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TRAINING REPORT

ON
MALT SPIRIT PLANT
AT UNITED SPIRITS LTD. UNIT III, NASIK

Submitted by

Mr. Harpal Saini


(Diploma Trainee)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I take this opportunity to thank United Spirit Limited for
permitting me to do my industrial training at USL, Nasik.
I have to thank Mr. Shasvat Sharma, Unit Head, USL Nasik,
for his kind acceptance to allow me to take training in the
company. I am equally indebted to Mr.Anil Sawai, Head
HR, USL Nasik, who was all through kind in guiding me in
the training process teaching me the nuances of this
challenging profession. I will be failing in my duty if I do
not thank, Mr. Vijay Kumar, GM and Mr. Anoop Saxena,
process Manager of Malt Spirit Plant, USL, Nasik, for his
timely suggestions and help. Finally I have to place on
record my sincere thanks to team USL who have been
very supportive throughout my training. I thank all those
who

were

directly

or

indirectly

programme.

associated

with

this

SR NO.

CHAPTER NAME

TITLE

PAGE NO.

1)

COMPANY PROFILE

2)

MALT SPIRIT PLANT

BRIFE INTRODUCTION USL ,


MALT SPIRIT PLANT ,NASIK
INTRODUCTION OF MALT SPIRIT PLANT

3)

RAW MATERIAL

RAW MATERIALS & HANDLING PROCESS

4)
5)

BREW HOUSE SECTION


LAUTER TUN

DRY GOODS
MASHING PROCESS

14
20

6)

WORT COLLECTION

WORT RECIEVER

22

7)

WATER SECTION

HOT WATER ,AMBIENT WATER AND WEAK


WORT TANK

27

8)

FERMENTATION

BUB VESSLES OR PRE FERMENTER,


FERMENTER PROCESS

28

9)

DISTILLATION

STILL HOUSE SECTION

31

10)

CIP SYSTEM

CIP SUPPLY AND CIP TREATMENT

38

11)

MATURATION

39

12)

UTILLITIES

13)

CONCULSION

WOODEN CASK CHEMISTRY, MATURATION


UNIT I,II, III
WATER TREATMENT PLANT ,BOILER
SECTION , ETP PLANT AND
MAINTENANCE WORK, VAM MACHINE ,
CONCLUSION OF REPORT.

41

TABLE OF CONTENT
1. COMPANY PROFILE:
United Spirits Limited, is the flagship Spirit Company of the
'UB Group', which has made its presence well known throughout
India and most parts of the world by way of its various Indian Made
Foreign Liquor (IMFL) products such as Whisky, Brandy, Rum, Gin,
Vodka Premixes, etc.,
The Company is headed by its Chairman, Dr. Vijay Mallya & is
having its Registered Office and Head Office at Bangalore.
The total sales of the Company is over 113 million Cases per annum
with 'BAGPIPER WHISKY' No.1 in India selling over 15 Million
cases, 'No.1 McDowells WHISKY', 'No.l McDowell's BRANDY,
NO. 1 McDowells CELEBRATION all sells over 15 million cases.
Four out of above five brands are among 'Top Hundred' selling
brands in the world.
United Spirits Limited has featured for the fifth consecutive year in
the Advertising & Marketing Magazine

(AQM) as one of the

"MOST ADMIRED MARKETING COMPANIES" in the country. In


its survey, United Spirits was ranked 'No.1' among truly Indian
Companies. United Spirits have scored high on parameters such as
keeping close contact with the market and leadership through
'Innovative Product Launches'.
United Spirits Limited has its production Units in various States such
as Kerala, Pondicherry, Karnataka, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh,
4

Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Goa, etc. and 'NASIK UNIT' is one
of its most prestigious units which has completed 25 glorious years of
'MANUFACTURING ACTIVITES'.
United Spirits Nasik Unit, earlier known as 'KAY DISTILLERY
INDUSTRY LTD., a part of FORBES CAMPBELL & CO. LTD.
GROUP. It was purchased by The UB Group in March 1990 as
WESTERN INDIA ENTERPRISES LTD. In July 1994 it was renamed
as McDowell & Co. Ltd and in 2006 it was renamed as United Spirits
Limited after amalgamation.
The Unit produces various brands of Black Dog Scotch Whisky and
Whyte & MacKay Scotch Whisky, Brandy, Rum, Gin, Vodka, etc. in
Premium, Semi Premium, Deluxe and Regular Segments.
In the Industrial Relations front too, the unit has established very
cordial and harmonious relations among all the employees where the
workers BELIEVE IN PARTICIPATE MANAGEMENT THROUGH
THEIR OWN UNION. With the atmosphere being favorable and
supportive, the Unit is always on the path of scaling newer heights.

2. INTRODUCTION OF MALT SPIRIT PLANT:

UNIT III: MALT SPIRIT PLANT


The Malt Spirit Plant in USL-Nashik is arguably one of the largest
Malt Spirit Plant in Asia. It has a capacity of producing FMS
24,000 LITERS PER DAY MALT SPIRIT PLANT AT NASIK. The
USL-Nashik Malt Spirit Plant has in all six sections in the plant
namely: Dry Goods Section, Brewing Section, CIP Section, Water
Section, Fermentation Section and Still-House Distillation Section and
one outside the plant which is the Maturation Hall. Malt Spirit is
mainly used in blending of Whisky in about 2-3% generally and in
supreme brands like Signature Whisky it is used in higher amount.
This plant is a completely automation processes of Brew House
Section,Fermentation Section and Distillation Section automated plant
and is controlled by an executive in the control room by a computer
system. Control Room SCADA (System Control And Data
Acquisition) is a software using which the plant is controlled and
useful data is obtained from the process. The malt plant has been
installed to extract Fresh Malt Spirit (FMS ) from germinated barley
grains. The installed plant is a state of art facility and is equipped
with advanced technological systems. The major portion of the plant is
automated and does not require any human assistance in functioning
.the automated parts is monitor by SCADA system. All the equipments of
plant could be operated and monitored just with the clicks on SCADA interface.
The installed capacity of the plant is 24,000 liters of FMS per day. The plant
operates in 3 shifts, in each of which 8,000 liters of FMS is produced. The entire
operations of the malt plant could be segregated into three major processes:
Brewing
Fermentation

Distillation

3. RAW MATERIALS AND HANDLING PROCESS:

Fi
gure : Barley malt
Malt is Germination cereal grains that have been dried in a process known as
"malting". The grains are made to germinate by soaking in water, and are then
halted from germinating. Malted barley is the source of the sugars (principally
maltose) which are fermented into beer. The malting process allows the grain to
partially germinate, making the seed's resources available to the brewer. The
purpose of malting is to create these enzymes, break down the matrix surrounding
the starch granules, prepare the starches for conversion, and then stop this action
until the brewer is ready to utilize the grain. After modification, the grain is dried
and the acrospire and rootlets are knocked off by tumbling. The kiln drying of the
new malt denatures (destroys) a lot of the different enzymes, but several types
remain, including the ones necessary for starch conversion. The amount of
enzymatic starch conversion potential that malt has is referred to as its "diastatic
power". The diastatic power of a particular malt will vary with the type of barley it
is made from. From a brewer's point of view, there are basically two kinds of
malted grain, those that need to be mashed and those that don't. Mashing is the hot
water soaking process that provides the right conditions for the enzymes to convert
the grain starches into fermentable sugars. The basic light colored malts such as
pale ale malt, pilsener malt and malted wheat need to be mashed to convert the
starches into fermentable sugars. These malts make up the bulk of the wort's
fermentable sugars. A simplified diagram of a barley kernel during malting,
showing a progressive picture of how the acrospire (the plant shoot) grows along
one side of the kernel. As it grows, pre-existing enzymes are released and new
enzymes are created in the aleurone layer which "modify" the endosperm (the
protein/carbohydrate matrix starch reserve) for the acrospire's use. Barley malt is
the major source of brewers extract in the India.
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MALT ALCOHOL PRODUCTION:


-

Malted barley is the principal raw material in the production of malt


alcohol.
Cleanliness: Absence of foreign matter & mouldy grain
Absence of broken, crushed grain.
Representative samples of barley to be analysed
i)
Moisture content (4- 5 %)
ii)
1000 corn weight (Indication of Bushel Weight)
iii) Germination capacity (Not below 96%)
iv) % Nitrogen content in barley (Less than 1.6 %)
v)
Water sensitivity (Absorption of water in the steeping process).
Barley is graded on a scale of 1 to 9 grades.
Only top three grades are suitable for malting having capacity to
germinate & grow.
Quality of barley is defined by Malsters is as follow:
i) High starch content:
High starch will yield high alcohol.
ii) Low protein content: Less than 1.5% - Higher the protein
lower the starch.
iii) Low nitrogen content: Less than 1.6% - High nitrogen indicates
high protein.
iv) High germination: Germination is a pre-requisite for malting.
v) So the capability of the grain to germinate is essential.
vi) Well ripened, plump and dry: Crop should be ripe & dry.
World wide Scotland is famous for manufacturing of malt & malt
alcohol.
In India Barley is grown in Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana,
Rajasthan & Madhya Pradesh.
Malt is produced in malt industry.

STEEPING:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)

Dry barley has been less than 12 % moisture.


Immerse the barley in water at 500 C
The grain readily absorbs the moisture, quickly at first.
Then more slowly as the % of water within the barley increases.
Intake of water to 35 % occurs rapidly; thereafter decrease in the absorption
rate until the moisture content reaches to 45-46 %.
The moisture must be raised to 46 % for the enzymes to be activated.

vii)

During absorption period the rate of respiration increases and it is necessary


to ensure that sufficient oxygen is available to the grain in the water.
viii) Aerating the steep water of frequent changes of the steep water.
ix) A lack of oxygen in the steep water can also allow the moist grain to
produce carbon di oxide without taking in oxygen,
x)
Thus consume some part of the starch content in the process.
xi) This is due to form of fermentation & is dangerous.
xii) The barley is immersed in water 2-3 days.
xiii) Actual length of time depends upon the temperature of the water, the size of
the grains and their capability for water absorption.
MALTING/GERMINATION:
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)
vi)
vii)
viii)
ix)
x)
xi)
xii)
xiii)
xiv)
xv)
xvi)
xvii)
xviii)

Malting is a biological process.


