

on

the scale.

to

the

edge

be

now

be

bisected.

bisected

This

in the

fix the

will

same

thus

way,

joined to

all be

the

point O.

Angle, placethe protractorwith

angle

with

and

positionof

If the
of

will

of 603

should

of 15".
By stepping out the arc corresponding to this
in the figure are
circumference, the positions marked

should

These

angle.

angle

the

To Measure
an
the apex of the

the

tion
intersec-

angle

angle

round

obtained.

to

the

cut

to

arc

point

joined

getting

angle

on

One

be bisected

the

the

other

the

of the

arms

line OP

angle

then
too

are

should

protractor they

along

can

arm

the

l"e

point 0

one

of

arm

be read

short

to

off

come

before

produced

is commenced.

measurement

To

Draw

an

of
Angle of a given number
with
line
the
protractor on a
along the
end, and the line OB

degrees,place the

point0

on

point is

line.

one

made

now

upon

the

ference
circum-

position of the
of degrees required. This point is then
number
joined to the positionof 0.
For settingout
in the
Workshop.
Angles
or
measuring angles in the workshop it is very
of

the

circle at

the

"

convenient
foot
same

Fig. 25.

(A)

at the

to

make

folding rule
results

scales,common

rule

is

opened as
junction depends upon

F. c. MATHS.

such

could

steel

of

use

as

be

property of
carpenters use.
a

obtained

with

two-

(The
12"

two

amongst engineers.) If the


shown

in

Fig. 25,

the distance

marked

the

angle
The

d.
4

50

ANGLES

AND

FIGURES.

PLANE

followingtable givesthe distances correspondingto


angles. To obtain intermediate values, the student
a

graph

and

obtain

the

requiredvalues
Angles.
10"

'2-09

15"

:H3

20"

4-17

30"

6-21

40"

8-21

45"

9-20

50"

10-12

60"

12

70"

137("

80"

15-43

90"

16-97

Rectilinear
Figures.
flat surface of any shape. If the
the
figures,
the former

bounded

are

by

by interpolation.

"

plane figure

surface

the

three sides and


thus:

Triangles are subdivided


equal.

"

an

Of

the

an

enclosed

by straight
rectilinear

quadrilaterals,

and

triangles

are

is

is bounded

plane figure.

rectilinear

important

most

plot

1-05

Plane

of

number
should

Distance.

5"

lines,it is called

latter

by four.
equilateral trianglehas

all its sides

An

has
triangle

equal sides.

right-angled
of
90".
angle
triangle
has all its sides
Quadrilateralsare classified thus : A square
and anglesequal. (The latter are necessarily
rightangles.) A
rectangle has all its angles right angles. (Its oppositesides
are
necessarily
equal and parallel.)A parallelogram has its
isosceles
has

two

one

"

oppositesides parallel.A
Ex.

30.

Draw

rhombus

trianglewhose

has all its sides

sides

are

equal.

2'37",
respectively

1-83",2*51".
triangleis shown in Fig. 20. It should be drawn by settingdown
Then with tt as centre and radius 2*51" an
of
its
one
sides,e.g. EG 1*83".
and 2*37" as radius another arc is drawn
C
is
centre
and
with
drawn,
are
as
to cut the former.
The point of intersection is the point A.
This

It is convenient to

speakof

the

anglesof

this

as A, B,
triangle

52

ANGLES

To

draw

angles,unless

PLANE

AND

FIGURES.

know
must
at least one
we
quadrilateral
the
is
of
one
diagonals given in addition

of the
to the

sides.
Ex.
AB

Draw

31.

BC

cm.,

quadrilateralA

a
=

CD

12 cm.,

BCD

11 cm.,

which

in
and

DA

D
8

65",

(See

cm.

Fig.28.)
make

First
and

then

set

protractor.

lengths of

the

rough sketch
the angle
Upon the arms

of the

out

11

(DC) and

cm.

be marked
and radius

of 65"

figure
with

of this
8

cm.

angle
(DA)

Then
should
with
O aa
12
centre
draw an
em.
arc, and
and
witli A as centre
radius of 7 cm.
draw
another
This fixes
are
cutting the former.
The
student
the point B.
should draw this

figure for

off.

himself

and

measure

the

angles

A, B, andC.
It is

that the sum


of
readilyseen
the four angles of any quadrilateral
is equal to four right angles (360"),
for if a diagonal is drawn, as AG
in
into
the
divided
two
of
is
triangles, angles each
Fig. 28, the figure
180".
of which togethermake
A

Areas.

"

draws

student

If the

wide

rectangle 4" long by 3"


squared paper, he will see
contains exactly12 squares
In

sides.
4
of

"

of "h

words

with

its

area

29

In Fig.
sq. in.
is shown
A BCD
on

other

"

"

units

units.

and
Its

having
area

on

that

a
a

"

it

1"
is
tangle
rec-

base

height

is therefore

b x h, which is written bh.


In the same
figure is shown

Fig. 29.
standing
the same
base DC (" b ") and having
these two figuresare
Now
vertical height ("A").
the same
superimposed,but there is a portionof the rectangle
partially
and a portion of the parallelogram
(viz.the triangleDAE)
CBF) which stand alone. If these be cut out
(viz.the triangle
and superimposed
they will be found to be equal. The student

parallelogramEFCD

on

ANOLES

should

make

AND

53

FIGURES.

of trials,making the parallelograms


more
will find that parallelograms
standing

number

PLANE

He

slanting.
and of the same
vertical height
base (or equal bases),
same
on
are
equal in area, that area being the product of the base and
the vertical height.
It is readily
that any of these parallelogramsmight have
seen
into two equal parts by drawing a diagonal,each
been divided
base
part being a triangle. Thus trianglesstanding on the same
vertical heightare equal in area.
(or equal bases)and of the same
is
Hence
the area
of a triangle equal to one half the product of the
base and the vertical height.
is required,
it is usual
If the area
of an
irregularquadrilateral
and
take the sum
of
of the areas
to divide it up into triangles
Indeed
this method
be appliedto any rectilinear
these.
may
it
sides
however
have.
figure,
many
may
and

more

the

6b.

Exercises
the

Find

of the

areas

followingfigures:
"

1.

An

trianglewith
equilateral

2.

An

isosceles

3.

4.

3'27"

triangleABC

described
quadrilateral

rhombus

angles is

equal sides

cm.,

8'2

of 2-61".
cm.,

and

sides

whose

in

Example

31.

each 9*2 cm.,

are

2*34", and

and

of whose

one

115".

the

It will be

kitchen

32.

If
floor?

The

and

parallelogramhaving sides whose lengthsare


and one
of whose angles is 46".
respectively

6.

Each

which

"

172

The

6".

in

base

cm.

55".

5.

Ex.

triangleof

sides 7

floor is
that

seen

tile will
number

cover

flooris to be covered with square tiles6" by


lift,
tiles will cover
the
by 13/2,,hoiv many

the
an

area
area

of the

0"

of tiles required=

6"

floor
=

14' x

13'

area"f

182 sq. ft.

0'5'

36 sq. in. or

0'5'

floor~ 182JSLit
=

area

of

one

tile

0*25

0'25 *"q.ft.

728 tile*.

ANGLES

Ex.

33.

AND

PLANE

20'

measures

room

7^"

boards

FIGURES.

"by15'.
wide

How

and

feet offloor

many

having

will be

required?

Since

30.

The

boards

the

Suppose

Fig.

number

be

to

fixed
-

in

as

180",

of boards

Therefore
will

have

floor is 15 ft. wide

the

i|; 7"J"

long

joints

square

^^^^^^tmim^m

laid

24 boards
be

24 board,

required,or

side

480'

The

is advised
student
type to make a sketch.

by
of

run

in

side

each

20'

boarding.

problems

of

this

Fig. 30.
Exercises
1.

wall
is sold

which
will be

How

state

how

area

is to be
in sq.

for the

above

"

wall

paper
feet
many

calculated

the

4J" will

be

quantity
required.

required to
2' 4"

measures

by

6' 6".

the

to

pave

area

for

path

mine
Deter-

found

moulding.
"

"

ar"

How

ft. wide.

feet,adding 25 per cent,


and

with

covered

be

rolls will be

many

paintedand

framing

"

to

long,If

bricks 9" by
many
and 33 ft. long ?

door

the
to allow

12' 3" has

in rolls 35 ft.

Also

3ft. wide
3.

by

required (allowing *

waste) ?
2.

9' 3"

6c.

"

*"

"

Q"

"

21*-*

Fig. 31,
4.

Fig.31

shows

P. Q. B. 8 have

lathe bed, the parts marked


planed. If the lengthof the bed

section of

to be machine

ANGLES

is

determine

ft.,

PLANK

AND

the

total

55

JTUUAB8.

(in

area

sq.

in.)

which

requires

planing.
220

5.

7' 4"

compartments

long

this

allow,

from

the

What
the

of

shown

are

metres,

square

for

space
thickness

of

tools

storing
each

in

space

will

compartment

metal

separating

taken

with

the

one

dimensions

and

and

high.

neglecting
other

The

6.

chain

5'

by

for

required

are

in

using

Held

Fig.

were

Determine

32.

information

the

the

given

surveyor's
in

area

acres

below.

2625

Gunter's

20
1

metres
acre

chains
.

Chain
=

10
and

60
sq.
move

60

feet
chains.
the

feet

100

links.

approximately
(The
decimal

(05*6* feet).

student

point

should
to

get

the

find

the

area

in

area

acres.)

in

CHAPTKK

Find

34.

AREA

AND

CIRCUMFERENCE

Ex.

VII.

the

ratio

diameter

the

of

OF

CIRCLE.

of

its

to

penny

circumference.
student

The

(N.B.

making

measurements

here, using the


First

by

do
to

centimetre

the

measure

trial

should
correct

the

finding

diameter

ot

widest

his
will

example, using
The
problem
unit of length.)
the
coin by placing the

the

as

this

O'Ol".

be

scale

and

scale

inch

worked

out

it and

across

part.
Diameter

3-(M)

cm.

To

scratch

scratch

the

being
Mark

this
the

the

on

rests

careful

gives

circumference

the

measure

Make

end

the

on

rule

edge

of
of

the

avoid

until

Circumference

=97

the

different

lids).

coins
Is

unaltered

Ex.
r

ire

and, if

the

the

is

traversed.

line,
line,
This

0.14

_.

all

for

same

ratio

the

to

given by

'

IFolT

measurements

Find

line

repeat this example, using


possible,larger discs (such as

the

ratio

if the

35.

in other

made

are

diameter

the

of

circles?

of

number

of
tin

circular

Does

it remain

units

lead

pencil

to

its

umference.

The

diameter

The

Take

the

be measured

may

circumference,

sufficient

on

should

back

9'7
__

"TDuimeter
student

of

along the

coin

comes

of paper.
that
so

line

the

on

circle.

ratio

Circumference

The

it

the

length

of the

required

The

cm.

roll

scratch

flat piece

on

place

Now

the

slipping,
point on the line and measure
length of the circumference
to

and

penny
line.

the

line

straight

by

accuracy

piece
handle

of cotton

of

however,
the

method

and

wind

cricket

bat).

as

before.

is

too

obtain

to
in

it

just adopted
the
neatly round
Cut

0*29".

Diameter

small

the

cotton

the

its
c-ise

length
of the

pencil (like the


so

as

to

have

with

penny.

binding
an

exact

CIRCUMFERENCE

number

of turns

measure

it.

AREA

AND

the

(aay 10) on

and
pencil,

Length of

OF

10 turns

unwind

then

57

CIRCLE.

the

and

cotton

9'12"
!)'12

,,

Required

The

accurate

I4.

show

measurements

ancient

In

symbol TT,
representedby
and the same
is pronounced pie,"

that

us

gas
is

this ratio
it

mathematics

Greek

is the Greek

which

the

was

letter for P

and

universally.
of significant
to a great number
been determined
for
all
first five are sufficient
ordinarypurposes and
symbol

"

Its value

1t

0'429

handles.

for all circles.

constant

0'912"

repeatthis example, using metal rods,

should

broom

most

"

--.-"-

Diameier

student

pipingor

--

"

0*91*2"

Circumference

,.

ratio

The

'

circumference

Therefore

has

figures. The

is stillused

3-1416.

are

We

therefore
times

3*1416

ird ;
2?rr

circle

the

find

Ex.

the

will

circle

representthe

we

is

meter
dia-

say the circumference


circle,the circumference

may

of

more

the

nearer

very
which
in

shown

ihe

the

Circle.

of

area

eqiials
r.

of

Fig. 33 we see
be joined to
the
close foyether,on
shall have
a
figure

part

we

be

If the

into

we

its centre

very

circumference

which

of

radius

the upper
If
circle.

pointa

Area

Find

36.

circle whose

two

if

So that

diameter.

the

of

circumference

To

In

the

by the letter d,
if r representthe radius
or
(sinced
2r).
of

the

that

see

nearly ft triangle

points
circle

are

were

largenumber

taken
gether.
todivided up
of these angles,
triCIRCUMFERENCE

N-

then

arranged as
lower part of Fig. 33, we
were

2/rr

Fijr.33.

thus :
Consider
might find the area
x
triangle,its area
(base
height) but its height r, therefore
"
of
all the triangles \r y (sum of all
the
and
area
x
(base)
area
\r
bases) Jr x (circumference of the circle).
"

one

"

\r (2*r)
(J of 2)

TT

its
the

58

This

is

7TT2 becomes

TT

(4Y=

radius

is 5

cm.

area

2wr

31 -410

circumference

of

body

C.

d\

of

circle wliote

."}

The

"

which

Fig.34
has

the surface

upon

should

student

wood.

or

pieceA

Marked

.5

cm.

