Permutations & Combinations - Lesson 3

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Permutations & Combinations - Lesson 3

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277

Lesson 3, Part One: Expansions

Permutations & Combinations Formulas: The following examples show how

to expand and simplify expressions involving permutations & combinations:

n!

n Pr = (n - r )!

&

n!

nCr = r!(n - r )!

6!

6! 6 5 4 3 2 1

P =

= =

= 6 5 = 30

6 2 (6 2)! 4!

4 3 2 1

7!

7!

76 5 4 3 2 1

7 6 42

C

=

=

=

=

=

= 21

7 5 5!(7 5)! 5!2! ( 5 4 3 2 1) (2 1)

2

2

Questions:

Expand & simplify each of the following without using a calculator:

1) 5P3

2) 6P3

3) 8C6

Answers:

1)

4) Express 7! as a permutation

3!

5!

5 43 2 1

21

2!

2)

6!

654 3 2 1

3 21

3!

3)

5) Express 8! as a combination

2!6!

4)

8!

= 6 5 4 = 120

87 6 5 4 3 2 1

6!2!

6 5 4 3 2 1 2 1

7!

7!

3!

5)

= 5 4 3 = 60

8!

2!6!

(7 4) !

=

87

2

= 7 P4

8!

2 !(8 2) !

= 8 C2

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278

= 28

Lesson 3, Part One: Expansions

Canceling With Factorials: The following examples will introduce

variables that must be manipulated to simplify expressions.

To expand factorials,

you will multiply all the numbers going

down to one. eg. 5! = 54321

If you ever want to stop before reaching 1, you can

do so by simply placing the factorial after the number

you want to stop at. eg. 5! = 543!

7 P3 =

7!

7! 7 6 5 4 !

= =

= 7 6 5 = 210

(7 3)! 4!

4!

If you want to

expand algebraic expressions,

you must do so by subtracting one from each term.

n! = n(n-1)(n-2)(n-3)1

(n-2)! = (n-2)(n-3)(n-4)1

(n+4)! = (n+4)(n+3)(n+2)1

(n+1)! = (n+1)n(n-1)(n-2)1

your factorial symbol to indicate the end!

(n -1)!

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279

Lesson 3, Part One: Expansions

Example 3: Simplify the expression (2n +1)!

(2n + 3)!

(n - 4)!

Remember the

following:

0! = 1

n +2

Questions:

Expand & simplify each of the following without using a calculator:

1) (n + 2)!

n!

Answers:

2) (3n + 2)!

(3n + 3)!

1)

( n + 2) !

n!

3) (n -1)!

(n -3)!

4) (n -1)!

n -1

2)

(3n + 2) !

3)

( n - 1) !

(3n + 3) !

( n - 3) !

4)

( n + 2)( n +1) n!

= ( n + 2)( n + 1)

n!

(3n + 2)!

(3n +3)(3n + 2)!

1

3n +3

= ( n - 1)( n - 2)

( n-3)!

=

= ( n 2) !

n-1

n 1

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280

Lesson 3, Part Two: Equations

Equations with Permutations & Combinations: The following examples

will require simplification in order to obtain a value for the unknown.

following equation: (n + 2)! = 8

(n +1)!

following equation: n P2 = 56

(n + 2)!

=8

(n + 1)!

(n + 2) (n + 1)!

(n + 1)!

P2 = 56

n!

= 56

(n 2)!

n(n 1) (n 2)!

=8

(n 2)!

= 56

n+2=8

n=6

n(n 1) = 56

following equation: (n +1)! = 10n

(n -1)!

n 2 n 56 = 0

(n 8)(n + 7) = 0

n=8

n 2 n = 56

(n + 1)!

= 10n

(n 1)!

(n + 1) n (n 1)!

(n 1)!

objects to select from.

= 10 n

n + 1 = 10

n=9

Example 5: Simplify:

following equation: (n + 3)! = 20(n +1)!

( n + 3)! = 20( n + 1)!

( n + 3)(n + 2) ( n + 1)! = 20 (n + 1)!

C300

400 C100

400

( n + 3)(n + 2) = 20

n 2 + 5n + 6 = 20

C300

400 C100

400

400!

( 400 300 )!300!

=

400!

400

100 ) !100!