Germination of grain is carried out under controlled conditions.
Traditional floor maltings: The damp grain is then spread on a
concrete floor to depth of about 30 cm and soon each grain sprouts a
tiny rootlet.
This generates heats particularly close to the floor.
So the barley has to be regularly turned with wooden shovels to keep
the temperature even.
It takes about one week or less in hot weather.
The grains loss moisture at the rate 0.5% per day.
Today floor malting is practically non-existent.
Germination process is usually carried out in pneumatic malting
either box malting or drum malting.
Box malting generally most common.
This system provides ideal conditions for the germination of the
barley irrespective of atmospheric condition.
Germination period is reduced as comparison with floor malting.
Turners are provided in the germinating box to ensure that all grain
kept in free.
Six days in the germinating box will normally suffice to meet the
required standard on conversion of malsters.
In floor malting 10 11 days is required.
Normally temperature in the germinating bos in controlled between
580 600 F. (14 -150 C)
The air in the germination room should always be fresh.
Care should be taken to ensure that the rootlets are fresh.
9

xix) At the end of germination the Acrospore should 3/4 th of length of the
corn.
xx) At the end of the germination period the moisture should be 41 42 %
xxi) The diastatic power of Enzyme development will be maximum.
xxii) Spread out thinly until the rootlets begin to dry and grain now reffered
to as green malt Becomes mealy- Malsters call this modification.
xxiii) And gauge the progress made by biting the grain to taste its sweetness
and rubbing it to assess its texture.
xxiv) If the grain is chalky & smooth it is ready.
xxv) If lumps remain it is under modified, the degree of modification may
make a difference to the overall flavour of the malt alcohol.
xxvi) Formation of hydrolytic enzymes and degradation of grain structure
KILNING/DRYING:
i)
ii)

At desired stage germination is interrupted by drying (kilning).


In the kiln green malt is spread out evenly on a perforated metal floor
with a furnace below.
iii) There are two types of modern kiln.
iv) Direct fired where the gases of combustion pass through the malt bed.
v)
Indirect fired where the air is heated by oil fired burners or steam
heated radiators.
vi) The kiln is tower shaped structure with furnace provided at the base.
vii) Above the furnace is located hot air chamber which distributes the
heat from the furnace to where grain has been spread.
viii) The first stage of the kilning process is the free drying phase, which
evaporates moisture on the surface of the green malt.
ix) Initially the air temperature should be raised to approximately 95 0
1000 F ( 35 380 C)
x)
The evaporisation of the water from the grain helps to keep the actual
malt temperature down.
xi) High air temperature must not be utilized in the first stages.
xii) This would result in case hardening of the grain and form vitreous
malt.
xiii) When the moisture in the grain has decreased to around 10 12 %,
then the air temperature over the last six hours can be raised to 165 o170o F to provide dried malt of 2.5 3.5 % moisture.
xiv) Hot air at 60-650C is driven through the layer of malt.

10

If the peat is used the air temperature must be kept below 60 0C, it
helps to maintain distinct characteristics of Phenolic compounds.
xvi) Lower the temperature higher the level of peatiness communicated to
the malt.
xvii) Dried over fires of coke and peat in the pagoda shaped kilns.
xviii) The kiln between drying the green malt to a suitably low moisture
level for storage.
xix) Finally there may be cooling phase where the temperature is lowered
to about 300 C to prevent further curing of malt.
xx) The whole exercise takes between 20 to 48 hrs, depending upon type
of kilning process is being used, the size of the kiln & amount of malt.
xxi) Curing to give appropriate flavour and retaining sufficient enzyme
activity.
xxii) The kiln temperature is increased slowly over 48 hrs periods to
achieve an even rate of drying and the desired flavour.
xxiii) The latter character is achieved by fuelling the furnace with peat
during the early part of the kilning period when the green malt is
moist and readily absorbs the peat smoke.
xxiv) In mechanical maltings the green malt is dried at a faster rate with a
forced air draught.
xxv) The amount of peat used varies with different maltings.
xxvi) Malted barley used in the mash contains sufficient enzyme activity to
convert all of the starch in the mash into fermentable sugars.
xxvii) Malts used in production of malt whisky have a nitrogen content of
1.8% or higher (Compared with brewers malt barley with N2 c 1.5%).
xxviii)
Peat smoke contains a wide range of compounds.
xxix) The peaty character is imparted to the malt barley largely as a result of
absorption of phenols.
xxx) Malt content 10 ppm phenols.
xxxi) Malt having 12 % moisture is allowed.
xxxii) 1 MT of peat must be used for drying each MT of malted barley.
Six compound namely furfural, 5-methylfurfural, guiacol, phenol, pcresol and 5-xylenol detected in the aqueous fraction on GLC
xxxiii) 3, 5-xylenol is marked by the peaks of m-ethylphenol and pethylphenol, two compounds make an important contribution to peat
aroma & taste.
xv)

11

BARLEY MALT SPECIFICATION:


i)
ii)
iii)
No.

Unique position in malting & brewing.


Large amounts of -amylase and -amylase.
Degradation of starch, proteins and other grain components.

Measurement

Barley

Malt
Brewers

Distillers
(High Distatic)

Kernal

Plumber
Heavier

& Small rich in protein

Kernal weight, (mg)

32-36

29-32

29-32

Germination
content, %

moisture -

43-46

42-45

Kilning final temperatur, 0


C

71-82

49-60

Final moisture, %

4.0

5.0-7.0

Starch, %

55-60

50-55

50.55

Sugar, %

0.5-1.0

8.0-10.0

8.0-10.0

Total N2, %

1.6-2.3

1.6-2.3

1.6-2.3

Soluble N2, %

10-12

35-45

40-50

10

Distatic power

50-60

100-150

150-200

11

-amylase

Trace

35-40

55-65

12

Proteolytic activity

Trace

15-20

20-25

Distatic Power: A measurement of the production of sugars from starch.


-amylase: A measurement of starch liquefying & dextrinizing activity.
Malting of barley:
12

Storage of dried barley (~12% moisture) with


Cooling
Steeping (to allow water uptake and to initiate
Germination)
Germination
Kilning

Barley characteristics:
Selection of barley variety depends on availability and cost
1995 IOB Barley Committee defined:
High priorities:
i) Hot water extract over range of TN( Total Nitrogen)
ii) High fermentability
iii) Low gelatinisation temperature
iv) Rapid, even and complete modification
v) High predicted spirit yield (PSY)
Medium priorities:
i) Low malting loss
ii) Appropriate pentose/pentosan balance
iii) Low mycotoxins
Malt specifications:
Diastatic Power a measure of the starchhydrolysing enzymes in a malt,
principally -amylase and amylase.
For grain distilling need very distilling, high DP malt
Historically, very high DP malt (200oIOB)
imported from Scandinavia where barley varieties and climate made it possible
PSY Predicted Spirit Yield litres of pure
alcohol per tonne of malt. Theoretical maximum about 430 lpa/t

13

4. BREW HOUSE SECTION:


Brewery or Distillery that is developing its dry goods handling system. In the
more direct sense, the customer is the supplier of the next process downstream of
the dry goods processing. Dry goods processing can only be as good as the
materials presented at the intake. If there are large volumes of debris, dust and
thins, then these are `in built' losses. If the material is not of a good quality for
processing then there is nothing the dry goods system can add that will improve
its performance. Handling should not add to the problem, but moving any cereal
will result in some particle attrition in the form of surface abrasion and particle
fracture through bulk shear, compaction, impact, trapping, dilated flow and
sliding contact. Other considerations abound. Power factors, health and safety
considerations, weight and size of equipment, environmental problems. Each of
these has to be overcome in order to produce a modern, efficient dry goods
storage and process Package capable of delivering the customers requirements.
` Dry goods' is a general term for cereals handling and depending on the process
could include, as examples, barley, maize, wheat or their derivatives malt, flake
maize or torrified wheat or flours etc. we shall consider malt being handled
through the brewing process from intake to grist case ready for mashing.
Milling: Distillers malt with high distatic power which contains.
i)
ii)
iii)
iv)
v)

Grist Ratio : Husk : Grist : Floor = 18 : 72 : 10 respectively


Usually roller mills are used.
During milling husk has to be kept entire and endosperm to be converted
to fine extractable particals.
If husk is damaged, it can cause problems during filtration.
Grist is separated from husk and floor

Mashing:
Premasher Grist is mixed with hot water to form a homogeneous mixture.
i) The proportion of one part grist and four part of water.
ii) Mash Tun or Lauter Tun The above mixture is heated upto 60 - 650C and
held at that temperature for approximate 1 hour.
iii) The enzymes of malt (particularly the -amylase and -amylase) breakdown
the starch to fermentable sugars.
iv) The liquid extract has Sp. Gravity 1.060 1.070
v) First aftermash has Sp. Gravity 1.030.
14

vi) Second ( Sp. Gravity 1.010 & third aftermash (Sp. Gravity 1.006) is recycle
to mash preparation tank.
vii)
The liquid extract & first aftermash having Sp. Gravity 1.045 1.060
and pH 5.5, Amino nitrogen content of about 150 180 mg/lit.
viii)
The conversion of starch to fermentable sugars is confirmed by Iodine
test 0.05N Iodine = Gives blue colour in presence of starch.
Filtration:
i)
To produce fermentable wort.
ii)
In lauter tun or wash holding tanks.
iii) During fermentation water is added to extracts sugars as much as possible.
iv) The wort sp. Gravity is adjusted to about 1.045 1.060 before fermentation.
Brew House Section flow chart procedure:
BARELY MALT SILO

BARELY MALT STORAGE

CLASSIFIER

DESTONER

MALT MILL

GRIST CASE

LAUTER TUN

15

DRY GOODS HANDLING:

BM

A
1
M

BM

M
D

DESTONER

B
M
D

CLASSIFIER
I
C
M

MALT MILL

M
M

2
12345678-

GRIST
1
CASE
-2
COLLECTION
COLLECTION
COLLECTION

ELEVATER BUCKETELEVATER BUCKET


I-IMPURITIES
SSTONE
DDUST
A-& B- AIR BLOWER
M-AIR BLOWER
BM-BLOWER

HOT
MOTOR PUMP
M
WATER
LAUTER TUN

Dry Goods Section:

16

The malt that is used in The Malt Spirit Plant is malted barley bought
from Haryana and Punjab. It is unloaded in a Malt Silo which has a
capacity of 750 MT. Except the conveyor below the silo all the
conveyors are automatic and controlled from the control room. It has
to be manually operated from the control panel near the silo. The malt
is first sent to the classifier through bucket elevators where the ropes
and any large impurities are separated from the malt. Then it is sent
through a destoner where the stones in the malt if any are removed. It
is sent through a pair of magnets which traps the iron particles and dirt
in the malt before sending it to the Mill. In the mill, it is crushed
between four rollers. The gap between the 1 s t two rollers is 1.2 inches
and the next two is 0.7 inches. A sample of this milled malt is
collected and its sieve analysis is carried out. Its ratio of Large:
Moderate: Fine malt is approximately about 70:20:10. This is called as
Grist Ratio. The malt from the mill is then sent to the Grist Case
through bucket elevators. A fixed amount of malt is required for
preparing a brew. It is about 8000kg of malted barley.
Brewing Section:
Mashing is the first step of brewing where the malt is mixed with hot
water at a temperature of 65C. 320Hl (Hecto-liter) of water and weak
wort obtained from the previous brewing process is added to the
Lauter Tun for mashing. 20Hl of that volume is sent in to the lauter
tun through the underlet. During this process, 1600ml of Amylo
enzyme is added to the mash. Amylo breaks up the starch into simple
sugars like glucose and maltose which are easily used up by the yeast
17

i.e. it promote saccharification process in the malt. It is allowed a


resting period of 25mins after the mashing process. And once the
recirculation is done wort collection is initiated. It is first collected in
the Wort Receiver then transferred to the desired fermenter. During
transfer to the fermenter, it is passed through a Wort cooling PHE
(Plate-type Exchanger) where the temperature is reduced to about
21C suitable for fermentation. The cool water for this PHE is
obtained from a VAM (Vapour Absorption Machine) which can reduce
the temperature of water from cooling tower to about 6C. After first
wort collection of 220Hl, first water sparging is done at 85C of
volume of about 220Hl in Lauter Tun. Then second wort collection is
done of about 190Hl. Meanwhile, 20Hl of wort is transferred to the
Bub vessel for inoculum preparation of yeast. About 8kg of dry yeast
is added to the Bub vessel to be used in a single brew. It is aerated at
about 21C to initiate yeast growth. After second wort collection, a
second sparging of hot water is done in the Lauter Tun at about 95C
of volume 180Hl. The wort generated from this sparging is collected in
the Weak Wort tank which will be used for mashing of the next brew.
The remains in the lauter tun is called as spent grain and it is collected
in a Dump tank below from where it is transferred to an Over head
tank. It is sold to the farmers as it can be used as cattle feed. A sample
of spent grain is also collected for estimating loss of starch content.
After discharging of spent grain, a volume of 40Hl is collected in the
lauter tun through the underlet for washing. After washing it is drained
off. A sample of wort is collected before and after every wort
collection and its specific gravity is estimated which falls from 1.074
to 1.032 after first, it falls from 1.028 to 1.012 after second and it falls
18

from 1.008 to 1.000 in the final. After a transfer of about 640Hl of


wort overall the brewing process stops and making of a new brew can
be started by pressing the start button in the SCADA. During mashing,
the milling for the next brew starts and by the time of end of a brew,
malt for the next brew is ready.

19

5. LAUTER TUN:
1.

MASHING PROCESS :
Malt Charge: 107 * 75 kgs bags = 8000 Kgs in Grist Case .

Grinding time: 2 hrs - Grinding time is dependent on the malt mill & cleaning
equipments capacity, however milling time should not exceed brewing time
Grist Ratio: 20:70:10 (Mesh size BSS-10 BSS-85)
Initial water in LAUTER TUN adding under let 20 HL then 320 HL (32000 Lit
Weak wort of previous batch & Hot water) with Malt Grist Case is 8000 Kg
homogenously mixing and Grist water ratio: 1:4

Mashing temperature is maintained at ~62 C


to maximize amylolytic enzyme activity
prevent loss of amylolytic enzyme activity
Mash Strike temp: 65 C maintain optimum temp for Mashing process.
(Critical for starch conversion to sugar in such way Higher or lower strike temp
will adversely affect recovery as well as quality of fresh malt spirit)
Mashing time: 30 Min (Raking on).
+
Add enzyme addition quantity Amylo 300 L: 1.6 lit (To be added after 15 min
from mash start time) 200 ml of Amylo to be added per MT of malt. Mash in
pH 5 .0 5.5

20

Rest & Recirculation: 30 Min Rest & recirculation time is dependent on


Scarification of starch (Iodine test) .Rest time 25 Min & Recirculation 5 min.

FIRST WORT COLLECTION:


Ist wort collection start after rest and recirculation time in wort Receiver
220 HL (22,000 Lit Ist Wort).Transfer 20 HL to bub Vessel or Prefermenter
Sp. Garvity: initial: 1065 to 1070 @ 20C & Final: 1045 to 1050
FIRST SPARGING:
First wort collection completed then start Ist Sparing 180 HL (18000 Lit) hot
water (Raking on),Ist sparging temp @ 85C. Hot water is generated by steam
heating thru coils in hot water tank. Sparge time: 25 min
SECON WORT COLLECTION:
IInd Wort collection start after Ist Sparge in wort Receiver 200 HL (20000Lit )
(Racking On) transfer to Fermenter as per selected for Brew collection.
IInd Draw: 35 Min
Sp.Garvity: Initial: 1036 to 1040@ 20C Final: 1011 to 1015
SECOND SPARGING:
IInd wort collection completed then start IInd Sparing 220 HL (22000 Lit) hot
water IInd sparging temp @ 95C. Sparge time: 20 min
TOTAL WORT COLLECTION = 420HL (42000Lit Wort )
WEAK WORT COLLECTION :
Weak wort collection should be started immediately after IInd saprging. Weak wort
collection to be continued up to Sp. Gravity 1001-1002.Weak wort collection time
25 min.
TOTAL WEAK WORT COOLECTION = 200 HL (2000 Lit Weak Wort )
Drain out: 20 Min
Under plate flushing: 5 min
Total Brew Time: 240 Min
21

SPENT GRAIN TO DUMP TANK -10300 kg.


SPENT GRAIN SILO.
6. WORT COLLECTION:
FIRST WORT COLLECTION =220HL (22,000Lit) @ 20C (WORT PHE)

INTERMEDIATE TANK (CAPACITY: 20HL)

WORT RECEIVER TANK (CAPACITY: 100HL)

STRAINER COLLECTIO N (CAPACITY: 30L)


BUB VESSEL OR PREFERMENTER =20 HL
(CAPACITY:ADD:
50HL)8 Kg DRY YEAST

SELECT VALVE FOR BREW COLLECTION IN FERMNETER NO.


TRANSFER WORT TO FERMENTER =200 HL + 20 HL (BUB VESSEL).
(CAPACITY: 50HL)

SECOND WORT COLLECTION =200HL (20,000 Lit)

TRANSFER TO FERMENTER =220 =200=420 HL@ 20C


TOTAL RUNOFF VOLUME WORT =420 HL (42,000Lit)

22

WEAK WORT COLLECTION = 200 HL (20,000Lit)


TRANSFER TO WEAK WORT TANK (CAPACITY: 500HL)
TOTAL RUNOFF VOLUME =620 HL (62,000 Lit)

LAUTERING PROCESSES :
The grist is fed into the Lauter Tun for mashing, with the help of a motor and hot
water from hot water tank. The entire grist from grist case, i.e. 8 Ton, is emptied
into the lauter tun. The grist is mixed with 32,000 liters (320 HL) of water at 65C
and stirred with the help of racking arm, for 27 minutes. This process is called
mashing. The temperature of water is maintained by the mixer, by mixing water
from hot water tank and cold water tank. During mashing, the starch gets
dissolved into the water and percolates through the layer of husk formed during
mashing and further seeps through flush plate into the Intermediate Wort
Collection Tank, having a capacity of 30,000 liters (30 HL). After mashing, the
lauter tun is given rest and recirculation is done for 30 minutes. During
recirculation, the wort collected, is pumped back into the lauter tun and collected
again to have uniform gravity.
Now, after recirculation the first wort collection starts and it lasts for about 65
minutes. As the wort collection starts, the wort collected in intermediate-wortcollection tank starts flowing into wort receiver tank, having a capacity of
100,000 liters (100 HL). The wort collection in these 65 minutes is about 220 HL
in volume. So wort is collected and simultaneously sent to process ahead for
further processing. The collected wort has gravity about 1072 to 1074 and its
temperature is around 65-67C.
After first wort collection, first sparging is done. During first sparging, 180 HL
of hot water at 85C is sprinkled over the mash in about 22-24 minutes.
Then the mash is left still for 20 minutes, so that remaining starch could also
dissolve in water. After this, second wort collection is done for about 45-50
minutes. The volume collected this time is about 200 HL and has gravity lying

23

between 1038 and 1042. The temperature of wort collected second time is higher
than that collected before i.e. 81-83C.
Second wort collection being done, second sparging begins in lauter tun. It goes
on for about 30 minutes and it consumes about 220 HL of water, at 95C. The
mash is allowed to rest for 10 minutes and then weak wort collection begins. In
about 30 minutes of collection time over 220 HL of weak wort is collected. After
the collection, the lauter tun is given a rest for 5 minutes. The weak wort is
collected in Weak wort tank & is used in mashing of next batch.
When all wort has be extracted out of the mashed grist only spent grain remains in
the lauter tun. So the process of empting the lauter tun begins with spent grain
discharge. Within 15 minutes, the entire spent grain is removed from the lauter
tun into the dump tank. This is done by rotating the racking arm at lower height in
the lauter tun. But before the lauter tun is ready.

MASHING EFFICIENCY:

Note:

TRS (Total Reducing Sugar) in Malt Plant found around 77% .


24

a) When HWE (Hot Water Extract) is 76 % .


(Brix of Wort is directly related to dissolved percent)
b) Brix Sugar in Wort i,e 12 Brix is equal to 12 % Dissolved Sugar .
MASHING EFFICIENCY (ME ) % :
ME % = WORT VOLUME * BRIX /MALT (kg) *TRS *100
FERMENTATION EFFICIENCY (FE ) % :
FE % = PRACTICAL YIELD

* 100

THEROTICAL YIELD
PR. YIELD =VOL.OF FERMENTED WASH * ALCHOL IN WASH *100.
THEROTICAL YIELD = (WORT VOLUME * Brix *0.644) / 100.
DISTILLATION EFFICIENCY (DE ) % :
DE % = PRACTICAL YIELD

* 100

THEROTICAL YIELD
PRACTICAL YIELD: FMS PRODUCED( BL) *STRENGTH OF FMS IN %V/V
100
THERO. YIELD: VOL.OF WASH CHARGE D * ALCOHOL IN % IN WASH
100
OVERALL EFFICIECY %: (ME/100*FE/100* DE/100 )* 100

25

FOR EXAMPLE:

26

7. WATER SECTION:

HOT WATER
TANK 500HL
AAA
98C
TANK

WEAK WATER

AMBIENT WATER

TANK 500HL

TANK 500HL

75C

PHE

P-pump

The water section consists of three tanks: Ambient Water Tank, Hot
Water Tank and Weak Wort Tank. Hot water tank is used for collection
of hot water that utilizes for sparing to Lauter Tun. Hot water tank
capacity as 500HL which is collected from Wort PHE through Hot
water line and other from a Fermenter PHE Hot water receiver line.
Ambient Water Tank is the tank which gets it water from the WTP. Its
water is used for all general purposes like cleaning and washing of
laboratory equipments. It is used in hot water make up through CIP
PHE and Hot Water PHE. The level of the Ambient water tank is
always maintained at a higher level. The temperature of the hot water
in the Hot Water Tank is maintained by hot water circulation through
the hot water PHE. Similarly the temperature make up can be also
done for the Weak Wort Tank.

