COURSE
FIRST
IN
MATHEMATICS
FOB
STUDENTS
TECHNICAL
HY
P.
IIM
J. HALEE,
I.K"
IVKKK
HlHJKCTS
IM.1NKKRIM1
IN
A.I.E.E.
B.Sc., A.M.I.MECH.E.,
\\'
I UK
L.C
C.
IIACKNfcY
AND
A.
LKfirUKH
H.
IN
B.Sc., F.R.A.S.
STUART,
MVIHKMMK'S
LONDON
AT
TUB
W.
I.C ('.
B.
HACKNEY
INS1ITU1K
CLIVE
fg Cufortaf (preec
HIGH
ST., NEW
OXFORD
1914
ST.,W.C.
IV^'lll
PREFACE.
THIS
little book
and
simple
suitable
for
study.
It
is intended
practical course
students
is
modelled
of
requirements
who
First
the
meet
to
rudiments
the
on
are
preparing
on
for
scheme
in
for
mathematics
of
of
course
technical
all
covering
Course
Year's
demand
growing
the
usual
Preliminary Technical
Classes.
The
the
of
actual
to
should
problems
machine
form
whole
Wherever
which
to the
art
refer
which
reference
accompanying
good introduction
book.
necessary
drawings
atmosphere
quantities
concrete
The
the
to
the
the
that
of the
many
of
the
"
reading
"
Graphical
chapter,
the
as
the
studying
student
should
given
make
in the
calculations.
differs in
correlation
the
too
strongly
models
paper
of
almost
of technical
insisted
it is
solids
common
into
them.
every
drawing
upon.
important
Full
that
the
instructions
text.
Special emphasis
remembered
be
cannot
introduced
been
have
necessity for
mathematics
When
are
with
conditions.
make
must
insure
to
pervade
deal
problems
working
student
and
should
workshop
possible the
endeavoured
have
authors
that
degree.
has
From
the
although
The
laid
been
rough
on
the
importance
practicalpoint of
accuracy
estimate
view
is essential
may,
in the
in
of
mate
approxi
it must
all
cases
be
it
end, be quite
PREFACE.
VI
the
near
as
the
cases
truth
data
every
example
is
only
not
habit
of
scheme
first
the
Institutes,
West
the
As
County
Council
Lancashire
have
HACKNEY
the
Education
Riding
of
it
taken
to
no
way
no
INSTITUTE,
October
10,
part
in
all
cover
result
forming
as
of
requirements
the
the
in
Preliminary
Union
of
Council
of
Cheshire
and
the
County
of
Union
National
the
for
necessary
explicitly
state
responsible
in
invaluable
practice.
to
the
of
estimate
to
Teachers,
bodies.
lecturers
is
is
check
rough
Mathematics
Yorkshire,
are
it
Committee
examining
Council
in
found
of
authors
are
be
in
the
but
workshop
examination
regulations
recent
and
year
apply
mental
rough
itself,
will
work
similar
other
and
of
in
successful
to
Course
Technical
the
check
useful
This
most
with.
begin
to
in
for
leisure,
at
to
encouraged
be
works.
essential
The
approximate
should
he
made
calculation
only
are
student
The
the
as
its
for
employment
them
in
that
the
the
contents
of
the
London
with
accordance
London
County
of
this
book
publication.
P.
J.
A.
H.
H.
S.
CONTENTS.
1'AUK
CHAPTER
I.
DECIMAL
MEASUREMENT:
FRACTIONS
I
.
II.
VULUAR
FRACTIONS
III.
POWERS
AND
Hi
ROOTS
2*2
...
IV.
V.
USE
RATIO
..
...
...
"!KAPHS
P\PF,K:
JSgUAKED
OF
*JS
PROPORTION
AND
38
...
VI.
ANGLES
FKIUKKS
PLANK
AND
48
...
VII.
VI1L
CIRCUMFERENCE
USE
IX.
OF
AREA
AND
OF
..
...
OKCLK
,r"6
FORMULAE
63
PROCESSKN
ALCEBRAIC
08
..
X.
SIMPLE
84
EQUATIONS
.
XI.
XII.
COMMON
SOLIDS
XIII.
drRAPHS
XIV.
SIMULTANEOUS
ANSWERS
92
WEICIITS,
DENSITIES,
RELATIVE
OF
...
SlMPLE
FUNCTIONS
KOUATIONS
AND
VOLUMKS
101
109
114
120
CHAPTER
MEASUREMENT
line
the
scale
If
an
reveal
should
country
and
inch,"
"
it would
this
In
the
if
we
are
is
inches
three
written
frequently
into
quarters
and
2"
2f
inch, it is
we
readily
in
If
3").
that
say
and
that
that
seen
the
inches,
the
inches
two
three
say
inches
inches,
subdivided
were
length
required
if
even
they
did
they
would
they
whatever
that
unlikely
very
question,
suppose
could
line
between
lay
".
it is
Now
thus
length
this
to
between
lay
of
graduated
the
to
applied
were
length
of
I
measured
(a length
some
length
Vie.
and
the
kind
accustomed
scale
the
that
fact
determine
to
apply
inch
an
FRACTIONS.
asked
were
Fig. 1, we
in
it.
to
called
AVG
"
shown
DECIMAL
Measurement.
I.
it
meet
be
the
will
subdivisions
the
the
line
in
unreasonable
be
which
case
every
fit
exactly
would
of
to
likely
was
to
arise.
far
By
the
the
divided
inch
application
of
2"
j^"
was
had
be
of
tenth
equal
the
F.
convenient
most
to
of
one
small
c,
MATHS.
into
such
+
an
ten
scale
small
inch
to
parts
line
the
piece,
less
subdivided
hundredth
piece
equal
which
of
"
was
than
inch.
left
difficulty is
called
would
into
an
this
of
out
way
"
Now
this
"
over
that
each
tenths,
By
tenths."
show
A".
means
from
have
to
The
its
length
we
suppose
of
these
the
our
would
length
former
1
MEASUREMENT
measurement
could
Tgrj"t.jjjywoul(i
be determined.
now
the total
bring
2" f
is about
This
by
a
mechanical
some
hundredth
latter
of
lind
inch
of
the
that
inch), it is
an
there
us
suppose
measurement.
The
the
length of
was
but
result.
have
must
wo
very
than
less than
above
^et
of the last
becomes
"
3
1000
'
convenient
of
means
method
might
small
yJ0".
in
"T
(the
likelythat
still another
was
_L.
simpler
length given
The
tenths
into
piecejust measured
this time
100
ii?
micrometer)
more
small
there
"
_i_
I
10
this is
Now
Decimals."
"
""
T"
were
eye, but
excess
length
f^o"
line
of
the
now
length
or
of
measured
O"
unaided
subdivided
be
the
microscope
not
was
with
go
could
length
of the line to
70".
(eg. a
means
an
60"+
its
Suppose
length
can
we
as
thousandths
being
should
we
far
as
FRACTIONS.
DECIMAL
ment,
measure
settingdown
of
2'673", whicli
be written
six seven
should be read "two, decimal
The dot between
three."
the two and the six simply indicates that the figureor figureson
left constitute
the
whole
"
the
successively indicate
while
number,"
number
those
right
hundredth*),
tenths,
of
the
on
of
fours, but
such
number
quite well
know
we
four
left hand.
has
only one
they
value
of 400
and
tenth
The
passed.
Here
that
rule holds
This
point is
444*4444.
as
good
values
both
5
II
II
12 "5
II
II
seven
all the
same
II
of 40
only.
the
neighbour on
and
after the
down
be written
lo
not
the second
before
might
have
have
we
0
10
0
o
"*io
12
JS
II
II
mal
deci
thus
"
4444444
We
thus
see
line between
those whose
The
one
the
values
student
is
are
should
of the inches
doing this
digitswhose
now
point is
values
less than
one.
make
an
now
is divided
described.
into ten
no
are
inch
more
not
than
less than
unity and
scale in which
equal parts.
The
dividing
at
method
least
of
MEASUREMENT
Construct
1.
Ex.
line AB
FRACTIONS.
DECIMAL
tenths
long and
parallellines
a"d
I" respectively
1"" 2"
All
from
(See Fig. 2, which
Draw
is
rule
then
drawn
half
to
JVIark
size.)
the
proper
the aid
oft' with
4"
three
positionsof
the
lines at
K,
Draw
apart.
through the point A a line A O
of any
length making an angle
each
of
inch
one
45"
about
with
take
AB,
and
step
compasses
your
draw
9 lines
O and 6' and
then
vertical
draw
inch
An
this
student
of which
just adopted
The
By
should
in
making
Metre
The
is
one
submultiplesof this
are
distances
parts
aid
now
make
unit
unit
over
centimetre
measured
unit
by
the
same
in
used
scale
his
on
metre
centi
one
method
is
as
that
known
system
as
the Metric
of
and
kilometre
decametre
the
scale.
in
taken
Europe
are
into tenths
the inch
of
the
of
the
standard
(it is rather
small
other
is divided
centimetre
System.
which
by
Join
equal divisions.
divisions
just made,
cut AC, as shown.
the
through
slopinglines
these
in many
centimetre.
ruler the
as
unit
is the
ten
OC
parallelto
lines where
country, but
called
named
follows
as
1000
metres
100
metres
"
10 metres.
"
METRE.
deci metre
"6metre
centimetre
millimetre
metre
It
will
be
noticed
the
that
in the
differ
prefix,
only
in
printed
heavy type
ployed.
frequently embeing most
names
those
Fig. 3 (which
half
size) shows
Fig. 3.
inches
appliedto
lengthto
be
measured.
We
see
is
a
at
drawn
to
scale
once
of
that
MEASUREMENT
the
lies between
length
FRACTIONS.
DECIMAL
2*4"
2*3" and
this is sometimes
and
should
2'3 +
It is very
important that the student
persevere in mentally dividing up the last tenth into ten equal
parts and so "estimating"the value of the second figureafter
written
"
in the
the decimal
Fig. 3 it is
in
shown
above
than
5.
fall short
to
of this
is estimated
length
With
little
obtained
should
estimate
might
we
with
make
so
to be
appears
to be
it to be
7, but
put
we
the
on
edge
practicethis
followingexercises
1.
millimetres
into inches
rule should
the
and
6, and
the
the whole
it
case
hence
figureafter
second
seems
the whole
the student
of
the
is
student
estimatingit.
of
requiresa
and
centimetres
The
inch.
an
into inches,Jand
followinglines ;
decimal
the
and
la.
and
tenths
be divided
Draw
in this
edge into
one
nearlyof
2*30".
Exercises
For
over
case
than
more
the
down
the
examining
length passes
the
hence
and
if its distance
Now
distance
that
seen
On
measurement.
each
rule divided
on
other
the
other
side of the
*$.
line must
be
set out
separately,
315"
Rule
line 5"
Fig.
3.
iJo
4.
lengthof
the lines
given in Fig.4
to the nearest
centimetre.
Eule
lengthsof
Measure
and
the
Estimate
4.
line 6 inches
:"
the total
write the
answers
lengthand
down
the remainder
to the nearest
from
j"o"
the
six inches
MEASUREMENT
and
long
FRACTIONS.
Draw
5.
DECIMAL
of
sixteenths
inch.
an
6.
with
Decimals
how
^oVWorkshop.
Enough
"
has
been
said to show
In
system for all classes of work.
into eighths,
the earlydays of engineeringthe inch was
subdivided
suitable
is the
decimal
sixteenths, etc.,but
system
The
that
now
these
rapidlygiving way
are
taken
are
decimal
the
is in demand.
work
accurate
more
followingwords
to
from
letter written
by
James
the
decimal
work,
accurate
student
is
system
of any
branch
for
generalmethods
will now
be given.
"'i
natural
and
of this advance
consequence
wards
to
for the
of the
the
importance
system
The
overstated.
be
cannot
engineering
dealingwith quantitiescontainingdecimals
of
Addition.
Ex.
Add
2.
In
"
004,
12,
the
;
together
an
settingdown
in
digits
units'
forth.
similar
care
3'7,
addition
one
column
must
and
042S,
of whole
and
numbers,
all the
be exercised
tens'
here
we
are
6*634.
careful to
digitsin
another
keep
and
all
so
"
12
004
37
0428
fi634
22802
Sum
in an
addition
The
not containing
as
operation is exactly the same
decimals.
The
column
the right of the decimal point gave a total of 18,
on
this is if
lT8o 1 *8. The 8 is therefore put down in this column arid the
=
1 carried
foward
to the column
containingthe
units'
digits.
MEASUREMENT
DECIMAL
FRACTIONS.
It is sometimes
desirable to express
figureafter the decimal point. The
be written
whole
nearest
number
figureafter the
writing23
in
If,however,
22'8.
we
we
we
asked
are
should
write it
decimal
are
is greater than
only 0*2 in error, while
as
to express
23, since
it
the
as
the
first
It is clear that
5.
would
22
have
been
in
0*8
error.
Exercises
1. Add
Ib.
togetherthe followingnumbers
"
304
008
012
116
and
if these numbers
their
sum
on
their nearest
2.
Add
correct
and
give the
point:
answer
"
inches
0041
1094
"
0875
"
1250
"
Find
and
3.
in
equivalent
inches
sixteenths.
Add
"
191
222
492
413
116
Prove
your answer
in inches and tenths.
and
graphically
equivalent
MEASUREMENT
Sum
4.
the
DECIMAL
FRACTIONS.
followingfigures:
"
12001
15008
20012
1018
3987
also
givethe
Add
part
of the
whole
If the numbers
number.
to
equivalent
answer.
togetherthe following:
0917
"
feet
0989
"
0976
"
0899
,
0524
"
Also
decimal
6.
write
down
the
to
correct
answer
one
point.
Add
together:
"
7854
square
inches
80516
61862
34225
64636
Give the
answer
correct
to two
after
figures
the
decimal
point.
Subtraction.
Ex.
3.
Setting it
Subtract
down
in the
27'543/rom
ordinary way
31'07.
and
subtractingwe
get :
"
3107
27'543
3j527^
Difference
Note
that
the
3 in the
lower
line is treated
0.
as
it would
be if it stood
continuityof
treatment
under
is not
MEASUREMENT
Ex.
125)
(6631
4.
Here
the +
The
subtract.
DECIMAL
(T472
addition
sign indicates
FRACTIONS.
quantitiesbracketed
+ 006)
while
the
First bracket
(i'63l
Difference
5'381
Second
1 '412
sign
instructs
be treated
togethermust
us
to
first.
Ij2r"
bracket
1 "532
Sum
Result
Result
of the second
5381
bracket
1/532
37849
Difference
Result, correct
to three
figuresafter
decimal, 3 '849.
the
Exercises
1.
Add
"
This
might
be
accuracy."
fourfigure
Ic.
0006
together
1039
082
and
subtract
your
answer
the
from
sum
of the
following
3937
3858
Add
of the above
057
together
1052
15160f"
and
subtract
the
expressing
the
of the
sum
followingnumbers,
whole number.
11563
10562
067
MEASUREMENT
3.
Subtract
first decimal
followingand givethe
the
place;
FRACTIONS.
DECIMAL
correct
answers
to the
"
19.719
116504
0580
10.56995
0401
99865
9105682
0981
91104
8134001
010H
8.0801
"
"
"
"
Subtract
the
in centimetres
of
sum
from
your
ruler.
millimetres
12'699
11785
9271
from
the
sum
of
4*191
cm.
5892
"
7213
"
Give
your
6.
millimetre.
is correct and
find from
your answer
in inches and tenths.
ruler the value of the answer
Prove
that
graphically
Subtract
the
of
sum
171961
501615
170310
0625
_0715
from
the
sum
of
"
5061710
1052
785147
356256
Express the
whole
number.
10
MEASUREMENT:
FRACTIONS.
DECIMAL
Multiplication (ordinarymethod).
Ex.
Multiply15362 by 3
5.
21.
15362
321
lf"3fc"
80724
Tlie decimal
point is
placed until
not
product is
the
pleted
com
"
decimal
common
two
the student
point he
sense
check.
one
quantities,
than
uses
this
should
The
rather
or
never
above
any other
method
for
placing
fail to
applythe following
exampleobtains the productof
largerthan
15 and
the other
one
larger
productshould
be somethingover 45, and this approximatevalue is sufficiently
the true result to prevent our
near
making a foolish mistake in
placingthe decimal point.
In practical
work it is highlyprobablethat the above product
would
case
only be requiredto threefigure
accuracy, in which
3.
about
is
now
It is perfectly
obvious to anyone
obtained
Contracted
Ex.
6.
to
of the calculation
that the
was
wasted.
The
result
threefigure
accuracy by the
Method
of
Multiply 15'362
Multiplication.
by 3'21
correct
to
three
significant
figures.
Since
we
require threefigure
accuracy
In order
to do this
we
must
aim
at
keeping four
"
1536^
321
46OSi
we
need
12
10
MEASUREMENT
DECIMAL
"
FRACTIONS.
has
effect of
the
the
moving
Thus
15736
10
15736
15736
100
15736
15736
Similarly
15736
10
15736"
100
15736
1000
015736
0 015736.
Exercises
Id.
Multiplythe followingnumbers
1.
method
only
giving
the
correct
answers
together by
to
three
the
contracted
significant
figures
"
1516
106
by 15*9,
31416
5*99,
17256
by 619,
00965
by
by 31416,
0 981.
by
and
2. Multiply together the following numbers
give the
first
after
the
the
decimal
correct to
answers
figure
point:
7956 by 5599,
2356 by 0*0591,
05621 by 155732,
109 by 0'109,
5673
0995 by 0995,
by 6731.
"
together :
Multiply the followingnumbers
0324 by 0342,
0'212 by 0212.
0464 b/ 0464,
In each of the above
examples multiplythe answer
by 07854
to the third figureafter the decimal
and give the result correct
point.
3.
4.
"
If 0*39370
is the
factor
5.
If
25394,
of
inches
is
metre
and
decimal
point.
write
equal to
it to
inches, convert
39*370113
correct
and
to inches
the
the
nearest
0'962.
199*56,
25409,
in centimetres
measurement
"
method
6.
which
to convert
in centimetres
followingmeasurements
iJo":
by
multipliedby
be
must
Use
to the first
in
the contracted
figure after
the
result
by
the
contracted
decimal
point.
6*456
64516,
8064
method
38*70,
to .the
0155
first
10*76, 96'87
1.395.
MEASUREMENT
DECIMAL
13
FRACTIONS.
Division.
Ex.
It is
decimal
58742
Divide
8.
by
point
in the
to arrange
to have
one
This can
always be
divisor.
by some
dividing
or
16*27.
of 10, and
power
the same
multiplied or divided by
10 in the above example we
of
digitonly before
the
plying
accomplished by multithe dividend
course
must
be
have
"
l627)r"'8742(3(il
4881
9932
1700
1627
73
The
positionof
consider
that
wo
the
when
point should present no difficulty
2
1 and
dividing a quantity (l'G'27)between
decimal
are
another
(5 '87,etc.) between
Note
down"
that
5 and
6.
when
there were
more
no
added
to the remainder
a 0 was
to prevent this process
beingcarried on
of
to confine the result to the number
Contracted
Ex.
9.
Divide
wo
into
in each
As
case.
there
to
"bring
is
nothing
be exercised
must
care
indefinitely,
required.
significant
figures
Division.
15'25
by
3*1416
correct to three
significant
figure*.
3T^)15250(486 nearly.
12568
2:""82
2^"12
170
Result
It will be observed
last
digitin
the divisor
that instead
is discarded.
decidinghow
result.
many
of
adding
4*80.
0 to each
remainder, the
Significant Figures.
in
threefigure
accuracy,
to
"
The
student
must
14
MEASUREMENT
is
Here
example :
can
"
workman
finds it to be
cylinderand
and
inch
one
as
FRACTIONS.
DECIMAL
This
7J".
equals
centimetres.
J" equals
by multiplying 7125" by 2'54.
the workman
y" and
he therefore
Therefore
it is
It should
four
might
have
be noted
contains
threefigure
accuracy
figures.
we
at least
been
to
Divide
1
and
express
that
if
Pal't"f
work
significance
centimetre.
millimetre
in
as
involves
throughout
error.
18 pl centimetres.
three
subtraction,then
or
to five
to
or
get
significant
le.
decimal
is 18*09750
to the nearest
calculation
addition
no
must
as
real
the result
express
Exercises
1.
originalmeasurement
correct
more
here
steps and
the
made
xooVoo"
to
result
the
to have
figuresare
be correct
must
metres,
required in centi
centimetres, and
ordinarymethod
all these
If
the measurement
Now
the
lengthis
"'54
Multiplyingthis by
of
the diameter
measures
"
1 by 8,
1 by 100.
1 by 16,
by 4,
represent lengths in inches, draw lines to represent
by 2,
If the results
them.
Find
2.
1 divided
the value
Explain the
results
of
"
by
64.
Divide:"
3.
254
by 32,
in decimals
by 5392,
Use
314
the contracted
by
method
Find
25
the value
J6_
01'
0125'
Explain
from
by 0874,
givethe answers
0 '094, 75*24
of the
and
8816
by
1119.
to the
correct
point.
following:
"
037'
16
25'
Q37
0125
01
169
number
'
169*
less than
unity
in the denominator.
5.
Find
the value
of the
accuracy
followingto threefigure
0785
divided
by
785.
"
MEASUREMENT
Try
write
to
Find
6.
approximate
an
the
commencing
1'
28'
Express
of the
Find
results
aid
correct
threefigureaccuracy.
to
of the
If.
of the
sum
following lengths
with
the
0375", check
and
decimals
into
and
adding together.
sum
2*54
and
Add
2.
the
to
"
results
then
:"075",
ruler
of the
the
value
the
before
case
18'
Exercises
1.
in each
9696
(H)64"
the
down
answer
following
156
22
"22
15
FRACTIONS.
calculation.
value
the
DECIMAL
centimetres.)
167", and
5'191
the
Express
the
subtract
centimetres.
(An
both
in
answer
from
sum
inch
is
equal
centimetres
inches.
3.
Find
the remainder
2015",
If
in centimetres
To
Find
5.
075
/1765\
TO.
6.
Find
decimal
value
the
/5613\
v
x
the
with
answer
kilometres
the
of the
following:
fI9\ and also
,
value
point :
(078 x
the
miles
of the
ruler.
must
Prove
:
"
be
that
2975,
both
1065,
kilometres.
78x13x2324x300
_8__
following to
the
first
figure after
"
561)
either
"
(jg).
"
divided
or
"
the
into
inches
0235".
"
by 062137.
results in the following cases
same
miles by converting them
into
figuresgive the
212*55, and
into
T60934
multiplied by
prove
arithmetically)of
1078",
convert
and
miles
convert
3.54",
dividing by 03937,
value
4.
(with
(762 x 086)
(516
116).
the
CHAPTER
VULGAR
Numerator
and
If this relate to
.
it
inch
an
been
and
the
if
such
In
in
is the
one
student
long
and
is that
which
should
"draw
now
it into 8
described
in
equal
ter
Chap
himself
that
each
verifyfor
measured
it
five
of
eighth part
the method
5.
to which
unit
divide
these
Fig.
regarding it
divided
by 8, in
The
the 8 is called
such
of
is shown
refers, it is
equal to f" as
fraction
length of 1 inch
into 8 equal parts,
inches.
line 5"
of
of
inch
an
I., and
is
idea
monly
com
,J,J,^ ^, "2,
"
indicates
fraction
it indicates
most
divided
This
parts by
fraction
that
way
divisions
us
Another
case,
think
means
has
fractions
are
Let
parts.
of these
The
"
measurement
practical
multiplesof these.
6*4,and
as
in
FEACTIONS.
Denominator.
and
with
met
II.
his rule.
on
the denominator
the
and
the numerator.
Eeturning
to
Fig. 5,
subdivided
were
into
16, and
In this way
value when
it
is
that
seen
now
that
it may
be seen
the numerator
the
same
quantity.
Ex.
10.
Find
first
thing
example
For
the value
of
The
which
is
do
is to
the
L.C.M., which
other
be divided
words
both
are
f ="",
unaltered
in
multiplied
7x3
"
r^
ID
of:
"
find
ift
denominator,
means
common
called
would
remains
^lo
of the divisions
Fractions.
*+!*
to
In
denominator
and
Subtraction
and
Addition
inch
fraction
by
if each
equal parts,the
f Avould be }".
into two
what
be
can
Least
Common
i.e.
This
number
is
Multiple."
times
some
It
is
convenient
most
the
answer
to
purpose,
"
least"
(i.e.smallest) number
but
it is not absolutelynecessary
Now
16 is the L.C.M,
to express
"
the
use
17
FKACTIONS.
VULGAR
8J and
c
Thus
(} x8\
in the
\2lT8;
8
/7xL"\
way
expression becomes
the
,/3x4\
+
same
to
do
be
will
the
In
so.
in IGths
must
which
we
must
multiplied
"
12
f!4
"'
f 3
16
~
T6~
The
should
student
correspondingto
Ex.
Find
11.
Taking
the
whole
16'
set out
along a straightline,distances
quantities,
taking 1" as the unit.
now
these
the value
numbers
of:
"
first :
3 +
Now
the
fractions
(the L.C.M.
/7x
"
of the denominators
4W/1
28
'2.
"
x8\
is
32) :
.,
+
_
32
Result, 2J.
This
along a
result
should
line
in
as
be
verified
Example
10.
Exercises
In
by stepping out
Use
as
the distances
the unit.
2a.
of the
should
first
followingexercises the student
find the value of the expressionby the arithmetical
method
the
result
and
then
just shown,
verify
by stepping out the
distances
line,
a
along
straight
putting in the dimensions ;
be measured
from
left to right and
"f quantitiesshould
the
in
direction.
quantities
opposite
each
"
F. c. MATHS.
18
FRACTIONS.
VULGAR
a.
2"
+21
3"
5.
of Fractions.
Multiplication
3
miles
for
hour
per
*.
a"
6.
4J
If
"
hours, how
ig
at the
walk
man
ij
miles
many
rate
will he
of
have
this
travelled V
The
to
answer
Distance
Let
in
of
at the
hour
an
seen
far
of another
think
us
Time.
Velocity x
of
example. How
rate of f of a mile
f of f of a mile.
will
?
per hour
swim
man
It is
easily
it follows
Hence
 x f
f means
Regarding \ as the unit and dividingit into
7 thirtyfifths.
get,1 fifth
21
fifths.
Therefore
;. 3 fifths
thirty.
3 thirtyfifths
and
3 fifths
2 sevenths
of 3
that
equal parts,we
seventh
fifths
of
thirty
fifths.
We
are
for
Rule
in
now
the
positionto
Multiply the
of the product, and
get the numerator
of the
togetherto get the denominator
multiplythe denominators
Fractions.
of
Multiplication
togetherto
numerators
state the
"
product.
The
fraction
should
afterwards
cancelled
be
down
to
its
simplestform.
Division
of Fractions.
by another, we
multipliedby
follows that f
i.e.Answer
Rule
A. whole
forms
the
for
Fraction
are
5
and
fraction is to be divided
one
to
find
X
=
"
because
which, when
fraction
dividend.
divisor,gives the
divisor
the
When
"
reallyasked
(f X f )
"
From
this
it
dividend.
Division
of
Fractions.
"
Invert
the Divisor
Multiply.
number
may
be
regarded
as
fraction
in which
it
20
VULGAR
the *375 is
Note
by
some
in
cases
many
be
must
no
carried
figuresis
exact
an
obtained.
Convert
14.
Ex.
of
power
FRACTIONS.
fyinto
is
(Fourfigure
accuracy
decimal
"
required.) Proceeding
as
before
"
12)70000
"5833.
student
The
decimal
viz.
:"
should
himself
for
make
The
found
these
means
and
decimal
shown
by
lengthsshould then be
of the rule,using the
then measured
by means
tenths.
This
result
should
giving
fractions
of
an
the
inch,
2c.
equivalentsof
the method
used
table
the
in
value.
1.
To
not
If.
2.
2.
Convert
very common
the student
Decimal
Now
15.
1".
4.
into
Vulgar
8.
5,
6.
Fraction.
2.
"
This
is
less
calculations,nevertheoperationin practical
know
how to proceed.
Ex.
2".
3.
should
0'1875
Convert
this is equalto
into
fraction.
"
1000
800
^
70
+
4
10000
=
1875
10000*
From
this result
we
obtain
the decimal
Place
Denominator
a 1 followed by
decimal.
Rule."
the
quantity
as
many
in
the Numerator
noughts
as
there
and
are
for the
figures in the
use
The
result
must
be cancelled
now
21
FRACTIONS.
VULGAR
down
simplest form
to its
"
1875
1000(1
75
Cancellingby
25
Cancellingby
25
4(117
again
2d.
Exercises
Convert
following decimals
simplestform :
the
latter in their
into fractions,expressingthe
"
1. 025.
4.
'
00625.
2.
1125.
3.
2375
5.
14375
6.
028125.
Exercises
2e.
the answer
to a decimal.
Multiply3^f by f and convert
result
and
line
the
marking off a
by drawing a straight
Verify
this length into 9 equal parts and
Divide
length of 3Jf"the total length of 4 of them.
measure
2. Multiply 7fyby f and
verifyit as in No. 1, but using
1cm. as the unit of length.
3. Add
together 1J and 2T56. Multiply the sum
by " and
divide the product by .
This problem might have been set thus
N.B.
1.
"
"
Sili+JA).
I
The
it
4.
AC?
Simplify
1A)
:"
5. A
rod is
fraction
of the
of
21"
this,think
is cut
of
off.
What
simplecase
off
and
the
rod
8"
cut
the
were
long
portionhad been 4" ;
Suppose
this is obviouslyJ of the whole length. Ask yourself
why ? and
method
to the problem set.)
apply the same
6. A rod is 8f" long; fof its whole
length is cut off; what
lengthremains ?
(If you
cannot
see
how
to start
"
CHAPTER
III.
POWERS
Squares.
when
used
is
whose
square
Now
if
accustomed
are
with
dealing
are
we
frequently
of
We
"
the
is 1 foot
a
of
speak
"
of
this
by
that
divided
other
this
read
way
we
36
forth,
is
the
see
is
little
the
In
index.
that
and
each
to
which
32,
62
92
equals
81
and
quantity
the
Fig.
of
this
as
called
this
so
YARD
being
In
6.
number
squared,"
"
FOOT
of
each
square
is convenient
It
(3x3).
write
FOOT
the
in
feet
in
Fig.
in
feet
square
three
words
were
square
three
rows
be
we
square
square
into
shown
as
row,
INDEX
area
long,
is 9
area
with
squares
feet
the
up
would
there
YARD
its
if
feet, for
frl
the
mean
is 3
edge
whose
know
unit
long.
square
and
area,
we
"
Measure
Square
"
measurement
foot
square
edge
ROOTS.
to
"
consider
we
AND
presenting
re
of
area
6.
square.
Cubes.
=
5x5x5
whose
the
=
just
In
"
125,
is
edge
fourth)
32, but
no
the
and
units
3x3x3x3=
same
is
53, which
way
this
represents
the
long.
Following
the
81, and
geometrical meaning
can
25
be
read
"
of
volume
idea
same
cubed,"
a
34
cube
(3
2x2x2x2x2
given
to
such
sions.
expres
to
POWERS
We
ft,=
12
now
can
12
144
1728
1003
and
forth.
so
Powers.
spoken of
sometimes
16.
nearest
1 foot
12", 1 sq.
10,000 sq.
12 X 12
100 centimetres
1 cubic
and
cm.
It is the custom
cm.
foot and
of
some
'
Instead
"
1003
1,000,000 cubic
people to write
since
square
sq. metre
2"
BOOTS.
it is that
cubic inches.
(cm.), 1
metre
how
see
12
AND
square
of
speaking of
as
of 3 is 4:i =
has
square
the
as
square
of 2.
4
Similarly
64.
edyeof 4/Y.Sin.,
find
ati
of 3," it is
"
its
to the
area
foot.
of this
area
such
an
in feet
in inches, or (2) to work
be the more
convenient, (1) to work
will
be
in
The
latter
better
this
3
in.
decimal.
as
a
y\ ft.
case,
ft.
025
ft.
J
is therefore
of the square
The area
(4*25)sq. ft. Contractingso as to
decimal
the
have :
after
have only one
we
figure
will
and
"
"
"
42$
4
168
8
Result
The
area
the
should
Ex.
square
17.
foot, 18 It.3.
student
of
side
to nearest
Find
long. (Resultto
Convertingthe
of
the volume
cubic
the nearest
inches
1 in.
to decimal

