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FLUID-FLOW EQUATIONS

SPRING 2015

2.1 Introduction

2.2 Conservative forms of the flow equations

2.3 Non-conservative forms of the flow equations

2.4 Non-dimensionalisation

Summary

Examples

2.1 Introduction

Fluid dynamics is governed by conservation equations for:

mass;

momentum;

energy;

Equations for these can be expressed mathematically in many ways: notably as

differential equations.

This course will focus on the integral (control-volume) approach because it is easier to relate

to the real world, is naturally conservative and forms the basis of the finite-volume method.

However, the equivalent differential equations (of which there are several forms) are often

easier to write down, manipulate and, in a few cases, solve analytically.

Although there are different fluid-flow variables, most of them satisfy a single generic

equation: the scalar-transport or advection-diffusion equation. You will have met a 1-d

version of this in your Water Engineering course.

As discussed in Section 1, the rate of change of any physical quantity within an arbitrary

control volume V is determined by:

V

NET FLUX

RATE OF CHANGE

SOURCE (1)

through boundary of V

inside V

inside V

RATE OF CHANGE ADVECTION DIFFUSION SOURCE

throughboundaryof V

inside V

inside V

(2)

1

Some authors but not this one prefer the term convection to advection.

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David Apsley

2.2.1 Mass (Continuity)

Physical principle (mass conservation): mass is neither created nor destroyed.

Consider an arbitrary control volume or cell.

Mass of fluid in the cell:

V

Mass flux through one face: C u n A u A

V is the cell volume, A the area of a typical face and un is the velocity

component along the (outward) normal to that face

u

V

un

A

Integral equation:

d

(mass)

dt

(mass flux )

(3)

(4)

faces

z

n

b

An equivalent conservative differential equation for mass

y

s

conservation can be derived by considering a small Cartesian

x

control volume with sides x, y, z as shown.

d(V )

(uA) e (uA) w (vA) n (vA) s (wA) t (wA) b 0

dt

where density and velocity are averages over cell volume or cell face as appropriate.

Noting that volume V xyz and areas Aw = Ae = yz etc,

d(xyz )

[(u) e (u ) w ]yz [(v) n (v) s ]zx [(w) t (w) b ]xy 0

dt

Dividing by the volume, xyz:

d (u ) e (u ) w (v) n (v) s (w) t (w) b

0

dt

x

y

z

Proceeding to the limit x, y, z 0:

(Conservative) differential equation:

(u ) (v) (w)

0

t

x

y

z

(5)

This analysis is analogous to the finite-volume procedure, except that in the latter the control

volume does not shrink to zero; i.e. it is a finite-volume, not infinitesimal-volume, approach.

CFD

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David Apsley

More mathematically, for an arbitrary volume V with closed surface V:

d

u dA 0

dV

dt V

V

mass in cell

(6)

For a fixed control volume take d/dt under the integral sign and apply the divergence theorem

to turn the surface integral into a volume integral:

t (u) dV 0

V

(u) 0

t

(7)

Incompressible Flow

For incompressible flow, volume as well as mass is conserved, so that:

(uA) e (uA) w (vA) n (vA) s ( wA) t ( wA) b 0

Substituting for face areas, dividing by volume and proceeding to the limit as above produces

u v w

(8)

0

x y z

which is usually taken as the continuity equation in incompressible flow.

CFD

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David Apsley

2.2.2 Momentum

Physical principle (Newtons Second Law): rate of change of momentum = force

The total rate of change of momentum for fluid passing through a control volume consists of:

momentum of fluid in the cell

= mass u

(V )u

momentum flux through one face = mass flux u (u A)u

un

A

Integral equation:

d

(mass u)

dt

(9)

(mass flux u) F

(10)

faces

Momentum, velocity and force are vectors, giving (in principle) 3 component equations.