27

8. FERMENTION:

The fermentation section consists of 16 fermenters stainless steel lined


in two lines, 8 in each line and a Bub vessel. The fermenter is the
place where the actual alcohol is produced by yeast from Wort. The
fermenter has a capacity of 500HL and 390HL of wort is directly
collected in the fermenter. And once the wort collection is completed
the inoculum from the Bub vessel is transfered to the fermenter
making the total volume to 410HL and thus fermentation process is
initiated. The start brew wort collection which collect in selected
sterilised empty

fermenter No. then taken brew wort 20HL in bub

vessel and add dry Yeast 8 Kg with supply air to bub vessel. The yeast
cells in the wort utilize the glucose in the wort and convert it into
ethanol at 21C. The fermentation process time minimum 45Hrs,
typically for 50 to 72hrs. The initial sp. gravity of the wort in the
fermenter is 1.050 and the finial fermentation process ceases when the
sp. gravity falls to 1.000. The sp. gravity and pH of the sample from
the fermenter is estimated every 4hr. the pH of the sample should be
around 5.5. During fermentation, CO 2 gas is released from the
fermenter through an outlet at the top of the fermenter. When the
fermentation process ceases, the evolution of CO 2 gas also stops and
the fermented wash is sent to the Still House Section for Distillation.
28

A malt spirit distillery has using stainless steel fermenter easier to


clean.CO2 extraction but not recovered .

BUB
VES
SEL

FERMENTATION SECTION:
F
V
1

F
V
2

F
V
3

F
V
4

F
V
5

F
V
6

F
V
1
1

F
V
1
2

F
V
1
3

F
V
1
4

F
V
7

F
V
8

C I P S UP P LY
W O RT
WAS H
CIP RETRUN

F
V
9

F
V
1
0

F
V
1
5

STANDARD OPERATING PROCEDURE OF FERMENTATION:


Wort from Mash tun or Lauter Tun is collected in Wort buffer tank. Wor t is
transferred to fermenter .
1St wort collection initial Sp.Gr 1.074 - final Sp.Gr. 1.045 @ 20 22C
2 nd wort collection initial Sp.Gr 1.040 - final Sp.Gr. 1.014@ 20 22C
Set up volume SP.Gr. 1.049 to 1.050 @ 20 22C

Wort transfer temp to fermenter to be controlled at 20 22C by PHE


using ambient water & Chilled water.

29

F
V
1
6

BUB VEESEL:
Add 8 kgs of dry yeast after collecting 20HL (2,000 Lit) wort at 24 to 26 C
collected in bub vessel aerate with supply air for aeration and transferred to
fermenter after 2 Hrs.
Maximum wort transfer time to fermenter: 180 Min (Wort from the Buffer tank
should be transferred to fermenter before start of next brew)

Fermenter Setup volume: 41000 Lit (410HL) 250 Lit (For 8 MT of Malt)
Set up temp: 20 2C
Setup Gravity: 1.050 2
Final wash gravity: 1.000 1
Alcohol content in wash: 6% 0.25(v/v)
PH: Initial 4.5 to 5 & Final - 3.5 to 3.75
Maxi fermentation temp: 30 2 C
Fermentation time: 48 to 60 Hrs.

Fermented Wash is transferred to Wash Still section by wash transfer


pump to 1 s t wash PHE to 2nd steam PHE then wash still.

After complete transferred wash from fermenter then fermenter CIP


done with sterilization by using steam @ 90 C.
Desirable characteristics of distillers yeast:
High ethanol yield (highly attenuating)
Tolerance to ethanol and heat
Rapid fermentation (of glucose, maltose and
maltotriose)
Production of the correct balance of flavour

30

9. DISTILLATION:
STILL HOUSE SECTION:
Wash Distillation
Spirit Distillation
Maturation
Blending and Packaging

Still house section include two Distillation systems..


A) Wash Distillation
B) Spirit Distillation
DESIGN OF POT STILLS:
Stills are constructed from copper; copper is malleable, a good conductor of
heat and important in flavour control.
Heat is supplied by using steam from Boiler section.
Design of the swan neck and lyne arm affect reflux; bulbous neck and upwardly
inclined lyne arm increase reflux.
Purifier may be included in lyne arm to increase reflux.
Rectifying plates have been used in the swan neck to increase reflux (Lomond
Still).

31

Swan neck shape in pot stills:

Purifier:

Purifier adds additional reflux, reducing congener content and thereby


purifying the spirit
Condensate is returned to the spirit still.
Role of copper eg ethyl carbamate (EC)
Not a problem but needs careful monitoring.
Epiheterodendrin, a precursor, is produced in the acrospire of malt
This gives rise to hydrogen cyanide during fermentation and distillation. HCN
reacts with ethanol to give ethyl carbamate
Barley variety is important as a means of minimizing ethyl carbamate.
Removal is facilitated in the presence of copper and oxygen by diverting HCN
into insoluble cyanide or thiocyanate.

32

Role of copper:
Copper important role in determining spirit character..
Formation of desirable congeners.
Removal of undesirable congeners.
Particularly removal of sulphur containing Compounds.
influenced by still and condenser surfaces.
- Copper is the material of choice for pot still fabrication, because of the ease with
which it can be worked and its chemical benefits.
Copper removal:
Cu content in pot ale (30 50 mg/l) and spent lees more in spent lees
Cu Level in Spirit is low (0.5 3.0 mg/l)
Anaerobic and aerobic treatment of spentlees and other effluents concentrates the
Cu in the sludge (50 100 mg/l)
When land sprayed, Cu can build up in the soil or run off into water courses.
Conventional effluent treatment:
Conventional effluent treatment will concentrate the Cu in the sludge
Treated effluent may still be too high in Cu for water course discharge eg
Glenfiddich wetlandsproject absorbed into willow trees
Sludge will have high Cu level (50 100 mg/l)
Therefore sludge disposal may be an issue may need to incinerate or bury,
rather than land spraying.
Other treatments:
Lime treatment of spent lees before conventional effluent treatment
Ion exchange + acid addition + electrolysis of eluate.
A) Wash distillation:
The wash (typically 89% (v/v) ethanol) is used to charge the still to about two
thirds capacity; wash is usually at least 48 hours old
Boiling starts at about 92C and excessive frothing must be avoided to prevent
foul distillation
Wash preheating may be used to avoid fouling of heat transfer surfaces in the
still
33

Low wines are collected, initially at about 50% (v/v) ethanol, falling to 1%, and
giving a final ethanol content of about 20 to 23% ABV
Residual pot ale contains about 0.1% (v/v) ethanol.
Collection of the wash distillate:
Shell and tube condenser typically consists of bundles of copper tubes that carry
cooling water. This has largely replaced the traditional worm design.
Worm Tubs...

Traditional condensing equipment


Not much copper contact heavy spirit character
No heat recovery
Prone to leaks. Empty tub, fill worm with water, see the leaks.
Collection of the wash distillate
Shell and Tube Condensers
Relatively high degree of copper contact lighter spirit
Split condensing and cooling loads recover high temperature hot water from the
condenser
Spirit cooler takes out the sensible heat
Distillate is collected at 1520C. Collection of distillates at >30C results in
losses by evaporation
The wash safe allows the collection of the distillate to be carefully monitored;
hydrometer and thermometer are included
Steam pressure gauges and temperature recorders are now widely employed for
improved process control.
Almost 90% of wash is waste, rich in copper and BOD:
65% as pot ale
24% as spent lees
34

B) Spirit Distillation
Charge contains 2530% (v/v) ethanol and consists of low wines with foreshots
and feints from previous distillations.
Foreshots contain oily and waxy products from the previous distillation (detected
with the demisting test)
First cut typically taken at 7075% (v/v) ethanol
Middle cut is collected as newmake spirit
Second cut typically at 6264% (v/v) ethanol, can be as low as 57% (v/v)
Foreshots and remaining feints are combined with low wines for further
distillation
Important considerations in spirit distillation:
Foreshots and feints can be collected in a separate receiver (FR) and low wine
collected in a separate receiver then combined low wines and feints in a
common charge spirit distillation pot s.
In balanced operation, the charge to the spirit still has a constant composition
and ethanol content .In unbalanced operation, the charge varies in volume,
composition and ethanol content. The resulting spirit will vary from distillation
distillation and batches are combined before filling into casks.
Analysis of newmake malt spirit:
Ethanol (% (v/v))
63.5 Ethyl lactate
4.7 Acetaldehyde
3.2
Ethyl octanoate
1.6 Ethyl acetate
23.7
Furfural
3.3
Diethyl acetal
1.7 Ethyl decanoate
5.7
Methano
l 5.1
Phenylethyl acetate 5.7 Propanol
40.8
Ethyl laurate
2.1
iso-Butanol
79.8 Phenylethanol
3.8
Amyl alcohol
47.7
Ethyl myristate
0.6 Ethyl palmitate
2.7
Ethyl palmitoleate 1.5
iso-Amyl alcohol 142.5 ( Units, except for ethanol, are ppm)
Byproducts of malt distillation:
Pot ale: biological oxygen demand is very high (BOD:25,00035,000 ppm)
combined with spent grains and dried to give dark grains
sprayed on farmland
treated in an effluent plant to reduce BOD
discharged to sea
Spent lees: BOD is quite low (BOD:1,0002,000 ppm)
treated in an effluent plant
discharged to sea.
35

Still House Section: The Still House Section consists mainly of a


Wash Still and a Spirit Still and collection tanks for collection of
different products that are formed in distillation. There are two wash
stills and two spirit stills in a single phase and there are two such
phases in the section. The still pots are made up of Copper so that it
can be easily heated and it has a conical top to concentrate the flow of
gas from the pot. The fermented wash after fermentation is sent in to
the Wash still first of the Still House Section for distillation. They are
charged in equal amounts in two wash stills i.e. 205Hl in each Wash
Still. Steam is supplied to the still at 10psi till the temperature of the
still reaches up to 92C. At this temperature, the steam supply is cut
and then it is slowly supplied to the still so that the wash does not
flow over the conical section of the pot. After a period of steam
supply, at about 100C we get a condensate from the pot. The
condensate is formed by cooling the gas that comes out of the pot with
water from the cooling tower. This condensate is termed as Low Wine
which is about 28proof. From 410Hl of wash about 15,000Bl (Bulk
liter) of low wine is produced. The collection of low wine takes place
for about 4hours and its alcohol content is measured every hour. It is
collected in Low wines Tank. The collection of low wines is stopped at
about 2UP (Under-proof). And the remnant of the pot is collected as
potale in the potale tank and is sent in to the ETP for treatment and
disposal.
The low wines along with the Feints generated from the distillation of
last brew are charged into two Spirit Stills in equal amount. About
9000Bl of Feints is generated from every brew bringing the total to
36

24,000Bl of that 12,000Bl is loaded in each of the Spirit Still. Then


steam is supplied to the pot till it reaches a temperature of 84C. At
84C, the steam supply is cut and then it is slowly supplied to the pot
taking care that the pot does not overflow. After a period of time, we
get draw from the pot. The initial draw (condensate) from the pot is
called heads. It has a blur appearance and it is collected in the Feints
Tank. After 15mins, clear solution is seen as the draw from the pot, it
is FMS (Fresh Malt Spirit). FMS is collected in a Spirit Receiver Tank.
About 4000Bl of FMS is collected from both the pots within a period
of about 4hrs. The FMS that is produced is 111proof. After that,
another 9000Bl is collected as Feints in the Feints Tank from the same
still. Its collection is stopped at proof alcoholic content and the
remaining part of the still is disposed in the Spent Lees Tank which is
sent to the ETP for treatment.