ft
cube
of
whose
to this result.
and
5
feet,and
(25) sq.
edge
is 7
foot.)
a
ft.
foot
i

"
ft.
G'123 ft.
The
its
ft.
ft. 1 in.
24
have
7*125, and
by
7*125
to contract
final
the
our
Hence
first
the
product
will be affected.
final result
after
figures
two
="
the
product.
the
otherwise
of the
volume
The
ROOTS.
AND
POWERS
must
Let
us
contain
therefore
than
more
aim
at
this,
getting
the decimal
321
7125
1
234
7125
498751
"712
"142
_03fy
50'7"6
(7125)2
(to the
Result
check
Rough
7
cubic
nearest
will be rather
50
than
more
7:{,and
350.
The
the
foot),3("2 ftA
volume
The
"
(7'125)3
3W6
should
very
Exercises
1.
Given that
1 inch
in 1 sq. in.
cm.
2.
Given
3.
(To
4.
Find
the
the nearest
Find
the
1 metre
Find
of
area
sq.
6. Find
(To the
number
use
39'37
square
of
cubic
cubic
datum
use
whose
edge
is 3 ft.
centimetres
given in
of cubic
of
No.
feet in 1 cubic
given in No. 2.)
datum
the volume
nearest
of square
of sq. in.
foot.)
the number
figureaccuracy,
accuracy.)
(Fourfigure
(Threefigure
accuracy,
5.
cm.,
accuracy.)
(Threefigure
that
in 1 sq. metre.
2'54
3a.
cm.)
cube
whose
in
cubic
in.
1.)
(Three
metre.
edge is
15'63
cm,
long.
AND
POWERS
Boots.
"
root
"
"
of
plied
quantitywhich multinumber.
the
A
produces
number
25
ROOTS.
is that
a
by itself
given number
of times
called a
which is sometimes
root is indicated by the symbol ^
"radical
sign." Thus "9 is read "the square root of 9," and
must
look for a quantity which, multiplied
we
by itself,gives9,
viz. 3.
The
root
square
si^nis so frequentlyused that the 2 is
the cube root of 8
usually omitted.
Again \/8 indicates
"
"
which
is 2, because
because
(v/8l)
Square
Ex.
The
2x2x2
3x3x3x3
8, and
4th
is the
root of 81
81.
Boot.
Find
18.
number
the square
root
of 2218410.
off in pairs,starting
digitsmarked
the decimal
point to the left for unit digits,and to the right for
numbers
less than unity. In the followingexample the lines and columns
marked
and the operation explained below
are
:"
be set down
must
and
the
from
I*.
A.
Line
1st
22
4
.
2nd
,,
....
3rd
87
 IS  41
Hi
'
"