Fluid Forces

There are two main types:

(i) Surface forces are usually expressed in terms of stress:

force

or

stress

force stress area

area

The main surface forces are:

For a simple shear flow there is only one non-zero stress

component:

u

12

y

but, in general, is a symmetric tensor (the components of

stress imparted by external fluid on individual faces of a

volume of fluid are shown right) and has a more complex

expression for its components. In incompressible flow,

u u j

11

ij ( i

)

21

x j xi

U

22

12

24

21

y

x

12

CFD

22

David Apsley

11

g (0,0, g )

pressure p* = p + gz; when gravity is incorporated into a modified pressure it no

longer appears explicitly in the flow equations see the Examples.)

axis

R

centrifugal force:

( r ) 2R

R

2

Coriolis force:

2 u

In inertial frame

In rotating frame

(Because the centrifugal force can be written as the gradient of some quantity in this

case 12 2 R 2 it can also be absorbed into a modified pressure and hence removed

from the momentum equation; see the Examples).

t

considering a fixed Cartesian control volume with sides x, y and z.

x

For the x-component of momentum:

d

(Vu )

(uA) e u e (uA) w u w (vA) n u n (vA) s u s (wA) t u t (wA) b u b

d

t

d

(xyz u ) [(u ) e u e (u ) w u w ]yz [(v) n u n (v) s u s ]zx [(w) t ut (w) b u b ]xy

dt

( p w pe )yz viscous and other fo rces

CFD

25

David Apsley

( p pw )

d(u ) (uu ) e (uu ) w (vu) n (vu) s (wu ) t (wu ) b

e

dt

x

y

z

x

viscous and other fo rces

In the limit as x, y, z 0:

(Conservative) differential equation:

(u ) (uu ) (vu) (wu )

p

(11)

2 u other forces

t

x

y

z

x

Notes.

(1)

The viscous term is given without proof above (but you can read the notes below).

2

2

2

2 is the Laplacian operator 2 2 2 .

x

y

z

(2)

The pressure force per unit volume in the x direction is given by (minus) the pressure

gradient in that direction.

(3)

The y and z-momentum equations can be obtained by inspection / pattern-matching.

Separating surface forces (determined by a stress tensor ij) and body forces (fi per unit

volume), the control-volume equation for the i component of momentum may be written

d

(12)

u i dV u i u j dA j ij dA j f i dV

dt V

V

V

V

momentum in cell

surface forces

body forces

u u j 2 u k

ij ( i

ij

)

ij p ij ij ,

x j xi 3 xk

(13)

For a fixed volume, take d/dt under the integral sign and apply the divergence theorem to the

surface integrals:

(u i ) (u i u j ) ij

i dV 0

t

x j

x j

(u i ) (ui u j ) ij

fi

(14)

t

x j

x j

Splitting the stress tensor into pressure and viscous terms:

(ui ) (u i u j )

p ij

fi

(15)

t

x j

xi x j

If the fluid is incompressible and viscosity is uniform then the viscous term simplifies to give

(ui ) (u i u j )

p

2 ui f i

t

x j

xi

CFD

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David Apsley

A similar equation may be derived for any physical quantity that is advected and diffused in a

fluid flow. Examples include salt, sediment and chemical pollutants. For each such quantity

an equation is solved for the concentration (i.e. amount per unit mass of fluid) .

Diffusion occurs when concentration varies with position and leads to net transport from

regions of high concentration to regions of low concentration. For many scalars this rate of

transport is proportional to area and concentration gradient and may be quantified by Ficks

diffusion law:

rate of di ffusion diffusivit y gradient area

A

n

This is often referred to as gradient diffusion. A common example is heat conduction.

amount in cell: V

advective flux:

diffusive flux:

source:

(u A

A

n

S = sV

(mass concentration)

(mass flux concentration)

(diffusivity gradient area)

u

V

un

A

Balancing the rate of change, the net flux through the boundary and rate of production yields

the scalar-transport or (advection-diffusion) equation:

rate of ch ange net outward flux source

Integral equation:

d

(mass )

dt

(mass flux

faces

A) S

n

()

(u ) (v ) (w ) s

t

x

x y

y z

z

(16)

(17)

This may be expressed more mathematically as:

d

dV (u dA s dV

dt V

V

V

(18)

For a fixed control volume, taking the time derivative under the integral sign and using

Gausss divergence theorem as before gives a corresponding differential equation

()

(u ) s

(19)

t

CFD

27

David Apsley

In the momentum equation, if the viscous force A (u / n) A is transferred to the LHS it

looks like a diffusive flux; e.g. for the x-component:

d

u

(mass u ) (mass flux u

A) other forces

dt

n

faces

Compare this with the generic scalar-transport equation:

d

dt

n

faces

Each component of momentum satisfies its own scalar-transport equation, with

concentration, velocity (u, v or w)

diffusivity,

viscosity

source, S

other forces

Consequently, only one generic scalar-transport equation need be considered.