Gauge.

head

07854

cm.

of cardboard

gauge

It consists

3'1416

3-1416

Circumference

slidinginto

78 '54 sq.

"

this idea.

of

mr-

area

"

the

And

make

the

circumferenceand area
(Three-figureaccuracy.)

Find

make

"

Circumference

To

remembered.

expressionfor

an

-T"Z"

\ 2 /

37.

be

of its diameter.

circle in terms

Ex.

CIRCLE.

should

and

to have

convenient

OP

AREA

important formula

very

It is sometimes
a

AND

CIRCUMFERENCE

shows

connection

C against the

6'28l
t

Fig.
lower

is

edge of B
edge of

upper
is made
mark

on

34.

scale of inches
scale
such

which
that

2l

is

tenths, and againstthe

and

3-1416

the

time

oppositethe O

it is

former.

of both

scales

jaws are closed. If a rod is placedwithin the jaws, the


lower scale givesits diameter and the upper one its circumference.
when

the

7a.

Exercises
1.

Find

circumference

the

0'2, 07,
respectively
2.

Find

diameters

the
are

and

1-3,2'41, and

circumference

area

of circles whose

3'65

cm.

and

area

of

the

O06, O81, 2-46, 478,


respectively

and

radii

circles
5-27

are

whose
in.

CIRCUMFERENCE

Fig. 36

shows

AND

that

ladder

the

forms

triangle,and
/*
/

if

Ex.

Find

39.

square

Fig. 37

shows

the

I2, i.e. 2P

Ex.

40.

Draw

Find

v'sj

.,

Mark

1-42.

oft*AK

BD

off AD

Mark
and

join HE,

edge of

be

cut

the
the

on

findingthe largest

circle of 1" diameter.

is of

diagonal of which
of

of
I*

the

square

0'5, I

If

circle.

the

graphicallythe

we

?, then
^0;5
-

square

root

in which

AK

etc.

right-angledtriangle

A Care

10 cm.,
It is found
=

BC

\vhich

ABC

Calling 10 cm.
bo
14*2
to
cm., therefore the

each

length of RU gives ^/2.

14'2

1 and

(approximately).

and
the

side

0*71"

of 2, 3, 4, 5,

1 unit

in

the
equate,
the diameter

the

/'--f Z2

Therefore

bar.

itself into

be drawn

the

can

round

equal
length of the

call

lengthof
which

the
to

course

"

(approximately).

reallyresolves
can

right-angled

largestsquare
end of a 1" diameter
which

of

hypotenuse

shank

This

CIRCLE.

call its length I then :


2600.
2500 4- 100

51 ft.

OF

the

we

10'-

V2600

60"

AREA.

see

and

Fig. 38.

join BD.

gives us

V4 and

Then

so

BD

N/"

forth.

Fig.

Exercises
1.

Wire

Standard

7b.

(known in England as Imperial


Wire Gauge, written S. W.CK)
No. 17 has an equivalent
of 0-066".
of 0-006".
No 38 has an equivalentdiameter
is sold

by

gauge

diameter
Determine
and

the

in square

area

of the section of these wires in square

millimetres.

inches

CIRCUMFERENCE

AND

AREA

OF

CIRCLE.

OJL

whose diameters
four-cylinder
petrolenginehas cylinders
65 millimetres
in sq. in.
measure
(calledthe bore). Determine
the combined
sectional
of the four cylinders.
cross
area
2.

Fig. 39.
3.

The

of the

diameter

drivingwheels

If that of the axle at the centre


distance

the axle, and


4.

the number

diagram of

the distance
"

travels in

the wheel

of

of turns

in the

is

6|" determine

revolution, the circumference

one

the wheel

diagram

in

makes

is shown

A to B measured

from

is 5ft. G in.

locomotive

of the wheel

arch
seginental

Since the angle shown

round
is 90"

in

Fig

the

of

mile.

39.

curve.

the

the

mine
Deter-

(N.B.

lengthof the

Fig. 40.

circle.)Also find howand spaced%" apart will be requiredto form


feet of
of the stripsis 13" long,how
many
be required?

\ of the
^
strips1-J"wide
many
the lagging. If each
is

arc

wood

1^"wide

5. A

water

the sectional

will

tap has
area

of the

circumference

diameter

in sq. ft. and

of
sq.

f" at

cm.

the nozzle.

Determine

CIRCUMFERENCE

Determine

6.

7.
of

Fig.

the

is

AB.

sq.

ft.

8.
the

41

dimension
sketch

If the

line

wind

of the

length

Fig.

9.
on

the

distance

(2)

43

sketch

nearest

42

in

of

of

AB

length
14'53

Ib.

15

ft.,

Ib. ?

Determine

crane,

A.

measured

showing

Rod

length

and

the

pressure

pipe flange,and six -""holes are


circle
at
equal distances
apart.

dotted

(1)

Fig.

of the

across

sketch.

42.

shows

measured

and

in

pipe

normal

the

CIRCLE.

Determine

area

an

to

the

give

on

truss.

causes

acts

shown
B

Jib

Fig.

wind

and

roof

OF

of

area

pressure

is

sketch

AREA

given
of

and

AB

on

total

is the

what

the

side

the

on

sectional

the

for

(Pig. 40)

AND

round

straight

the

holes

the
lines

drilled.

circumference
from

one

to

to

be

drilled

Calculate

of the
another.

circle
Make

the
and
a

CHAPTER

USE

have

We

radius

the

by

area

expression
is

(A)

equal

is

"

There
obtained

Chapter

are

many

we

all

on

obtained

calculate

piping
metal

we

in

use,

some

be

called

Trr2.

thing

one

formula

calculate

can

if

which

of

obtained

we

force

to

an

the

extension,
force
the

Chapter VII.
For
example in
the
it

and

(in Ib.)

ratio
was

was

of

seen

25

symbols

same

been

in

inr

have

results.
experimental
straight line graph showed

the

thus

formula,

for

value

any

how

see

times

might

we

two

or

by

types

certainly,that

one

results.

It

might

has
be

now

been
used

of d.
it is to

convenient

results

one

simple

experimental

some

mathematical

Ex.

which

on
graph
(in inches). Using

from

examine

by

how

points

have

we

their

also

that

we

25d.

Here

write

we
may
it tells us

might

It

If

(viz. 3*1416).

IT

of

we

as

from

saw

extension

We

aid

formulae

obtained

V.,

by

by squaring

versa.

representing

write

to

vice

are

numbers

the

and

the

of

because

(Trr2).

by

value

radius

equation

an

another

to

is obtained

circle

the

the

mathematically,

Others

that

and

(plural formulae),
know

of

area

multiplying by

and

the

denote
This

POEMULAE.

OF

the

that

seen

VHI.

of

means

of formulae

express
formulae.
and

make

experimental
We

shall

or

here

calculations

some

aid.

41.

If D

and

the

denote

the

denote

external

internal

diameter

of
the

diameter

is

given by

Calculate

07854

when

A
2}

(D2
"

and

d2).

"

|"

0*75".

Therefore

T%

0-5625".

Therefore

-^/.
D*

d8

piece of

sectional

0'563

sq.

in.

0'317

sq.

in.

area

gas

of

64

17SE

Therefore

(/)"

OF

rf2)

FORMULAE.

0'246

0'7854

Multiplyingby 7854

0-1722
192
10
A
Nott".

It

"

remainder.

(D

as

Result

0-192

rf from

would

be

If this

operation had been intended

subtract

to

inrony

0'19 sq. in.

-=

and

then

square

have been

it would

the

written

d)~.

Ex.

The

42.

givenby

the

formula

ft

Where

Horse

Indicated
I.H.P.

Power

(I.H.P.) ofa

gns

enginei#

"".A.1L

effective
pressure on the pistonin Ib. per sq. in.
lengthof stroke in feet.
area
of the pistonin sq. in.
number
of explosionsoccurringin the cylinderpet*
mean

ntinvte.
Find

the I.H.P.

giventhat
The

of a

sq. in. and

66*8 Ib. per


of the

diameter

piston
A

Therefore

and

66-8

11"

"=

11

I.H.P.

design

it is usual

Machine
to

sq. in.

23-8

ft.
-}-|

-__

23-8

85

33000

division

Contracting the multiplicationand


figuresonly we get

of

85.

(5'5)3

12

Dimensions

stroke,

P.L.A.N.

tT
1"
I.H.P.

XT
Now

11"

and

5*5".

"

0*7854

"=

5*5" bore

engine of

gas

so

as

to

obtain

three

ficant
signi-

3-75.

Farts.

give drawings

"

In

books

of machine

actual

machine

on

parts or

even

of

are
no
placed
completeengine,on
for
The
dimensions
series
of
numbers.
a
only
any
obtained
case
are
by
by multiplyingthese numbers
particular

which

measurements

but

unit
In

as

it is called.

Fig. 44

two

we

have

particularsof

lengthsof shafting. The

"

unit

Box

"

ing
Coupling connectplacedupon the drawing

USB

is

d indicates the diameter

Here

(d + i).

to obtain

65

FORMULAE.

OF

the dimensions

when

the

of the shaft.

has

shaft

diameter

Hence,

of

multiply the numbers


given by (1-J+ -J)or 2.
the length of the coupling must
be 3 25 X %
6^",
0-96"
2
thickness O48
x
(say 1").

1"" we
That

must

the

and

is,

Fig.
If

the

had

shaft

appliedwould

be

would

to

have

0-48

2-5

diameter

(2

3'25

of

2'5

the

1" and

in

the

sectional

internal

diameter

Find

2.

the

the

end

view

would

What

The

3.

radius

for

of this

surface

given by :
givenby V
(F)
Find the
r
x r.)
"

of

steel ball taken

the

diameter

4.

Breadth

the

to

be

coupling
thickness

8a.

pipe whose
i|" (see Example
a

thickness

of

8
=

of the ball

of

sphere

47rr2 whilst

firr3.

surface
from
a

formula).

coupling shown
Make

the

is

dimensions

sketch
on

of
it.

be ?

area

the box

put

diameter

41 for the

1" diameter.

coupling,and
(8)

external

(N.B.

area
"

and

ball

of

its volume
r3

means

volume

bearing,"

being |".

Moment

The

section

of

shaft

area

is

the sectional

is

area

length and

suitable

Fig. 44

factor

length of the

1-20".

Find

the

8-125", and

Exercises
1.

then

2"

2*5", and

-")or

4-

be

44.

about
x

of Inertia of a rectangular
the axis xx (Fig.45) is given by

Depth3

Fig. 45.

12.
Determine

Fig.45.
F, C. MATHS,

the

Moment

of

Inertia

of

the

section

given

in

66

USE

The

5.

work

from

of rivet

the

The

6.

diameter

formulae

D2

TT

of the

p
'

Power

Horse

H.P.

1)

"

the

body

ing
the follow-

cylinderin

Power

Horse

diameter

of

millimetres.

formulae

both

by

in.

the

for

four-

cylinders(commonly

75 millimetres.

of
verticallyupwards with a velocity
height 8 to which it will rise is given by

is thrown

the

Where

-.

of the

diameter

second, the

ft. per
ya

cylinderin
cylinders.

"

of the
of

number

cylinderpetrolengine,the
bore ") being
called the
If

plates.

inch.

an

petrolengine is given by

1"

f",f",$" and

rivet for

diameter

"

2V

'

lolo

Determine

plate.

"

2^5
=

of

sixteenth, of

of

other riveted

"

__

'

7.

I'l V thickness

results to the nearest

Give

for roof and

rivet is found

followingformula

the

Diameter

Find

of

diameter

FORMULAE.

OF

value

of g

depends

the earth's attrac-

upon

20
is 32 '2 at

tion and

body

60 ft. per second

is

given by

the

Horse

I.H.P.

Power

of

double-actingsteam

2'P'"

in

as

Example 42,

find the I.H.P.

per minute,
5" stroke when

of

P, L, and

Where

"

meaning

same

high will a
velocityof

Indicated

The

8.

level in this country, how


vertically
upwards with

sea

rise if it is thrown

and
a

number

have

of revolutions

engine of

steam

engine

4" bore

58 Ib. per sq. in. and


#=280.
(It
P
that
of
interest
note
be
to
is
the
mean
out
throughmay
pressure
the stroke and
is always much
less than the gauge
pressure
of the boiler.)

and

9.

If

a,

b, c

are

half the

by

the

presents
lengthsof the sides of a triangleand S reof
the
t
he
is
triangle given
(A)
perimeter, area

:"

(N.B.
"

The

______

four

Vs

(8

a) (8

under
expressions

") (8

the root

c).

signhaving

been

CHAPTER

IX.

ALGEBRAIC

Algebra,

three

times

that

learn

quickly
time

in

it

however
the

thought

and

Now

This

is

above,

it

years
influences

could
be
money
written
""3
generally

shillings

is

Now

problem

be

instinctively avoid

7,

5
.

being

pence
add:

that,
10Z.

"

out

thus

31

5s.

IW.

set

thus

the

the

18s.

3d.

14s.

-f^Sd.

37

the
68

we

6s.

that

-f

and

they

7d.
the
are

mentioned
and

14s.