37

10.

CIP SYSTEM:

The CIP section consists of a Rinse Tank, a Still-House & Brew-House


Caustic Tank and a Fermenter Caustic Tank. CIP means Cleaning in
place. After fermentation of every brew all the vessels are cleaned and
made ready for the next. CIP is done by hot water and Caustic. There
is a CIP inlet and CIP return line for all the fermenters through which
the caustic and hot water is sent in the fermenter and drained off the
fermenters. Steam is also introduced in the fermenter for an hour or so
for its sterilization. The Wort Cooling PHE is also cleaned periodically
by Back CIP where in the Caustic and hot water is sent in through the
PHE in the reverse direction and the casting is cleaned. The cleaning
is mostly done when the flow through the system decreases. It also
consists of a Caustic lye tank through which the Caustic Tank is
refilled. The hot water for the CIP is produced from the CIP PHE using
ambient water and steam.

38

11.

MATURATION HALL:

The FMS produced for the entire day is collected in an Intermediate


Spirit Receiver Tank which is about 24,000Bl per day. Then it is sent
to the FMS Receiver Tanks in the Maturation Hall. There are three
maturation halls for this unit. In this hall, FMS is transferred to Casks
for maturation. Every cask can store about 200Bl of FMS. It is stored
for about 2 and half years in the Maturation Hall. The Casks are made
up of Oak wood. The tannin coating of Oak wood Casks gives it the
texture and color needed for maturation. The FMS that is colorless
becomes brown in color due to maturation. This spirit is then called as
MMS (Maturated Malt Spirit). During maturation about 5-15% of
spirit is lost due to evaporation and it depends on a number of
conditions like temperature, humidity and weather.We all believe that
maturation is an essential operation in Scotch whisky production.
Legally required (more later)
Transforms new make spirit into final whisky
- The changes that occur during maturation are
complex (multivariate) and challenging to study
because of the timescales involved

39

Scope:
Mechanisms of maturation
Oak wood extracts
Changes of components in unaged spirits
Changes in ligninrelated compounds
Changes in the physical properties of spirits
Impact of filling strength
Cask size.
Mechanisms of maturation:
Direct extraction of wood components
Decomposition of macromolecules in the wood and
their extraction into spirit
Reaction of wood components with new make spirit
Reactions involving only extracted wood components
Reactions involving only spirit components
Evaporation of low boiling componens
Formation of ethanolwater clusters
Oak wood extracts:
A wide range of sugars and glycerol are extracted from wood into maturing spirit
Arabinose, xylose and glucose are extracted more rapidly initially, whilst fructose
and glycerol are extracted more rapidly later on during maturation
Changes in physical properties
during maturation:
When ethanol and water are mixed together, the properties of one influence the
other
The structure of water is highly complex, involving a substantial degree of loose
connections, or bonds, between adjacent molecules
These connections make water much less volatile than would be expected for
such a small molecule.
Critically, nature favours such bonds as they reduce the energy in a body of
water.
There has been substantial progress in understanding the changes in the analytical
composition of maturing spirit
Additionally, there have been some clear observation on subtle but important
changes to the physical properties of spirit as it matures
The changes in compositional and physical characteristics will affect the sensory
characteristics of the final spirit
Blending complicates this relationship further.
40

12.

UTILLITIES:

WATER TREATMENT PLANT :


WTP is the most crucial utility of the plant as it is the only soft water
source for the plant without any impurity. WTP is a 24-hr working
utility and it provides the major chunk of its treated water to the Malt
Spirit Plant, Bottling section of Unit-I, Boiler, DMW plant, Cooling
Towers and Unit-II. Boiler, Cooling Towers and the DMW plant is
supplied with Soft water whereas others are supplied with primarily
treated water. The major source of water for the WTP is from a nearby
river called Kadhva River and a stream of that river. It supplies about
1.4L - 1.6L liters of water to the WTP. The ETP (Effluent Treatment
Plant) from where the treated water can be further treated in order to
make it useful for production. It supplies about 2L liters of water to
the WTP. Bore well is another major water source which supplies
about 2L liters of water to the WTP. The Bottling Section of Unit-I
also supplies about 1L-2L liters of water to the WTP for treatment. In
case of water shortage, the company supplies water to the WTP from
external sources like water tankers. The WTP treats about 6.5L - 7L
liters of water a day which is sufficient for the smooth functioning of
the entire plant.

41

Table showing the consumption of water from the WTP:


S r.No
1.
2.

Consumption by
Malt Spirit Plant
Unit-I (Bottling

Volume (in liters)


3,00,000
2,00,000

3.

Section)
Cooling Towers (Soft

70,000-80,000

4.
5.
6.

Water)
Boiler (Soft Water)
Unit-II
Canteen, Toilets and

70,000-80,000
50,000-60,000
Variable

Others
* t h e s e a re a p p r o xi ma t e v a l u e s

If the river water has a good flow rate it is sent in to the Lamella
Classifier through dozing pumps which adds hypo-chloride to the
water. In this, the mud settles down. It is separated and removed from
the bottom of the lamella classifier. The water then is sent in to the
Collection Tank (CT) and if it doesnt have a good flow rate then it is
directly collected in the CT via a bye-pass connection. The water from
the ETP and bottling section of Unit-I is sent through the zigzag
(snake) settler then collected in the CT. Water from the CT is then
passed through a sand filter twice. Sand filter consists of layers of
sand and pebbles which traps in the dirt from the water. In short, it
reduces the turbidity of the water. The sand filter is cleaned as and
when required by back-washing wherein water is pumped in through
the sand filter in reverse direction at high pressure to remove all the
dirt from it. The outlet water from the sand filter is sent in to a Carbon
filter. It consists of activated carbon which entraps the organic
materials if any from the water thus losing its bad odor and the water
42

now becomes odorless. The carbon filter is also cleaned by backwashing. The water after this treatment is mostly used in the plant. But
for the boiler and cooling towers this treated water is sent through a
Softener where the hardness of the water is removed. The Mg and Ca
salts are removed from the water by NaCl in the Softener. The Na
replaces the Mg and Ca from their salts thus making it soft and making
it useful for the boiler and cooling towers. The soft water when passed
through the RO (Reverse Osmosis) filter makes it drinkable; this water
can be used in the Malt Spirit Plant as well. But recently, the RO filter
is not used as the membranes in RO filter are damaged and the water is
not been purified efficiently.

STORA
GE

FOR DOMESTIC
CONSUMPTION
IN PLANT

TANK

CARBON
FILTER

CARBON FILTER

TO UNIT
SAND FILTER
SOFTEN
ER

CATION
RAW WATER
43
TO BOILER
CANDLE
LAMELLA
CLARIFIER
STORAGE
WATER TREATMENT
PLANT
LAYOUT
UNITED
SPIRITS LIMITED,
RAW
WATER FROMCHLORINE
KADWA
FILTER
ALUMTANK
ADDITION
PART
NASIK1
RIVER
DOSING

TO UNIT
1

EXCHANGE
R CARBO
DM
WATER
NANION
MBR

TO STILLHOUSE
DEGASE
STORAGE
FILTER TANK

2.

BOILER SECTION :

The boiler forms the core of the Steam system of the plant. The boiler
generates steam for usage in the Malt Spirit Plant. The major
proportion of the steam supplied by the boiler is used for the purpose
of heating in the Distillation Section of the Malt Plant. Rest of the
steam is required for heating of water through Plate-type Heat

44

Exchangers (PHE). Some of the steam is also required for sterilization


of fermenters before initiation every batch of fermentation.
There are three boilers in the plant. The capacity of the boiler is
measured in TPH (tones per hour) the capacity of these three boilers is
4TPH, 10TPH and 20TPH. The 4TPH and 10TPH boilers are shut down
for time being and only the 20TPH boiler is functioning. It is a firetube boiler and can produce about 20 tonnes of steam per hour. It runs
24-hrs a day. It is a multi-fuel boiler with less carbon foot-print.
The boiler gets about 80,000 liters of soft water every day from the
WTP to meet the requirement of steam in the Malt plant. The Malt
plant requires about 250 tonnes of steam per day. Coal is used as the
chief fuel for the boiler. Bagasse and Briquettes are also used as a fuel
for the boiler. Bagasse is the left-over of sugar industries whereas
Briquette is agro-waste from the nearby fields. It consists of left-over
part of maize and jowar plants which are mixed with a small amount of
water and pressed in the form of cakes. The fuel is fed to the mill from
separate feed points which is milled and brought into a desired
proportion for combustion. The fuel then with the help of bucket
elevators and conveyor belts is lifted up and fed to the furnace
intermittently. The proportion of the fuel to be fed to the furnace is not
fixed and is added in order to maintain the temperature of the furnace.
The temperature of the furnace at the bottom where the actual
combustion takes place is about 1300C and at the top is about 600650C. For combustion to take place inside the furnace, air is blown
into the furnace from the bottom through two Air compressor pumps.
45

The soft water to be converted into steam is stored in a tank at the top
of the boiler. The water still has a hardness of 5ppm hence a chemical
called sludge-conditioner is added to the water in this tank so that the
dissolved solids of the water does not get deposited on the walls of the
Steam Drum after formation of steam from it. The Steam Drum is the
place where the actual steam is formed from water. Water is also filled
in tubes and is circulated around the furnace of which steam is formed
and is sent back to the Steam Drum. The steam to fuel ratio is about 35 for this boiler i.e. 3-5 kg of steam can be produced by burning 1kg
of fuel in this boiler. The produced steam is supplied through insulated
pipes to the malt plant. It is insulated with thick layers of glass wool
still 2% of steam is lost in the process. The steam is produced with a
pressure of about 15.5 kg/cm 2 (maximum up to 17 kg/cm 2 ). In the malt
plant, the pressure is reduced to about 3 kg/cm 2 and then it is used.
Some amount of condensate is produced while supplying the steam to
the plant; it is removed by means of steam trap at specific intervals.
After the usage of steam, the condensate is collected and sent back to
the boiler. It forms about 50% of the total water used in the boiler and
thus water is made up for generation of the required amount of steam.
EFFLUENT TREATMENT PLANT:

The waste that is generated in the down-stream processing of


fermented wash is termed as effluent. It has high BOD (biological
oxygen demand) and COD (chemical oxygen demand) values hence if
released directly to the environment will act as a pollutant. Hence it
has to be treated before been disposed off to the environment. This
46

treatment of effluent is done in the Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP).