In Section 5 we shall see, however, that the momentum components differ from passive

scalars (those not affecting the flow), because they are:

equations are nonlinear (mass flux involves the velocity component being solved for);

equations are coupled (mass fluxes involve the other velocity components);

The analysis above assumes that all non-advective flux is simple gradient diffusion:

A

n

Actually, the real situation is a little more complex. For example, in the u-momentum

equation the full expression for the 1-component of viscous stress through the 2-face is

u v

12

y x

The u/y part is gradient diffusion of u, but the v/x term is not. In general, non-advective

fluxes F that cant be represented by gradient diffusion are discretised conservatively (i.e.

worked out for particular cell faces) but are transferred to the RHS as a source term:

d

A F ] S

dt

n

faces

Control-volume equations are also applicable to moving control volumes, provided the

normal velocity component in the mass flux is that relative to the mesh; i.e.

u n (u umesh ) n

The finite-volume method can thus be used for calculating flows with moving boundaries2.

2

See, for example: Apsley, D.D. and Hu, W., 2003, CFD Simulation of two- and three-dimensional free-surface

flow, International Journal for Numerical Methods in fluids, 42, 465-491.

CFD

28

David Apsley

Two equivalent differential forms of the flow equations may be derived from the controlvolume equations in the limit as the control volume shrinks to a point.

in Section 2.2 above; this is called the Eulerian approach.

Using control volumes moving with the fluid we obtain the governing equations in

non-conservative form; this is called the Lagrangian approach.

These forms can be derived from each other by mathematical manipulation.

The conservative differential equations are so-called because they can be integrated directly

to give an equivalent integral form involving the net change in a flux, with the flux leaving

one cell equal to that entering an adjacent cell. To do so, all terms involving derivatives of

dependent variables must have differential operators on the outside; e.g. in one dimension:

x2

f ( x 2 ) f ( x1 ) g ( x) dx

x1

df

g ( x)

dx

(differenti al form)

(integral form)

i.e.

The three-dimensional version uses partial derivatives and the divergence theorem to change

the differentials to surface flux integrals.

As an example of how essentially the same equation can appear in conservative and nonconservative forms consider a simple 1-d example:

d 2

(conservative form can be integrated directly)

( y ) g ( x)

dx

dy

(non-conservative form, obtained by applying the chain rule)

2y

g ( x)

dx

Material Derivatives

The rate of change of some property in a fluid element moving with the flow is called the

material (or substantive) derivative. It is denoted by D/Dt and worked out as follows.

Every field variable is a function of both time and position; i.e.

(t , x, y, z)

As one follows a path through space will change with time because:

Thus, the total time derivative following an arbitrary path (x(t), y(t), z(t)) is

d dx dy dz

dt t x dt y dt z dt

CFD

29

David Apsley

The material derivative is for the particular path following the flow (dx/dt = u, etc.):

D

u v w

Dt t

x

y

z

(20)

Using this definition, it is possible to write a non-conservative but more compact form of the

governing equations. For a general scalar the sum of time-dependent and advective terms in

its transport equation is

() (u) (v) (w)

t

x

y

z

(u )

(v)

(w)

u

v

w

t x

x y

y z

z

t

(by the product rule)

(u ) (v) (w)

u

v w

t

x

y

z

t

x

y

z

0 by continuity

D / Dt by definition

D

(21)

Dt

Using the material derivative, the time-dependent and advection terms in a scalar-transport

equation can be combined as the much more compact (but non-conservative) form D/Dt.

The material derivative of velocity (Du/Dt) is the acceleration. The momentum equation can

be written

Du

p

2 u other forces

(22)

D

t

x

massacceleration

This form is simpler to write and is used both for convenience and to derive theoretical

results in special cases (see the Examples). However, in the finite-volume method it is the

conservative form which is discretised directly.

(*** Advanced ***)

The material derivative can be defined in suffix or vector notation respectively as:

D

D

or

ui

Dt t

Dt t

x

Simplify the derivation of (21) above using the summation convention or vector notation.