Sd.t

"

7d.

placing

-f

so

respectively.

amount

3d.

possess.

penny,

31.

"

obvious

18s.

s.

in

giving

positive signs
so

to

-f

the

and

may

pound

one

suppose
to

necessary

would

and

represents

and

expressed

of

of

shilling

one

of

sums,"

money

time

is less

value

symbols
each
symbol

which

as

from

without

with

Just

children

power

"

the

3d.

themselves

vary

variable

the

value

a
as

young

may

of

means

such

purchasing

ago.
child's
a

deals

"

its

The

ten

131.

We

that

algebra
particnlar value

omitted.

often

penny.

idea

troubling

value

Its

told

3d.

Quite

without

sums

are

we

was

represent

sum

indication

the

coefficient.

money
of

the

to

consequently
an
expression

In

"

Addition.

Algebraic
let

penny,

way
any

and

penny.
the
as

never

same

to

accustomed

"

value

fact,

than

to-day

do

to

real

the

a
a

known

is

quantity

of

is

country

representing

letter

penny
just

dealing

this

in

Everyone

to

calculations, is that,
work-shop
with
which
symbols
represent

quantities.

measurable

about

into

it enters

as

mathematics

of

branch

far

so

PROCESSES.

18d.
14s.

in the

"

pounds

column,"

ALGEBRAIC

it

because

obvious

is

quantities.We

69

PROCESSES.

shillingsand

that

the

cannot

pounds

unlike

are

14s. in

10Z. and

of

sum
a
express
24Z. and
it would
be wrong
to call the sum
The only way of expressing
such a
to call it 24s.

singleterm, because

equallywrong
is 10Z. +

sum

like

14s.

Thus

quantitiesin the
the

In

of

case

shillingforward
this because

same

the

placing only

of

usual

it is not

money

leave

to

to

such

algebraical
expressionsno
result

importance

place 6d. there, and carry one


It is possibleto do
shillingscolumn.
that Is.
I2d., but in the majority of

it is known
the

of

column, but
to

the

see

column.

addition

an

18d. in the pence

we

would

and

is known,
relationship

have

to

remain

it

as

sequently
con-

the

in

is

foregoing example.
N

We

always remember

must

numbers

represent

(often

example just considered

of

Thus

12, and

shown
kind

represent any

to

the

idea
In

distance.

we

avoid

the

In

thinking of I,s, and d


as
standingfor

think

of them

regard the

penny

as

of

minus

in

of

Chapter V.
quantity.

quantity,let

Fig. 47

the

the

Consider

the

origin).

It is convenient

towards

man

the north

how
We
us

cardinal

four

marked.

move

Algebra

magnitude).

but

are

he

in

unit, then d

1,

I =240.

been

It has
to

if

letters used

unknown

must

we

representingcoins of money,
numbers.

the

that

length may

have
now

or

grown
consider

points of

startingfrom
to regard his
east, and

be

made

accustomed

the

the

minus

compass

point 0 (called

motion

as

if
positive

negativeif he

move

70

ALGEBRAIC

the south

PROCESSES.

Suppose he walks towards the east


positivedirection)for a distance a yards,this will
his journey in
If he now
continues
bring him to the point P.
direction for a distance
the same
b yards he will arrive at the
ever,
(a + 6) yards. If,howpointR. His distance from 0 is now
he had paused at the point P
and
turned
round
before
with
the
his
second
of
distance
the
portion
journey,
proceeding
I yards would
have been accomplished in the negative
direction,
of
and the end of his journeywould
have been
at Q, a distance
from
the
b) yards
origin.
(a
think
of a man
Let us now
startingfrom 0 and facing east
with instructions to walk a
(" b) yards. He will walk as far
P (i.e.a yards}. The
minus
him to turn round
as
sign causes
towards

west.

or

in the
(i.e.

"

"

and

face

Inside

west.

tells him

signwhich

the

This

again.

east, and he proceeds on his journey for b


brings him to R" a distance of (a + 6) yards from
other

In

point.

words

is

This

"

"

togetherby
quantities
(2a
Here

the

36

yards which

from
in the

the

sum

to

1st

and

the

make

The

3c

46)

to add

commonest

to

in the

subtract

problem

-Sc).

expression contained
the

should

second

in

bracket, and

expressioncontained

be set out

expression

thus

2a +

36 +

6c

4a

46

3e

"

"

"

6oT" ~~6~+3c

Sum
3rd

of

isolated

group

6a

(76 +

expression

2nd

way

plus."

"

the

contained

that

obtained

so

last bracket.

starting

"

instructions

first bracket

his

b.

it is very convenient
to
of brackets, thus :
means

6c) + (4a

"

have

we

(" 6)rra

"

minuses

Two

algebraicalwork

In

face

"

important fact,

very

expressingit is

his

brings

the

to

minus

is another

bracket, however,
round

to turn

expression

-f-76

6a

"

Sc

Difference

(Note that

the

a's and

respectivecolumns.)
In findingthe sum
we
This obviouslybecomes

6's and
have

c's have

been

in the left hand

6a, just

as

placed in

column

2 pence +

(2a

4 pence

their

4a).

equals

ALGEBRAIC

6 pence.

In

represent
towards

the next
unit

some

the

and

east

71

PROCESSES.

column

there is

(36

46

"

means

46). Suppose I to
signifies3 units

"

36

distance, then

of

units

westward

(i.e.back
the origin

again),which would bring the traveller 1 units west of


(i.e. 16). The
figure 1 is usually omitted in writing the
it
that
In
16.
6 indicates
expression,
being understood
the last column
exactlythe same
(6c
3c) results in -f-3c.
way
"

"

"

"

We
will now
Algebraic Subtraction.
part of the problem, commencing with
"

instruction

The

to subtract

will be

consider

the minus

given by

2nd
this

In

6a

is 6a units

east

and

6a units back

negative, i

quantitiesare

the

direction.

same

Thus,

3rd column

again
a

to the

facing west, and

man

as

so

distance

face

to

of

east.

east;

first minus

The

second

the

then

sign
journey

8c, making lie units in all

"

86.

"

8c).

sign brings

minus
the

distances

76

"

"

(76)

"

both

e.

"

3c

is 3c units

This

sign.
(6a)

"

"

both

case

column.

again. Result, 0.

column

performed in

are

to the

tion
subtrac-

the left hand

1st column
This

the

turns

is

continued

the east.

to

the

round

him

for

Result,

lie.
final result of the

We

are

addition

so

problem is therefore
the
positionto formulate

The

in

now

"

86 -f He.
rules of algebraic

subtraction.

and

Algebraic

Rules

for

that

only like

Addition.

quantities

occur

"

(1) Arrange

in each

for

Algebraic

Subtraction.

expressions

column.

then
together,
(2) Add all the positivecoefficients
the
between
these
two
Take
coefficients.
difference
the signof the greater.
Rules

the

"

all the
sums

(1) Arrange

negative
give

and

the

two

each other, taking


expressionswith their like quantitiesunder
the subtraction has to be
from
which
to place the expression
care
made

on

the

top.

(2) Mentally change the signsof the


proceed as in addition.

terms

in the bottom

line and

72

ALGEBRAIC

PROCESSES.

Exercises
1.

(i) bx

3y

(ii)5a

26 +

2.

(ii)34

100 +
I2a

3 +

2y
106

2"

Arrange

(i) 7+a*
(ii)6

3C.

like

Take

10" +

columns

3 +

2y

I6y.
1.

6 +

following:

J",5

"

of

"

a"+l.

2 +4

the meaning
Explain graphically

(7
f".
-J-7',

together:

add

and

4y

7TF+

S+2TF+5S+

of the

values,A

as

quantitiesin

9y

2a

10 +

"

C.

5B

4x +

3z +

together:

2 C.

(iii)A

4.

Sz +

add

and

columns

the meaning
Explain graphically

(i) A

3.

quantitiesin

like

Arrange

9a.

4S

4TP.

"

(i) a/10 + fc/6+ c/4.


(ii)a/I

6/2 + c/2.

(iii)a/4a+ 6/8 + c/16.


c

Take

values

as

-a

:"

1;/,6

2",

=4".
5.

Add

togethera/5 +

26 +

a/10 -f
+

their numerical
6.

Find

2y +

2ju -f
a?

(ii)aj

-f

3c.

46 +

numerical

take
expressions,
+

2c.
If

1,

J,

find
,

value.

the

(i) 5z

6 +

c.

y +

3y

7y +

values

values,x

as

3c +

4O1.

20*.

2"?+

2c +

in

shillingsof the following


Id.
c?
c
60*.,
So*.,
I/-.,
y
=

4d.

2d +

3c -f 3c" 4- "c +

6y

-f-

ALGEBRAIC

Exercises

9b.

the meaning
Explain graphically

1.

(i)
(ii)
(in)

26

2a
4"

"

Subtract

2.

(i) 5a +
2a

Take

and
66

Arrange

3.

like

(i) 70
5y 45X
(ii)5 IT-

6
-|",

J" c

quantitiesin
3

4 +

By

5Z"

7b

Subtract

5.

30

26 +

"

6.

"

of the

6c"

"

"

6Z

a-

J",c

1".

following
:

"

126

16c

+" 106

16c

find the value of

and

lOx -f 3a +

TT-

1".

columns

Let

J",b

(iii)a

"

Explain graphicallythe meaning

4.

value

6 +

9a

values, a

as

numerical

values, a

as

Take

(ii)10a

36 4

"

4c*.

give the

"

following

c.

46 +

of the

c.

I +

"

73

PROCESSES.

2^
of

|" and

1.

6TF+

2y

:-

Z.

"

1".

"

(i) a?--f 7jy H(ii)10*3

3*3

Subtract

6.
a

"

"

of

prove

"

O'l",y

075."

Algebraic

Multiplication.

Fig.

48

units

long and

get the

exercise

by substitutingthe

followingvalues
0-5"

7p.

"

this

answer

your

2a

"

"

portion

p from

8 Q-

c from
-f 36
5c and also x + 6y
2a
5" + 7y. In the latter

46 +

from

Q2 +
-

area

shows

rectangle

4 units wide.

of such

"

figurewe

Fig. 48.

To

multiply3 by

4 and

get 12 units.

74

ALGEBRAIC

the

But
what

unit

new

is called

square
shown
in

"

edge

Fig. 48.

represent this

is different from

the

measure."

square

whose

PROCESSES.

is 1 unit

Now

suppose

by

amount

the

originalunit, being

This

long.

unit

new

Twelve

the unit of

symbol /.
is

The

area

is the

such

in
of

area

squares

are

lengthis 1 foot and

The
now

is

angle
length of the rect3/*and its width 4f.
now
3/ x 4f which

units, the new


equals 12 new
unit being the area
of a square
of edge /, which
pressed
might be exFor
ence
conveniby / x /.
write this /a and
call
we
it "/ squared." The area
of the
rectanglein Fig. 48 is therefore
In

this and

the student

the

must

followingcase
remember

that

the

tions
diagrams are only illustraof algebraicallaws.
He
should
lose sight of the
never
fact that in algebra/ (or
any
other letter)
can
only represent
The above
a number.
paragraph
referringto Fig. 48 should now
be worked
through again,letting
/ represent a number, say 3.
The
diagram should be drawn
distance
again, dividing each
which
in Fig. 48 represents /
into three equal parts. This will
have the effect of dividing each
of

Fig. 49.

the

(=9)

twelve
smaller

should
=

108
In

little squares.

Fig.49

is shown

squares
squares.

now

contain

into
The

3*

gram
dia-

12 x

32

it ?

Does

and
rectanglewhose length is 4 feet (4/1)
yards (3y). The area of such a rectangleis
is again 12 units, but
4/ X 3y
12/7/. We see that the area
the unit is not a square foot (/2) nor a square yard (y*)but what
foot-yard (fy) being itself a rectangle1 foot
may be called a
1
by yard.
whose

width

is 3

"

"

76

ALGEBRAIC

Multiplication.

Long

examples
evaluate

in

PROCESSES.

We

"

will

consider

now

that

multiplication.Suppose

it

one

two

or

required

is

to

"

(a

")2,that

is

(a + ")

(a -f b)
+

(a
(a

b)
6)

+
+

a2 -f ab

........................

ab+JP

........................

Sum

a3 +

...................................

2 ab +

b*

down
as
procedureis to set the two expressions
shown, then to multiplythe whole of the expressionin the top
in the multiplierseparately,
line by each term
settingout the
column
productsso that only like terms fall in the same
; finally
the sum
of the productsis taken.
mode

The

It forms

of

useful

taken

at random

6=3.'

Then

check

into

as

r="5 and
be

substitute

to

expressionsthus

the two

(a + b)

a2 4- 2 ab -f b- should

the work

on

(5)2
25

equal to

"

when

values
2 and

is, the product

That

25.

=n

any

Let

is taken

2 and

as

3.

Substituting

a2 +

............

(2)2+ (2x2

4 4- 12 +

25.

2ab

X3)

62

(3)2

Many simpleproducts may be represented geometrically.In


Fig. 50, p. 83, (a -f 6) is representedby the straightline PQ.
Then the square on PQ represents(a + ft)2.The diagram shows
clearlythat this is equal to a2 -f- 2 aft 4- 63.
Suppose (aj-f y)3 is required. This is equal to
O + y)
which
we

out

is the

know
thus

(x

+ y)

(x

(x + y)2 x (x + y).
aS2-f 2xy + yz.
+
(a; y)2

same

that

as

From
So

"

x1 +

2xy
x

y*

-f y

(x* -f 2xy

-f

(sc*+ 2xy

Sum

y2
y*) x

x*y

............

a3
.................................