The effluent is the potale wash and spent lees from Malt plant. And
water from bottle washing, toilets and canteen are also treated in the
ETP.
9

Table showing the characteristics of effluent:

Spent Wash (Potale)


pH

TSS

3.2 to 3.8
50000 to 70000
mg/L
15000 to 20000
mg/L

Flow

150 m3

COD

Spent lees
pH
CO
D
TSS
Flo
w

4 to 5
5000 to 10000 mg/L
-150 m3

ETP treats the water in two stages. The working of the stages of ETP
can be explained with the help of following flow diagram:

Stage - I:

Effl uent from production

Settlin

Settlin
47

nake Settler

g Tank
I

g Tank
II

UASB

Lamella
Filter

Buffer Tank
Degasser

Cl. II

SDB
Chlorine
Contact
Tank

Bioreactor
Tank II

Cl. I

Bioreactor
Tank I

Mixing Tank

Sand
Filter
POND

The potale and spent lees is released to the snake (zigzag) settler of
the ETP where the heavy particles settle down and it is collected
Settling Tank I. It is called the Neutralization tank because here lime
(Ca (OH) 2 ) solution is added to the effluent which neutralizes the acid
content of the effluent. Then from the Settling Tank II it is sent to the
Lamella filter from where the sludge that settles down is collected in
SDB (Sludge Drank Bed). The effluent from the top is sent to the
buffer tank where the pH is brought to 6.5-7.5 by addition of buffer
solution. From the buffer tank it is pumped to the UASB (Underflow
Aerobic Sludge Blanketing) tank. Here it is aerated with oxygen in an
enclosed tank and methane gas is released in this tank which is burnt
to form a flare. The effluent through the Mixing tank is sent to

48

Bioreactor tank I where it is aerated along with micro organisms like


E.coli and Algae. It degrades the organic components of the effluent
reducing their BOD and COD. Here, Urea and Di - Ammonium
Phosphate (DAP) is added as food for the micro organisms. It is then
passed through Clarifier I where the unwanted materials are separated
and fed back to the Bioreactor Tank. The same mechanism is repeated
in Bioreactor Tank II where the BOD and COD reduced even more.
This treated effluent is then sent to the CCT (Chlorine contact tank)
where Hypo-chloride solution is added to it to kill the bacteria and
micro organisms present in it. Then it is passed through a Sand Filter
which filters the dead micro organisms and the treated effluent is
collected in a pond.
LAYOUT OF ETP.

SPENT
LEES
BIOREACTO
R1 1
MIXING
TANK

CIP
SD
&FLOOR
B
LAMELL
RECYCLIN
SETTLIN
CLEANING
SETTLI
BUFFER
TANK
AFILTER
UASB
GTANK2
SNAKE
DEGAS G
NG
EFFLUENT
TREATMENT
SPENT
PLANT,

GUARD
POND

MGF

49
CLAFIFIER
1
SAN
BIOREACTOR
D CLARIFIER
IRRIGATIO
CCT

CCT
PERMEATE
BASKE
2
REJECT
WATER
MBBR
SDBCLARIFIE
AGFBOTTLING/W
T TANK FOR
GARDENIN
MIXING
UTILIZATION
ULTRAFILTRATI
IN

13.CONCLUSION:
This training program has opened new vistas of wisdom as to how a
production company functions coordinating the various arms of the
administration.

50

The extraordinary cooperation and relentless labour are seen as the


pre-requisites to face the growing challenges. The hallmark of this
industry is vindicated by its growth profile and its contribution to the
national economy. The training in this production industry gave an
exemplary opportunity to counter all the ground realities and develop
the skills of problem shooting. The device between theoretical base
and the practical approach and the need to adapt to changing
conditions are best learnt by being a participant in the process.

51

52

Wort

Malted Barley

Wash
Distillation

Milling
FMS
Mashing

53

Fermentation

Fig.Flowchart for FMS production

MAINTENANCE:
Maintenance is one of the most crucial departments of the company. A
good bunch of Mechanical and Electrical engineers comprises this
department. They have knowledge of every machinery and system in
the plant. For any breakdown or improper functioning of any system in
the plant, the maintenance department is approached which solves the
issue and brings back the system to normal functioning to the earliest.
There are four important functional components which comes under
maintenance

Machine parts
Power
Water
Air

The activities of maintenance department are


Common maintenance
54

CAPEX and Regular Maintenance


The department carries out 4 types of maintenance
Preventive & Periodic maintenance
CAPEX and Regular Maintenance

They have developed check sheets for machineries in the plant by


which it has maintained criteria for checking of the machineries on
weekly basis, monthly basis and annual basis. Mono-block filler,
Sleeving machine, Press-type sealing machine, Conveyor belts, gear
box, Jumbo pallet truck, Filter press, etc. all are included in this. The
checking, cleaning and greasing of all the moving parts are done by
the maintenance engineers. The purchase of all the spare parts and
other maintenance related goods are all done by the department
officials only. They have an Engineering store where essential parts
and goods are kept in stock to be used when in need.
They manage the power consumption of entire plant from the MSEB
and

daily

readings

are

recorded

to

keep

control

on

over-

consumption. Boiler, DMW plant, cooling towers all requires power


supply for its functioning. In case of power failure, the maintenance
department maintains 3 DGs (Diesel Generators) which then provides
the plant with the required amount of power supply within minutes of
power failure. The 3 DGs have capacities of 180kVA, 320kVA and
1010kVA which can fulfill the need of power-supply of the entire plant
thus the functioning of the plant is not disrupted for a long time due to
power-failure.

55

1. ACCOUNTS:
Accounts department mainly deals with the money matters. It deals
with transactions done and payments that has to be made. SAP (Simple
Application Program) plays a very crucial role in maintaining the
accounts of the unit. SAP is intranet software which has different
modules in it of which one is accounting. Accounting gives a platform
to all the departments of the company to update the expenses incurred
in their department and the capital that is required for further dues. It
reduces a lot of paper work and book-keeping as everything becomes
online. Accounts manager analyzes the data in SAP with the actual
data and makes the changes that is required if any. The company
appoints an auditor to do the audit of the company it is called as
internal audit. And the Government of India appoints an auditor to do
the audit of the company after the internal audit; it is called as the
external audit. Audit of the company is done in order to find any cases

56

of fraud or forgery in company or in the name of the company. It is a


mandatory requirement for a limited company to do the external audit.
The accounts department signs the contract with all the suppliers and
vendors except the HO-vendors. HO-vendors sign the contract with the
accounts department of the HO and payment is directly made from the
HO whereas payment to the local vendors is made from the accounts
department of the unit. Payments are generally made in the form of
cheques. And payments are made only after the invoice is generated.
Invoice is the bill where the rate of the product is given whereas in
chaalan rate of the product is not mentioned. It is only a proof of the
transaction that is made. Invoice carries the amount to be credited to
the vendor. Accounts of the company are checked and closed at the end
of every Financial year i.e., in March.

57

UTILITIES:

1.1

Water Treatment Plant (WTP):

WTP is the most crucial utility of the plant as it is the only soft water
source for the plant without any impurity. WTP is a 24-hr working
58

utility and it provides the major chunk of its treated water to the Malt
Spirit Plant, Bottling section of Unit-I, Boiler, DMW plant, Cooling
Towers and Unit-II. Boiler, Cooling Towers and the DMW plant is
supplied with Soft water whereas others are supplied with primarily
treated water. The major source of water for the WTP is from a nearby
river called Kadhva River and a stream of that river. It supplies about
1.4L - 1.6L liters of water to the WTP. The ETP (Effluent Treatment
Plant) from where the treated water can be further treated in order to
make it useful for production. It supplies about 2L liters of water to
the WTP. Bore well is another major water source which supplies
about 2L liters of water to the WTP. The Bottling Section of Unit-I
also supplies about 1L-2L liters of water to the WTP for treatment. In
case of water shortage, the company supplies water to the WTP from
external sources like water tankers. The WTP treats about 6.5L - 7L
liters of water a day which is sufficient for the smooth functioning of
the entire plant.

Table showing the consumption of water from the WTP:


S r.No
1.
2.

Consumption by
Malt Spirit Plant
Unit-I (Bottling

Volume (in liters)


3,00,000
2,00,000

3.

Section)
Cooling Towers (Soft

70,000-80,000

59

4.
5.
6.

Water)
Boiler (Soft Water)
Unit-II
Canteen, Toilets and

70,000-80,000
50,000-60,000
Variable

Others
* t h e s e a re a p p r o xi ma t e v a l u e s

If the river water has a good flow rate it is sent in to the Lamella
Classifier through dozing pumps which adds hypo-chloride to the
water. In this, the mud settles down. It is separated and removed from
the bottom of the lamella classifier. The water then is sent in to the
Collection Tank (CT) and if it doesnt have a good flow rate then it is
directly collected in the CT via a bye-pass connection. The water from
the ETP and bottling section of Unit-I is sent through the zigzag
(snake) settler then collected in the CT. Water from the CT is then
passed through a sand filter twice. Sand filter consists of layers of
sand and pebbles which traps in the dirt from the water. In short, it
reduces the turbidity of the water. The sand filter is cleaned as and
when required by back-washing wherein water is pumped in through
the sand filter in reverse direction at high pressure to remove all the
dirt from it. The outlet water from the sand filter is sent in to a Carbon
filter. It consists of activated carbon which entraps the organic
materials if any from the water thus losing its bad odor and the water
now becomes odorless. The carbon filter is also cleaned by backwashing. The water after this treatment is mostly used in the plant. But
for the boiler and cooling towers this treated water is sent through a
Softener where the hardness of the water is removed. The Mg and Ca
salts are removed from the water by NaCl in the Softener. The Na
replaces the Mg and Ca from their salts thus making it soft and making

60

it useful for the boiler and cooling towers. The soft water when passed
through the RO (Reverse Osmosis) filter makes it drinkable; this water
can be used in the Malt Spirit Plant as well. But recently, the RO filter
is not used as the membranes in RO filter are damaged and the water is
not been purified efficiently.