'
""4i
Oth
471
'
600
941
,,
..'{**
.,
""th
C.
618
,,
4th
1)41
.,
Thenumbcr
Find,
having
by
off
marked
quantity
Place
in
Cojunm
its digitsmarked
the
largest number
had
trial, the
on
the
left
Column
it in
Place
A.
its square
digits. This
off in
square
(in this
case
of which
22).
is less than
is the number
B.
the
quired.
re
A
brings us to the third line. In Column
pair
down
it
to
this
line.
Find
trial
8
double
the 4 and
the
that
bring
by
Place the 7 in Column
C and also on the right
"divides into 61, 7 times.
A.
Now
hand
side of the 8, making 87 in Column
multiply 87 by 7 and
and
subtract
the
under
down
the next
618,
bring
pair of
put the result
with
the last digitdoubled
the 87,
A
bring down
digits.In Column
(making 94) and put it in the fifth line. Repeat the process adopted in
line 3 and the final result is given as 471.
the
In
beside
on
of
next
line
the
the 8 and
divides
into
also in column
out
being multiplied
too
61
C.
largea number
is obtained in line 4,
26
POWERS
in which
AND
ROOTS.
the
case
sensible
new
one.
quantity dealt
When
perfect square.
The
carried
into
19.
Ex.
This
in
such
this
example happened
is not
the
decimal, obtainingas
the
case,
be
to
root
be
may
significant
figuresas
many
required.
be
may
with
Find
the square
be looked
may
upon
as
of 352.
root
35200.
get
"
1870
check, 1876
Eough
number
20
nearly
Original
400.
(20)
352.
2O.
Ex.
is
Find
the square
of 2.
root
accuracy.)
(FoiirJiyure
1414
If
the student
and
^5
v^50
obtains
approximate
4/25~"T2
Eough check,
7
values
of considerable
^5*
5^2"=
for
the
V%t
V~
Thus
use.
1414
7'07
CHAPTER
OF
USE
Scales.
there
On
"
will
be
IV.
PAPER
SQUARED
looking
the
seen
at
of
drawing
word
under
such
in
Ki".
the
inch.
obtained
l"e
may
scale
weight
such
or
even
In
Fig.
the
graph
copper
chart
is
days
was
sold
of
what
cost
of
the
obtained
at
c"76
or
the
three
per
placed
upon
in
have
"
ton,
scale
it
scale
as
7.
Pig.
trict
disone
which
on
represent
minute,
one
The
graph.
""'s
On
hence
in
mark
zontal
hori
being
the
in
a
first
point
the
The
month.
given
Monday
scale
The
marked
we
vertical
ton.
per
positions
weeks
:
"2"
or
ton.
per
in
follows
as
19s.
or
copper
first
foot,"
"
longer ones.
represent
make
mile, so
might
we
is called
time,
of
size
to
""'"
in
remark
some
of a
Again, a map
is represented
by
we
made
are
pounds,
have
one
cases
any
of something
we
scale
(or
mile
represent
can
100
as
1"
lengths
that
cost
represents
market
as
which
in
similar
small
comparatively
Now,
just
which
on
and
these
In
be
ay
shown
7.
it
machinery
"full
as:
to
of
piece
and
Scale,"
"
GRAPHS.
week
on
the
scale
cating
indiposition on the horizontal
and
opposite the position on the cost scale representing
find
19s. =
Now
this
"76
19s.
to
Therefore,
"j".
the
and
."77
the
distance
between
points indicating ""76
point
off.
be divided
marked
19 of them
into 20 equal parts, and
must
This
day and so forth.
point being fixed we proceed to the next
all the points are
When
marked
line is drawn
through them
a
illustrated.
shows
the
This
line
how
at
price of
as
a
glance
copper
vertically
this day,
rose
and
above
fell
the
during
the
28
month,
better
than
any
list of
USE
OF
SQUARED
PAPER
29
GRAPHS.
M.
T. W.
Th.
F. M.T.
W.
Th.F.
Market
the purpose
of
called,it is convenient
ruled
in squares
fainter
a
The
and
"
to have
1"
squared
sides,each
rulings,usuallyonetenth
graph plottedon
student
should
such
should
plot the
of
"
21.
paper.
should
"
"
This
lose
result
an
of
with
some
of this paper,
in this and
subsequent
plottinga
experiment he may
opportunityof
any
"
wire about
Delta Metal
piece of
hung on
suspended from a beam and weights were
These weights(called the load ") caused the wire to
Ex.
operation is
is paper
being subdivided by
paper.
inch
an
this
as
square
providehimself
graphs described
never
chapters.
graph representingthe
perform.
He
8.
plotting graphs
with
Th. F.
Day*.
Fig.
For
M. T. W.
8'
the
long was
free end.
stretch.
The
30
USE
amount
measured
OF
PAPER
SQUARED
GRAPHS.
carefully
"
Load
in Pounds.
in Inches.
Extension
008
"H2
0'16
020
024
Plot
graph showing
the
relation
Load
between
in
the extension.
pounds.
Fig. 9.
It will be convenient
scales.
the
first decide upon
to have
our
must
scale vertical,
1 Ib. and the extension
scale horizontal, taking 1"
In the latter, each
3^"of the scale is equivalent to
taking 1" =0'1".
extension, and consequently the second
of the
reading (0'12),for
O'Ol"
the
mark
O'l".
divisions
small
position
two
is
Fig. 9 shows
past
example,
"
The
to half size.
plotted" points are
the scales and the graph drawn
locate them
after the graph is drawn
that we
with a cross
so
marked
may
We
load
through
these
points.
chapter.
line. The
graph is a straight
dealt with in a subsequent
USB
We
now
may
extension
is divided
inch
6 Ib.
Ib.
2"
Now
ten
Ib. ; again
Take
divisions.
the
graph.
This
in
each
This
common
vertically
upwards to
will be found that this point so obtained is opposite
extension
scale,which is the extension required.
travel
Thus : to produce an
given extension.
load of 5J Ib. will be required.
is of considerable use
process of interpolation
operations.
a
for
Graph
numbers
Plotting
Fig, 10.
in F
were
Determination
to
10
and
few
square
compile the
these
of
graph showing
from
Extracting
chapter we may
It
the
Plot
22.
Ex.
division
small
the
precisely
022"
this
of these
process
produce
of
the
the
"
5
by
on
We
example : Find
firstlocate
must
Ib.
the
O'l"
For
would
the extension
represent 1 Ib., so
represents01
It
GRAPHS.
to find what
and
load of
on
each
by
PAPEE
graph
between
caused
amount
SQUARED
this
use
load
for any
be
OF
values
we
their
Square
square
by the methods
followingtable :"
the
in
number
"between
the
roots.
roots
obtain
of
extension
Boots.
relation
the
employed
requiredto
be
graph
pointsmarked
described
similar
to
that
in
the
shown
last
in
for the
graph shown
obtained in Fig.8
in the two
32
USB
cases
in
OF
PAPER
SQUARED
GRAPHS.
matical
not regulatedby any matheprice of copper was
to
but
from
another
law,
one
price
jumped suddenly
accidental
conditions
of
such
as
supply and
consequence
:
The
"
demand.
grows
On
the
J2
I
JU
Fig. 10.
calculate
to
1'4,etc.,we
and
curve
would
be wrong.
From
Pig. 10
might
be obtained
square
root of 5
for
Graph
23.
Ex.
from 1 to 10
square root of any number
the dotted lines show that the
; for example,
2*24,and that the square root of 75 = 2*74.
the
Given
that
lengthsbetween
If
two
could he sure
points and then
we
and
correct
1"
2*54
and
1"
the
a
cni.,
10"
graph
is
into
a
good, if not,
curve.
more
Centimetres.
draw
graph for
verting
con
cm.
straightline
cannot
experience, however, we
test by calculatingthree points. If
present
make
well
that
draw
into
Inches
Converting
points must
be
fall in a straightline
plottedin order to get the
these
USB
OP
PAPEK
SQUARED
TABLE
Fig.
11 shows
that
the
graph
33
GRAPHS.
VALUES.
OP
is
straight line.
20
'"c
8
15
10
10
2468
Length
in
Fig.
F.
C.
MATHS.
inches,
11.
34
USE
Graph
Ex.
24.
for
OF
SQUARED
Cubic
Converting
Given
PAPER
that 1 cubic
for convertingvolumes
between
Feet
foot
==
0 and
GRAPHS.
into
Gallons.
"U
gallon*,draw a graph
10 cubic feet into gallons.
70
Volume
t"
in cubic
Fig.
Krom
graph
with
our
experience of
is a straight
line.
third point.
10
feet.
12.
USE
boltingtwo
In
4.
found
OF
given in
by
the table:
6'5
130
195
32*5
45
52
45
90
135
225
315
360
...
the
turned
nail
driven
was
"
through
the spanner
Determine
5.
GRAPHS.
Pull in Ib
Degrees turned
45" turned
for every
are
PAPER
SQUARED
into
requiredto
required in Ib.
the nail penetrates
an
draw
oak
board
it out
was
the
for various
found
has
spanner
depthsand
"
118
246
370
182
308
"
1*5
075
1'25
...
Distance
the wood
in inches
...
Determine
distances
6.
of
the
"and
force in Ib.
requiredto
1"respectively.
The
draw
grade
followingtable givesthree temperatureson the Centiscale of temperature with the corresponding
readings on
the Fahrenheit
scale
"
USE
Plot
graph
Fahrenheit
also the
7.
and
determine
per
Determine
the
...
180".
the
"
1
4J
1J
3f
by
reading is
the Fahrenheit
follows:
foot in pence
temperature recorded
that
in inches
Width
when
37
GRAPHS.
the
the
when
thermometer
catalogue I find
is given as
widths
In
PAPER
SQUARED
Centigrade record
various
Price
OF
2"
6J
2J
3"
3J
7"
9
10
inch
widths
respectively.
8.
Nettlefolds'
In
listed
pins are
follows
in inches
Length
Cost
as
find
cataloguewe
:
brass
cotter
"
1J
...
"$"dia.
that
2"
3J
shillingsand
in
pence
per
gross
20/6
...
26/6
50/6 62/6
38/6 44/6
32/6
74/6
9.
bars
The
of
Length
of
the
side
I"
in Ib
Plot
measure
10.
thread.
swing
thread.
Find
3'4
to
2"
IJ"
the
the
requiredfor
are
the
period when
a
results
the
3"
weight
of
4"
3J"
30'6
2125
bars
4165
T"4'4
whose
sides
4^".
of
pendulum is made
Its period (i.e.
the time
and
is
determined
fro)
Here
2""
13'6
7'65
suppliedrespectingsquare
"
of
square
Weight
is
following information
steel one
foot long
light
seconds
of one
complete
different lengths of the
bullet
in
for
attached
to
"
length was
periodof 1 second.
50
cm.
and
the
length
V.
CHAPTER
EATIO
Ratio.
We
"
AND
often
meet
do
though probably we
twice
object is
one
"
their
of
the
ratio
Or
again
might
the
ratio
the
as
Thus
we
same
to
1' to
I"
will
the
we
be
12,
that
above
and
of
as
is to
is
we
to
1.
tally
men
therefore
may
quantities of
two
We
1"
comparing
are
the
of
3:2.
or
in
that
of
12
as
we
quantities,
magnitude
or
2:1).
another
to
being ^,
as
that
mean
as
ratio
the
as
that
say
written
"
the
life,
everyday
iii
whereby
to
(generally
high
as
again
height of the one
half
like
ratio
name.
is
is the
relative
of
another,"
1"
of
magnitude
the
define
it
of
from
noted
be
will
It
of
ratio
give
as
this
idea
of
ratio
the
as
*"
be
as
12", whilst
is
ratio
1" is to
speak of the
is
other
big
as
may
the
words,
other
not
sizes
tree
PKOPOKTION.
the
same
kind.
miles
shows
13
Pig.
and
on
to
which
the
and
the
speak
of
kilometres,
the
to
representing
Drop
scale,
base
the
graph
the
mile.
This
kilometres
point of
perpendicular
the
This
miles
are
1*609
kilo, to
the
miles
the
on
graph
be
(marked
marked
have
thus
the
that
marked
miles
between
1
selected,
there
called
the
k.
relation
"we
in
1*609
are
ratio
of
for
metre
kilometres
kilo
numbers
miles.
the
graph,
before,
as
time
we
and
note
another
from
the
represented by 3*1068,
*
or
mil$s
point
might
and
between
drop a perpendicular
rightangled triangle in
kilometres,
the
relation
point
the
showing
0*6213
to
is formed.
5 kilometres
as
taking
another
triangle
we
the
and
form
represents
and,
equivalent
is
Select
take
we
perpendicular represents
and
figure),
We
giving
1 kilometre
of
distance
kilometre
the
if
Now
kilometres.
representing
plotted
graph
the
mile.
example.
rightangled
at
graph that
which
is
again
that
satisfyhimself
Example
relation
between
stretched
21
point.
of Chapter IV.
the
load
(or in tension
as
the
times
the
extension.
representingload and
Here
we
the
and
it is
the
graph representing
is
2*5 Jb.
correspondingload
on
is
ratio
he takes the
where
In
the
the
draw
should
student
The
\W
PROPORTION.
AND
RATIO
extension
thus
again
extension.
if
called). Now
extension
we
of
of O'l",
the
load
have
take
we
point
the
numerically25
ratio
Selectingother
being
a
find that
we
is
wire
the
of
numbers
points on
the
40
RATIO
that
see
is
when
the ratio
AND
PROPORTION.
is
variables
of two
that we
should
is necessary
avoid
of speakingof the ratio of the load
It
error
discussed
example
above
load
representingthe
that
cannot
we
while
we
with
dealt
and
the
fallinginto
the
ratio
extension.
the
equalityof
as
will
loads
be
the
as
Example
is
should
student
the
Ex.
25.
Draw
any
sides
Illustration
We
two
may,
the
figurehere
text, using
ments
measure
RC.
ami
to 0*01" the
measure
Produce
the
line BA
lengthsof
7", making
to
tlie
A I)
to
(written
AC.CB
A(]\
?
or
Is it the
same
the ratio of A E
as
to KDt
('/"/
If it is, then
there
the
AJi9 AC,
to E, making AE
"2AR, and produce the lino CA
equal to 2 AC.
What
the
ratio
of AC
the
DE.
is
DE
to
and
measure
length
join
equal
Cn
ing
represent
of Proportion.
triangle(Fig. 14) A RC
and
we
load.
draw
if
Chapter IV.,
between
proportionalto
which
Thus
ratios.
that
The
number*
numbers
representingthe correspondingextensions.
numbers
In
same
common
quite obvious
unlike things,
the
two
be defined
may
of
is
It
relationshipbetween
magnitude of those things.
Proportion
Now
graph
the extension.
to
between
relationship
express
have
can
represent the
three
their
constant
line.
straight
two
are
we
ways
equality of
writing this, i.e.
have
of
an
ratios
proportion),and
(called a
'
AC'.CRi'.AE:ED,
(\)
be read
iftliich may
is to CR
AC
AE
as
AC
,..,
(H)
ED'
CB
This
the student
as
found
has
Again,
measurement,
same
what
the ratio of AD
true
is to ED,
AE
to
to
be
true
in
one
case
DE,
or, in
other
by direct
Is
it the
"
AB:BC::AD:DE?
If it
are
called similar
experimentwith
triangles.The
several
and
student
the
smaller, ABC,
should
repeat the
shapedtriangles.
differently
RATIO
should
He
try
now
For
AND
make
to
he will
these
of each
ED
For
These
piece,and
material of
must
have
bolt and
nut
to
in
vary
instance, if EA
is fixed
must
Now
in
take
value
the
check
it
by
then
AB
ED
model.
his
on
and
AC
f along DB,
this
prove
useful
are
ends.
piecesof
and
If
the
passes."
ProportionalCom
"
thin
requiretwo
the middle
slot down
pair of
exactlyequal length,pointed at
narrow
41
PROPORTION.
and
BC,
Find
EA.
BC
then
ED.
student
etc. ; the
proportional
compasses
These
of AB,
AD,
CB,
find
the
by
measurement
value
of ED
and
measurement.
Percentages.
IV., from
"
which
Let
we
us
again
return
see
This
that
is
to
Example
21 of
nearlyJ"
and
(0'25"),
a
we
Chapter
piece of
should
42
RATIO
largeindeed
that amount
consider
PROPORTION.
AND
very
the other
if the
it would
piece of
wire
small
be
were
extension
hand,
a
long,and, on
little
Whether
it
is much
100
ft.
of
wire
or
long.
on
a piece
depends not only on its actual amount, but on its ratio to the
whole length.
made
The length of wire upon which this experimentwas
was
8 ft.,so that, with a load of 6 lb.,8 ft. (or 96") of wire stretched
venient
a
J"(equals 0'25"). In all cases of this kind it is most con100
units.
what
would
to
have happened
to consider
1"
of wire
96 inches
Here
stretched
0*25".
0*25"
would
I" of wire
Therefore
would
100"
have
stretched
.**,"and
,
stretched
have
equals
yb
"b
Ex.26.
length is
wired
me
and
What
In
are
length of
100
the
cm.
more
which
error
and
found
thwi
0'15
fhe true
cent,
per
and
in
length of
lengthof
127 '42
the
cm.
the
cm.
error
error
may
*1"JLJ??^
have
may
.'
been
been
have
019
cm.,
error.
0'15
1\.
in
Therefore
in
length lies?
been
have
may
per 100",
is written
127*42
be
to
We
0'26.
urn.
100
Therefore
12761
length.
27.
as
power
indicated
97.
Brake.
The
Find
Iforse
the Indicated
done
taken
true
longer
cm.
or
shorter
the
than
1*27*23 nnd
at
from the
horse
largesinglecylindergas engine,
upon
power
the efficiency
as
117
of the
and
its brake
horse
engine.
Pouur
Horse
in tho engine.
which
energy
and the Brake
cylinder,
rate
0'19
test is made
givesthe
and
be
is, the
may
That
cm.
Ex.
and
length
the
measured
Power
is
being
Horse
flywheel.The
taken
Power
from
the
is the rate
latter is
always
coalgas, etc., in
at which
energy
the smaller because
is
the
being
of the
.44
RATIO
measured
The
called)
are
should
notice
now
6, 7, 8, 9, and
numbered
3, 2, 1, and
figurelike a semicircle
equal to those
respectively
of
case
10
consequently
are
the
of the
mean
Number.
142
171
1*90
198
the
Mean
Height
"
From
The
drag
placed on
to
as
the
1 *51
1 *57".
Exercises
2.
same
7'8f5
Dividing by
(")
(b)
(c)
(d)
(e)
the
085
Sum
1.
be
in inches.
Length
Therefore
first 5 will
the ordinates
numbered
5, 4,
all.
of them
mean
and
down,
in the
that
these
lengthsof
set
PEOPORTION.
AND
5a,
IV. express
the
data
The
ratio of 1" to 1
The
ratio of 1
cm.
The
ratio of 1
gallonto
The
ratio of 1 cubic
The
given in Chapter
"
cm.
to 1".
1 cubic ft.
"
RATIO
as
ot threads
i
*"
decimal.
"
T"
If
these
as
Give
the
4.
The
have
screws
figures(a
two
express
both
^y^y^y^
as
both
answers
as
fractions and
AA
Fig. 10.
decimals.
as
round
distances
followingtable givesthe
are
given :
KAAAAAA
*mmmm****
Q
K
ov^l
fi
and
6, 5,
9, 8,
a
inch
per
a
diameters
screw.
respectively,
express
ratio, i.e. give their "pitch."
threads
4"
i,""
^..^^^^
of
inch
one
in
the
Measure
given ;
case
plot a graph.
Pitch
_.._
.^
^^
Number
and
for every
then
decimal, and
followingratio,
The
3.
result
each
express
and
Determine
45
PROPORTION.
AND
circles whose
"
Diameter
Distance
called
of circle
the
round
the
2"
1"
3"
4"
5"
942"
1256"
157"
circle
ence"
"circumfer628"
314"
Plot
what
graph
is
the
and
state
ratio
circumference
of
diameter
this
both
as
fraction
as
decimal
for each
and
case
shows
roof.
Express the
^^
may
ratio in its
be
The
called
simplestform
sketch
the
(Fig.17)
pitch
"
for the
"
of
dimensions
given
"
(a)
(6)
when
when
the span
the span
6. Draw
a
square
the line joiningthe
a
ratio
square.
of the
with
is 95 ft. and
is 100
ft. and
2" sides.
the
height 15 ft,
the height20 ft.
Measure
the
diagonal (i.e.
its length as
Is it the
same
on
another
46
is the
What
the
sketch
The
7.
PROPORTION.
AND
RATIO
taper
"
"
Fig.
sketch
The
8.
18.
into millimetres
frias
foundations
which
the
square
ft.
Draw
10.
sides AB
area
and
are
will be
AC.
Join
What
Eepeat
all
would
triangles? Try
In
testingsome
sifted through
this result
articles.
price
and
From
the
the cost
What
to
draw
per
100,000 Ib?
points of the
length of this line
problem,using another
Do
think
you
trianglein
it is the
same
the ratio
which
sieve ; T52
caught
were
percentage. On
sieve 24'97
grams
were
on
and
weighed out
the sieve.
Express
quantity
putting the same
Find
this perwere
caught.
centage.
priceof
In
the
135 grams
cement
shopkeeper makes
12.
as
another
through
13.
on
be different.
11.
that
tons
1J
the middle
the
of entirely
different shape.
triangle
for
safelycarry
requiredto carry
soil
sandy
side BO?
the
that the
will
rest
triangleABC.
any
of
that
to
What
to
the
Taper
readings
a
0162
In
9.
of
What
Keamer.
did.
2f;
drill.
*
0*475
tJ
"
of
inch ?
IIA
4
shank
an
article
for
selling
originallength
percentageextension
is the
of
cost
""2.
and
16s.
iron in tension
extends
on
all
the
until
it is found
it is 12T'
original
length?
long.
RATIO
An
14.
Insurance
by fire
damage
for
ANJ)
Company
annual
an
of the furniture.
value
which
of the
What
cost ""450.
furniture, how
If
47
PROPORTION.
will
insure
furniture
against
fire occurred
much
pay ?
Company
In
16.
determine
20.
Draw
17to
dimensions
the
Fig.
21.
triangle
given
18.
card
into
your
the
the
tor
indica
given (Fig.22)
vide
notebook, dibase
heightof
10
into
11
each
ji
the
the average
height.
and
CHAPTER
ANGLES
Angles.
AND
Fig.
"
VI.
shows
23
FIGUEES.
PLANE
circle, with
its centre
(called the
boundary
radius
known
as
a
(plural radii). Consider
about
the point 0 after
If it rotate
the manner
in
it
the opposite direction,
will trace
clock, but
it
For
when
has
an
angle.
example
got into
0
from
drawn
Fig.
it has
OC
traced
it has
out
travelled
to
perpendicular
the
it is
but
are
the
line
each
360
of which
degrees
The
When
in
student
anglemeasurer
should
quarter
angle and
circle,and
in
is called.
of
hand
the
of
OB
position of
the
is called
what
out
OA.
radius
got to
circle, and the
whole
the
line
unit
of
has
00
is said
to
be
OA.
AOD
now
radius
the
the
of the
is called
straight line, as
degrees, is usually written
is
AOB.
alright
is
23.
have
a
right angle, then, we
too large for practical purposes,
equal parts,
there
angle
through
is called
angle AOC
In
the
line
circumference)
the
to
0.
at
so
angular
measure,
it is divided
into
We
degree.
that
Fig.
an
23.
thus
see
90
that
60".)
make
for himself
protractor,
as
an
ANGLES
Ex.
Draw
29.
J)raw
A B
this
(Fig. 24)
stepped
now
marking
by
out
will be found
that
3"
the
of 1"
and
long
radius
radins
draw
the
and
7", it
semi
circle
the
mark
1J"
of
means
points C
the
FIGURES.
and
siibtliriJe into
15 degrees.
and
centre
as
PLANE
semicircle
largerthan
angles not
With
AND
middle
point O
with a A
If the radius is
semicircle.
round
compasses
the
circumference,
00".
now
point of
making
and
of
these
by placing
the compasses
13
on
an
arc
(ofany radius
and, with C as
J/fC7),
and
the
same
radius,
than
more
centre
making
first.
angle
another
If
is
the
30".
an
This
of
the
The
on
the scale.
to
the
edge
be
now
be
bisected.
bisected
This
in the
fix the
will
same
thus
way,
joined to
all be
the
point O.
angle
with
and
positionof
If the
of
will
of 603
should
of 15".
By stepping out the arc corresponding to this
in the figure are
circumference, the positions marked
should
These
angle.
angle
the
To Measure
an
the apex of the
the
tion
intersec
angle
angle
round
obtained.
to
the
cut
to
arc
point
joined
getting
angle
on
One
be bisected
the
the
other
the
of the
arms
line OP
angle
then
too
are
should
protractor they
along
can
arm
the
l"e
point 0
one
of
arm
be read
short
to
off
come
before
produced
is commenced.
measurement
To
Draw
an
of
Angle of a given number
with
line
the
protractor on a
along the
end, and the line OB
degrees,place the
point0
on
point is
line.
one
made
now
upon
the
ference
circum
position of the
of degrees required. This point is then
number
joined to the positionof 0.
For settingout
in the
Workshop.
Angles
or
measuring angles in the workshop it is very
of
the
circle at
the
"
convenient
foot
same
Fig. 25.
(A)
at the
to
make
folding rule
results
scales,common
rule
is
opened as
junction depends upon
F. c. MATHS.
such
could
steel
of
use
as
be
property of
carpenters use.
a
obtained
with
two
(The
12"
two
in
Fig. 25,
the distance
marked
the
angle
The
d.
4
50
ANGLES
AND
FIGURES.
PLANE
graph
and
obtain
the
requiredvalues
Angles.
10"
'209
15"
:H3
20"
417
30"
621
40"
821
45"
920
50"
1012
60"
12
70"
137("
80"
1543
90"
1697
Rectilinear
Figures.
flat surface of any shape. If the
the
figures,
the former
bounded
are
by
by interpolation.
"
plane figure
surface
the
"
an
Of
the
an
enclosed
by straight
rectilinear
quadrilaterals,
and
triangles
are
is
is bounded
plane figure.
rectilinear
important
most
plot
105
Plane
of
number
should
Distance.
5"
lines,it is called
latter
by four.
equilateral trianglehas
An
has
triangle
equal sides.
rightangled
of
90".
angle
triangle
has all its sides
Quadrilateralsare classified thus : A square
and anglesequal. (The latter are necessarily
rightangles.) A
rectangle has all its angles right angles. (Its oppositesides
are
necessarily
equal and parallel.)A parallelogram has its
isosceles
has
two
one
"
oppositesides parallel.A
Ex.
30.
Draw
rhombus
trianglewhose
sides
are
equal.
2'37",
respectively
183",2*51".
triangleis shown in Fig. 20. It should be drawn by settingdown
Then with tt as centre and radius 2*51" an
of
its
one
sides,e.g. EG 1*83".
and 2*37" as radius another arc is drawn
C
is
centre
and
with
drawn,
are
as
to cut the former.
The point of intersection is the point A.
This
It is convenient to
speakof
the
anglesof
this
as A, B,
triangle
52
ANGLES
To
draw
angles,unless
PLANE
AND
FIGURES.
know
must
at least one
we
quadrilateral
the
is
of
one
diagonals given in addition
of the
to the
sides.
Ex.
AB
Draw
31.
BC
cm.,
quadrilateralA
a
=
CD
12 cm.,
BCD
11 cm.,
which
in
and
DA
D
8
65",
(See
cm.
Fig.28.)
make
First
and
then
set
protractor.
lengths of
the
rough sketch
the angle
Upon the arms
of the
out
11
(DC) and
cm.
be marked
and radius
of 65"
figure
with
of this
8
cm.
angle
(DA)
Then
should
with
O aa
12
centre
draw an
em.
arc, and
and
witli A as centre
radius of 7 cm.
draw
another
This fixes
are
cutting the former.
The
student
the point B.
should draw this
figure for
off.
himself
and
measure
the
angles
A, B, andC.
It is
Areas.
"
draws
student
If the
wide
sides.
4
of
"
of "h
words
with
its
area
29
In Fig.
sq. in.
is shown
A BCD
on
other
"
"
units
units.
and
Its
having
area
on
that
a
a
"
it
1"
is
tangle
rec
base
height
is therefore
Fig. 29.
standing
the same
base DC (" b ") and having
these two figuresare
Now
vertical height ("A").
the same
superimposed,but there is a portionof the rectangle
partially
and a portion of the parallelogram
(viz.the triangleDAE)
CBF) which stand alone. If these be cut out
(viz.the triangle
and superimposed
they will be found to be equal. The student
parallelogramEFCD
on
ANOLES
should
make
AND
53
FIGURES.
number
PLANE
He
slanting.
and of the same
vertical height
base (or equal bases),
same
on
are
equal in area, that area being the product of the base and
the vertical height.
It is readily
that any of these parallelogramsmight have
seen
into two equal parts by drawing a diagonal,each
been divided
base
part being a triangle. Thus trianglesstanding on the same
vertical heightare equal in area.
(or equal bases)and of the same
is
Hence
the area
of a triangle equal to one half the product of the
base and the vertical height.
is required,
it is usual
If the area
of an
irregularquadrilateral
and
take the sum
of
of the areas
to divide it up into triangles
Indeed
this method
be appliedto any rectilinear
these.
may
it
sides
however
have.
figure,
many
may
and
more
the
6b.
Exercises
the
Find
of the
areas
followingfigures:
"
1.
An
trianglewith
equilateral
2.
An
isosceles
3.
4.
3'27"
triangleABC
described
quadrilateral
rhombus
angles is
equal sides
cm.,
8'2
of 261".
cm.,
and
sides
whose
in
Example
31.
are
2*34", and
and
of whose
one
115".
the
It will be
kitchen
32.
If
floor?
The
and
6.
Each
which
"
172
The
6".
in
base
cm.
55".
5.
Ex.
triangleof
sides 7
floor is
that
seen
tile will
number
cover
the
an
area
area
of the
0"
of tiles required=
6"
floor
=
14' x
13'
area"f
0'5'
36 sq. in. or
0'5'
floor~ 182JSLit
=
area
of
one
tile
0*25
0'25 *"q.ft.
728 tile*.
ANGLES
Ex.
33.
AND
PLANE
20'
measures
room
7^"
boards
FIGURES.
"by15'.
wide
How
and
feet offloor
many
having
will be
required?
Since
30.
The
boards
the
Suppose
Fig.
number
be
to
fixed