-f

2qy*

y)

the last
the

example
problem is set

ALGEBRAIC

The

should

student

into it any

the accuracy of this


he
for x and y which

test

values

of this
geometricalinterpretation

The

it makes

with

somewhat

product by

complicateddrawing

as

we

to choose.

cares

expressionis

stituting
sub-

but
possible,

here

are

dealing

solid.

Ex.

43.

4y

(3p2
(3p2

77

PROCESSES.

-|-4#2) X

2pq
2pq

"

2q

"

4p

-f-4?2) X

2q

Sum
Note

applicationof

the

rule of

the

signs.

Exercises
Find

product of

the

1.

3x and

4.

15a6

7. 2a

"

2s

9.

"

11.

2a2

12.

5p2

56

"26.

4 and

2x +

4a6

-f 4.
4.

7.

3.

"xy.

6.

10.

262 and

5x.

8.

8 and

"

x2

6pq
"

4a; +

and

2p.

and

abc

"

2ac.

7.

2 and

3z.

-f 26.

2pq + 3"/2and 2p

"

q.

"

division of any number,


might represent the operationin the form of
^6-. Now the factors of 56 are 7 and 8, so the

Division.
We

fraction,thus

"

?
fraction

3xy and
4sxyand

5.

by

"

2.

3 and

Algebraic
say

46.

and

9c.

becomes

r~

Consider

"

"

7's cancel and

The

"

the

we

have

the result,

viz. 8.
Now

exactlythe

same

process

be

may

employed

in

3
division.

Thus

"

6a6

-r

2a

becomes

%-

"

36.

Agaiu
=

" X

algebraical

78

ALGEBRAIC

quantitywhich

The

PROCESSES.

undergoing division is called


known
the quotient. Thus
as

the dividend,

is

while the result is

Dividend

"

Quotient

Divisor
We

can

Rule

the indices

It should

as

is the

result of

for

Rule

which

the

and
coefficients

quantities.

foregoing
example that,applyingthis

"2"3
-y-a3"1

obtain

Divide

"

3a26".

Now

6" is not

fc"in the above

fc,for the latter is really5l.

is written
The

like

be noticed in the

we
rigidly,

same

Division.

Algebraic
of the

for

subtract

rule

state the

now

is equal to
clearly

1.

Hence

the

expression
the expression

3a2.

of

Signs

obviouslythe

same

as

that

"

ab

+"_

+X

ab

"

is

Division

for

Thus
Multiplication.

+
__
"

~a

+ y

ab

"

X
/",

"

"

-aft

_
-

"

-^

,
_

-y-

"

consider

t/.

problem of dividing
15as2
such an expression
as
6y2 by 3"
2y. It should be
xy
3"
set out thus :
2y)15a?2 xy
Gy\
in
that both
First see
order, i.e. that the
expressions are
highestpower of x (theexpressioncontainingx with the highest
first and the lower powers
of x follow in order.
index) comes
of the dividend by the first term of the
Next divide the first term
divisor (ISaj2
-f- Sx
5a?)and place the result in the quotient
Sx
thus
6y\5x + Sy
2^)15a;2
xy
Long

Division.

Let

jix +b
-jl

"

us

now

"

"

"

"

the

"

"

"

:"

Multiply the whole


of the divisor

by

")

"

i K
15s
...............

"

i A

2
-

10sy_

ALGEBRAIC

Subtract

if it is

and,

bring down

the

wanted,

from

term

next

"

9ajy

6t/3

9xy

6if

"

...........

the dividend

the first process

Repeat

79

PROCESSES.

........................

"

Subtract
..........................................

The

result is therefore

Check
x

the

1 and

15ar*

xy

result

6y3

is, 5ic +

Substituting:

should

be verified

should

be

equal

(5

54-6

11

(a
(a

(a

(a

of

ft)(a2 4-

CAREFULLY.

NOTE
The

6) (a3

symbols

course

") (a

4-

(a

4-

,
=

-1

when

1 and

2.

By

1)

4-

6)2

a2

")

a3

very important. They


then committed
to memory.

2a" 4- *"3
t2

a3 4- 3a'fe 4- 3a62 4- "

by

a3

3a2fc 4- 3a62

aft 4-

"2)

a3

are

"

4- "

4- 2ab

fc)3

There

2)

are

a3 4- b8

that

understand

a-

(3

fc2)

"

and

4-

ab 4-

concrete

"

11

"3-4

are

used

no

6s

ft3.

factors

of

(a2 4- 62).

throughout. The
other letters might

any
be met

with.
quantity might
factors
be regarded as
a2
(4)2 the
8
a8 4- (2)3 and
a3
44). Again
(a

26

"

11

to

following factors
by the student and
(a + by

(a

y, say

"

The

"

15
__

""

5a? -f

Factors.

and

"

__

3y

for

#-y

That

values

(1x2)(6x4)
!_)_(3 x lj~- (2 x 2))

(15

'

3y.

4-

by substitutingany
Thus

2.

5x

Thus
of
the

a*

which
factors

student

used,

be

16

"

will

are
are

or

might
(a 4- 4)
(a4-2)

80

ALGEBRAIC

PROCESSES.

Exercises
Divide
1.
3.

5.

the

following:

Itey*by 3t/.
Mpqr2 by 9pr.
a?24- 7x 4- 12 by

Write

down

7.

4-

(p

values

9d.

"

4.

I2xzyby 3y.
bx 4- 6 by
a;2

6.

3.*2 +

2.

4.

for the

2q)\

130

following:
(a
36)2.

8.

uj

10

3.

by

5.

"

9.

y)\

(2a?
-

representedgraphically
; any suitable
length may be used to represent the letters. Divide the square
of each as is done in
into its component parts and mark
the area
Fig. 50.
These

10.

productsshould

(a

2/)3-

4-

Factorise
13.

s2

16.

x3

the

be

(*p

11.

following:

qY-

(a

15.

x2 +

18.

64

26)3.

"

64.

14.

a*

6a

8.

17.

a3 -f 27.

9.

Exercises
1.

12.

Sa
-

-f 16.

|A

9e.

Explaindiagrammaticallythe meaning
c.
(i) a + b
2c.
(ii)a + 36
(26 + 3c).
(iii)2a

of the

following:
"

"

"

Take
2.

the value

as

Add

of

together

a
a

2a

Verify
a,

6, and
3. Add

c,

1", 6

together

36

"

4-

36

"

"",c

0-5", and
a

3a

6=3",

answer

|".

4- 6c
2c

"

4-

"

6 4-

26

of

2".

2a 4- 1*56

Verify your

by substitutingthe following values

answer

your

^rf,6

3*
4aj

by insertingthe followingvalues

2""

81

PROCESSES.

ALGEBEAIC

+ x cold chisels ; the


buys z files + 2w screwdrivers
6w
2z
files
he
screwdrivers
+ 5" cold chisels ;
-f
followingday
buys
third day he buys 3z files 4- 8w screwdrivers
a
+ 2x cold
on
chisels.
How
of the various tools does he buy, supposing
many
A

4.

that

man

3, w

"

Three

5.

5, and

circles

b inches

4 ?

to be

are

and

drawn,

third

of

of radius

one

inches.

as
algebraically
simply as possibleand
!","
",
"", s
J".
=

of

other
inches, an-

total

the

State

total

find the

area

when

area

6-

(ii)0-64
7. Add

0-97

V(20") +

together

?ra2 4-

0"57

irb2 4-

27ra2 4- 37r"2
"

Sira*

AV

(2gh).

?rc2
BTTC*

"

2w62

"

0'85

3?rc2.

"

Subtraction.

Explain graphicallythe meaning

8.

Letci

^", 6

2o" 4- 36

and
the

latter

10.

=:

"

2a from

"

6).

"

4b 4- 5c

"

(5*

7i/)

"

""",and

Show

paper.
area

as

a?

that

determined

values.

Simplify
l"4

and

from

"

4- Sbx 4- Sab from

1", 6

squared
equal to the
on

11.

(3a

"

your

by

answer

0'5", a

075".

Subtract
ax

if

26)

"

portion of this example prove


O'l", y
followingvalues : x

substitutingthe

and

4-

a;

In

(a

1".

Subtract

9.

of

4)

also

(Qa

4-

Qb)

F. C. MATHS.

"

(Pa

+ aQ) +

3a"

|" draw
the

by

(2bx
the

final

"

2a")

rectanglesrepresented
area

thus

the substitution

obtained
of the

is

above

82

ALGEBRAIC

Subtract

12.

tf 4.
and

PROCESSES.

also

?Xy
10a3

from

5Q2 +

0-532 +
from

3%y
3a?3

2y*

8Q2

-r-

If a, 5, c, and d represent the sides of


of the following :
total area

7^.

rectangles,find

13.

the

"

5afc +
-4a"

By substitutingvalues
numerical

value

cd
3cd

"

-f

b
^/r,

of the final

$cb +

cb

2",

of the

area

"

J",and d
rectangles.

f give the

Multiplication.
14.

Multiply (" + 3y

15.

The

base

bx units.

of

Determine

") by

6a

triangleis
the

also a;2+

l(Xe units
and

area,

and

if

3%y

by

""

3aj.

long and its height is


give the numerical
-J-"

"

value.

Multiply

16.

(x + 2p) by (x + 2p)
(" + 8p) by (20 + 3j")
(x"-f-3p2)by (a? p)
-

and

in each

your

case

if x

1*5"

andjj

f",givediagrams to

illustrate

answers.

Multiply together and express


possiblethe followingquantities
:
17.

in

simple

as

form

as

"

(97
18.

6*44

+ 4-8

5) by (D

"

"

Multiply
(5

x) by (5-5*

2'5"

-f 3"2 +

4"

2aj2).

Division.
19.

Divide

{2a + 4a"
(2ab -f 2a")
{4a2+ 4a" + ""}by 2a
"

-f

8fejby

4- 6

46

1).

CHAPTER

X.

SIMPLE

In

Chapter

VIII.

we

when

we

and

equation,

EQUATIONS.
the

of

spoke
had

expression
numerical

substituted

irr2

as

values

an

for

for A
simplified the expression we
got a value
10.
5#
Here
Let
think
of
us
x is the
a
Suppose
simple case.
it is called, and
unknown,
are
as
we
required to find the value
of
for
it.
sides of the equation by the coefficient
Dividing both
that
2 is the
So
solution
2.
obtain
(viz. 5), we
x
x
^frequired.
This
be
an
equation,
spoken of as solving
operation may
and

TT

r* and

=:

and

the

value

for

which

would

obtained

we

called

be

the

solution.

The
be

gathered
Ex.

from

both

student

unknown

and

the

equation

of

sides
should

see

of

various
types
dealing with
the following examples :

will

equations

"

Solve

44.

Multiply
The

of

methods

the

by 7.

substitute

satisfies

"

"

the

3.

"

equation

always

if it

..#

7x3

the

equation.

21.

he

value

found

has

putting

Thus,

21

for

the

instead

21

of

in

the

Ex.

45.

above

equation

Solve

the

we

get

eqiiation

Adding

3a? to

Adding

to

both

both

-=

"

2#

sides
sides

Therefore

that

3#

3u?

3x

true

7.

"

-7

7
4

"

3a? to both
sides
adding
the
of the
the
of
3s" from
effect
the
+
equation had
moving
of
the
side
left
hand
the
to
equation and changing
right hand
whilst
sides
had
its sign from
to
adding + 4 to both
+
The

notice

"

2x
-

should

this

2x

Therefore

student

Is

3.

'*

"

84

"

"

"

SIMPLE

the
hand

In

"

one

left hand

the

from

expression

equation any
equation

an

of

side

"

equationand changing its sign.

side of the

rule

the

moving

effect of

85

EQUATIONS.

the

the

to

to the

moved

with

other,

follows

Hence

be

may

right
from

its

sign

changed.
Ex.

equation:

the

Solve

46.

"

lT5g-f |.

TJ

number

the mixed

Converting

Bringing every

to the

term

Multiplyingevery

'

denominator

common

same

(16)

Hi

by

term

Therefore

Dividing both

sides

by

the

~r"

--

4.t

21+6

4x

27

Exercises
Solve

"

*"

6|.

lOa.

equations:
"

3
2.
_

1$

(E

4)

and

3.

6-l|.

6.

J =|

8.

2
-|-~

7).

6)

piece of wire has an


electric current is passed
E

ofpotentialof
difference
which
flows through
amperes]
have

| (86

I/*a

47.

an

(2R

4" (26

9.
Ex.

i.

2d

6.

lb^+l=4a-7. 5. J
7.

""

3'

through it

6f

so

of R ohms,

that its extremities

volts,then the
is

6).

electrical resistance

the wire

(callit C
given by the formula
current

IjT

is requiredto
potentialdifference

What

"

send

JR

of 4
The

amps,

througha

formula

wire

resistance

having a

is

of 7

ohms

-^
K

Substitutingthe
This is the

values

given

~
~

equation to be solved, and

Multiply both

sides

by

Therefore

28

28 volts would

is the unknown.

be

required.

current

86

SIMPLE

With

the

what
resistance
voltage,
amperes only?

same

to be three

current

EQUATIONS.