9.2

BOILER:

The boiler forms the core of the Steam system of the plant. The boiler
generates steam for usage in the Malt Spirit Plant. The major
proportion of the steam supplied by the boiler is used for the purpose
of heating in the Distillation Section of the Malt Plant. Rest of the
steam is required for heating of water through Plate-type Heat
Exchangers (PHE). Some of the steam is also required for sterilization
of fermenters before initiation every batch of fermentation.

61

There are three boilers in the plant. The capacity of the boiler is
measured in TPH (tones per hour) the capacity of these three boilers is
4TPH, 10TPH and 20TPH. The 4TPH and 10TPH boilers are shut down
for time being and only the 20TPH boiler is functioning. It is a firetube boiler and can produce about 20 tonnes of steam per hour. It runs
24-hrs a day. It is a multi-fuel boiler with less carbon foot-print.
The boiler gets about 80,000 liters of soft water every day from the
WTP to meet the requirement of steam in the Malt plant. The Malt
plant requires about 250 tonnes of steam per day. Coal is used as the
chief fuel for the boiler. Bagasse and Briquettes are also used as a fuel
for the boiler. Bagasse is the left-over of sugar industries whereas
Briquette is agro-waste from the nearby fields. It consists of left-over
part of maize and jowar plants which are mixed with a small amount of
water and pressed in the form of cakes. The fuel is fed to the mill from
separate feed points which is milled and brought into a desired
proportion for combustion. The fuel then with the help of bucket
elevators and conveyor belts is lifted up and fed to the furnace
intermittently. The proportion of the fuel to be fed to the furnace is not
fixed and is added in order to maintain the temperature of the furnace.
The temperature of the furnace at the bottom where the actual
combustion takes place is about 1300C and at the top is about 600650C. For combustion to take place inside the furnace, air is blown
into the furnace from the bottom through two Air compressor pumps.
The soft water to be converted into steam is stored in a tank at the top
of the boiler. The water still has a hardness of 5ppm hence a chemical
called sludge-conditioner is added to the water in this tank so that the
62

dissolved solids of the water does not get deposited on the walls of the
Steam Drum after formation of steam from it. The Steam Drum is the
place where the actual steam is formed from water. Water is also filled
in tubes and is circulated around the furnace of which steam is formed
and is sent back to the Steam Drum. The steam to fuel ratio is about 35 for this boiler i.e. 3-5 kg of steam can be produced by burning 1kg
of fuel in this boiler. The produced steam is supplied through insulated
pipes to the malt plant. It is insulated with thick layers of glass wool
still 2% of steam is lost in the process. The steam is produced with a
pressure of about 15.5 kg/cm 2 (maximum up to 17 kg/cm 2 ). In the malt
plant, the pressure is reduced to about 3 kg/cm 2 and then it is used.
Some amount of condensate is produced while supplying the steam to
the plant; it is removed by means of steam trap at specific intervals.
After the usage of steam, the condensate is collected and sent back to
the boiler. It forms about 50% of the total water used in the boiler and
thus water is made up for generation of the required amount of steam.

9.3

DMW plant:

The production of De-mineralized water is done from the DMW plant.


DM water is water that has no presence of salt in it. There are two
DMW plants in the factory, one in Unit-I and another in Unit-II. The
DMW plant in Unit-I produces about 50,000 liters of DM water for
blending and bottling section of Unit-I whereas the DMW plant of
Unit-II produces about 20,000 liters of DM water for the blending and

63

bottling section of Unit-II. It is used in washing of bottles in the


bottling section.
The primarily treated water from the WTP is supplied to the DMW
plant. It first passes through the Carbon filter which is filled with
activated carbon. It entraps all the organic content of the water and
makes it odorless. Then it is passed through an Anionic filter which
has anionic (acidic - conc. HCl) resins in it that removes the basic
impurities from the water. This treated water is sent through a
Degasser where the gaseous contents are removed from the water. It is
then sent through a Cationic filter which has cationic (basic Caustic
soda) resins in it. It removes the acidic impurities from the water.
Then again it is passed through a Mixed Bed filter where the water is
treated with both acidic and basic resins to remove any remaining
impurities from the water. These filters are refilled periodically to
maintain the efficiency of the plant. This water is then again passed
through a Final Carbon filter which purifies it even more and is stored
in a 30,000 liter SS tank from where it is sent to the blending section
as well to the washing section. The pH (5.5-7) and conductivity
(<1.3S) of the DM water is checked and maintained all the time

9.4 Effluent Treatment Plant:


The waste that is generated in the down-stream processing of
fermented wash is termed as effluent. It has high BOD (biological
oxygen demand) and COD (chemical oxygen demand) values hence if
64

released directly to the environment will act as a pollutant. Hence it


has to be treated before been disposed off to the environment. This
treatment of effluent is done in the Effluent Treatment Plant (ETP).
The effluent is the potale wash and spent lees from Malt plant. And
water from bottle washing, toilets and canteen are also treated in the
ETP.
10 Table showing the characteristics of effluent:

Spent Wash (Potale)


pH

TSS

3.2 to 3.8
50000 to 70000
mg/L
15000 to 20000
mg/L

Flow

150 m3

COD

Spent lees
pH
CO
D
TSS
Flo
w

4 to 5
5000 to 10000 mg/L
-150 m3

ETP treats the water in two stages. The working of the stages of ETP
can be explained with the help of following flow diagram:

9.4.1.

Stage - I:

Effl uent from production

65

Snake Settler

Settlin
g Tank
I

Settlin
g Tank
II

UASB

Lamella
Filter

Buffer Tank

Degasser

Cl. II

SDB
Chlorine
Contact
Tank

Bioreactor
Tank II

Cl. I

Bioreactor
Tank I

Mixing Tank

Sand
Filter
POND

The potale and spent lees is released to the snake (zigzag) settler of
the ETP where the heavy particles settle down and it is collected
Settling Tank I. It is called the Neutralization tank because here lime
(Ca (OH) 2 ) solution is added to the effluent which neutralizes the acid
content of the effluent. Then from the Settling Tank II it is sent to the
Lamella filter from where the sludge that settles down is collected in
SDB (Sludge Drank Bed). The effluent from the top is sent to the
buffer tank where the pH is brought to 6.5-7.5 by addition of buffer

66

solution. From the buffer tank it is pumped to the UASB (Underflow


Aerobic Sludge Blanketing) tank. Here it is aerated with oxygen in an
enclosed tank and methane gas is released in this tank which is burnt
to form a flare. The effluent through the Mixing tank is sent to
Bioreactor tank I where it is aerated along with micro organisms like
E.coli and Algae. It degrades the organic components of the effluent
reducing their BOD and COD. Here, Urea and Di - Ammonium
Phosphate (DAP) is added as food for the micro organisms. It is then
passed through Clarifier I where the unwanted materials are separated
and fed back to the Bioreactor Tank. The same mechanism is repeated
in Bioreactor Tank II where the BOD and COD reduced even more.
This treated effluent is then sent to the CCT (Chlorine contact tank)
where Hypo-chloride solution is added to it to kill the bacteria and
micro organisms present in it. Then it is passed through a Sand Filter
which filters the dead micro organisms and the treated effluent is
collected in a pond.

9.4.2. Stage II:

Effl uent from Stage-I

POND

Moving Bed
Bio-film
Reactor

Cl. III

67

AGS

Settling
Tank

SDB
Utilization
in Process

Permitted
Water Tank

Ultra- Filtration

BF &
MGF

Rejec
t
Tank

Irrigation

In stage II, first the treated effluent is collected in a pond. Other waste
water which also has to be treated like sewage water is added to this
pond. This treated effluent from the pond is added to MBBR (Moving
Bed Bio-film Reactor) which is similar to the Bioreactor Tank but is
more efficient in degrading the organic wastes from the effluent. It is
passed through Clarifier III then into the AGS (Accelerated Gravity
Settler) where the degraded contents settles down and is separated.
The sludge is sent to the SDB from the bottom. This treated effluent is
then sent to another CCT and then it is passed through a MGF (Multigrade filter) and BF (bag filter) which filters and removes all the
solids from the effluent making it suitable for Ultra-filtration (UF).
This treated effluent when passed through the UF membranes becomes
suitable for utilization in different purposes other than drinking. The
pore size of the UF membranes is less than 10microns. The rejected
68

effluent is collected in the Rejection Tank and is either supplied back


for UF or is used in irrigation. The sludge that is generated out of the
ETP is used for gardening purposes and hence no waste is disposed of
the ETP. The ETP treats the effluents and supplies the WTP with about
600KL of water every day.
ETP is a plant that works 24-hr a day. And there is plan of utilizing the
methane gas that is released from the UASB tank for cooking in the
canteen. Planning for the same is in progress.

10.1 Dry Goods Section:

69

Malt Silo
Bu cket
Elevator
Screener

Destoner

Bu cket Elevator

Grist Case
Malt Mill

The malt that is used in The Malt Spirit Plant is malted barley bought
from Haryana and Punjab. It is unloaded in a Malt Silo which has a
capacity of 750 MT. Except the conveyor below the silo all the
conveyors are automatic and controlled from the control room. It has
to be manually operated from the control panel near the silo. The malt
is first sent to the classifier through bucket elevators where the ropes
and any large impurities are separated from the malt. Then it is sent
through a destoner where the stones in the malt if any are removed. It
is sent through a pair of magnets which traps the iron particles and dirt
in the malt before sending it to the Mill. In the mill, it is crushed
between four rollers. The gap between the 1 s t two rollers is 1.2 inches

70

and the next two is 0.7 inches. A sample of this milled malt is
collected and its sieve analysis is carried out. Its ratio of Large:
Moderate: Fine malt is approximately about 70:20:10. This is called as
Grist Ratio. The malt from the mill is then sent to the Grist Case
through bucket elevators. A fixed amount of malt is required for
preparing a brew. It is about 8000kg of malted barley.