in
as
180",
of boards
Therefore
will
have
the
i; 7"J"
long
joints
square
^^^^^^tmim^m
laid
24 boards
be
24 board,
required,or
side
480'
The
is advised
student
type to make a sketch.
by
of
run
in
side
each
20'
boarding.
problems
of
this
Fig. 30.
Exercises
1.
wall
is sold
which
will be
How
state
how
area
is to be
in sq.
for the
above
"
wall
paper
feet
many
calculated
the
4J" will
be
quantity
required.
required to
2' 4"
measures
by
6' 6".
the
to
pave
area
for
path
mine
Deter
found
moulding.
"
"
ar"
How
ft. wide.
with
covered
be
rolls will be
many
paintedand
framing
"
to
long,If
bricks 9" by
many
and 33 ft. long ?
door
the
to allow
in rolls 35 ft.
Also
3ft. wide
3.
by
required (allowing *
waste) ?
2.
9' 3"
6c.
"
*"
"
Q"
"
21**
Fig. 31,
4.
Fig.31
shows
P. Q. B. 8 have
section of
to be machine
ANGLES
is
determine
ft.,
PLANK
AND
the
total
55
JTUUAB8.
(in
area
sq.
in.)
which
requires
planing.
220
5.
7' 4"
compartments
long
this
allow,
from
the
What
the
of
shown
are
metres,
square
for
space
thickness
of
tools
storing
each
in
space
will
compartment
metal
separating
taken
with
the
one
dimensions
and
and
high.
neglecting
other
The
6.
chain
5'
by
for
required
are
in
using
Held
Fig.
were
Determine
32.
information
the
the
given
surveyor's
in
area
acres
below.
2625
Gunter's
20
1
metres
acre
chains
.
Chain
=
10
and
60
sq.
move
60
feet
chains.
the
feet
100
links.
approximately
(The
decimal
(05*6* feet).
student
point
should
to
get
the
find
the
area
in
area
acres.)
in
CHAPTKK
Find
34.
AREA
AND
CIRCUMFERENCE
Ex.
VII.
the
ratio
diameter
the
of
OF
CIRCLE.
of
its
to
penny
circumference.
student
The
(N.B.
making
measurements
by
do
to
centimetre
the
measure
trial
should
correct
the
finding
diameter
ot
widest
his
will
example, using
The
problem
unit of length.)
the
coin by placing the
the
as
this
O'Ol".
be
scale
and
scale
inch
worked
out
it and
across
part.
Diameter
3(M)
cm.
To
scratch
scratch
the
being
Mark
this
the
the
on
rests
careful
gives
circumference
the
measure
Make
end
the
on
rule
edge
of
of
the
avoid
until
Circumference
=97
the
different
lids).
coins
Is
unaltered
Ex.
r
ire
and, if
the
the
is
traversed.
line,
line,
This
0.14
_.
all
for
same
ratio
the
to
given by
'
IFolT
measurements
Find
line
the
ratio
if the
35.
in other
made
are
diameter
the
of
circles?
of
number
of
tin
circular
Does
it remain
units
lead
pencil
to
its
umference.
The
diameter
The
Take
the
be measured
may
circumference,
sufficient
on
should
back
9'7
__
"TDuimeter
student
of
along the
coin
comes
of paper.
that
so
line
the
on
circle.
ratio
Circumference
The
it
the
length
of the
required
The
cm.
roll
scratch
flat piece
on
place
Now
the
slipping,
point on the line and measure
length of the circumference
to
and
penny
line.
the
line
straight
by
accuracy
piece
handle
of cotton
of
however,
the
method
and
wind
cricket
bat).
as
before.
is
too
obtain
to
in
it
just adopted
the
neatly round
Cut
0*29".
Diameter
small
the
cotton
the
its
cise
length
of the
as
to
have
with
penny.
binding
an
exact
CIRCUMFERENCE
number
of turns
measure
it.
AREA
AND
the
(aay 10) on
and
pencil,
Length of
OF
10 turns
unwind
then
57
CIRCLE.
the
and
cotton
9'12"
!)'12
,,
Required
The
accurate
I4.
show
measurements
ancient
In
symbol TT,
representedby
and the same
is pronounced pie,"
that
us
gas
is
this ratio
it
mathematics
Greek
is the Greek
which
the
was
letter for P
and
universally.
of significant
to a great number
been determined
for
all
first five are sufficient
ordinarypurposes and
symbol
"
Its value
1t
0'429
handles.
constant
0'912"
should
broom
most
"
."
Diameier
student
pipingor

"
0*91*2"
Circumference
,.
ratio
The
'
circumference
Therefore
has
figures. The
is stillused
31416.
are
We
therefore
times
3*1416
ird ;
2?rr
circle
the
find
Ex.
the
will
circle
representthe
we
is
meter
dia
may
of
more
the
nearer
very
which
in
shown
ihe
the
Circle.
of
area
eqiials
r.
of
Fig. 33 we see
be joined to
the
close foyether,on
shall have
a
figure
part
we
be
If the
into
we
its centre
very
circumference
which
of
radius
the upper
If
circle.
pointa
Area
Find
36.
circle whose
two
if
So that
diameter.
the
of
circumference
To
In
the
by the letter d,
if r representthe radius
or
(sinced
2r).
of
the
that
see
nearly ft triangle
points
circle
are
were
largenumber
taken
gether.
todivided up
of these angles,
triCIRCUMFERENCE
N
then
arranged as
lower part of Fig. 33, we
were
2/rr
Fijr.33.
thus :
Consider
might find the area
x
triangle,its area
(base
height) but its height r, therefore
"
of
all the triangles \r y (sum of all
the
and
area
x
(base)
area
\r
bases) Jr x (circumference of the circle).
"
one
"
\r (2*r)
(J of 2)
TT
its
the
58
This
is
7TT2 becomes
TT
(4Y=
radius
is 5
cm.
area
2wr
31 410
circumference
of
body
C.
d\
of
circle wliote
."}
The
"
which
Fig.34
has
the surface
upon
should
student
wood.
or
pieceA
Marked
.5
cm.
Gauge.
head
07854
cm.
of cardboard
gauge
It consists
3'1416
31416
Circumference
slidinginto
78 '54 sq.
"
this idea.
of
mr
area
"
the
And
make
the
circumferenceand area
(Threefigureaccuracy.)
Find
make
"
Circumference
To
remembered.
expressionfor
an
T"Z"
\ 2 /
37.
be
of its diameter.
circle in terms
Ex.
CIRCLE.
should
and
to have
convenient
OP
AREA
important formula
very
It is sometimes
a
AND
CIRCUMFERENCE
shows
connection
C against the
6'28l
t
Fig.
lower
is
edge of B
edge of
upper
is made
mark
on
34.
scale of inches
scale
such
which
that
2l
is
and
31416
the
time
oppositethe O
it is
former.
of both
scales
the
7a.
Exercises
1.
Find
circumference
the
0'2, 07,
respectively
2.
Find
diameters
the
are
and
13,2'41, and
circumference
area
of circles whose
3'65
cm.
and
area
of
the
and
radii
circles
527
are
whose
in.
CIRCUMFERENCE
Fig. 36
shows
AND
that
ladder
the
forms
triangle,and
/*
/
if
Ex.
Find
39.
square
Fig. 37
shows
the
I2, i.e. 2P
Ex.
40.
Draw
Find
v'sj
.,
Mark
142.
oft*AK
BD
off AD
Mark
and
join HE,
edge of
be
cut
the
the
on
findingthe largest
is of
diagonal of which
of
of
I*
the
square
0'5, I
If
circle.
the
graphicallythe
we
?, then
^0;5