Formula

will be

requiredfor

the

-^

H
ou

the
Substituting

values

given

(E is the unknown)

Multiplyingboth
Dividing both

sides

sides

by

by

3 A*

28

23"- OJ
=

ohms.

Required resistance,9J

has been largelyused


electricity
for heatingpurposes.
If H representsthe number of heat units
(calories
called)produced by a current of C amperes
they are
flowing through a resistance of R ohms for t seconds we have the
current
H
0*24 O2
R
Find
the
t.
formula"
required to
produce 1,000 calories per minute in a resistance of 20 ohms.
Ex.

4.-8.

During

recent

years

Formula

//

the
Substituting

values

given

Therefore

(Here

C is the

Dividingboth

(72

0'24

6'2

1000

0'24

1000

288

"7*

R
x

t
.

20

60

unknown)

sides

by

="

G'~

3'47

1-46

"a"y^

288

Therefore

C~

Therefore

#347

(number

of amperes

necessary)
The
to send

student

should

this current

now

find

through

what

voltagewould

the resistance

20 ohms,

(c

be

required

of

^V

If the coil of wire conveyingthe current in the previoiis example were


placed in a copper vessel weighingw grams
W
and
containing grams of water at t" C., and H calories of heat
raised their temperature toT" C., then H
( W + 0'09te)(T"t).
would
Find Jiow hot the water
become
in 1 minute+if the copper
and
contained
100
vessel weighed 38 grams
of water at
grams
Ex.

49.

15" C.

SIMPLE

Formula
the
Substituting

values

(Noting

T is the

(103 -4) (T

1000

(103-4 T

155 to both

2550

103'4 T

sides

Dividingboth

(T

(100 + 0'09

1000

I)

38) (T

15)

15)

unknown)

Multiplyingout
Adding

(W + OWw)

1000

given

Therefore
that

87

EQUATIONS.

sides

by

1550)

255"

103 '4

103 '4

Therefore

Ex.

If wrought

24 '6"C.

piping has
D
internal
diameter
inches, and an
of
is
I"
(W Ib.)of a lengthof
given by:
50.

iron

external

an

of
weight

diameter

d inches, then the

"

If

one

0-069 ITT (D2

foot of such piping of 1"

d8).

diameter.

find its external


Formula

O'Ob'9

Substitutingthe values given


(D is the unknown)

3-25

Multiplyingout

3"25

2-6

3 '26

2'6 Z"a

sides

5'86

2'6 D*

by

^"5

Removing

Adding

the bracket

2'6 to both

Dividingboth

weighs 3J lb.t

diameter

internal

sides

2'6

0*069

("2

(Z""

12

3'1416

d")
X

(Z"2

I2)

1)
2'6

/"2

D'

2-26

'2*t"

Therefore

V"26

1-5"

i.e. the external

student

formulae

through
2.

2*6

requiredin

What

1.

may

refer back
some

chapterfor
followingproblems.

of the

of 12 ohms

wire?

pass

current

of 175

the

amps,

potentialdifference of
through a coil o" wire.
amps,
A

1J".

to the text of the

voltageis requiredto
resistance

is

lOb.

Exercises
The

diameter

15

volts

What

sends

current

of

is the resistance of the

88

SIMPLE

Find

3.

the current

per minute
the

If

4.

in

in

of

grams

If

coil
copper

and

grams

would

were

tained
con-

containing150

be the temperature of

pipe has

internal diameter

an

of 1 J", what

is the

length of

of

f" and
pieceof this

Ib. ?

the diameter

Find

2 sq.

iron

diameter

pipe weighing 5^
6.

12"C., what

at

wrought

750 calories of heat

Problem

in

carryingthe current
vessel weighing 38

after 2 minutes

external

an

requiredto generate
18-"ohms.

resistance of

water

the water

5.

EQUATIONS.

circles whose

of

areas

respectively

are

16*7 sq. in.

in.,5*6 sq. in. and

body is allowed to fall from rest under the action of


gravity,its velocity(v ft. per sec.)after it has fallen s ft. is
32*2). Find the distance a body
given by v2
2g s (where g
of 100 ft. per second.
fall in order to acquirea velocity
must
7. If

If

8.

"tC.

rod of metal

its

has

length of I cm. at
I (I + at).
L, then L

0"

C., and

at

Where
a is a
length becomes
quantity depending on the metal it is called the coefficient of
If a brass
linear expansion and for brass is 0*000018.
rod is
316 cm.
long at 0" C., at what temperature will it be 317 cm. ?
number

9. A
act

on

of forces,
point and in the

following forces
and

these

are

value
10.

and

the

21 Ib.-ft. +

Ib.-ft.

value

of B

is:

"

3a? Ib. +

7 Ib.
on

"

2x Ib. +3x

the other

12

Ib.

Ib.,
side, which
the

Determine

as

the

acting

clock

move:

10-5 Ib.-ft.

These

are

hands

in the

of

5JB

Ib.-ft. +

just balanced

oppositedirection.

Determine

by
the

ft.

Taking

5 W

6 Ib. +

the forces

to

5* Ib.

32? Ib.-ft +

10 B

11.

being pullsand others pushes,


straightline. On one side the

in "Ib.-feet,"
tendency to twist a body is measured
followingvalues representthe tendency to twist in the

direction

same

Ib. +

same

5a? Ib. +

act:

just equal

Ib. + 10
of x Ib.

2x

are

some

the above

example,suppose

Ib.-ft.+ 14-9 Ib.-ft.+ 10 W

the

Ib.-ft.+

tendency to
and
5 Ib.-ft.,

twist

this

just balanced

is

is the value

what
26 lb.-ft.,

Ib.-ft. +

10 W

by

89

EQUATIONS.

SIMPLE

of TFlb?

following tendencies

The

12.

twist

to

2 ft. -f 3 tons x 4 ft. + 5 tons x 6 ft. +


balanced
by S tons x 10 ft. Determine

If

13.

tension, find

in

will

iron

wrought
the

area

find the result

equation to

to

tons

8 ft. are

just

the value of 8.
5

safelycarry

necessary

body:

8 tons

carry

per sq. in.


Use this
tons.

tons
2

-.

sq. in.

5 tons

area

Also

if the

the load

available, determine

1*4 sq. in. is

of

area

it will carry.

(P) = 62'4 X head


per sq. ft. of water
in feet, (IT), determine
of water
the pressure per sq. ft. for
of 1 ft. and also of 1 inch, and also the head
head of water
a
If

14.

the

pressure

1 Ib. per

equivalentto
We

15.

E, where

per

told

are

stress

if E-

of

applied
of

the modulus

'.- and

-----

sq.

strain

mechanics

stress
elasticity,

length under
"

that

stress.

determine

-,"

load

If
E.

8'

in.

in. and
30,200,000 Ib. per
sq.
r
^

The

lb".
*fff"

the stress
"

0*0491

sq. in.

theoretical

feet

is found

head

books

the strain.

determine

16.

==

Xj7r=-

"0491
Also

in

strain alteration of unit

sq. in. and

the

sq. in.

Determine

from

of

water

when

velocityof water due to a given head in


/v//64"4
the following: F=
where
x H,
in
feet
in feet,and V
second.
velocity
per
"

is:

"

10, 15, 18, and

20

ft. per

tons

per

second

respectively.
17.

Using

the

equation ?a(

stress

(5

sq.

in.),

area

determine

12, and

the
24

diameter

tons

of round

respectively.

bars to carry

loads

of 8, 10,

90

SIMPLE

Determine

18.

the

Efficiency
per
per cent.

Friction

jointfrom

where

(i.e.
y6^),and

following law

machinery

riveted

pitchof a
0*.~ d^

60 per cent.

The

19.

cent.

EQUATIONS.

f", d

"

"",efficiency

pitchof

determined

was

the formula

the rivets.

for

piece

of

0'2 + 0'0112 x load inlb. Determine


the friction is equal to 0'38, 0'4,0'42, and 0*45 Ib.

:"

the load when

respectively.
In

20.

testinga
found

was

0*023

load

21.

wheel

worm

experimentally
:

in

0-47, 0-62, and

and

worm

Ib.

11

Determine

Ib.

formula

Friction

tion
following relaIb.

in

the load when

0'048

the friction

+
was

respectively.

used
p

"

the

in the

(stress)
=

design
42,000

of struts
128

is

"

Determine

the different ratios of

when

16,000, 20,000, and

24,000 respectively.

paling fence is to be supportedby 3" by 4;'


how
oak
posts
posts spaced 9 ft. apart. Determine
many
is rectangularin
must
be ordered for a plot of ground which
shape 200 ft. by 25 ft.,the fence to completelyenclose the
ground.

22.

close

23.
mile

Eailway sleepers10" by 5"


If 2112
of railwaytrack.

distance from

Grindstones

24.

dia.

revs,

at

run

per

min.

being

revs,

feet.

should

run

velocity).Determine
grindstone should make.

should
rule

to centre

centre

"

per

about
saws

in cross-section
are

of each
at

the

used

laid

about

800

ft. per min.

revolutions

Circular

circumference

is the

per mile, what

saws

per
for

min.

of

outer

the

pheral
(peria

ft.

cuttingwood

how
Determine
9,000 ft. per min.
of 26", 44", and 50" dia. should make.
X

along

sleeper.

Peripheralvelocity(rim or
minute

are

surface

many
The

velocity)
rotatingbody in

CHAPTER

XL

SOLIDS.

COMMON

Surfaces

Solids.

and
is

enclosed

have

We

"

Chapter

latter

the

how

VI.

bounded

being
by
and
but
breadth,
length
possess
dimensions."
thickness
speak of this as having two
never
; we
has
i.e.
When
three
dimensions,
length, breadth, and
a
body
be
thickness, it is called a solid, or a solid figure. A solid may
enclosed
is bounded
considered
piece of space, which
as
an
by one

plane figure

one

or

an

All

lines.

more

surface,

in

seen

surfaces

"

or

surfaces.

more

Fig.

of the

One
The

student

simplest solids
should
If

are

squares.
occupies is called
the

cube

have

had

been

note

edge

one

cubic

edge

an

1 cubic

of

it has

is 1"

six sides

long,

1 centimetre

centimetre

is

which

inch

or

(usually

or

the

then

in

is shown

which

is the Cube

that

each

52.

faces,

of volume.

ft. its

written

52.

of space

amount

unit

Fig.

all of which

volume

1 c.c.)

or

it

If
woiild
1 cubic

foot.
If

might

the

of

edge

be

12

divided
x

12

up

cube
into

(= 144)

were

12

that
it
long, it is easily seen
each
taining
layer conlayers of 1" cubes,

12"

of these
92

small

cubes.

In

other

words

COMMON

the volume

of such

is 123

cube

has six faces, each of which is


six times the area
of one
face.

Ex.

Make

51.

cube

93

SOLIDS.

1728

cubic in.

Since

its total surface

square,

cube
is

area

2"

of

edge.
of 6 squares
drawing consisting
made
should
be
shown
as
edge
ing
drawstiff
Fig. 53, preferably on
be
If
the
out
cut
figure
paper.

of 2"
in

and folded about


cube is obtained.
of the

diagram represent

tabs

which
figure and

They

given
may

the model

little

be left upon

should

then

the dotted
lines,a
shaded
The
tion
por-

coat

be

used

of

the
gum.

ing
for hold-

together.

a
Fig. 54 shows
rectangularprism" iu which
ness
the length,breadth, and thickmarked
are
by the letters

Prisms.

"

"

/,fe,and

It should

t.

that the ends

are

Fig.

be noted

rectanglesand the sides are parallel. A little


is
thought will show us that its volume
the product of I,6, and t. To obtain its
surface
are

ends

each

these

whose
areas

of

having

Z6.

are

givesthe

area

an

lttand

area

areas

that there

observe

must

we

sides each

bottom

54.

area

two

two

Fig.

63.

The

of bt,
top and
of

sum

total surface

area

of the solid.

Ex.

Make

52.

prism
rectangular

whose

lengthis 3", breadth

thickness \".

2", and
Fig. 55

shows

tho

diagram.

The

instructions

are

the

same

as

in the

case

of the cube.

Ex.

53.

Make

face of which
4'6

cm.

and

whose

The
triangularprism of length8 cm.
whose equalsides
is an isosceles triangle

other side is 3

cm.

angular
triare

COMMON

Fig.
it.
the
is

It

56 allows the
should

triangularprism

be noticed

trianglesand
the product of the
two

SOLIDS.

that

the
area

the

and

Fig. 57, the diagram

total surface

is the

area

sum

for making
of that of

in Fig. 57.
The volume
rectanglesshown
of the triangularend and the length.
three

JrJ
"T"

1
Fig.

Fig.

55.

56.

Fig. 57.
The

the

Cylinder.

prism

is the

differs in that

Fig.

58

58.

area

should

which
The

circular ends.

meter
cylinder of dialength I. The surface
be

portions: (1)
"

Closelyallied to
cylinder,which

it has

shows

d and

"

considered
the

flat

in

two

surfaces,

circular ends, and


are
(2) the curved surface.
latter,if it could be "peeled off" and laid out flat,would
the

two

COMMON

be

rectangleof length

circumference
surface

of

is therefore

TT

of the circular end

area

Ex.
The

The

Make

54.

Cone.

in

the

curved

If the line

is

equal

isTrd

volume

is the

The

product

is 07854

length,and

and

to

the

curved
of

the

d?l.

diameter

of 1-|".