(

400!

400!

( 400 300 )!300!

400!

300! 100!

100! 300!

400!

=1

=

n 2 + 5n 14 = 0

( n + 7)( n 2) = 0

n=2

Reject -7 since n must be a whole number.

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281

Lesson 3, Part Two: Equations

Questions:

1)

(n 1)!

=2

(n 3)!

2)

n!

= 5n

(n - 2)!

5) 36

P

= 9 P

(2n 1) (n 1)

2n n

1

6) 2n+ 2 P1 = 2n P2

2

3) (n + 2)! = 12n !

4)

n!

= n 1 Pn 3

10

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282

Lesson 3, Part Two: Equations

Answers:

1)

2)

(n 1)!

=2

(n 3)!

3)

(n 3)!

(n 1)( n 2) = 2

=2

n(n 1) (n 2)!

(n - 2)!

n 3n + 2 = 2

n(n 1) = 5n

n 3n = 0

n 2 n = 5n

n(n 3) = 0

n 2 6n = 0

n(n 6) = 0

2

2

n=3

(n + 2)! = 12n !

n!

= 5n

(n - 2)!

(n 1)(n 2) ( n 3)!

4)

(n + 2)(n + 1) n ! = 12 n !

(n + 2)(n + 1) = 12

= 5n

n 2 + 3n + 2 = 12

n 2 + 3n 10 = 0

(n + 5)(n 2) = 0

n=2

n=6

5)

6)

= 9 P

P

36

(2n 1) (n 1)

2n n

(2n 1)!

(2n)!

= 9

36

(2n n)!

[(2n 1) (n 1)]!

(2n 1)!

(2n)!

= 9

36

n!

n!

(2n 1)!

(2n) (2n 1)!

36

= 9

n!

n!

36 = 9(2n)

36 = 18n

n=2

n!

= n 1 Pn 3

10

n!

(n 1)!

=

10 [ (n 1) ( n 3) ]!

n ! (n 1)!

=

10

2!

n (n 1)! (n 1)!

=

10

2

n 1

=

10 2

2n = 10

n=5

2n+ 2 P1 = 2 2n P2

(2n + 2)!

[(2n + 2) 1]!

1 ( 2n ) !

2 [ 2n 2]!

( 2n ) !

(2n + 2)! 1

=

[ 2n + 1]! 2 [ 2n 2]!

(2n + 2) (2n + 1)!

[ 2n + 1]!

(2n 2)!

2

2n + 2 = n(2n 1)

2n + 2 = 2n 2 n

0 = 2n 2 3n 2

0 = (2n + 1)(n 2)

n=2

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283

Lesson 3, Part Three: Word Problems

Word Problems with Permutations & Combinations: The following

examples will require the use of algebra in order to solve the

question.

Example 1: If there are 78 handshakes in a room, and each person shook every other

persons hand one time, how many people are in the room?

n

C2 = 78

n!

= 78

2!(n 2)!

n(n 1) (n 2)!

2 (n 2)!

= 78

n(n 1)

= 78

2

n 2 n = 156

n 2 n 156 = 0

(n 13)(n + 12) = 0

n = 13

Example 2: If there are 56 games in a series, and each team played every other team

twice, once at home and once away, how many teams are there?

n

P2 = 56

n!

= 56

(n 2)!

n(n 1) (n 2)!

= 56

(n 2)!

n(n 1) = 56

n 2 n = 56

n 2 n 56 = 0

( n 8)( n + 7) = 0

n=8

n

C2 n = 54

n!

n = 54

2!(n 2)!

n(n 1) (n 2)!

2 ( n 2)!

n = 54

n(n 1)

n = 54

2

n(n 1) 2n = 108

n 2 n 2n = 108

n 2 3n 108 = 0

(n 12)(n + 9) = 0

n = 12

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284

Lesson 3, Part Three: Word Problems

Questions:

1) If there are 190 handshakes in a room, and each person shook every other persons

hand one time, how many people are in the room?

2) If there are 72 games in a series, and each team played every other team twice,

once at home and once away, how many teams are there?

It is usually

pretty easy to find

the value of n by

trial and error

through your

calculator.

Answers:

1) 20

2) 9(Hint: Use a

permutation)

3) 17

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285

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