square
root
in which
AK
etc.
rightangledtriangle
A Care
10 cm.,
It is found
=
BC
\vhich
ABC
Calling 10 cm.
bo
14*2
to
cm., therefore the
each
14'2
1 and
(approximately).
and
the
side
0*71"
of 2, 3, 4, 5,
1 unit
in
the
equate,
the diameter
the
/'f Z2
Therefore
bar.
itself into
be drawn
the
can
round
equal
length of the
call
lengthof
which
the
to
course
"
(approximately).
reallyresolves
can
rightangled
largestsquare
end of a 1" diameter
which
of
hypotenuse
shank
This
CIRCLE.
51 ft.
OF
the
we
10'
V2600
60"
AREA.
see
and
Fig. 38.
join BD.
gives us
V4 and
Then
so
BD
N/"
forth.
Fig.
Exercises
1.
Wire
Standard
7b.
by
gauge
diameter
Determine
and
the
in square
area
millimetres.
inches
CIRCUMFERENCE
AND
AREA
OF
CIRCLE.
OJL
whose diameters
fourcylinder
petrolenginehas cylinders
65 millimetres
in sq. in.
measure
(calledthe bore). Determine
the combined
sectional
of the four cylinders.
cross
area
2.
Fig. 39.
3.
The
of the
diameter
drivingwheels
the number
diagram of
the distance
"
travels in
the wheel
of
of turns
in the
is
6" determine
one
the wheel
diagram
in
makes
is shown
A to B measured
from
is 5ft. G in.
locomotive
of the wheel
arch
seginental
round
is 90"
in
Fig
the
of
mile.
39.
curve.
the
the
mine
Deter
(N.B.
lengthof the
Fig. 40.
\ of the
^
strips1J"wide
many
the lagging. If each
is
arc
wood
1^"wide
5. A
water
the sectional
will
tap has
area
of the
circumference
diameter
of
sq.
f" at
cm.
the nozzle.
Determine
CIRCUMFERENCE
Determine
6.
7.
of
Fig.
the
is
AB.
sq.
ft.
8.
the
41
dimension
sketch
If the
line
wind
of the
length
Fig.
9.
on
the
distance
(2)
43
sketch
nearest
42
in
of
of
AB
length
14'53
Ib.
15
ft.,
Ib. ?
Determine
crane,
A.
measured
showing
Rod
length
and
the
pressure
dotted
(1)
Fig.
of the
across
sketch.
42.
shows
measured
and
in
pipe
normal
the
CIRCLE.
Determine
area
an
to
the
give
on
truss.
causes
acts
shown
B
Jib
Fig.
wind
and
roof
OF
of
area
pressure
is
sketch
AREA
given
of
and
AB
on
total
is the
what
the
side
the
on
sectional
the
for
(Pig. 40)
AND
round
straight
the
holes
the
lines
drilled.
circumference
from
one
to
to
be
drilled
Calculate
of the
another.
circle
Make
the
and
a
CHAPTER
USE
have
We
radius
the
by
area
expression
is
(A)
equal
is
"
There
obtained
Chapter
are
many
we
all
on
obtained
calculate
piping
metal
we
in
use,
some
be
called
Trr2.
thing
one
formula
calculate
can
if
which
of
obtained
we
force
to
an
the
extension,
force
the
Chapter VII.
For
example in
the
it
and
(in Ib.)
ratio
was
was
of
seen
25
symbols
same
been
in
inr
have
results.
experimental
straight line graph showed
the
thus
formula,
for
value
any
how
see
times
might
we
two
or
by
types
certainly,that
one
results.
It
might
has
be
now
been
used
of d.
it is to
convenient
results
one
simple
experimental
some
mathematical
Ex.
which
on
graph
(in inches). Using
from
examine
by
how
points
have
we
their
also
that
we
25d.
Here
write
we
may
it tells us
might
It
If
(viz. 3*1416).
IT
of
we
as
from
saw
extension
We
aid
formulae
obtained
V.,
by
by squaring
versa.
representing
write
to
vice
are
numbers
the
and
the
of
because
(Trr2).
by
value
radius
equation
an
another
to
is obtained
circle
the
the
mathematically,
Others
that
and
(plural formulae),
know
of
area
multiplying by
and
the
denote
This
POEMULAE.
OF
the
that
seen
VHI.
of
means
of formulae
express
formulae.
and
make
experimental
We
shall
or
here
calculations
some
aid.
41.
If D
and
the
denote
the
denote
external
internal
diameter
of
the
diameter
is
given by
Calculate
07854
when
A
2}
(D2
"
and
d2).
"
"
0*75".
Therefore
T%
05625".
Therefore
^/.
D*
d8
piece of
sectional
0'563
sq.
in.
0'317
sq.
in.
area
gas
of
64
17SE
Therefore
(/)"
OF
rf2)
FORMULAE.
0'246
0'7854
Multiplyingby 7854
01722
192
10
A
Nott".
It
"
remainder.
(D
as
Result
0192
rf from
would
be
If this
subtract
to
inrony
=
and
then
square
have been
it would
the
written
d)~.
Ex.
The
42.
givenby
the
formula
ft
Where
Horse
Indicated
I.H.P.
Power
(I.H.P.) ofa
gns
enginei#
"".A.1L
effective
pressure on the pistonin Ib. per sq. in.
lengthof stroke in feet.
area
of the pistonin sq. in.
number
of explosionsoccurringin the cylinderpet*
mean
ntinvte.
Find
the I.H.P.
giventhat
The
of a
diameter
piston
A
Therefore
and
668
11"
"=
11
I.H.P.
design
it is usual
Machine
to
sq. in.
238
ft.
}
__
238
85
33000
division
of
85.
(5'5)3
12
Dimensions
stroke,
P.L.A.N.
tT
1"
I.H.P.
XT
Now
11"
and
5*5".
"
0*7854
"=
5*5" bore
engine of
gas
so
as
to
obtain
three
ficant
signi
375.
Farts.
give drawings
"
In
books
of machine
actual
machine
on
parts or
even
of
are
no
placed
completeengine,on
for
The
dimensions
series
of
numbers.
a
only
any
obtained
case
are
by
by multiplyingthese numbers
particular
which
measurements
but
unit
In
as
it is called.
Fig. 44
two
we
have
particularsof
"
unit
Box
"
ing
Coupling connectplacedupon the drawing
USB
is
Here
(d + i).
to obtain
65
FORMULAE.
OF
the dimensions
when
the
of the shaft.
has
shaft
diameter
Hence,
of
1"" we
That
must
the
and
is,
Fig.
If
the
had
shaft
appliedwould
be
would
to
have
048
25
diameter
(2
3'25
of
2'5
the
1" and
in
the
sectional
internal
diameter
Find
2.
the
the
end
view
would
What
The
3.
radius
for
of this
surface
given by :
givenby V
(F)
Find the
r
x r.)
"
of
the
diameter
4.
Breadth
the
to
be
coupling
thickness
8a.
pipe whose
i" (see Example
a
thickness
of
8
=
of the ball
of
sphere
47rr2 whilst
firr3.
surface
from
a
formula).
coupling shown
Make
the
is
dimensions
sketch
on
of
it.
be ?
area
the box
put
diameter
41 for the
1" diameter.
coupling,and
(8)
external
(N.B.
area
"
and
ball
of
its volume
r3
means
volume
bearing,"
being ".
Moment
The
section
of
shaft
area
is
the sectional
is
area
length and
suitable
Fig. 44
factor
length of the
120".
Find
the
8125", and
Exercises
1.
then
2"
2*5", and
")or
4
be
44.
about
x
of Inertia of a rectangular
the axis xx (Fig.45) is given by
Depth3
Fig. 45.
12.
Determine
Fig.45.
F, C. MATHS,
the
Moment
of
Inertia
of
the
section
given
in
66
USE
The
5.
work
from
of rivet
the
The
6.
diameter
formulae
D2
TT
of the
p
'
Power
Horse
H.P.
1)
"
the
body
ing
the follow
cylinderin
Power
Horse
diameter
of
millimetres.
formulae
both
by
in.
the
for
four
cylinders(commonly
75 millimetres.
of
verticallyupwards with a velocity
height 8 to which it will rise is given by
is thrown
the
Where
.
of the
diameter
second, the
ft. per
ya
cylinderin
cylinders.
"
of the
of
number
cylinderpetrolengine,the
bore ") being
called the
If
plates.
inch.
an
petrolengine is given by
1"
f",f",$" and
rivet for
diameter
"
2V
'
lolo
Determine
plate.
"
2^5
=
of
sixteenth, of
of
other riveted
"
__
'
7.
I'l V thickness
Give
rivet is found
followingformula
the
Diameter
Find
of
diameter
FORMULAE.
OF
value
of g
depends
upon
20
is 32 '2 at
tion and
body
is
given by
the
Horse
I.H.P.
Power
of
doubleactingsteam
2'P'"
in
as
Example 42,
per minute,
5" stroke when
of
P, L, and
Where
"
meaning
same
high will a
velocityof
Indicated
The
8.
sea
rise if it is thrown
and
a
number
have
of revolutions
engine of
steam
engine
4" bore
and
9.
If
a,
b, c
are
half the
by
the
presents
lengthsof the sides of a triangleand S reof
the
t
he
is
triangle given
(A)
perimeter, area
:"
(N.B.
"
The
______
four
Vs
(8
a) (8
under
expressions
") (8
the root
c).
signhaving
been
CHAPTER
IX.
ALGEBRAIC
Algebra,
three
times
that
learn
quickly
time
in
it
however
the
thought
and
Now
This
is
above,
it
years
influences
could
be
money
written
""3
generally
shillings
is
Now
problem
be
instinctively avoid
7,
5
.
being
pence
add:
that,
10Z.
"
out
thus
31
5s.
IW.
set
thus
the
the
18s.
3d.
14s.
f^Sd.
37
the
68
we
6s.
that
f
and
they
7d.
the
are
mentioned
and
14s.
Sd.t
"
7d.
placing
f
so
respectively.
amount
3d.
possess.
penny,
31.
"
obvious
18s.
s.
in
giving
positive signs
so
to
f
the
and
may
pound
one
suppose
to
necessary
would
and
represents
and
expressed
of
of
shilling
one
of
sums,"
money
time
is less
value
symbols
each
symbol
which
as
from
without
with
Just
children
power
"
the
3d.
themselves
vary
variable
the
value
a
as
young
may
of
means
such
purchasing
ago.
child's
a
deals
"
its
The
ten
131.
We
that
algebra
particnlar value
omitted.
often
penny.
idea
troubling
value
Its
told
3d.
Quite
without
sums
are
we
was
represent
sum
indication
the
coefficient.
money
of
the
to
consequently
an
expression
In
"
Addition.
Algebraic
let
penny,
way
any
and
penny.
the
as
never
same
to
accustomed
"
value
fact,
than
today
do
to
real
the
a
a
known
is
quantity
of
is
country
representing
letter
penny
just
dealing
this
in
Everyone
to
calculations, is that,
workshop
with
which
symbols
represent
quantities.
measurable
about
into
it enters
as
mathematics
of
branch
far
so
PROCESSES.
18d.
14s.
in the
"
pounds
column,"
ALGEBRAIC
it
because
obvious
is
quantities.We
69
PROCESSES.
shillingsand
that
the
cannot
pounds
unlike
are
14s. in
10Z. and
of
sum
a
express
24Z. and
it would
be wrong
to call the sum
The only way of expressing
such a
to call it 24s.
singleterm, because
equallywrong
is 10Z. +
sum
like
14s.
Thus
quantitiesin the
the
In
of
case
shillingforward
this because
same
the
placing only
of
usual
it is not
money
leave
to
to
such
algebraical
expressionsno
result
importance
it is known
the
of
column, but
to
the
see
column.
addition
an
we
would
and
is known,
relationship
have
to
remain
it
as
sequently
con
the
in
is
foregoing example.
N
We
always remember
must
numbers
represent
(often
of
Thus
12, and
shown
kind
represent any
to
the
idea
In
distance.
we
avoid
the
In
think
of them
regard the
penny
as
of
minus
in
of
Chapter V.
quantity.
quantity,let
Fig. 47
the
the
Consider
the
origin).
It is convenient
towards
man
the north
how
We
us
cardinal
four
marked.
move
Algebra
magnitude).
but
are
he
in
unit, then d
1,
I =240.
been
It has
to
if
letters used
unknown
must
we
representingcoins of money,
numbers.
the
that
length may
have
now
or
grown
consider
points of
startingfrom
to regard his
east, and
be
made
accustomed
the
the
minus
compass
point 0 (called
motion
as
if
positive
negativeif he
move
70
ALGEBRAIC
the south
PROCESSES.
west.
or
in the
(i.e.
"
"
and
face
Inside
west.
tells him
signwhich
the
This
again.
In
point.
words
is
This
"
"
togetherby
quantities
(2a
Here
the
36
yards which
from
in the
the
sum
to
1st
and
the
make
The
3c
46)
to add
commonest
to
in the
subtract
problem
Sc).
expression contained
the
should
second
in
bracket, and
expressioncontained
be set out
expression
thus
2a +
36 +
6c
4a
46
3e
"
"
"
6oT" ~~6~+3c
Sum
3rd
of
isolated
group
6a
(76 +
expression
2nd
way
plus."
"
the
contained
that
obtained
so
last bracket.
starting
"
instructions
first bracket
his
b.
it is very convenient
to
of brackets, thus :
means
6c) + (4a
"
have
we
(" 6)rra
"
minuses
Two
algebraicalwork
In
face
"
important fact,
very
expressingit is
his
brings
the
to
minus
is another
bracket, however,
round
to turn
expression
f76
6a
"
Sc
Difference
(Note that
the
a's and
respectivecolumns.)
In findingthe sum
we
This obviouslybecomes
6's and
have
c's have
been
6a, just
as
placed in
column
2 pence +
(2a
4 pence
their
4a).
equals
ALGEBRAIC
6 pence.
In
represent
towards
the next
unit
some
the
and
east
71
PROCESSES.
column
there is
(36
46
"
means
46). Suppose I to
signifies3 units
"
36
distance, then
of
units
westward
(i.e.back
the origin
"
"
"
We
will now
Algebraic Subtraction.
part of the problem, commencing with
"
instruction
The
to subtract
will be
consider
the minus
given by
2nd
this
In
6a
is 6a units
east
and
6a units back
negative, i
quantitiesare
the
direction.
same
Thus,
3rd column
again
a
to the
man
as
so
distance
face
to
of
east.
east;
first minus
The
second
the
then
sign
journey
"
86.
"
8c).
sign brings
minus
the
distances
76
"
"
(76)
"
both
e.
"
3c
is 3c units
This
sign.
(6a)
"
"
both
case
column.
again. Result, 0.
column
performed in
are
to the
tion
subtrac
1st column
This
the
turns
is
continued
the east.
to
the
round
him
for
Result,
lie.
final result of the
We
are
addition
so
problem is therefore
the
positionto formulate
The
in
now
"
86 f He.
rules of algebraic
subtraction.
and
Algebraic
Rules
for
that
only like
Addition.
quantities
occur
"
(1) Arrange
in each
for
Algebraic
Subtraction.
expressions
column.
then
together,
(2) Add all the positivecoefficients
the
between
these
two
Take
coefficients.
difference
the signof the greater.
Rules
the
"
all the
sums
(1) Arrange
negative
give
and
the
two
on
the
top.
terms
in the bottom
line and
72
ALGEBRAIC
PROCESSES.
Exercises
1.
(i) bx
3y
(ii)5a
26 +
2.
(ii)34
100 +
I2a
3 +
2y
106
2"
Arrange
(i) 7+a*
(ii)6
3C.
like
Take
10" +
columns
3 +
2y
I6y.
1.
6 +
following:
J",5
"
of
"
a"+l.
2 +4
the meaning
Explain graphically
(7
f".
J7',
together:
add
and
4y
7TF+
S+2TF+5S+
of the
values,A
as
quantitiesin
9y
2a
10 +
"
C.
5B
4x +
3z +
together:
2 C.
(iii)A
4.
Sz +
add
and
columns
the meaning
Explain graphically
(i) A
3.
quantitiesin
like
Arrange
9a.
4S
4TP.
"
6/2 + c/2.
Take
values
as
a
:"
1;/,6
2",
=4".
5.
Add
togethera/5 +
26 +
a/10 f
+
their numerical
6.
Find
2y +
2ju f
a?
(ii)aj
f
3c.
46 +
numerical
take
expressions,
+
2c.
If
1,
J,
find
,
value.
the
(i) 5z
6 +
c.
y +
3y
7y +
values
values,x
as
3c +
4O1.
20*.
2"?+
2c +
in
4d.
2d +
3c f 3c" 4 "c +
6y
f
ALGEBRAIC
Exercises
9b.
the meaning
Explain graphically
1.
(i)
(ii)
(in)
26
2a
4"
"
Subtract
2.
(i) 5a +
2a
Take
and
66
Arrange
3.
like
(i) 70
5y 45X
(ii)5 IT
6
",
J" c
quantitiesin
3
4 +
By
5Z"
7b
Subtract
5.
30
26 +
"
6.
"
of the
6c"
"
"
6Z
a
J",c
1".
following
:
"
126
16c
+" 106
16c
and
lOx f 3a +
TT
1".
columns
Let
J",b
(iii)a
"
4.
value
6 +
9a
values, a
as
numerical
values, a
as
Take
(ii)10a
36 4
"
4c*.
give the
"
following
c.
46 +
of the
c.
I +
"
73
PROCESSES.
2^
of
" and
1.
6TF+
2y
:
Z.
"
1".
"
3*3
Subtract
6.
a
"
"
of
prove
"
O'l",y
075."
Algebraic
Multiplication.
Fig.
48
units
long and
get the
exercise
by substitutingthe
followingvalues
05"
7p.
"
this
answer
your
2a
"
"
portion
p from
8 Q
c from
f 36
5c and also x + 6y
2a
5" + 7y. In the latter
46 +
from
Q2 +