CFD

2 10

David Apsley

2.4 Non-Dimensionalisation

Although it is possible to work entirely in dimensional quantities, there are good theoretical

reasons for working in non-dimensional variables. These include the following.

All dynamically-similar problems (same Re, Fr etc.) can be solved with a single

computation.

The number of relevant parameters (and hence the number of graphs needed to

convey results) is reduced.

It indicates the relative size of different terms in the governing equations and, in

particular, which might conveniently be neglected.

Computational variables are of a similar order of magnitude (ideally of order unity),

yielding better numerical accuracy.

For incompressible flow the governing equations are:

u v w

continuity:

0

x y z

Du

p

momentum:

2 u (and similar equations in y, z directions)

Dt

x

(23)

(24)

Adopting reference scales U0, L0 and 0 for velocity, length and density, respectively, and

derived scales L0/U0 for time and 0U 02 for pressure, each fluid quantity can be written as a

product of a dimensional scale and a non-dimensional variable (indicated by an asterisk *):

L

x L0 x * ,

t 0 t*,

u U 0u* ,

0 * ,

p pref ( 0U 02 ) p* ,

etc.

U0

Substituting into mass and momentum equations (23) and (24) yields, after simplification:

u *

x *

v*

y *

Du *

Dt *

w*

z *

p *

x*

1 *2 *

u

Re

(25)

where

Re

0U 0 L0

(26)

From this, it is seen that the key dimensionless group is the Reynolds number Re. If Re is

large then viscous forces would be expected to be negligible in much of the flow.

Having derived the non-dimensional equations it is usual to drop the asterisks and simply

declare that you are working in non-dimensional variables.

Note.

The objective is that non-dimensional quantities (e.g. p*) should be of order of magnitude

unity, so the scale for a quantity should reflect its range of values and not its absolute value.

For example, in incompressible flow it is differences in pressure that are important, not

absolute values; since flow-induced pressures are usually much smaller than the absolute

CFD

2 11

David Apsley

pressure one usually works in terms of the departure from a reference pressure pref. Similarly,

in Section 3 when we look at small variations in density due to temperature or salinity we

shall use an alternative non-dimensionalisation:

0 *

If other types of fluid force are included then each introduces another non-dimensional group.

For example, gravitational forces lead to a Froude number (Fr) and Coriolis forces to a

Rossby number (Ro). Some of the most important dimensionless groups are given below.

If U and L are representative velocity and length scales, respectively, then:

Re

UL UL

Fr

Ma

U

c

Ro

U

L

gL

U 2 L

We

Note: for flows with buoyancy forces caused by a change in density, rather than open-channel

flows, we sometimes use a densimetric Froude number instead; this is defined by

U

Fr

( / ) gL

i.e. g is replaced in the usual formula for Froude number by ( / ) g , sometimes called the

reduced gravity g.

CFD

2 12

David Apsley

Summary

(and, for a non-homogeneous fluid, the amount of individual constituents).

differential forms.

Differential forms of the flow equations may be conservative (i.e. can be integrated

directly to something of the form fluxout fluxin = source) or non-conservative.

rate of change + net outward flux = source

There are really just two canonical equations to discretise and solve:

mass conservation (continuity):

d

(mass) (mass flux ) 0

dt

faces

scalar-transport (or advection-diffusion) equation:

d

S

dt

n

faces

rate of change

advection

diffusion

source

equation. However, these equations differ from those for a passive scalar because they

are non-linear, are coupled through the advective fluxes and pressure forces and their

solutions are also required to be mass-consistent.

(those with the same values of Reynolds number, etc.) to be solved with a single

calculation, reduces the overall number of parameters, indicates whether certain terms

in the governing equations are significant or negligible and ensures that the main

computational variables are of similar magnitude.

CFD

2 13

David Apsley

Examples

Q1.

In 2-d flow, the continuity and x-momentum equations can be written in conservative

differential form as

(u ) (v) 0

t x

y

p

(u ) (uu ) (vu) 2 u

t

x

y

x

respectively.

(a)

D

u v

( ) 0

Dt

x y

Du

p

2 u

Dt

x

D

u v .

Dt t

x

y

(b)

what does the continuity equation reduce in incompressible flow?

(c)

Write down conservative forms of the 3-d equations for mass and x-momentum.

(d)

(e)

Show that, for constant-density flows, pressure and gravity can be combined in the

momentum equations via the piezometric pressure p + gz.