Fig. 59.

is shown

cone

d) and

(of diameter
the apex.

"

breadth

end, which
The

dl.

and

whose

cylinderof length3"

is shown

diagram

I and

circular

the

95

SOLIDS.

in

Pig 60. It has a circular base


terminatingat a pointcalled

surface

joiningthe

to

apex

the

of the base

centre

Fig. 60.
is

all diameters

to
perpendicular

right

length

height,and is denoted
slanting side is called
figureby s. If the radius
a right-angled
triangleis
we

Fig. 61

have

shows

surface forms
be Sirs,the

the whole

the

surface
a

length of

circle

of the base is called r, we can


see
lines
and
three
these
formed
by

the relation s2 =

part of

figurebeing ird.

of this line may be called the vertical


The
in the figureby h.
length of the
in the
and
is
denoted
the slant height

The

cone.

solid is called

of the base, the

of the

h2

whole

circle whose
a

portion of

Consequentlyits
of ir*2).
(i.e.

area

sequently
con-

+r*.
laid out flat.

cone

that

this

The

curved

circumference

would

circumference

in

the

area

of

will be

"

of the

96

SOLIDS.

COMMON

the

Therefore

Cancellingwe

curved

surface

"T"X

irds.

have

volume

The
is found

to be

Ex.

07854

base

and

cm.,

d*h.

Make

55.

with

height

the volume

Jx

third

one

vertical

the

Therefore

cone

productof the base

of the
and

of

of

cone

diameter

height

slant

cm.

The

in

is shown

diagram

Fig. 61.
The

Sphere.

sphereis
out by a
about

Fig. 61.
familiar with
ball.

is

It

to

of

sphere as being a
impossibleto lay its
model

radius

the

cannot
paper
units its surface area

rotating
its

of

meters.
diais

If

equal

flat and

out
a

quently
conse-

sphere have

to 4 Trr2and

its volume

irr3.

Hollow

having

Cylinders.
closed

ends)

internal

diameter

material

of which

of

and

If

"

have
d

hollow

"

one
open" cylinder(i.e.

external

an

diameter

and

a
length of I,the
it is composed is given by

If R

surface
made.

is

circle

Everybody
the
having
shape of

solid

be

solid traced

the

one

The

"

07854.D2./
07854

be the external
V

TT

EH

vl

Trr2/

(R*

an

d2)

the internal radii

and

and

V of the

07854.dP.Z

(D2

of D

volume

not

r2)

respectively

COMMON

Hollow

and

Sphere.

radii of

internal

hollow

Similarlya

"

and

97

SOLIDS.

sphere haying

has
respectively

external

volume

(F)

given by
F

Collected

results.

(7w6e of

I.

edge

Total

area

b, and

area

Volume
d (or radius

Cylinderof diameter

Flat

Curved

of radius

of

or

Ibt.

surface

07854

trdl

07854

fr* +

Flat surface

07854

surface

slant

height

wefs

rfa or
or

"ra

Trrs

07854cZ2"

or

internal

cylinderof length J and external and


and r) respectively.
=

sphere of external

and

07854

(D2

TT" (#2

internal

radii J? and

Volume

Exercises

diameters

(or radii)

|TT(R9

d2)
r2).

respectively.

r").

Ha.

of the cube made in Example 51.


the model
Examine
How
faces has it?
How
edges has it?
many
is its area, what is its volume ?
?
What

2. Examine

Example

the

$2.

In

differ from

corners

and

wr*L

d*lor

7-2.

or

corners

2irr3

d (or H

Hollow

many

or

r.

Volume

1.

d3

2n- rJ

or

Surface

and

Volume
Hollow

ft)

-f

length J.
=

Volume

of D

t.

d, vertical height h and

diameter

Curved
radius

(bt +

r) and

"*

Sphere of

thickness

surface

Volume
Cone

Z3.

Rectangularprism, length /,breadth


Total

6 I2

Volume

volume
F.

model
what

of

ways

those

How
many

in
rectangularprism made
and
its
do
faces,
edges,
(if any)
the

of the

cube

What

is its total

c. MATHS,

area

98

SOLIDS.

COMMON

3.

Examine

the

53.

Find

Example
4.

Examine

Find

(1) the

of

its total

model

the

triangular prism

the
and

area

the model

5. Examine

of the
Find

height?

1. How

many
to
required line

area

of

temperature
15' 3"
best

the

Determine

2.

by

12' 3"

conditions

of air

through

(Zinc G-auge) will be


tank (withoutlid) 3' wide, 8' long,and
I.

No.

If the

ordinary stock

sheets must

be

many
of the tank.
number

of

20"

room

by

9' 6"

in

F.

high,and

required to

watts

you

hour

the

Also

raise

the

measures

that under

assume

can

room

size of
?

ordered

the

of electrical energy will raise 1 cubic ft.


How
heater lamps must
20" F. in 1 hour.
many
1 watt

if each

be ordered

zinc

8',how

the volume

What

55.

of its curved

and

lib.

me.asurements

by

Example

of its base

ft. of

wooden

inside

zinc is 3'

determine

sq.

in

made

cone

the

is its volume

What

deep

volume.

cylindermade in Example 54.


portionsof its surface, (2) the area

Exercises

sheet

in

surface, (3) its volume.

is its vertical

1' 6"

made

of the

of the flat

area

of the curved

surface.

model

lamp requires250

watts

15'

Fig.
3.

railwayplatformis

62.

390;

long and 21' 3" wide (Fig. 62).


of square feet of concrete
flagsrequired
for the part A, and if each flagmeasures
2^' by 2',how many
be ordered ?
must
Underneath
the flags
a depth of 2' "' requires
with
ballast.
Determine
the number
of cubic ft. required.
filling
Determine

4.

measures

number

Q-alvanized

deep.
hold.

the

What

iron

is their cubic

6-24

How

wrought

tanks

capacity?

determine
gallons,

many

do
gallons

you

how

sold 2'

are

If

many
think the

by

2'

by

1' 7"

cubic

ft. of water
a
gallonsthe tank will

will give?
catalogue

100

COMMON

Fig.

11.

(a)

of

volume

speed
speed

volume

total

the

the

each

of

(6) the

diameter),

of

part

circumference

the

total

shows

66

SOLIDS.

metal

the

resolves

(neglecting

into

finding

the

9",

circles
it

be

to

curves,

corners,

Determine,

lathe.

10"

and

solid,
and

(c)

Determine

The

ball
the

on

volume.

ball

float

the

shaft)
,

in

the

volumes

problem

(The

figure.
of

number

of

hollow

cylinders.)
12.

11"

06.

shown

measurements

itself

(i.e.,

supposing

Fig.

using

for

cone

valve

measures

cm.

in

diameter.

XII.

CHAPTER

RELATIVE
AND

We

by

accustomed

are

which

the

we

an

VOLUMES.

of lead

speak

to

that

mean

of

weight

WEIGHTS,

DENSITIES,

lead

piece of

as

is

being a heavy metal,


heavy compared with

other metals.
Now
most
equal volume
in
We
two
can
numerically
say
ways.
times
as
heavy as an equal volume of some
of

we

that

this idea

can

express
lead is so many
substance

such

water, in which

as

the specific gravity, or we


is called the density.
which
Lead
units
the

has

to this

in what

density of lead, however,

units

employed.
or

and

so

It

705

ever

may
it is 11-3

Thus

pounds

per

noticed

that

be

volume,

attach

never

times

as

any

heavy

as

measured.

units

they are
anything according to

the

metre,
centiper cubic
Ib. per cubic inch,

grammes
foot, or 0'407

cubic

of unit

forth.

will be

centimetre
The

of water

We

lead is 11*3

is called

number

weight

11*3.

specific
gravity of
number, as a pieceof
a

volume

same

The

give

can

the

case

the

mon
com-

"

is

gramme
equal to the

the

numerically

is the

metrical

density in

the
unit

same

of

"

as

grammes
the

weight, and

per

cubic

specificgravity.
may

be taken

Thus
of water.
weight of one cubic centimetre
a 1,000 c.c.
(which is called a litre) of water weighs 1,000 grammes
fore
thereis
called
is
It
a
(which
easily seen
kilogramme).
that since 1 c.c. of lead weighs 11*3
whilst
1 c.c. of
grams
will have
of lead
water
a
weighs 1 gram, any volume
weight
as

11*3 times that of the

same

volume
101

of water.

102

RELATIVE

The

and

followingdensities

determine

To

DENSITIES,

its

the

weight,and

will be found

densityof
then

have

we

Volume

we

"

know

must

the relation

its volume

"

^eight
Volume

Regarding this as an equation we


if we
know
quantitiesmentioned
=

VOLUMES.

useful

body

Density

Weight

AND

WEIGHTS,

determine

may

the

other

Density,and

any

of the*

Thus

two.

Volume

one

Weight
Density

in practical
work
for the
use
equationsare of immense
determination
of weights and volumes
of materials requiredin
certain operations. Before proceeding to the consideration of a
few problems we
will examine
of the units used.
some
In the English system a cubic foot and a cubic yard will be
The gallon,however, is a unit of volume
readilyunderstood.
is frequentlymet
which
with.
These
various units must
be

These

system, and for


up with each other and with the Metric
this purpose the following
factors will be handy for reference :
linked

"

1 foot
1 chain
1

acre

30-48

"

cm.

66 feet
10 square

1 cubic foot

20 metres.
chains

4000

1728 cubic inches

square
=

metres.

28*4 litres.

RELATIVE

1 cubic

yard

DENSITIES,

27 cubic feet

0*7646 cubic metres.

4544
gallon 277*3 cubic in.
gallon of water weighs 10 Ib.
cubic foot of water
weighs 1000

1 Ib.

Us

56.

cube

densityin
Volume

1 cubic

Therefore

of

cube

ft.

the

2:{

litres

28-4

8 cubic

"

volume

of the

the

weight

of the

density
J

'28-4

1,000

453-6

concrete

cubical tank

gas

has

453-6

per

If at the back

115

centimetres
3. A

the

traced

of the

in, what

cubic

is

per cubic

28,400 c.o.
227,200
=

c.c.

1,120 grams.

If

cubic centimetre.

the

of water
a

edge of 2' 6". How


empty tank weighs

many
45 Ib.,

bore

of 7" and

stroke of 11".

by the pistonin c.c.


cylinderthere is a clearance
space of
the total volume
of the cylinderin cubic
out

"

"

cricket ball has

mean

12a.

internal

an

engine cylinderhas

the volume

Express

grams.
="

2 '24 grams

gallonswill the tank hold ?


full
what is its weight when
A

c.c.

28,400

Exercises

2.

Find

Volume
"

Ib.

feet.

concrete

1 Ib.

Therefore

1.

62 '4 Ib.

"

c.c.

per

Also

Now

ounces

of 2' edge weighs 1,120

concrete

grammes

of the

Now

c.c.

453-6 grams.

Ex.

103

VOLUMES.

AND

WEIGHTS,

diameter

of 3" and

densityof the materials of which


ft.,and (2) in grams
per c.c.

Find
weighs 5^ oz.
it is made : (1) in Ib.

jam jaris filledto the brim with water and set in a basin.
1 Ib. of gravelis then dropped gently into the jar,and it is found
Find the densityof the gravel
9*4 oz. of water.
to have displaced
in Ib. per cubic ft and in kilogramsper cubic metre.
an

4.

5.

pieceof

external
6.

2" and

brass

diameter

pipinghas an
of 1%'. Find

internal diameter
the

weight

pieceof wrought iron plate has


weighs 35 Ib. Find its area.

of 1" and

of 1 ft. of it.

uniform

thickness

of

104

RELATIVE

DENSITIES,

AND

WEIGHTS,

VOLUMES.

of
Many machine
parts are made
of wood,
a
pattern is first made
wood
often yellow pine. This
about
Ib.
31
weighs
per cubic
it follows that
ft.,and since cast iron weighs 450 Ib. per cubic ft.,
the casting will have
a
weight *""-(= 14'5)times that of the
the
In
foundry if the pattern is weighed and then
pattern.
multipliedby the proper factor,we obtain the weight of metal
requiredfor the casting. (N.B. This method is only applicable
such
the castingsare
when
do not requirea
No
core."
as
is made
allowance
for the shrinkage of the metal, but the
is quite accurate
method
enough for all practical
purposes.)
Patterns

to
castings,

of

Castings.

obtain

"

which

"

"

"

"

Fig. 67 gives
particularsof a pattern.
Find
the weightof the pattern
and
of the castingin
Ex.

57.

iron.
Area

enclosed

boundary
of the space

I sq. ft.

=-

of the upper
The area
ft.
0-625
=
sq.
sq. ft.

4") x (I'0"

3")

(l'2")x (9')

Volume

1') sq. ft.

middle

in the

(!' 6"

Multiplyingby

outside

by

(1-5' x

l-5sq. ft.

Area

0-875 sq. ft.

surface

the thickness

of the

2J"

pattern is therefore

(1*6

0*875)

0-208'.

0-13 oubio ft.

Pine has a
Yellow
0*13
x 31 Ib.
weighs

31 Ib. per cubic ft.


The pattern therefore
4'03 Ib.,and the castingin iron weighs

densityof
=

4-03

14-5

58-5 Ib.

for a new road.