area
shows
rectangle
4 units wide.
of such
"
figurewe
Fig. 48.
To
multiply3 by
4 and
get 12 units.
74
ALGEBRAIC
the
But
what
unit
new
is called
square
shown
in
"
edge
Fig. 48.
represent this
is different from
the
measure."
square
whose
PROCESSES.
is 1 unit
Now
suppose
by
amount
the
originalunit, being
This
long.
unit
new
Twelve
the unit of
symbol /.
is
The
area
is the
such
in
of
area
squares
are
The
now
is
angle
length of the rect3/*and its width 4f.
now
3/ x 4f which
this and
the student
the
must
followingcase
remember
that
the
tions
diagrams are only illustraof algebraicallaws.
He
should
lose sight of the
never
fact that in algebra/ (or
any
other letter)
can
only represent
The above
a number.
paragraph
referringto Fig. 48 should now
be worked
through again,letting
/ represent a number, say 3.
The
diagram should be drawn
distance
again, dividing each
which
in Fig. 48 represents /
into three equal parts. This will
have the effect of dividing each
of
Fig. 49.
the
(=9)
twelve
smaller
should
=
108
In
little squares.
Fig.49
is shown
squares
squares.
now
contain
into
The
3*
gram
dia
12 x
32
it ?
Does
and
rectanglewhose length is 4 feet (4/1)
yards (3y). The area of such a rectangleis
is again 12 units, but
4/ X 3y
12/7/. We see that the area
the unit is not a square foot (/2) nor a square yard (y*)but what
footyard (fy) being itself a rectangle1 foot
may be called a
1
by yard.
whose
width
is 3
"
"
76
ALGEBRAIC
Multiplication.
Long
examples
evaluate
in
PROCESSES.
We
"
will
consider
now
that
multiplication.Suppose
it
one
two
or
required
is
to
"
(a
")2,that
is
(a + ")
(a f b)
+
(a
(a
b)
6)
+
+
a2 f ab
........................
ab+JP
........................
Sum
a3 +
...................................
2 ab +
b*
down
as
procedureis to set the two expressions
shown, then to multiplythe whole of the expressionin the top
in the multiplierseparately,
line by each term
settingout the
column
productsso that only like terms fall in the same
; finally
the sum
of the productsis taken.
mode
The
It forms
of
useful
taken
at random
6=3.'
Then
check
into
as
r="5 and
be
substitute
to
expressionsthus
the two
(a + b)
a2 4 2 ab f b should
the work
on
(5)2
25
equal to
"
when
values
2 and
That
25.
=n
any
Let
is taken
2 and
as
3.
Substituting
a2 +
............
(2)2+ (2x2
4 4 12 +
25.
2ab
X3)
62
(3)2
out
is the
know
thus
(x
+ y)
(x
(x + y)2 x (x + y).
aS2f 2xy + yz.
+
(a; y)2
same
that
as
From
So
"
x1 +
2xy
x
y*
f y
(x* f 2xy
f
(sc*+ 2xy
Sum
y2
y*) x
x*y
............
a3
.................................
f
2qy*
y)
the last
the
example
problem is set
ALGEBRAIC
The
should
student
into it any
test
values
of this
geometricalinterpretation
The
it makes
with
somewhat
product by
complicateddrawing
as
we
to choose.
cares
expressionis
stituting
sub
but
possible,
here
are
dealing
solid.
Ex.
43.
4y
(3p2
(3p2
77
PROCESSES.
4#2) X
2pq
2pq
"
2q
"
4p
f4?2) X
2q
Sum
Note
applicationof
the
rule of
the
signs.
Exercises
Find
product of
the
1.
3x and
4.
15a6
7. 2a
"
2s
9.
"
11.
2a2
12.
5p2
56
"26.
4 and
2x +
4a6
f 4.
4.
7.
3.
"xy.
6.
10.
262 and
5x.
8.
8 and
"
x2
6pq
"
4a; +
and
2p.
and
abc
"
2ac.
7.
2 and
3z.
f 26.
2pq + 3"/2and 2p
"
q.
"
Division.
We
fraction,thus
"
?
fraction
3xy and
4sxyand
5.
by
"
2.
3 and
Algebraic
say
46.
and
9c.
becomes
r~
Consider
"
"
The
"
the
we
have
the result,
viz. 8.
Now
exactlythe
same
process
be
may
employed
in
3
division.
Thus
"
6a6
r
2a
becomes
%
"
36.
Agaiu
=
" X
algebraical
78
ALGEBRAIC
quantitywhich
The
PROCESSES.
the dividend,
is
Dividend
"
Quotient
Divisor
We
can
Rule
the indices
It should
as
is the
result of
for
Rule
which
the
and
coefficients
quantities.
foregoing
example that,applyingthis
"2"3
ya3"1
obtain
Divide
"
3a26".
Now
6" is not
is written
The
like
be noticed in the
we
rigidly,
same
Division.
Algebraic
of the
for
subtract
rule
state the
now
is equal to
clearly
1.
Hence
the
expression
the expression
3a2.
of
Signs
obviouslythe
same
as
that
"
ab
+"_
+X
ab
"
is
Division
for
Thus
Multiplication.
+
__
"
~a
+ y
ab
"
X
/",
"
"
aft
_

"
^
,
_
y
"
consider
t/.
problem of dividing
15as2
such an expression
as
6y2 by 3"
2y. It should be
xy
3"
set out thus :
2y)15a?2 xy
Gy\
in
that both
First see
order, i.e. that the
expressions are
highestpower of x (theexpressioncontainingx with the highest
first and the lower powers
of x follow in order.
index) comes
of the dividend by the first term of the
Next divide the first term
divisor (ISaj2
f Sx
5a?)and place the result in the quotient
Sx
thus
6y\5x + Sy
2^)15a;2
xy
Long
Division.
Let
jix +b
jl
"
us
now
"
"
"
"
the
"
"
"
:"
by
")
"
i K
15s
...............
"
i A
2

10sy_
ALGEBRAIC
Subtract
if it is
and,
bring down
the
wanted,
from
term
next
"
9ajy
6t/3
9xy
6if
"
...........
the dividend
Repeat
79
PROCESSES.
........................
"
Subtract
..........................................
The
result is therefore
Check
x
the
1 and
15ar*
xy
result
6y3
is, 5ic +
Substituting:
should
be verified
should
be
equal
(5
546
11
(a
(a
(a
(a
of
ft)(a2 4
CAREFULLY.
NOTE
The
6) (a3
symbols
course
") (a
4
(a
4
,
=
1
when
1 and
2.
By
1)
4
6)2
a2
")
a3
2a" 4 *"3
t2
by
a3
3a2fc 4 3a62
aft 4
"2)
a3
are
"
4 "
4 2ab
fc)3
There
2)
are
a3 4 b8
that
understand
a
(3
fc2)
"
and
4
ab 4
concrete
"
11
"34
are
used
no
6s
ft3.
factors
of
(a2 4 62).
throughout. The
other letters might
any
be met
with.
quantity might
factors
be regarded as
a2
(4)2 the
8
a8 4 (2)3 and
a3
44). Again
(a
26
"
11
to
following factors
by the student and
(a + by
(a
y, say
"
The
"
15
__
""
5a? f
Factors.
and
"
__
3y
for
#y
That
values
(1x2)(6x4)
!_)_(3 x lj~ (2 x 2))
(15
'
3y.
4
by substitutingany
Thus
2.
5x
Thus
of
the
a*
which
factors
student
used,
be
16
"
will
are
are
or
might
(a 4 4)
(a42)
80
ALGEBRAIC
PROCESSES.
Exercises
Divide
1.
3.
5.
the
following:
Itey*by 3t/.
Mpqr2 by 9pr.
a?24 7x 4 12 by
Write
down
7.
4
(p
values
9d.
"
4.
I2xzyby 3y.
bx 4 6 by
a;2
6.
3.*2 +
2.
4.
for the
2q)\
130
following:
(a
36)2.
8.
uj
10
3.
by
5.
"
9.
y)\
(2a?

representedgraphically
; any suitable
length may be used to represent the letters. Divide the square
of each as is done in
into its component parts and mark
the area
Fig. 50.
These
10.
productsshould
(a
2/)3
4
Factorise
13.
s2
16.
x3
the
be
(*p
11.
following:
qY
(a
15.
x2 +
18.
64
26)3.
"
64.
14.
a*
6a
8.
17.
a3 f 27.
9.
Exercises
1.
12.
Sa

f 16.
A
9e.
Explaindiagrammaticallythe meaning
c.
(i) a + b
2c.
(ii)a + 36
(26 + 3c).
(iii)2a
of the
following:
"
"
"
Take
2.
the value
as
Add
of
together
a
a
2a
Verify
a,
6, and
3. Add
c,
1", 6
together
36
"
4
36
"
"",c
05", and
a
3a
6=3",
answer
".
4 6c
2c
"
4
"
6 4
26
of
2".
2a 4 1*56
Verify your
answer
your
^rf,6
3*
4aj
by insertingthe followingvalues
2""
81
PROCESSES.
ALGEBEAIC
4.
that
man
3, w
"
Three
5.
5, and
circles
b inches
4 ?
to be
are
and
drawn,
third
of
of radius
one
inches.
as
algebraically
simply as possibleand
!","
",
"", s
J".
=
of
other
inches, an
total
the
State
total
find the
area
when
area
6
(ii)064
7. Add
097
V(20") +
together
?ra2 4
0"57
irb2 4
27ra2 4 37r"2
"
Sira*
AV
(2gh).
?rc2
BTTC*
"
2w62
"
0'85
3?rc2.
"
Subtraction.
8.
Letci
^", 6
2o" 4 36
and
the
latter
10.
=:
"
2a from
"
6).
"
4b 4 5c
"
(5*
7i/)
"
""",and
Show
paper.
area
as
a?
that
determined
values.
Simplify
l"4
and
from
"
1", 6
squared
equal to the
on
11.
(3a
"
your
by
answer
0'5", a
075".
Subtract
ax
if
26)
"
substitutingthe
and
4
a;
In
(a
1".
Subtract
9.
of
4)
also
(Qa
4
Qb)
F. C. MATHS.
"
(Pa
+ aQ) +
3a"
" draw
the
by
(2bx
the
final
"
2a")
rectanglesrepresented
area
thus
the substitution
obtained
of the
is
above
82
ALGEBRAIC
Subtract
12.
tf 4.
and
PROCESSES.
also
?Xy
10a3
from
5Q2 +
0532 +
from
3%y
3a?3
2y*
8Q2
r
7^.
rectangles,find
13.
the
"
5afc +
4a"
By substitutingvalues
numerical
value
cd
3cd
"
f
b
^/r,
of the final
$cb +
cb
2",
of the
area
"
J",and d
rectangles.
f give the
Multiplication.
14.
Multiply (" + 3y
15.
The
base
bx units.
of
Determine
") by
6a
triangleis
the
also a;2+
l(Xe units
and
area,
and
if
3%y
by
""
3aj.
"
value.
Multiply
16.
(x + 2p) by (x + 2p)
(" + 8p) by (20 + 3j")
(x"f3p2)by (a? p)

and
in each
your
case
if x
1*5"
andjj
f",givediagrams to
illustrate
answers.
in
simple
as
form
as
"
(97
18.
6*44
+ 48
5) by (D
"
"
Multiply
(5
x) by (55*
2'5"
f 3"2 +
4"
2aj2).
Division.
19.
Divide
{2a + 4a"
(2ab f 2a")
{4a2+ 4a" + ""}by 2a
"
f
8fejby
4 6
46
1).
CHAPTER
X.
SIMPLE
In
Chapter
VIII.
we
when
we
and
equation,
EQUATIONS.
the
of
spoke
had
expression
numerical
substituted
irr2
as
values
an
for
for A
simplified the expression we
got a value
10.
5#
Here
Let
think
of
us
x is the
a
Suppose
simple case.
it is called, and
unknown,
are
as
we
required to find the value
of
for
it.
sides of the equation by the coefficient
Dividing both
that
2 is the
So
solution
2.
obtain
(viz. 5), we
x
x
^frequired.
This
be
an
equation,
spoken of as solving
operation may
and
TT
r* and
=:
and
the
value
for
which
would
obtained
we
called
be
the
solution.
The
be
gathered
Ex.
from
both
student
unknown
and
the
equation
of
sides
should
see
of
various
types
dealing with
the following examples :
will
equations
"
Solve
44.
Multiply
The
of
methods
the
by 7.
substitute
satisfies
"
"
the
3.
"
equation
always
if it
..#
7x3
the
equation.
21.
he
value
found
has
putting
Thus,
21
for
the
instead
21
of
in
the
Ex.
45.
above
equation
Solve
the
we
get
eqiiation
Adding
3a? to
Adding
to
both
both
=
"
2#
sides
sides
Therefore
that
3#
3u?
3x
true
7.
"
7
7
4
"
3a? to both
sides
adding
the
of the
the
of
3s" from
effect
the
+
equation had
moving
of
the
side
left
hand
the
to
equation and changing
right hand
whilst
sides
had
its sign from
to
adding + 4 to both
+
The
notice
"
2x

should
this
2x
Therefore
student
Is
3.
'*
"
84
"
"
"
SIMPLE
the
hand
In
"
one
left hand
the
from
expression
equation any
equation
an
of
side
"
side of the
rule
the
moving
effect of
85
EQUATIONS.
the
the
to
to the
moved
with
other,
follows
Hence
be
may
right
from
its
sign
changed.
Ex.
equation:
the
Solve
46.
"
lT5gf .
TJ
number
the mixed
Converting
Bringing every
to the
term
Multiplyingevery
'
denominator
common
same
(16)
Hi
by
term
Therefore
Dividing both
sides
by
the
~r"

4.t
21+6
4x
27
Exercises
Solve
"
*"
6.
lOa.
equations:
"
3
2.
_
1$
(E
4)
and
3.
6l.
6.
J =
8.
2
~
7).
6)
ofpotentialof
difference
which
flows through
amperes]
have
 (86
I/*a
47.
an
(2R
4" (26
9.
Ex.
i.
2d
6.
lb^+l=4a7. 5. J
7.
""
3'
through it
6f
so
of R ohms,
volts,then the
is
6).
electrical resistance
the wire
(callit C
given by the formula
current
IjT
is requiredto
potentialdifference
What
"
send
JR
of 4
The
amps,
througha
formula
wire
resistance
having a
is
of 7
ohms
^
K
Substitutingthe
This is the
values
given
~
~
Multiply both
sides
by
Therefore
28
28 volts would
is the unknown.
be
required.
current
86
SIMPLE
With
the
what
resistance
voltage,
amperes only?
same
to be three
current
EQUATIONS.
Formula
will be
requiredfor
the
^
H
ou
the
Substituting
values
given
(E is the unknown)
Multiplyingboth
Dividing both
sides
sides
by
by
3 A*
28
23" OJ
=
ohms.
Required resistance,9J
4.8.
During
recent
years
Formula
//
the
Substituting
values
given
Therefore
(Here
C is the
Dividingboth
(72
0'24
6'2
1000
0'24
1000
288
"7*
R
x
t
.
20
60
unknown)
sides
by
="
G'~
3'47
146
"a"y^
288
Therefore
C~
Therefore
#347
(number
of amperes
necessary)
The
to send
student
should
this current
now
find
through
what
voltagewould
the resistance
20 ohms,
(c
be
required
of
^V
49.
15" C.
SIMPLE
Formula
the
Substituting
values
(Noting
T is the
(103 4) (T
1000
(1034 T
155 to both
2550
103'4 T
sides
Dividingboth
(T
(100 + 0'09
1000
I)
38) (T
15)
15)
unknown)
Multiplyingout
Adding
(W + OWw)
1000
given
Therefore
that
87
EQUATIONS.
sides
by
1550)
255"
103 '4
103 '4
Therefore
Ex.
If wrought
24 '6"C.
piping has
D
internal
diameter
inches, and an
of
is
I"
(W Ib.)of a lengthof
given by:
50.
iron
external
an
of
weight
diameter
"
If
one
d8).
diameter.
O'Ob'9
325
Multiplyingout
3"25
26
3 '26
2'6 Z"a
sides
5'86
2'6 D*
by
^"5
Removing
Adding
the bracket
2'6 to both
Dividingboth
weighs 3J lb.t
diameter
internal
sides
2'6
0*069
("2
(Z""
12
3'1416
d")
X
(Z"2
I2)
1)
2'6
/"2
D'
226
'2*t"
Therefore
V"26
15"
student
formulae
through
2.
2*6
requiredin
What
1.
may
refer back
some
chapterfor
followingproblems.
of the
of 12 ohms
wire?
pass
current
of 175
the
amps,
potentialdifference of
through a coil o" wire.
amps,
A
1J".
voltageis requiredto
resistance
is
lOb.
Exercises
The
diameter
15
volts
What
sends
current
of
88
SIMPLE
Find
3.
the current
per minute
the
If
4.
in
in
of
grams
If
coil
copper
and
grams
would
were
tained
con
containing150
be the temperature of
pipe has
internal diameter
an
of 1 J", what
is the
length of
of
f" and
pieceof this
Ib. ?
the diameter
Find
2 sq.
iron
diameter
pipe weighing 5^
6.
12"C., what
at
wrought
Problem
in
carryingthe current
vessel weighing 38
after 2 minutes
external
an
requiredto generate
18"ohms.
resistance of
water
the water
5.
EQUATIONS.
circles whose
of
areas
respectively
are
If
8.
"tC.
rod of metal
its
has
length of I cm. at
I (I + at).
L, then L
0"
C., and
at
Where
a is a
length becomes
quantity depending on the metal it is called the coefficient of
If a brass
linear expansion and for brass is 0*000018.
rod is
316 cm.
long at 0" C., at what temperature will it be 317 cm. ?
number
9. A
act
on
of forces,
point and in the
following forces
and
these
are
value
10.
and
the
21 Ib.ft. +
Ib.ft.
value
of B
is:
"
3a? Ib. +
7 Ib.
on
"
2x Ib. +3x
the other
12
Ib.
Ib.,
side, which
the
Determine
as
the
acting
clock
move:
105 Ib.ft.
These
are
hands
in the
of
5JB
Ib.ft. +
just balanced
oppositedirection.
Determine
by
the
ft.
Taking
5 W
6 Ib. +
the forces
to
5* Ib.
32? Ib.ft +
10 B
11.
in "Ib.feet,"
tendency to twist a body is measured
followingvalues representthe tendency to twist in the
direction
same
Ib. +
same
5a? Ib. +
act:
just equal
Ib. + 10
of x Ib.
2x
are
some
the above
example,suppose
the
Ib.ft.+
tendency to
and
5 Ib.ft.,
twist
this
just balanced
is
is the value
what
26 lb.ft.,
Ib.ft. +
10 W
by
89
EQUATIONS.
SIMPLE
of TFlb?
following tendencies
The
12.
twist
to
If
13.
tension, find
in
will
iron
wrought
the
area
equation to
to
tons
8 ft. are
just
the value of 8.
5
safelycarry
necessary
body:
8 tons
carry
tons
2
.
sq. in.
5 tons
area
Also
if the
the load
available, determine
of
area
it will carry.
14.
the
pressure
1 Ib. per
equivalentto
We
15.
E, where
per
told
are
stress
if E
of
applied
of
the modulus
'. and