(f)

In a rotating reference frame there are additional apparent forces (per unit volume):

2R

centrifugal force:

or

( r )

axis

Coriolis force:

2 u

R

where is the angular velocity of the reference frame, u is the

fluid velocity in that frame, r is the position vector (relative to a

point on the axis of rotation) and R is its projection perpendicular to

r

the axis of rotation. By writing the centrifugal force as the gradient

of some quantity show that it can be subsumed into a modified

pressure. Also, find the components of the Coriolis force if rotation

is about the z axis.

(g)

Write the conservative mass and momentum equations in vector notation.

(h)

CFD

Write the conservative mass and momentum equations in suffix notation using the

summation convention.

2 14

David Apsley

R

2

Q2.

The x-component of the momentum equation is given by

Du

p

2 u

Dt

x

Using this equation derive the velocity profile in fully-developed, laminar flow for:

(a)

pressure-driven flow between stationary parallel planes (Poiseuille flow);

(b)

constant-pressure flow between stationary and moving planes (Couette flow).

By applying Gausss divergence theorem deduce the conservative and non-conservative

differential equations corresponding to the general integral scalar-transport equation

d

dV (u ) dA s dV

dt V

V

V

Q4.

In each of the following cases, state which of (i), (ii), (iii) is a valid dimensionless number.

Carry out research to find the name and physical significance of these numbers.

(L = length; u = velocity; z = height; p = pressure; = density; = dynamic viscosity;

= kinematic viscosity; g = gravitational acceleration; = angular velocity).

(a)

(b)

(c)

(d)

CFD

(i)

p p ref

U

UL

(i)

;

g d

dz

(i)

du

dz

U

(i)

;

L

(ii)

p p ref

U

UL

(ii)

;

(iii) U 2 ( p pref )

(iii) UL

1/ 2

(ii)

U

;

gL

(iii)

(ii)

gL

;

U

(iii)

2 15

p p ref

g

U

L

David Apsley

Q5. (Exam 2008; part (h) depends on later sections of this course)

The momentum equation for a viscous fluid in a rotating reference frame is

Du

p 2u 2 u

Dt

(*)

angular-velocity vector of the reference frame. The symbol denotes a vector product.

(a)

(b)

(c)

Reynolds number Re and Rossby number Ro (both of which should be defined).

(d)

Define the terms conservative and non-conservative when applied to the differential

equations describing fluid flow.

(e)

Define (mathematically) the material derivative operator D/Dt. Then, noting that the

continuity equation can be written

(u ) (v) (w)

0,

t

x

y

z

show that the x-momentum equation can be written in an equivalent conservative

form.

(f)

scalar-transport (or advection-diffusion) equation, identify the quantities representing:

(i)

concentration;

(ii)

diffusivity;

(iii)

source.

(g)

Explain why the three equations for the components of momentum cannot be treated

as independent scalar equations.

(h)

(i)

high-speed compressible gas flow;

(ii)

incompressible flow.

CFD

2 16

David Apsley

Q6.

(a)

In a rotating reference frame (with angular velocity vector ) the non-viscous forces

on a fluid are, per unit volume,

p g 2R 2 u

( I)

(II)

(III)

(IV)

where p is pressure, g = (0,0,g) is the gravity vector and R is the vector from the

closest point on the axis of rotation to a point. Show that, in a constant-density fluid,

force densities (II) and (III) can be absorbed into a modified pressure.

(b)

Consider a closed cylindrical can of radius 5 cm and depth 15 cm. The can is

completely filled with fluid of density 1100 kg m3 and is rotating steadily about its

axis (which is vertical) at 600 rpm. Where do the maximum and minimum pressures

in the can occur, and what is the difference in pressure between them?

The figure below depicts a 2-d cell in a finite-volume CFD calculation. Vertices are given in

the figure, and velocity in the adjacent table. At this instant = 1.0 everywhere.

(a)

Calculate the volume flux out of each face. (Assume unit depth.)

(b)

Show that the flow is not incompressible and find the time derivative of density.

(-1,2)

y

(6,2)

w

x

CFD

(0,0)

e

s

(4,0)

2 17

Face

e

n

w

s

Velocity (u,v)

u

v

4

10

1

8

2

2

1

4

David Apsley

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