Fig. 68 shows the diagram of a cutting
Determine
the weightof material removed
in cuttinga lengthof
50 yards. (Take the densityof the earth removed
125 Ib. per
as
cubic foot.)
Ex.

58.

105

VOLUMES.

AND

WEIGHTS,

DENSITIES,

RELATIVE

be regarded as made
cutting may
in Fig. 68.
trianglesand a rectangle,as shown
right-angled
A

sectional

of

area

the

Area

of the

rectangle

Area

of each

triangle

15

10

10)

""

"

"

""

Now

yds.

length o"

the
150

the

area

cutting

250

150

250

150

of
150

the

, ,

50

15'
10'-"(*"

terial
ma-

cubic

Ib.

125

tons

5
X_L/f

ft.

material

125

""

250

ft.

Therefore
the volume
250 x
removed
=
and the weight of the
=

'-"*

""

sectional

Total

50 Rq. ft.
"JO

"

It

of two

150 sq. ft.

| (10 x

up

moved
re-

2240

Fig. 68.
2100

tons

(nearly).

Exercises

Hflj4.rn.rn.

12b.

by which
weight of a yellow pine pattern
be multiplied in order
must
to give
the weight of the castingin (1) brass,
(2) copper, (3) aluminium.
1.

Determine

the

Determine

the

factors

the

2.
of

50

of

weight of
tape
copper

yards
lightningconductor
plate. The copper tape
a

Fig. 69.

in
3.

Calculate

dimensions

the

shown

cross

weight of
Fig. 69.

length

ing
connect-

to the earth

is

1J" by J"

section.

100

wrought

iron washers

of the

in

Fig. 70.
4.

How

screwed

much

will 50

if theyare

made

wrought

iron

bolts

to the sizes shown

weigh
in

before

Fig. 70 ?

being

106

RELATIVE

5.

dug

A
for

trencli of the
a

length of

cross

section shown

15' 0".

If

VOLUMES.

AND

WEIGHTS,

DENSITIES,

depth

in
of

Pig. 71
2' 0"

is

has

to be

dug

from

r
4'-

Fig. 71.

loamy
remaining 4' 0"
common

Fig. 72.
earth
of

cubic ft.,find how


6.

Part

machine

iron).

The

of

weighing 95 Ib. per cubic ft. and the


depth from clay whose weight is 120 Ib. per

many

tons

of material

are

removed.

the

ing
weight on the weighing lever of a testis shown
in Fig. 72.
its weight (cast
Determine
other portion of the weight,which
is not
shown

Fig. 73.
on

the

sketch, weighs

weight (calculated+
(100,000Ib.)?

4'5

Ib. ; what

4-5)

to

the

is the

ratio

of

of

the

capacity

the

total

machine

108

RELATIVE

76

Fig.

11.
If

it is

in

the

80

ft.

shows
and

long

figure,

determine

of

section

the

it is filled
how

with

small

weight

of

the

steel

is

casting

pattern

water

pine),

9' 0"
of

sectional

area

the

castings.

the

sleeper,

the
the

find

weight

of

5"

by

10"

(Take
as

by

the

weight

31*2

Ib.

per

Calculate

100

ft.

0'25

in.

of

bar

the

weight

aluminium

If

red

and

diameter.

An

length

is

bright
the
the

weight

of

8
the

ft.

8 in. cube

flattened

then
6

bar.

out

in., determine

of
to

wrought
a

the

of

of

78.

to

and

this

ft.)

15.

(Fig. 78).

of

20

material

14.

bar

Calculate

77).

long.

the

cubic

heated

hold.

Determine

railway

is

shown

it will

from

of

13.

iron

height

water

(Fig.
and

weight

Fig.

water.

77.

required

(yellow

carrying

the

to

of

gallons

Fig.

12.

for

cutting

many

VOLUMES,

AND

WEIGHTS,

DENSITIES,

square
cross

CHAPTER

GEAPHS
have

We
is

XIII.

SIMPLE

OF

that the circumference

seen

of

(0)

circle of radius

given by
0

C
Here
and

and

r,

we

considered
But

if

the

value

of

some

fixed.

is

in which

variable,
idea is to call G
Now
the

function

equation

any

and

independent

the

and

find what

then, may

may

of

one

be

call

be referred

of

expressing

r,

then

the independent

G would

be

anything.

them, say

therefore

way

of

viz. G

to

as

this

the
same

r.

type

expresses

relation

between

dependent variables, and, as we have


maybe also expressedby means
shall try to obtain the graph

Chapter IV., this relation


graph. In this chapter we

in

seen
a

from

the

equation.

Ex.

59.

0 and

10.

We

case

of this

to

may

Another

variable.

dependent

We

to

their values

definite value

"

unknowns,

"

unknowns,

these

variables," because

give

obtain

6'28r.

Both

have.

then
"

as

we

(3'14) we

TT

an

C would

value

for

equation containing two


might give any value whatever

have

we

2irr

approximate value

Substitutingan

of

FUNCTIONS.

random.

graph ofC

6'2Srfor

"

substitute a few values of


corresponding values for C. The

must

the

Plot the

now

Thus

:"

6*28r.
109

into
values

the values

this
of

of r

between

equation and
r

may

late
calcube chosen at

110

GRAPHS

Therefore

whenr
"

,,

Plotting these three


in Fig. 79.

points

FUNCTIONS.

SIMPLE

OF

(7

10
we

6 '28

0,

0=

6-23

6-28

10

find that

they

31 '4,
62-8.
lie in

straightline

as

shown

70

Values

of

r.

Fig. 79.
It is very convenient when
studying the graphsof functions
types." The simplest
to consider the graphsin families called
"

GRAPHS

type of graph is
of the

This

form.

or

y is

in which

function

variable.

dependent

Now

be called the

may

of

numerical

definitive

some

of

this

equation

an

"

",

independentand y the
constants, i.e. they have

x,

i.e. x is the

and

values

are

which

do not
"

coefficient of

"

has

always

is :

type

aoc

Ill

FUNCTIONS.

SIMPLE

straightline,and

type

same

OF

and

value

The

vary.

that of b the

"

stant
con-

term."
Ex.

this

(In

Plot the

60,

case

graph of y

the

"constant

two

values

2x

a"

6.

"

2 and

equals

"

the

6"

constant

equals

-6.)

Selectingany
When

and

when

We

of

(say 0 and 5)

0,

then

a;

5,

then

y=10-6

back

0-6

get

we

"2x

"

"

6.

6,

4.

idea

of

negative direction
in the shape of a
axes
Chapter IX.
Drawing
shown
in Fig. 80, the horizontal axis gives the values
as
cross,
from
when
measured
the origintowards
of #, positive
the right
towards
measured
and negative when
the left.
Similarlythe
of
vertical axis gives us
positivevalues
y above the originand
two
values
below.
The
taken
the graph are
on
negative
points
shown
in Fig. 80.
must

now

go

to

our

developed in

Ex.
This

61.

the

Plot the

equation

first be

must

3'4aj

graph

2%

brought into
3-4r

Thus

Adding

3'4x

sides

to both

2%

0704.

the

form

2%

2'3

ax

-f b.

-f 0704

3'4x

0'704.

3'4a;

Dividing through by

of y

~Q0'704.
2i'n

Here

the

constant

"

the

and

-"

constant

^.

2*o

To

obtain

substitute

When

two

them

points on
for

the

2*3

graph

take

3'4a;

"

any

values

of

(say 0 and 2) and

"'704.

thus

*=0

^(3-4x0^-0.704

-0-306,

112

FUNCTIONS.

SIMPLE

OF

GRAPHS

(3-4
and

when

~~

2)

0-704

_
~

2-3

0-704

6-8-

2-3

6-096
=

The
would

student should now


plot this
be to let 1 in. represent unity

2.64

graph for himself.


both

on

suitable

scale

axes.

6
+Y

-x

-Y

Fig.
In Exercises lOb, No.

19,

Friction

an

80.

equation:

0-2 +

"

0-0112

load

recognisedas of the type y = ax -f I ;


Here the independent
in other words it represents
a linear law.
variable (or a?)is "load," and its coefficient (or a) is 0'0112.
was

used.

This

should

be

GRAPHS

The

OF

SIMPLE

"

order

this of

b -f axt but
y =
should
be noted

It

reading on the
obviouslyso

that
"

y scale

"

is

if

all

where

regard it

we

makes

course

in

as

Plot

graph

the

the

graph

the

value

3#

2.

2x +

3.

3'4as

3i/

8.

5.

3z

2?

5.

6.

3'2y

"

Plot

7.
Nos.

the

cases.

If

If

from

when

the
0.

a?

"

100" C.
When

9.
minute

between

is the

by

there

and

given

value

loads

plotfrom

Exercises
0 and

1Gb,

50 Ib. in

corresponding to
the results

compare

is
if

volts.
=

per

engine

of

is

dynamo

Plot

0*844

n,

minute.

has

C., then

value

the

is

certain

steam

at t"

with

of

F. c. MA.THS.

is used

606-5

convert

0-305

per hour

t.

between
70" C. arid
t =
the
H
constant
when

running at n revolutions per


a graph showing the relation
for speeds ranging from 200
is the
What
voltage when

hour.

steam

requiredto

indicated

an

using W Ib. of steam per


graph showing the values

H
of

it is

much

between

of heat

of units

number

What

revolutions

load

the

of

into steam

its E.M.F.
and n
v

800

equations given in

interpolationthe

graph giving the

exercises

values.

1 Ib. of cold water


120" 0.

the last three

In

of the

graphs

of friction

values

8.

1*72.

Find

the calculated

How

value of

the

10.

20, for values

and

19

both

4'6#

"

5 to

"

1O.

Find

Plot each of these exercises from

5 "2.

"

2a? +

to

0.

13a.

0 and

6.

Plot

This

axis.

of y when

the

4.

4.

the

that

gives

3.

cuts

of b

followingequations.

the

of y when

the value

1.

a?

of

graphs

difference whatever.

no

the value

cases

Exercises

"

dependent variable (or y) is friction, and the constant


(or V) is 0'2 ; further, the equation is reallywritten in the

term

to

113

FUNCTIONS.

horse power of I when


If W =
60 + 2375
7, plot
1 =
between
9 and I =
30.

when

the I.H.P.

is 11 J ?
8

XIV.

CHAPTER

EQUATIONS.

SIMULTANEOUS

Methods

Solution.

of

the

equation

of

have

value

any

If, however,
such

y,
the

first

and

might
equations.

we

both

which

12*5,
2y
equation, they would
5#

as

find

graphically

Solve

"

We

both

in

same

at

(N.B.

If the

"

sign

same

This

2y

first

must

with

and

time

same

as

equations,

which

would

satisfy

and

12'5.

aim

at

by

14o?
I5x

have

having
been

is called

eliminating

only

unknown

one

both

terms

"

terms

two

the

getting

by 29,

the

6y
6y

of

orie

get,
114

subtract

to

the

unknowns,

O."
=-

-"

had

coefficient

same

necessary

(viz. x}.
we

coefficients

29aj

Dividing

the

of

"

throughout

"

it would

process

equation

connecting

Adding

the

taining
con-

equations

equations, analytically

,,3

(ii)

Equation

3y

equations

(i) multiplied

Equation

ponding
corres-

"

Solution.

(or y) the

the

were

simultaneous
and

following

the

(ii) 5x

true

called
for

(i) 7#

Analytical

as

equation

was

be

value

some

62.

Example

might

have

single equation

solved

an

in

were

we

that

saw

then

that

Chapter X.
given another

considered

we

we

would

be

cannot

and

3,

that

therefore

follows

It

considered

were

3y

"

XIII.

Chapter

and

whatever,

unknowns

two

which

7x

form

value.

In

"

1 j.

instead
as

we

37 '5

43'5

both
of

now

been

of

adding. )
have

an

11G

SIMULTANEOUS

EQUATIONS.

graphs, it is obvious that its co-ordinates


will satisfyboth
equations. In the
result is .r
2J. (See Fig. 81.)
1", y
both

which

the

are

only values of

under

case

and ?/

consideration

the

Fig. 81.

Exercises

Solve the

and graphically
followingequationsanalytically
:

"

1.

5a?

3.

4"-2i/=ll
=111

5.

8a;

"

"

4a; -f
Linear

14a.

2y

4y
3y

1|

2.

4B

29)

97

20f;

Laws.

"

experimentswhich
We
speak of these
frequentlynecessary

6.

5a?

Qy
|lOoj 9y
r

(5x

"

"

|4a?+ 3y

We

have

already met
when
plottedgive a
graphs following a
to express this

28

0*4

5*64

with

the

results of

straightline
linear

law, and

algebraically,

graph.
it is

SIMULTANEOUS

117

EQUATIONS.

The

following table gives the results of a test


L is the load
a
on
laboratorycrane.
liftedwhen the handle
E.
L
Find
law
the
effortwas
connecting and E.
Example

63.

L(in lb.)
lb.)

50

100

150

200

8'4

9-4

10-4

11-5

First plot the graph showing the relation


This is
L and
E.
between
shown
in Fig. 82.
It will be noticed
lie exactly
that these points do
not

along

straight line.

This

docs

not

that

mean

100

the

linear

is not

law

150

Fig. 82.

followed,but experimental results are always liable to slighterror, and, in


be drawn
of results obeying linear laws, a straightline should
so
case
the
remainder.
and
to
include
to pass among
as
as
points as possible
many
since the graph is a straightline we
know
that its equation will
Now
L
for
and E
the two variables we
be of the type y
ax
+ ",i.e.using
may
aL -\-b, and the problem resolves itself into findingvalues for
write E
the

"

"

and ft.
Select two
points on the graph, not too close
Thus
values of L arid E at each end of them.