sq.
strain
mechanics
stress
elasticity,
length under
"
that
stress.
determine
,"
load
If
E.
8'
in.
in. and
30,200,000 Ib. per
sq.
r
^
The
lb".
*fff"
the stress
"
0*0491
sq. in.
theoretical
feet
is found
head
books
the strain.
determine
16.
==
Xj7r=
"0491
Also
in
the
sq. in.
Determine
from
of
water
when
is:
"
20
ft. per
tons
per
second
respectively.
17.
Using
the
equation ?a(
stress
(5
sq.
in.),
area
determine
12, and
the
24
diameter
tons
of round
respectively.
bars to carry
loads
of 8, 10,
90
SIMPLE
Determine
18.
the
Efficiency
per
per cent.
Friction
jointfrom
where
(i.e.
y6^),and
following law
machinery
riveted
pitchof a
0*.~ d^
60 per cent.
The
19.
cent.
EQUATIONS.
f", d
"
"",efficiency
pitchof
determined
was
the formula
the rivets.
for
piece
of
:"
respectively.
In
20.
testinga
found
was
0*023
load
21.
wheel
worm
experimentally
:
in
and
worm
Ib.
11
Determine
Ib.
formula
Friction
tion
following relaIb.
in
0'048
the friction
+
was
respectively.
used
p
"
the
in the
(stress)
=
design
42,000
of struts
128
is
"
Determine
when
24,000 respectively.
22.
close
23.
mile
distance from
Grindstones
24.
dia.
revs,
at
run
per
min.
being
revs,
feet.
should
run
velocity).Determine
grindstone should make.
should
rule
to centre
centre
"
per
about
saws
in crosssection
are
of each
at
the
used
laid
about
800
revolutions
Circular
circumference
is the
saws
per
for
min.
of
outer
the
pheral
(peria
ft.
cuttingwood
how
Determine
9,000 ft. per min.
of 26", 44", and 50" dia. should make.
X
along
sleeper.
Peripheralvelocity(rim or
minute
are
surface
many
The
velocity)
rotatingbody in
CHAPTER
XL
SOLIDS.
COMMON
Surfaces
Solids.
and
is
enclosed
have
We
"
Chapter
latter
the
how
VI.
bounded
being
by
and
but
breadth,
length
possess
dimensions."
thickness
speak of this as having two
never
; we
has
i.e.
When
three
dimensions,
length, breadth, and
a
body
be
thickness, it is called a solid, or a solid figure. A solid may
enclosed
is bounded
considered
piece of space, which
as
an
by one
plane figure
one
or
an
All
lines.
more
surface,
in
seen
surfaces
"
or
surfaces.
more
Fig.
of the
One
The
student
simplest solids
should
If
are
squares.
occupies is called
the
cube
have
had
been
note
edge
one
cubic
edge
an
1 cubic
of
it has
is 1"
six sides
long,
1 centimetre
centimetre
is
which
inch
or
(usually
or
the
then
in
is shown
which
is the Cube
that
each
52.
faces,
of volume.
ft. its
written
52.
of space
amount
unit
Fig.
all of which
volume
1 c.c.)
or
it
If
woiild
1 cubic
foot.
If
might
the
of
edge
be
12
divided
x
12
up
cube
into
(= 144)
were
12
that
it
long, it is easily seen
each
taining
layer conlayers of 1" cubes,
12"
of these
92
small
cubes.
In
other
words
COMMON
the volume
of such
is 123
cube
Ex.
Make
51.
cube
93
SOLIDS.
1728
cubic in.
Since
square,
cube
is
area
2"
of
edge.
of 6 squares
drawing consisting
made
should
be
shown
as
edge
ing
drawstiff
Fig. 53, preferably on
be
If
the
out
cut
figure
paper.
of 2"
in
diagram represent
tabs
which
figure and
They
given
may
the model
little
be left upon
should
then
the dotted
lines,a
shaded
The
tion
por
coat
be
used
of
the
gum.
ing
for hold
together.
a
Fig. 54 shows
rectangularprism" iu which
ness
the length,breadth, and thickmarked
are
by the letters
Prisms.
"
"
/,fe,and
It should
t.
are
Fig.
be noted
ends
each
these
whose
areas
of
having
Z6.
are
givesthe
area
an
lttand
area
areas
that there
observe
must
we
sides each
bottom
54.
area
two
two
Fig.
63.
The
of bt,
top and
of
sum
total surface
area
of the solid.
Ex.
Make
52.
prism
rectangular
whose
thickness \".
2", and
Fig. 55
shows
tho
diagram.
The
instructions
are
the
same
as
in the
case
of the cube.
Ex.
53.
Make
face of which
4'6
cm.
and
whose
The
triangularprism of length8 cm.
whose equalsides
is an isosceles triangle
other side is 3
cm.
angular
triare
COMMON
Fig.
it.
the
is
It
56 allows the
should
triangularprism
be noticed
trianglesand
the product of the
two
SOLIDS.
that
the
area
the
and
total surface
is the
area
sum
for making
of that of
in Fig. 57.
The volume
rectanglesshown
of the triangularend and the length.
three
JrJ
"T"
1
Fig.
Fig.
55.
56.
Fig. 57.
The
the
Cylinder.
prism
is the
differs in that
Fig.
58
58.
area
should
which
The
circular ends.
meter
cylinder of dialength I. The surface
be
portions: (1)
"
Closelyallied to
cylinder,which
it has
shows
d and
"
considered
the
flat
in
two
surfaces,
two
COMMON
be
rectangleof length
circumference
surface
of
is therefore
TT
area
Ex.
The
The
Make
54.
Cone.
in
the
curved
If the line
is
equal
isTrd
volume
is the
The
product
is 07854
length,and
and
to
the
curved
of
the
d?l.
diameter
of 1".
Fig. 59.
is shown
cone
d) and
(of diameter
the apex.
"
breadth
end, which
The
dl.
and
whose
cylinderof length3"
is shown
diagram
I and
circular
the
95
SOLIDS.
in
surface
joiningthe
to
apex
the
of the base
centre
Fig. 60.
is
all diameters
to
perpendicular
right
length
height,and is denoted
slanting side is called
figureby s. If the radius
a rightangled
triangleis
we
Fig. 61
have
shows
surface forms
be Sirs,the
the whole
the
surface
a
length of
circle
the relation s2 =
part of
figurebeing ird.
The
cone.
solid is called
of the
h2
whole
circle whose
a
portion of
Consequentlyits
of ir*2).
(i.e.
area
sequently
con
+r*.
laid out flat.
cone
that
this
The
curved
circumference
would
circumference
in
the
area
of
will be
"
of the
96
SOLIDS.
COMMON
the
Therefore
Cancellingwe
curved
surface
"T"X
irds.
have
volume
The
is found
to be
Ex.
07854
base
and
cm.,
d*h.
Make
55.
with
height
the volume
Jx
third
one
vertical
the
Therefore
cone
of the
and
of
of
cone
diameter
height
slant
cm.
The
in
is shown
diagram
Fig. 61.
The
Sphere.
sphereis
out by a
about
Fig. 61.
familiar with
ball.
is
It
to
of
sphere as being a
impossibleto lay its
model
radius
the
cannot
paper
units its surface area
rotating
its
of
meters.
diais
If
equal
flat and
out
a
quently
conse
sphere have
to 4 Trr2and
its volume
irr3.
Hollow
having
Cylinders.
closed
ends)
internal
diameter
material
of which
of
and
If
"
have
d
hollow
"
one
open" cylinder(i.e.
external
an
diameter
and
a
length of I,the
it is composed is given by
If R
surface
made.
is
circle
Everybody
the
having
shape of
solid
be
solid traced
the
one
The
"
07854.D2./
07854
be the external
V
TT
EH
vl
Trr2/
(R*
an
d2)
and
and
V of the
07854.dP.Z
(D2
of D
volume
not
r2)
respectively
COMMON
Hollow
and
Sphere.
radii of
internal
hollow
Similarlya
"
and
97
SOLIDS.
sphere haying
has
respectively
external
volume
(F)
given by
F
Collected
results.
(7w6e of
I.
edge
Total
area
b, and
area
Volume
d (or radius
Cylinderof diameter
Flat
Curved
of radius
of
or
Ibt.
surface
07854
trdl
07854
fr* +
Flat surface
07854
surface
slant
height
wefs
rfa or
or
"ra
Trrs
07854cZ2"
or
internal
sphere of external
and
07854
(D2
TT" (#2
internal
radii J? and
Volume
Exercises
diameters
(or radii)
TT(R9
d2)
r2).
respectively.
r").
Ha.
2. Examine
Example
the
$2.
In
differ from
corners
and
wr*L
d*lor
72.
or
corners
2irr3
d (or H
Hollow
many
or
r.
Volume
1.
d3
2n rJ
or
Surface
and
Volume
Hollow
ft)
f
length J.
=
Volume
of D
t.
diameter
Curved
radius
(bt +
r) and
"*
Sphere of
thickness
surface
Volume
Cone
Z3.
6 I2
Volume
volume
F.
model
what
of
ways
those
How
many
in
rectangularprism made
and
its
do
faces,
edges,
(if any)
the
of the
cube
What
is its total
c. MATHS,
area
98
SOLIDS.
COMMON
3.
Examine
the
53.
Find
Example
4.
Examine
Find
(1) the
of
its total
model
the
triangular prism
the
and
area
the model
5. Examine
of the
Find
height?
1. How
many
to
required line
area
of
temperature
15' 3"
best
the
Determine
2.
by
12' 3"
conditions
of air
through
No.
If the
ordinary stock
sheets must
be
many
of the tank.
number
of
20"
room
by
9' 6"
in
F.
high,and
required to
watts
you
hour
the
Also
raise
the
measures
that under
assume
can
room
size of
?
ordered
the
if each
be ordered
zinc
8',how
the volume
What
55.
of its curved
and
lib.
me.asurements
by
Example
of its base
ft. of
wooden
inside
zinc is 3'
determine
sq.
in
made
cone
the
is its volume
What
deep
volume.
Exercises
sheet
in
is its vertical
1' 6"
made
of the
of the flat
area
of the curved
surface.
model
lamp requires250
watts
15'
Fig.
3.
railwayplatformis
62.
390;
4.
measures
number
Qalvanized
deep.
hold.
the
What
iron
is their cubic
624
How
wrought
tanks
capacity?
determine
gallons,
many
do
gallons
you
how
sold 2'
are
If
many
think the
by
2'
by
1' 7"
cubic
ft. of water
a
gallonsthe tank will
will give?
catalogue
100
COMMON
Fig.
11.
(a)
of
volume
speed
speed
volume
total
the
the
each
of
(6) the
diameter),
of
part
circumference
the
total
shows
66
SOLIDS.
metal
the
resolves
(neglecting
into
finding
the
9",
circles
it
be
to
curves,
corners,
Determine,
lathe.
10"
and
solid,
and
(c)
Determine
The
ball
the
on
volume.
ball
float
the
shaft)
,
in
the
volumes
problem
(The
figure.
of
number
of
hollow
cylinders.)
12.
11"
06.
shown
measurements
itself
(i.e.,
supposing
Fig.
using
for
cone
valve
measures
cm.
in
diameter.
XII.
CHAPTER
RELATIVE
AND
We
by
accustomed
are
which
the
we
an
VOLUMES.
of lead
speak
to
that
mean
of
weight
WEIGHTS,
DENSITIES,
lead
piece of
as
is
other metals.
Now
most
equal volume
in
We
two
can
numerically
say
ways.
times
as
heavy as an equal volume of some
of
we
that
this idea
can
express
lead is so many
substance
such
water, in which
as
has
to this
in what
units
employed.
or
and
so
It
705
ever
may
it is 113
Thus
pounds
per
noticed
that
be
volume,
attach
never
times
as
any
heavy
as
measured.
units
they are
anything according to
the
metre,
centiper cubic
Ib. per cubic inch,
grammes
foot, or 0'407
cubic
of unit
forth.
will be
centimetre
The
of water
We
lead is 11*3
is called
number
weight
11*3.
specific
gravity of
number, as a pieceof
a
volume
same
The
give
can
the
case
the
mon
com
"
is
gramme
equal to the
the
numerically
is the
metrical
density in
the
unit
same
of
"
as
grammes
the
weight, and
per
cubic
specificgravity.
may
be taken
Thus
of water.
weight of one cubic centimetre
a 1,000 c.c.
(which is called a litre) of water weighs 1,000 grammes
fore
thereis
called
is
It
a
(which
easily seen
kilogramme).
that since 1 c.c. of lead weighs 11*3
whilst
1 c.c. of
grams
will have
of lead
water
a
weighs 1 gram, any volume
weight
as
same
volume
101
of water.
102
RELATIVE
The
and
followingdensities
determine
To
DENSITIES,
its
the
weight,and
will be found
densityof
then
have
we
Volume
we
"
know
must
the relation
its volume
"
^eight
Volume
VOLUMES.
useful
body
Density
Weight
AND
WEIGHTS,
determine
may
the
other
Density,and
any
of the*
Thus
two.
Volume
one
Weight
Density
in practical
work
for the
use
equationsare of immense
determination
of weights and volumes
of materials requiredin
certain operations. Before proceeding to the consideration of a
few problems we
will examine
of the units used.
some
In the English system a cubic foot and a cubic yard will be
The gallon,however, is a unit of volume
readilyunderstood.
is frequentlymet
which
with.
These
various units must
be
These
"
1 foot
1 chain
1
acre
3048
"
cm.
66 feet
10 square
1 cubic foot
20 metres.
chains
4000
square
=
metres.
28*4 litres.
RELATIVE
1 cubic
yard
DENSITIES,
27 cubic feet
4544
gallon 277*3 cubic in.
gallon of water weighs 10 Ib.
cubic foot of water
weighs 1000
1 Ib.
Us
56.
cube
densityin
Volume
1 cubic
Therefore
of
cube
ft.
the
2:{
litres
284
8 cubic
"
volume
of the
the
weight
of the
density
J
'284
1,000
4536
concrete
cubical tank
gas
has
4536
per
If at the back
115
centimetres
3. A
the
traced
of the
in, what
cubic
is
per cubic
28,400 c.o.
227,200
=
c.c.
1,120 grams.
If
cubic centimetre.
the
of water
a
many
45 Ib.,
bore
of 7" and
stroke of 11".
"
"
mean
12a.
internal
an
engine cylinderhas
the volume
Express
grams.
="
2 '24 grams
c.c.
28,400
Exercises
2.
Find
Volume
"
Ib.
feet.
concrete
1 Ib.
Therefore
1.
62 '4 Ib.
"
c.c.
per
Also
Now
ounces
concrete
grammes
of the
Now
c.c.
4536 grams.
Ex.
103
VOLUMES.
AND
WEIGHTS,
diameter
of 3" and
Find
weighs 5^ oz.
it is made : (1) in Ib.
jam jaris filledto the brim with water and set in a basin.
1 Ib. of gravelis then dropped gently into the jar,and it is found
Find the densityof the gravel
9*4 oz. of water.
to have displaced
in Ib. per cubic ft and in kilogramsper cubic metre.
an
4.
5.
pieceof
external
6.
2" and
brass
diameter
pipinghas an
of 1%'. Find
internal diameter
the
weight
of 1" and
of 1 ft. of it.
uniform
thickness
of
104
RELATIVE
DENSITIES,
AND
WEIGHTS,
VOLUMES.
of
Many machine
parts are made
of wood,
a
pattern is first made
wood
often yellow pine. This
about
Ib.
31
weighs
per cubic
it follows that
ft.,and since cast iron weighs 450 Ib. per cubic ft.,
the casting will have
a
weight *""(= 14'5)times that of the
the
In
foundry if the pattern is weighed and then
pattern.
multipliedby the proper factor,we obtain the weight of metal
requiredfor the casting. (N.B. This method is only applicable
such
the castingsare
when
do not requirea
No
core."
as
is made
allowance
for the shrinkage of the metal, but the
is quite accurate
method
enough for all practical
purposes.)
Patterns
to
castings,
of
Castings.
obtain
"
which
"
"
"
"
Fig. 67 gives
particularsof a pattern.
Find
the weightof the pattern
and
of the castingin
Ex.
57.
iron.
Area
enclosed
boundary
of the space
I sq. ft.
=
of the upper
The area
ft.
0625
=
sq.
sq. ft.
4") x (I'0"
3")
(l'2")x (9')
Volume
middle
in the
(!' 6"
Multiplyingby
outside
by
(15' x
l5sq. ft.
Area
surface
the thickness
of the
2J"
pattern is therefore
(1*6
0*875)
0208'.
Pine has a
Yellow
0*13
x 31 Ib.
weighs
densityof
=
403
145
585 Ib.
58.
105
VOLUMES.
AND
WEIGHTS,
DENSITIES,
RELATIVE
be regarded as made
cutting may
in Fig. 68.
trianglesand a rectangle,as shown
rightangled
A
sectional
of
area
the
Area
of the
rectangle
Area
of each
triangle
15
10
10)
""
"
"
""
Now
yds.
length o"
the
150
the
area
cutting
250
150
250
150
of
150
the
, ,
50
15'
10'"(*"
terial
ma
cubic
Ib.
125
tons
5
X_L/f
ft.
material
125
""
250
ft.
Therefore
the volume
250 x
removed
=
and the weight of the
=
'"*
""
sectional
Total
50 Rq. ft.
"JO
"
It
of two
 (10 x
up
moved
re
2240
Fig. 68.
2100
tons
(nearly).
Exercises
Hflj4.rn.rn.
12b.
by which
weight of a yellow pine pattern
be multiplied in order
must
to give
the weight of the castingin (1) brass,
