Rules and Hints for Reading and Spelling HINT 1: for short sounding words( words of one syllable

) that do not end in e, double the last letter before adding the following: -ed, -er, and -ing, e.g. run, running; fit, fitted; jog, jogger;

HINT 2: In short words that end in e, where the central vowel sound is said the same way as the letter name( the long vowel sound) drop the e before adding -ed, -er, and -ing. NB Notice the suffixes -tion and -sion on most of these words. The 'shn' sound has a soft sibilant sound. (hissing sound). That sibilant sound is usually made by an s. Sometimes the sound is made by xion or zion, though they are much less common than -tion or -sion. HINT 3 short words(one syllable) ending in y, preceded by a vowel, keep the y when -ed, -er or -ing are added, e.g.key, keyed; buy, buyer; toy, toying. If the y is preceded by a consonant, when -ed or -er are added e.g. try, tried; fly, flier; dry, dried. The y is kept when adding -ing, e.g. try, trying. Read often.

Notice the suffixes -tion and -sion on most of these words. The 'shn' sound has a soft sibilant sound. (hissing sound). That sibilant sound is usually made by an s. Sometimes the sound is made by xion or zion, though they are much less common than -tion or -sion. HINT 4: When working with medium long words ending in y, change the y to I when adding other parts, e.g.berry, berries; marry, marriage; happy, happiness; funny, funniest; hurry, hurried; heavy, heavier, heaviest. However when adding -ing the y is kept, e.g. hurry hurrying, fancy, fancying; bury, burying. Unfortunately though, we always have to be aware that inevitably we will come across a word that is an exception. NB There are many exceptions and they are called that because they do not follow any spelling rule. Always learn to spell any exceptions. It saves time and worry. HINT 5:Vowels that can be doubled are e (seen) and o (soon) and sometimes u vacuum); a and i are not doubled in English words. I wonder how many words you could find that have a uu? HINT 6: Letters that can be doubled in the middle of a word are b, d, f, g, m, n, r, s, t, and z. HINT 7 :in short words, f, l, s, and z at the end of a word are doubled, e.g. cuff, doll, pass, fuzz,

mess, fuss, guess, dress, fluff, pill, ball, call, buzz. HINT 8:If full is added to the end of a word, one l is dropped, e.g. helpful, harmful, peaceful. HINT 9: When all or well are added to the front of a word , one l is dropped, e.g. already, welcome,

HINT10: When dis- and mis -, meaning 'not' are placed in front of a word, the s is not doubled--e.g.; disable, misbehave, --unless the main word begins with s, e.g. disservice, misspell, dissolve. Also when un- is placed in front of a word, the n is not doubled--unless the main word begins with n, e.g unnecessary. Similarly, when in- is placed in front of a word, the n is not doubled--e.g insane-- unless the main word begins with n, e.g.innumerable

Sign up to vote on this title
UsefulNot useful