(i)When

"

25,

(ii)When

175, 2?=

Now

substitute

these

values

E
Therefore

7'8

and
Here

(i)

11
we

have

two

and

of L

simultaneous
25a

11.

into the above

aL

25 -f

175 +

equation :

"

+ b.

b,
b.

equationswith
+

find the

7-8.

together,and

7'8

and

as

the unknowns

118

SIMULTANEOUS

EQUATIONS.

(ii)

I75a

Subtracting

I50a

Dividingby 150,

4- b

11

3'2

*?-

0'021.

150

(i)
a
Substituting

l" =

(25

0'021

0-021.

7-8.

25(i +

i.e.

0'52-f-fo

Therefore
Result

7 '8,

7*8.

7 '3 (nearly).

0'021

)+ 6

and

7 '3, and

the

required equation is
4- 7'3.

Exercises
1.

Examine

4a, No.

2.

of the

the

the

From

3.

law

equation of
Callingthe Volume
at
type will be V

the

then

graph plottedfrom
Denoting the load by L

d, find

Find
3.

No.

the

2.

springby

the

connecting
The

type

distance

Distance

Plot the

of the

the flats

across

The

Length

the

priceof

gross

in inches

(/)

of the

4a,

its temperature t,

ad

law
nail

-f b.

sides upon
which the
nuts
number
of Whitworth

(the two
a

"
i

If

l"
2

1"
2|

equation. It is of the type


of bolt (#),
" -f a X diameter
(y)
nuts
useful for drawing Whitworth
:

"

flats

for different

the law

Exercise

find the

Price (P) per gross

Find

the flats

across

across

given below

of

...

equation is very
bolt heads.

5.

fe.

V and

gas

of the bolt in inches

this

and

=.

the

aL

I.

type is

The

graph and

Distance
and

and

graph plottedin

the

and the diameter


spanner fits),
and bolts is given.
Diameter

given in Exercise
compressionof the

the data

graph plottedin Exercise 4a, No. 5, find the


force (I7) and the distance
(d) which the

penetrates the wood.


4.

14b.

of

wrought
lengths.
7J

...

55s.

...

type

iron

diameter
pins,-|/;

"

6(1.

45s.

al -f b.

C)d.

4|

36s.

27s.

is

SIMULTANEOUS

size

following

The

6.
:

119

EQUATIONS.

figures

obtained

were

lifts

from

of

the

same

"

Total

maintenance

annual

cost

and

interest

including

preciation
de"60

"40

"80

"100

60,000

80,000

.........

Total

journeys

per

40,000

20,000

year
...

the

Plot

and

graph

find

Cost

The

7.

(used

table

following

for

diameter

fastening
of

Diameter

of

thfe

journeys

to

type,
year

per

how

shows
wheel

shaft

the

the

of

law

the

the

".

width

of

sunk

key

with

varies

shaft)

the

"

shaft

inches

in

"

...

Width

of

key

in

in
..........

Prove

Width

that

the

law

is
:

"

gggg""t
of

the

key"

shaft"
+

1|

ANSWERS.

Exercises

2.

4'51".

5.

A".

3.

1'9

3'4,

6, 4'4,

6-

Exercises
1.
4.

4-4",

112

61-976,

mm.

52,

24'8

mm.

5'93.

4.

1-16",

2'95

cm.

2.

1100.

5.

139

2.

3'3", 8J".

5.

4'305

ft.,

9'87, 5'97,

2411,

6-35,

3.

'169,

'0824,

6.

497'9",

5'48".

16'93.

'0353.

109-8",

263-8",

6.

37*4".

-5, '25,

3.

47,

5.

'125,

86'1,

334,

65'1,

'0625,

'478,

'01.

'8.

4:

2.

2'875;/.

47'9, 17-1, 342,

5.

1-206.

*f.

8.

ff-

3.

"|.

sq.

ft.

10-8, 0'2, 11'6, 8'8, 97l'7,

0'9.

5359.

13'9, 87'5, 1*0, 11'9,

4.

9'99",

1", 78'59",

6.

41'7, 312'0,

1'7,

381'9.

"38".
135'2.

le.
2.

'03125,

4.

250, 128,
3'143,

'04, '025,

4567,

786,

'001,

'004,

24'4,

'015625.

'0078,

53'9,

'00219.

'00837.

If.

16'35

6'44".

cm.,

90'85,

Exercises

1.

5'64".

mm.,

445'4,

Exercises
1.

143'4
1209'53

2.

6.

'01.

3.
6.

Id.

Exercises
1.

ft.

4'3

3.
mm.,

1", 4", 4-5".

Ic.

Exercises
1.

'88", 2-01",

0'99".

5'01",

Ib.

Exercises
1.

4.

cm.

4". I", f", I"-

TV,

A",

la.

17'85.

3.

4'24",

6.

103'3.

1078

cm.

2a.

4.
120

2".

5.

2fJ.

6.

81f.

121

ANSWERS.

Exercises
1.

2.

if.

4.

1J|.

3.

21

2b.

Exercises
1. 175.

2.

2'625.

B. 3*40625.

6.

2'391

2.

J.

1J.

6j}.

2c.
2'417

3.

T4375.

4.

(nearly).

(nearly).
2d.

Exercises
1.

6.

2TV

5.

14.

3.

4.

2f.

A.

Exercises

6.

1A.

5.

A-

3b.

1.

1*414, 1-732, 2-236, 2'646.

2.

5'656, 8'660, 5'292.

3.

253.

4.

22'96.

5.

70.

6.

22'9

Exercises

4a.
2.

'175","44",'81",7'1

13-7 c.c., 69" C.


5. 214 lb.,277 lb.

4.

26 lb.,39 lb.

6.

77" F., 82"C.

7. 5jd."8"d,. lljd.

8.

29s. 6d., 41s.

I. 121-5

c.c., 6*1 cub.

in.

3.

10.

9. 35-9 lb.,61-4 lb.

lb.

6d., S6s.6d.,68s, 6d.

1'42 sec., 24'8

Exercises

cm.

5a.

2. '275.

1. 2-54, '394, -16, 16'4, '093.


3.

'0556, 'I, -111, -125, -167, '2, '222.

4.

5.

A, f

6.

3'14.
1-414.

7. -0485" per inch, '582" per foot.


8.

-162" per foot, 4' 12

1O.

J.

12.

"1

13s.

4d.,

12s.

mm.

per

cm.

30'48

9. 29'7 sq. ft.

cm.

11.

1*13 per

cent.,18*5 per

13.

51}

per

cent.

618

lb. per sq.

14.

9s., "315.

15.

16.

2-6".

17. '83".

cent.

in.,257 lb. per sq. in.


18.

-287".

122

ANSWERS.

6a.

Exercises

35",B
63",B

1. A2.

3.

4.

5.

15*35

6. b

187

39",C

cm.,

6-38',4
5-8",A

90", 0

J",C

J",18'84".

88

72",19'6".

42",B

90",45

cm.

6b.

Exercises
1. 21*2 sq.
4.

2.

cm.

2'12

5. 76'3.

5'5 sq. in.

74ft.

2. 352

3 rolls.

space

6.

4320

sq. metres.

1*08 acres,

3.

be 6"

should

Each

3.

4" wide.

2.

Circumferences.

*126

Areas,

in.

sq. in.

-189

'00282

cm.

"126

702 sq. in.

7a.

Circumferences.

cm.

sq.

4.

sq. ft.

18'96

high and

Exercises
Areas.

cm.

6c.

bricks.

5. 24 sq. in.

1.

3. 30'2 sq.
6. 75'8.

sq. in.

Exercises
1.

cm.

50",C

cm.,

36

55",46'1 cm.
78",9'69".
41",B
84",46'29
=

'515

2'54

1-54

4-4

5-31

817

773

475
17'9
21*8

18'2

15'1

15-02

41'9

22-93

16-66

Diameters.

Areas.

in.

sq. in.

785

1
5-49

23-7

7*40

43-0

24-1

456

36'8

1062

7b.

Exercises
1. '00246

sq.

2.

132-8

4.

Distance

5.

'00306

7. AB

sq.

to B

ft.,2'84 sq.

measures

from

3.

from
sq.

'0000283

sq. mm.,

cm.

53-8

9. 3*93

in., T586

ft.,11740
round

hole to hole.

cm.

Ib.
the

3 -33

sq.

in., -0183

17*3 ft., 21'2".

sq.

mm.

305

Between

and

306.

ft., 20 strips.,22 ft. approximately.


A

6. At
8.

circle and

"993 sq.
28'3

375

in.,at B 2'4 sq. in.

ft.,B

measured

32 ft.
in

straightline

124

5.

ANSWERS.

""'

7. 27rb2

,"),

?[*.

6.

8irc2.

9.
_

"b.

12.

O'"r3

16.

a3 +

17.

3-26DV

19.

2,

21.

-f

3i/2,
2*" +

3-46D71

b,

jo

g),

7b +

1-1054^

3a

6c,

1 l7T(Z2

57TJD2

""/-"

"

y.

22.

24.

b,

Exercises

4|.

6. 2.

2.

15.

3.

7.

2.

8.

"

J,

"

1.

4.

1-8.

6|.

9.

7J.

1. 21 volts.

2. 5-77 ohms.

4. 21-8" C.

5,

25*3

7. 155-3 ft.

8.

176" C.
1-22 ft.
62'4 Ib. per

5.

T6", 2'67", 4'61".

9.

4J

Ib.

23

tons.

13.

0-4 sq. in.,7 tons.

15.

17.

16. 1'66 ft.,3'5 ft.,5'03 ft.,6'21 ft.


30300000, -00094.
18.
1-43",1-6",1-75", 2-47".
1J.

19.

16-06

Ib., 17-85 Ib.,19'64 Ib.,22'3 Ib.

20.

18-35

Ib.,24-86 Ib.,45'7 Ib.

22.

50.

25.

23-86.

2"

1. 6, 12, 8, 24 sq. in., 8 cub. in.

5.

5'65

sq. cm.,
cm.,

52'2

c.c.

12'6 sq. cm.,

5'2 Ib. per


sq. ft.,

ft.

Exercises

37'7 sq.

2.

22

3'54

Exercises

23'6

5947J sq. ft.,1190,

14869

cub. ft.

sq.

ft.,2'31 ft.

21.

203, 172, 140'6.

24.

85, 1321, 781, 687.

in., 6 cub. in.

sq.
c.c.

lib.

1. 67 sq. ft,,3 sheets, 36 cub. ft.


2. 1775 watts, 7 lamps nearly sufficient.
3.

sq.

Ha.

4.
cm.,

3|.

1'69 amperes.

15|

23.

c.

6.

1O.

ft.

"

3.

12.

11.

lOb.

in.

14.

lOa.

Exercises

110'6

0-2.

--"

3.

n/""z
T"
2Qo + Fa.
i

dya

9j

1.

(P

2b.

11.

4pj" + V.

2a

23.

4xy

-^

in.,14*14 sq. in.,5'3cub.

in.

li'"

ANSWERS.

4.

GJ

5.

1665

39-52

ft.,

cub.

ft

cub.

gallons,

195

7.

169-5

9.

11.

169-5

c.c.,

sheets,

sq.
ft.

sq.

cm.

652

in., 237

cub.

1.

97-5

3.

42

4.

106-4

5.

3-7

gallons,
Ib.

1020

per
Ib.

gm.

per

kilogm.

17*5, 17'8,

4.

10-2

7. 2s.

2.

80-4

Ib.

5.

18

4|d.

8.

3-8

1O.

1018

13.

97'5

63

Exercises

5'2.

Ib.
Ib.

5^

1.

7.

8.

1.

2.

4,

2-J, 1".

6.

0-54,

3,

1606,

17-85,

18-35,

24-86,

19-64,

4.

9.

1,

10,

1.

d
F

2.
8.

'07L.
252d

6.

5.

6'32

2'34

kilogm.

6.

21'3

Ib.,

9.

3J

0'00026.

oz.

12.

2'3

15.

5'02

46

and

oz,,

in.,

sq.

142

3.

4.

1-58.

52,

2|,

0-375.

22'3.

270

2.

1O.

volts.

5.

j?

JB

-f- 8.

333.

14a.

5,

2|,

9.

3.

,r

3J.

6.

3J,

1J.

'36,

1'4.

14b.

2,

4.

Distance

6.

Cost

Ib.
Ib.

13a.

Exercises

3.

3.

45'7.

637.

a?

c.c.

in.

Ib.

Exercises
1.

sq.

gallons.

2.

c.c.

metre.

(nearly).

Exercises

6.

8818

c.c.,

cwt.

14.

179

12b.

tons

7700

c.c.

12.

Ib.

11.

in.

sq.

in.

cub.

per

6.

1.

579

ft.

c.c.

Ib.

"

0'442

6933

2.

ft.,1699

cub.

per

8.

cub.

12a.

Ib.

ft., 0'67

cub.

50)

cub.

Exercises

ft., 375

cab.

6.

1O.

required.

extra

31-4", 34-5",

28'3",

gallons.

ft., 4s.

sq.

40

-045*

+
=

-001

12*4.
1'5

(diameter)

(no.

of

journeys)

'125.
4- 20.

4.