10.2 Brewing Section:


Mashing is the first step of brewing where the malt is mixed with hot
water at a temperature of 65C. 320Hl (Hecto-liter) of water and weak
wort obtained from the previous brewing process is added to the
Lauter Tun for mashing. 20Hl of that volume is sent in to the lauter
tun through the underlet. During this process, 1600ml of Amylo
enzyme is added to the mash. Amylo breaks up the starch into simple
sugars like glucose and maltose which are easily used up by the yeast
i.e. it promote saccharification process in the malt. It is allowed a
resting period of 25mins after the mashing process. And once the
recirculation is done wort collection is initiated. It is first collected in
the Wort Receiver then transferred to the desired fermenter. During
transfer to the fermenter, it is passed through a Wort cooling PHE
(Plate-type Exchanger) where the temperature is reduced to about
21C suitable for fermentation. The cool water for this PHE is
obtained from a VAM (Vapour Absorption Machine) which can reduce
the temperature of water from cooling tower to about 6C. After first

71

wort collection of 220Hl, first water sparging is done at 85C of


volume of about 220Hl in Lauter Tun. Then second wort collection is
done of about 190Hl. Meanwhile, 20Hl of wort is transferred to the
Bub vessel for inoculum preparation of yeast. About 8kg of dry yeast
is added to the Bub vessel to be used in a single brew. It is aerated at
about 21C to initiate yeast growth. After second wort collection, a
second sparging of hot water is done in the Lauter Tun at about 95C
of volume 180Hl. The wort generated from this sparging is collected in
the Weak Wort tank which will be used for mashing of the next brew.
The remains in the lauter tun is called as spent grain and it is collected
in a Dump tank below from where it is transferred to an Over head
tank. It is sold to the farmers as it can be used as cattle feed. A sample
of spent grain is also collected for estimating loss of starch content.
After discharging of spent grain, a volume of 40Hl is collected in the
lauter tun through the underlet for washing. After washing it is drained
off. A sample of wort is collected before and after every wort
collection and its specific gravity is estimated which falls from 1.074
to 1.032 after first, it falls from 1.028 to 1.012 after second and it falls
from 1.008 to 1.000 in the final. After a transfer of about 640Hl of
wort overall the brewing process stops and making of a new brew can
be started by pressing the start button in the SCADA. During mashing,
the milling for the next brew starts and by the time of end of a brew,
malt for the next brew is ready.

10.3 Fermentation Section:


72

The fermentation section consists of 16 fermenters lined in two lines,


8 in each line and a Bub vessel. The fermenter is the place where the
actual alcohol is produced by yeast from wort. The fermenter has a
capacity of 500Hl and 390Hl of wort is directly collected in the
fermenter. And once the wort collection is completed the inoculum
from the Bub vessel is transferred to the fermenter making the total
volume to 410Hl and thus fermentation process is initiated. The yeast
cells in the wort utilize the glucose in the wort and convert it into
ethanol at 21C. The fermentation process lasts for about 72hrs. The
initial sp. gravity of the wort in the fermenter is 1.049 and the
fermentation process ceases when the sp. gravity falls to 1.000. The
sp. gravity and pH of the sample from the fermenter is estimated every
4hr. the pH of the sample should be around 5.5. During fermentation,
CO 2 gas is released from the fermenter through an outlet at the top of
the fermenter. When the fermentation process ceases, the evolution of
CO 2 gas also stops and the fermented wash is sent to the Still House
Section for Distillation.

10.4 CIP Section:


The CIP section consists of a Rinse Tank, a Still-House & Brew-House
Caustic Tank and a Fermenter Caustic Tank. CIP means Cleaning in
place. After fermentation of every brew all the vessels are cleaned and
made ready for the next. CIP is done by hot water and Caustic. There
73

is a CIP inlet and CIP return line for all the fermenters through which
the caustic and hot water is sent in the fermenter and drained off the
fermenters. Steam is also introduced in the fermenter for an hour or so
for its sterilization. The Wort Cooling PHE is also cleaned periodically
by Back CIP where in the Caustic and hot water is sent in through the
PHE in the reverse direction and the casting is cleaned. The cleaning
is mostly done when the flow through the system decreases. It also
consists of a Caustic lye tank through which the Caustic Tank is
refilled. The hot water for the CIP is produced from the CIP PHE using
ambient water and steam.

10.5 Water Section:


The water section consists of three tanks: Ambient Water Tank, Hot
Water Tank and Weak Wort Tank. Ambient Water Tank is the tank
which gets it water from the WTP. Its water is used for all general
purposes like cleaning and washing of laboratory equipments. It is
used in hot water make up through CIP PHE and Hot Water PHE. The
level of the Ambient water tank is always maintained at a higher level.
The temperature of the hot water in the Hot Water Tank is maintained
by hot water circulation through the hot water PHE. Similarly the
temperature make up can be also done for the Weak Wort Tank.

10.6 Still-House Section:


74

The Still House Section consists mainly of a Wash Still and a Spirit
Still and collection tanks for collection of different products that are
formed in distillation. There are two wash stills and two spirit stills in
a single phase and there are two such phases in the section. The still
pots are made up of Copper so that it can be easily heated and it has a
conical top to concentrate the flow of gas from the pot. The fermented
wash after fermentation is sent in to the Wash still first of the Still
House Section for distillation. They are charged in equal amounts in
two wash stills i.e. 205Hl in each Wash Still. Steam is supplied to the
still at 10psi till the temperature of the still reaches up to 92C. At this
temperature, the steam supply is cut and then it is slowly supplied to
the still so that the wash does not flow over the conical section of the
pot. After a period of steam supply, at about 100C we get a
condensate from the pot. The condensate is formed by cooling the gas
that comes out of the pot with water from the cooling tower. This
condensate is termed as Low Wine which is about 28proof. From
410Hl of wash about 15,000Bl (Bulk liter) of low wine is produced.
The collection of low wine takes place for about 4hours and its alcohol
content is measured every hour. It is collected in Low wines Tank. The
collection of low wines is stopped at about 2UP (Under-proof). And
the remnant of the pot is collected as potale in the potale tank and is
sent in to the ETP for treatment and disposal.
The low wines along with the Feints generated from the distillation of
last brew are charged into two Spirit Stills in equal amount. About
9000Bl of Feints is generated from every brew bringing the total to
24,000Bl of that 12,000Bl is loaded in each of the Spirit Still. Then
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steam is supplied to the pot till it reaches a temperature of 84C. At


84C, the steam supply is cut and then it is slowly supplied to the pot
taking care that the pot does not overflow. After a period of time, we
get draw from the pot. The initial draw (condensate) from the pot is
called heads. It has a blur appearance and it is collected in the Feints
Tank. After 15mins, clear solution is seen as the draw from the pot, it
is FMS (Fresh Malt Spirit). FMS is collected in a Spirit Receiver Tank.
About 4000Bl of FMS is collected from both the pots within a period
of about 4hrs. The FMS that is produced is 111proof. After that,
another 9000Bl is collected as Feints in the Feints Tank from the same
still. Its collection is stopped at proof alcoholic content and the
remaining part of the still is disposed in the Spent Lees Tank which is
sent to the ETP for treatment.

10.7 Maturation Hall:


The FMS produced for the entire day is collected in an Intermediate
Spirit Receiver Tank which is about 24,000Bl per day. Then it is sent
to the FMS Receiver Tanks in the Maturation Hall. There are three
maturation halls for this unit. In this hall, FMS is transferred to Casks
for maturation. Every cask can store about 200Bl of FMS. It is stored
for about 2 and half years in the Maturation Hall. The Casks are made
up of Oak wood. The tannin coating of Oak wood Casks gives it the
texture and color needed for maturation. The FMS that is colorless
becomes brown in color due to maturation. This spirit is then called as

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MMS (Maturated Malt Spirit). During maturation about 5-15% of


spirit is lost due to evaporation and it depends on a number of
conditions like temperature, humidity and weather.

10.8 Quality Assurance:


All the raw materials required for the production of FMS and the final
product are all checked and assured of its quality in the Quality
Assurance Lab in the Malt Spirit Plant. The malt is tested on its
properties like its starch content which should be above 76%, its mean
acrospire length and its sieve analysis is done. The coal used for the
production of steam is also tested for its moisture content in this lab.
It is generally 14% during the monsoon and around 12% in other
seasons. The sp. gravity of the sample from the fermenter is measured
in this lab using a Hydrometer and it is pH from time to time. The
spent grain is also tested in this lab for the loss of starch content that
has occurred. It is generally about 0.5%. The alcohol content of the
fermented wash is also estimated before sending it for distillation.

10.

EHS:

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EHS means Environment Health and Safety. In present world, EHS is


one of the most vital departments of a company. The government of
India makes it mandatory for a company to have its own EHS
department. This department takes care of the environmental issues,
health issues and safety of its employees. Some norms are set by the
MPCB (Maharashtra Pollution Control Board) for the company to
follow so that it does not pollute the environment. The EHS
department sees to it that these norms are followed by the company.
The ETP set up for waste treatment is one such step.
There is a Health Care Center set up in the company where there is a
registered doctor which treats the employees and gives him first-aid in
case of any accident in the plant. It also has an Ambulance van of its
own to take the person to nearby hospital in case of an Emergency.
The safety of employees and providing them with a favorable
environment to work is of utmost priority in the company. All the
workers are provided with caps, ear-plugs, jackets and hand gloves; a
measure towards their safety. Smoking is prohibited in the entire
company area. The workers are given training so as to take all the
safety precautions before indulging in a type of work. Work permits
have to be obtained by the employee before indulging in a hazardous
type of work. There are five types of work permits depending upon the
type of work he has to indulge in namely:
1. Hot work
2. Confined Space work
3. Routine Maintenance work/ Work at heights
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4. Line Disconnection work


5. Tanker loading and unloading work.
A Health & Safety Program consists of clearly defined actions to
implement the health and safety policy. The numbers of elements
depend on organizational needs.
Following are common elements of a health andsafety program:
Workplace inspections
Task analysis and procedures
Accident/incident investigation
Task observation
Emergency preparedness
Organizational rules
Accident/incident analysis
Employee training
Personal protective equipment (PPE)
Program evaluation system
Engineering controls
Personal communications
Group meetings
General promotion
Hiring and placement
Purchasing controls
Off-the-job safety
Continuous evaluation for improvement

11.

CONCLUSION:

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This training program has opened new vistas of wisdom as to how a


production company functions coordinating the various arms of the
administration.
The extraordinary cooperation and relentless labour are seen as the
pre-requisites to face the growing challenges. The hallmark of this
industry is vindicated by its growth profile and its contribution to the
national economy. The training in this production industry gave an
exemplary opportunity to counter all the ground realities and develop
the skills of problem shooting. The device between theoretical base
and the practical approach and the need to adapt to changing
conditions are best learnt by being a participant in the process.

Mashing efficiency :
1 TRS in Malt found around 77% when HWE is 76%
2 Degree Brix of Wort is directly related to dissolved percent sugar in wort
i.e., 12 degree brix is equal to 12% dissolved sugar.
MASHING EFFICIENCY

% ME

(Wort Volume X Brix/Malt (Kg) X TRS) X 100

FERMENTATION EFFICIENCY
(Practical Yield/Theoretical Yield) X
%FE
=
100

Practical Yield (AL)

Theoritical Yield (AL)

Volume of Fermented Wash X Alcohol %


in Wash /100
(Wort Volume X oBrix X 0.644)/100

Distillation Efficiency

%DE

(Practical Yield/Theoretical Yield) X


100

80

Practical Yield (AL)

Theoritical Yield (AL)

FMS Produced (BL) X Strength of FMS in


% v/v /100
Volume of Wash Charged X Alcohol % in
Wash /100

(ME/100 XFE/100XDE/100) X 100

Overall Efficiency
%OE

81