(2) copper, (3) aluminium.
1.
Determine
the
Determine
the
factors
the
2.
of
50
of
weight of
tape
copper
yards
lightningconductor
plate. The copper tape
a
Fig. 69.
in
3.
Calculate
dimensions
the
shown
cross
weight of
Fig. 69.
length
ing
connect
to the earth
is
1J" by J"
section.
100
wrought
iron washers
of the
in
Fig. 70.
4.
How
screwed
much
will 50
if theyare
made
wrought
iron
bolts
weigh
in
before
Fig. 70 ?
being
106
RELATIVE
5.
dug
A
for
trencli of the
a
length of
cross
section shown
15' 0".
If
VOLUMES.
AND
WEIGHTS,
DENSITIES,
depth
in
of
Pig. 71
2' 0"
is
has
to be
dug
from
r
4'
Fig. 71.
loamy
remaining 4' 0"
common
Fig. 72.
earth
of
Part
machine
iron).
The
of
many
tons
of material
are
removed.
the
ing
weight on the weighing lever of a testis shown
in Fig. 72.
its weight (cast
Determine
other portion of the weight,which
is not
shown
Fig. 73.
on
the
sketch, weighs
weight (calculated+
(100,000Ib.)?
4'5
Ib. ; what
45)
to
the
is the
ratio
of
of
the
capacity
the
total
machine
108
RELATIVE
76
Fig.
11.
If
it is
in
the
80
ft.
shows
and
long
figure,
determine
of
section
the
it is filled
how
with
small
weight
of
the
steel
is
casting
pattern
water
pine),
9' 0"
of
sectional
area
the
castings.
the
sleeper,
the
the
find
weight
of
5"
by
10"
(Take
as
by
the
weight
31*2
Ib.
per
Calculate
100
ft.
0'25
in.
of
bar
the
weight
aluminium
If
red
and
diameter.
An
length
is
bright
the
the
weight
of
8
the
ft.
8 in. cube
flattened
then
6
bar.
out
in., determine
of
to
wrought
a
the
of
of
78.
to
and
this
ft.)
15.
(Fig. 78).
of
20
material
14.
bar
Calculate
77).
long.
the
cubic
heated
hold.
Determine
railway
is
shown
it will
from
of
13.
iron
height
water
(Fig.
and
weight
Fig.
water.
77.
required
(yellow
carrying
the
to
of
gallons
Fig.
12.
for
cutting
many
VOLUMES,
AND
WEIGHTS,
DENSITIES,
square
cross
CHAPTER
GEAPHS
have
We
is
XIII.
SIMPLE
OF
seen
of
(0)
circle of radius
given by
0
C
Here
and
and
r,
we
considered
But
if
the
value
of
some
fixed.
is
in which
variable,
idea is to call G
Now
the
function
equation
any
and
independent
the
and
find what
then, may
may
of
one
be
call
be referred
of
expressing
r,
then
the independent
G would
be
anything.
them, say
therefore
way
of
viz. G
to
as
this
the
same
r.
type
expresses
relation
between
in
seen
a
from
the
equation.
Ex.
59.
0 and
10.
We
case
of this
to
may
Another
variable.
dependent
We
to
their values
definite value
"
unknowns,
"
unknowns,
these
variables," because
give
obtain
6'28r.
Both
have.
then
"
as
we
(3'14) we
TT
an
C would
value
for
have
we
2irr
approximate value
Substitutingan
of
FUNCTIONS.
random.
graph ofC
6'2Srfor
"
must
the
Plot the
now
Thus
:"
6*28r.
109
into
values
the values
this
of
of r
between
equation and
r
may
late
calcube chosen at
110
GRAPHS
Therefore
whenr
"
,,
points
FUNCTIONS.
SIMPLE
OF
(7
10
we
6 '28
0,
0=
623
628
10
find that
they
31 '4,
628.
lie in
straightline
as
shown
70
Values
of
r.
Fig. 79.
It is very convenient when
studying the graphsof functions
types." The simplest
to consider the graphsin families called
"
GRAPHS
type of graph is
of the
This
form.
or
y is
in which
function
variable.
dependent
Now
be called the
may
of
numerical
definitive
some
of
this
equation
an
"
",
independentand y the
constants, i.e. they have
x,
i.e. x is the
and
values
are
which
do not
"
coefficient of
"
has
always
is :
type
aoc
Ill
FUNCTIONS.
SIMPLE
straightline,and
type
same
OF
and
value
The
vary.
that of b the
"
stant
con
term."
Ex.
this
(In
Plot the
60,
case
graph of y
the
"constant
two
values
2x
a"
6.
"
2 and
equals
"
the
6"
constant
equals
6.)
Selectingany
When
and
when
We
of
(say 0 and 5)
0,
then
a;
5,
then
y=106
back
06
get
we
"2x
"
"
6.
6,
4.
idea
of
negative direction
in the shape of a
axes
Chapter IX.
Drawing
shown
in Fig. 80, the horizontal axis gives the values
as
cross,
from
when
measured
the origintowards
of #, positive
the right
towards
measured
and negative when
the left.
Similarlythe
of
vertical axis gives us
positivevalues
y above the originand
two
values
below.
The
taken
the graph are
on
negative
points
shown
in Fig. 80.
must
now
go
to
our
developed in
Ex.
This
61.
the
Plot the
equation
first be
must
3'4aj
graph
2%
brought into
34r
Thus
Adding
3'4x
sides
to both
2%
0704.
the
form
2%
2'3
ax
f b.
f 0704
3'4x
0'704.
3'4a;
Dividing through by
of y
~Q0'704.
2i'n
Here
the
constant
"
the
and
"
constant
^.
2*o
To
obtain
substitute
When
two
them
points on
for
the
2*3
graph
take
3'4a;
"
any
values
of
"'704.
thus
*=0
^(34x0^0.704
0306,
112
FUNCTIONS.
SIMPLE
OF
GRAPHS
(34
and
when
~~
2)
0704
_
~
23
0704
68
23
6096
=
The
would
2.64
on
suitable
scale
axes.
6
+Y
x
Y
Fig.
In Exercises lOb, No.
19,
Friction
an
80.
equation:
02 +
"
00112
load
used.
This
should
be
GRAPHS
The
OF
SIMPLE
"
order
this of
b f axt but
y =
should
be noted
It
reading on the
obviouslyso
that
"
y scale
"
is
if
all
where
regard it
we
makes
course
in
as
Plot
graph
the
the
graph
the
value
3#
2.
2x +
3.
3'4as
3i/
8.
5.
3z
2?
5.
6.
3'2y
"
Plot
7.
Nos.
the
cases.
If
If
from
when
the
0.
a?
"
100" C.
When
9.
minute
between
is the
by
there
and
given
value
loads
plotfrom
Exercises
0 and
1Gb,
50 Ib. in
corresponding to
the results
compare
is
if
volts.
=
per
engine
of
is
dynamo
Plot
0*844
n,
minute.
has
C., then
value
the
is
certain
steam
at t"
with
of
F. c. MA.THS.
is used
6065
convert
0305
per hour
t.
between
70" C. arid
t =
the
H
constant
when
hour.
steam
requiredto
indicated
an
H
of
it is
much
between
of heat
of units
number
What
revolutions
load
the
of
into steam
its E.M.F.
and n
v
800
equations given in
interpolationthe
exercises
values.
In
of the
graphs
of friction
values
8.
1*72.
Find
the calculated
How
value of
the
10.
and
19
both
4'6#
"
5 to
"
1O.
Find
5 "2.
"
2a? +
to
0.
13a.
0 and
6.
Plot
This
axis.
of y when
the
4.
4.
the
that
gives
3.
cuts
of b
followingequations.
the
of y when
the value
1.
a?
of
graphs
difference whatever.
no
the value
cases
Exercises
"
term
to
113
FUNCTIONS.
when
the I.H.P.
is 11 J ?
8
XIV.
CHAPTER
EQUATIONS.
SIMULTANEOUS
Methods
Solution.
of
the
equation
of
have
value
any
If, however,
such
y,
the
first
and
might
equations.
we
both
which
12*5,
2y
equation, they would
5#
as
find
graphically
Solve
"
We
both
in
same
at
(N.B.
If the
"
sign
same
This
2y
first
must
with
and
time
same
as
equations,
which
would
satisfy
and
12'5.
aim
at
by
14o?
I5x
have
having
been
is called
eliminating
only
unknown
one
both
terms
"
terms
two
the
getting
by 29,
the
6y
6y
of
orie
get,
114
subtract
to
the
unknowns,
O."
=
"
had
coefficient
same
necessary
(viz. x}.
we
coefficients
29aj
Dividing
the
of
"
throughout
"
it would
process
equation
connecting
Adding
the
taining
con
equations
equations, analytically
,,3
(ii)
Equation
3y
equations
(i) multiplied
Equation
ponding
corres
"
Solution.
(or y) the
the
were
simultaneous
and
following
the
(ii) 5x
true
called
for
(i) 7#
Analytical
as
equation
was
be
value
some
62.
Example
might
have
single equation
solved
an
in
were
we
that
saw
then
that
Chapter X.
given another
considered
we
we
would
be
cannot
and
3,
that
therefore
follows
It
considered
were
3y
"
XIII.
Chapter
and
whatever,
unknowns
two
which
7x
form
value.
In
"
1 j.
instead
as
we
37 '5
43'5
both
of
now
been
of
adding. )
have
an
11G
SIMULTANEOUS
EQUATIONS.
which
the
are
only values of
under
case
and ?/
consideration
the
Fig. 81.
Exercises
Solve the
and graphically
followingequationsanalytically
:
"
1.
5a?
3.
4"2i/=ll
=111
5.
8a;
"
"
4a; f
Linear
14a.
2y
4y
3y
1
2.
4B
29)
97
20f;
Laws.
"
experimentswhich
We
speak of these
frequentlynecessary
6.
5a?
Qy
lOoj 9y
r
(5x
"
"
4a?+ 3y
We
have
already met
when
plottedgive a
graphs following a
to express this
28
0*4
5*64
with
the
results of
straightline
linear
law, and
algebraically,
graph.
it is
SIMULTANEOUS
117
EQUATIONS.
The
63.
L(in lb.)
lb.)
50
100
150
200
8'4
94
104
115
along
straight line.
This
docs
not
that
mean
100
the
linear
is not
law
150
Fig. 82.
"
"
and ft.
Select two
points on the graph, not too close
Thus
values of L arid E at each end of them.
(i)When
"
25,
(ii)When
175, 2?=
Now
substitute
these
values
E
Therefore
7'8
and
Here
(i)
11
we
have
two
and
of L
simultaneous
25a
11.
aL
25 f
175 +
equation :
"
+ b.
b,
b.
equationswith
+
find the
78.
together,and
7'8
and
as
the unknowns
118
SIMULTANEOUS
EQUATIONS.
(ii)
I75a
Subtracting
I50a
Dividingby 150,
4 b
11
3'2
*?
0'021.
150
(i)
a
Substituting
l" =
(25
0'021
0021.
78.
25(i +
i.e.
0'52ffo
Therefore
Result
7 '8,
7*8.
7 '3 (nearly).
0'021
)+ 6
and
7 '3, and
the
required equation is
4 7'3.
Exercises
1.
Examine
4a, No.
2.
of the
the
the
From
3.
law
equation of
Callingthe Volume
at
type will be V
the
then
graph plottedfrom
Denoting the load by L
d, find
Find
3.
No.
the
2.
springby
the
connecting
The
type
distance
Distance
Plot the
of the
the flats
across
The
Length
the
priceof
gross
in inches
(/)
of the
4a,
its temperature t,
ad
law
nail
f b.
sides upon
which the
nuts
number
of Whitworth
(the two
a
"
i
If
l"
2
1"
2
"
flats
for different
the law
Exercise
find the
Find
the flats
across
across
given below
of
...
equation is very
bolt heads.
5.
fe.
V and
gas
this
and
=.
the
aL
I.
type is
The
graph and
Distance
and
and
graph plottedin
the
given in Exercise
compressionof the
the data
14b.
of
wrought
lengths.
7J
...
55s.
...
type
iron
diameter
pins,/;
"
6(1.
45s.
al f b.
C)d.
4
36s.
27s.
is
SIMULTANEOUS
size
following
The
6.
:
119
EQUATIONS.
figures
obtained
were
lifts
from
of
the
same
"
Total
maintenance
annual
cost
and
interest
including
preciation
de"60
"40
"80
"100
60,000
80,000
.........
Total
journeys
per
40,000
20,000
year
...
the
Plot
and
graph
find
Cost
The
7.
(used
table
following
for
diameter
fastening
of
Diameter
of
thfe
journeys
to
type,
year
per
how
shows
wheel
shaft
the
the
of
law
the
the
".
width
of
sunk
key
with
varies
shaft)
the
"
shaft
inches
in
"
...
Width
of
key
in
in
..........
Prove
Width
that
the
law
is
:
"
gggg""t
of
the
key"
shaft"
+
1
ANSWERS.
Exercises
2.
4'51".
5.
A".
3.
1'9
3'4,
6, 4'4,
6
Exercises
1.
4.
44",
112
61976,
mm.
52,
24'8
mm.
5'93.
4.
116",
2'95
cm.
2.
1100.
5.
139
2.
3'3", 8J".
5.
4'305
ft.,
9'87, 5'97,
2411,
635,
3.
'169,
'0824,
6.
497'9",
5'48".
16'93.
'0353.
1098",
2638",
6.
37*4".
5, '25,
3.
47,
5.
'125,
86'1,
334,
65'1,
'0625,
'478,
'01.
'8.
4:
2.
2'875;/.
5.
1206.
*f.
8.
ff
3.
".
sq.
ft.
0'9.
5359.
4.
9'99",
1", 78'59",
6.
41'7, 312'0,
1'7,
381'9.
"38".
135'2.
le.
2.
'03125,
4.
250, 128,
3'143,
'04, '025,
4567,
786,
'001,
'004,
24'4,
'015625.
'0078,
53'9,
'00219.
'00837.
If.
16'35
6'44".
cm.,
90'85,
Exercises
1.
5'64".
mm.,
445'4,
Exercises
1.
143'4
1209'53
2.
6.
'01.
3.
6.
Id.
Exercises
1.
ft.
4'3
3.
mm.,
Ic.
Exercises
1.
'88", 201",
0'99".
5'01",
Ib.
Exercises
1.
4.
cm.
TV,
A",
la.
17'85.
3.
4'24",
6.
103'3.
1078
cm.
2a.
4.
120
2".
5.
2fJ.
6.
81f.
121
ANSWERS.
Exercises
1.
2.
if.
4.
1J.
3.
21
2b.
Exercises
1. 175.
2.
2'625.
B. 3*40625.
6.
2'391
2.
J.
1J.
6j}.
2c.
2'417
3.
T4375.
4.
(nearly).
(nearly).
2d.
Exercises
1.
6.
2TV
5.
14.
3.
4.
2f.
A.
Exercises
6.
1A.
5.
A
3b.
1.
2.
3.
253.
4.
22'96.
5.
70.
6.
22'9
Exercises
4a.
2.
'175","44",'81",7'1
4.
26 lb.,39 lb.
6.
7. 5jd."8"d,. lljd.
8.
I. 1215
in.
3.
10.
lb.
Exercises
cm.
5a.
2. '275.
4.
5.
A, f
6.
3'14.
1414.
1O.
J.
12.
"1
13s.
4d.,
12s.
mm.
per
cm.
30'48
cm.
11.
1*13 per
cent.,18*5 per
13.
51}
per
cent.
618
14.
9s., "315.
15.
16.
26".
17. '83".
cent.
287".
122
ANSWERS.
6a.
Exercises
35",B
63",B
1. A2.
3.
4.
5.
15*35
6. b
187
39",C
cm.,
638',4
58",A
90", 0
J",C
J",18'84".
88
72",19'6".
42",B
90",45
cm.
6b.
Exercises
1. 21*2 sq.
4.
2.
cm.
2'12
5. 76'3.
74ft.
2. 352
3 rolls.
space
6.
4320
sq. metres.
1*08 acres,
3.
be 6"
should
Each
3.
4" wide.
2.
Circumferences.
*126
Areas,
in.
sq. in.
189
'00282
cm.
"126
7a.
Circumferences.
cm.
sq.
4.
sq. ft.
18'96
high and
Exercises
Areas.
cm.
6c.
bricks.
5. 24 sq. in.
1.
3. 30'2 sq.
6. 75'8.
sq. in.
Exercises
1.
cm.
50",C
cm.,
36
55",46'1 cm.
78",9'69".
41",B
84",46'29
=
'515
2'54
154
44
531
817
773
475
17'9
21*8
18'2
15'1
1502
41'9
2293
1666
Diameters.
Areas.
in.
sq. in.
785
1
549
237
7*40
430
241
456
36'8
1062
7b.
Exercises
1. '00246
sq.
2.
1328
4.
Distance
5.
'00306
7. AB
sq.
to B
ft.,2'84 sq.
measures
from
3.
from
sq.
'0000283
sq. mm.,
cm.
538
9. 3*93
in., T586
ft.,11740
round
hole to hole.
cm.
Ib.
the
3 33
sq.
in., 0183
sq.
mm.
305
Between
and
306.
6. At
8.
circle and
"993 sq.
28'3
375
ft.,B
measured
32 ft.
in
straightline
124
5.
ANSWERS.
""'
7. 27rb2
,"),
?[*.
6.
8irc2.
9.
_
"b.
12.
O'"r3
16.
a3 +
17.
326DV
19.
2,
21.
f
3i/2,
2*" +
346D71
b,
jo
g),
7b +
11054^
3a
6c,
1 l7T(Z2
57TJD2
""/"
"
y.
22.
24.
b,
Exercises
4.
6. 2.
2.
15.
3.
7.
2.
8.
"
J,
"
1.
4.
18.
6.
9.
7J.
1. 21 volts.
2. 577 ohms.
4. 218" C.
5,
25*3
7. 1553 ft.
8.
176" C.
122 ft.
62'4 Ib. per
5.
9.
4J
Ib.
23
tons.
13.
15.
17.
19.
1606
20.
1835
22.
50.
25.
2386.
2"
5.
5'65
sq. cm.,
cm.,
52'2
c.c.
ft.
Exercises
37'7 sq.
2.
22
3'54
Exercises
23'6
14869
cub. ft.
sq.
ft.,2'31 ft.
21.
24.
sq.
c.c.
lib.
sq.
Ha.
4.
cm.,
3.
1'69 amperes.
15
23.
c.
6.
1O.
ft.
"
3.
12.
11.
lOb.
in.
14.
lOa.
Exercises
110'6
02.
"
3.
n/""z
T"
2Qo + Fa.
i
dya
9j
1.
(P
2b.
11.
4pj" + V.
2a
23.
4xy
^
in.
li'"
ANSWERS.
4.
GJ
5.
1665
3952
ft.,
cub.
ft
cub.
gallons,
195
7.
1695
9.
11.
1695
c.c.,
sheets,
sq.
ft.
sq.
cm.
652
in., 237
cub.
1.
975
3.
42
4.
1064
5.
37
gallons,
Ib.
1020
per
Ib.
gm.
per
kilogm.
17*5, 17'8,
4.
102
7. 2s.
2.
804
Ib.
5.
18
4d.
8.
38
1O.
1018
13.
97'5
63
Exercises
5'2.
Ib.
Ib.
5^
1.
7.
8.
1.
2.
4,
2J, 1".
6.
054,
3,
1606,
1785,
1835,
2486,
1964,
4.
9.
1,
10,
1.
d
F
2.
8.
'07L.
252d
6.
5.
6'32
2'34
kilogm.
6.
21'3
Ib.,
9.
3J
0'00026.
oz.
12.
2'3
15.
5'02
46
and
oz,,
in.,
sq.
142
3.
4.
158.
52,
2,
0375.
22'3.
270
2.
1O.
volts.
5.
j?
JB
f 8.
333.
14a.
5,
2,
9.
3.
,r
3J.
6.
3J,
1J.
'36,
1'4.
14b.
2,
4.
Distance
6.
Cost
Ib.
Ib.
13a.
Exercises
3.
3.
45'7.
637.
a?
c.c.
in.
Ib.
Exercises
1.
sq.
gallons.
2.
c.c.
metre.
(nearly).
Exercises
6.
8818
c.c.,
cwt.
14.
179
12b.
tons
7700
c.c.
12.
Ib.
11.
in.
sq.
in.
cub.
per
6.
1.
579
ft.
c.c.
Ib.
"
0'442
6933
2.
ft.,1699
cub.
per
8.
cub.
12a.
Ib.
ft., 0'67
cub.
50)
cub.
Exercises
ft., 375
cab.
6.
1O.
required.
extra
314", 345",
28'3",
gallons.
ft., 4s.
sq.
40
045*
+
=
001
12*4.
1'5
(diameter)
(no.
of
journeys)
'125.
4 20.
4.