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# Fractions

Mathematic Unit Planner – Specific Activities Unit outcome(s) Year 4 level 2.6 – Represents and compares rational numbers in a variety of ways describing relationships among them. Class size 30 students Length of Unit 2 weeks or 10 lessons (200 minutes)

Specific objectives

Activity

Teaching points

Class organi sation

Resources

Finding out about the learner 1. Questioning the students on whether there can be less than a whole number.

1.1 Class Discussion Students discuss whether there can be less than a whole number. They need to provide an argument and real life examples of where they have seen it. Students can also choose to demonstrate their point.

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This activity is run by the students and the teacher is a facilitator for the discussion.

In a circle on the floor.

2. Assessing student’s parts and dividing numbers equally.

2.1 Equal parts activity up with a definition of equal parts. The group presents their definition on an A3 piece of paper which is then displayed around the room. 2.2 Dividing numbers Students are given a little packet of M&M’s they then divide the packet into groups (of 3, 4 and 5). They need to write their answers and whether the answers are equal or not. • • M&M’s food handling and hygiene need to be done. Get the students to represent their findings in different ways.

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If this activity is not done correctly the lessons can not continue as the students do not understand equal and will not be able to do fractions.

In the students table groups at their desks.

A3 paper (1 per group) Textas

knowledge of equal Students will work in groups to come

At desks, not touch other peoples M&M’s

Little packets of M&M’s (30)

Exploring the idea 3. Exploring shapes, fractions through folding and working

**3.1 Irregular Shapes Students cut out the page of different shapes (hearts, stars, odd
**

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This activity is also linking with symmetry.

Students work individually at their desks.

Shapes page Scissors Mirrors

with solid materials.

shapes, ect) (Appendix 1) and explore which ones can be divided equally by folding the shapes and drawing the mirror lines. 3.2 Regular shapes Students explore with circles and squares and they have to work out how many pieces that they can make that are equal. They can fold, draw or cut out these pieces and record them.

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Allow the students to explore freely and don’t interrupt.

Students work • This is a lead in activity to the making of the fraction kits. • This activity is so that the students build up their knowledge. Whole class individually but share their desk groups.

Paper, both square and circle

ideas with their Scissors

3.3 Class understanding After exploring the whole class will discuss what they found and show it on the smart board. Each group will present one thing back to the class. • Allow for discussion, if a group has something wrong allow opportunity for

discussion, on the floor near the smart board or at desks.

Smart board

others to correct first.

4. Students will make their fraction kit.

4.1 Fraction Kits (shapes) Students fold paper, both circle and square, into halves, quarters, eighths, thirds and sixths. This kit is to be placed in each child’s maths tool kit. Information, a list of what is in it and photos of a maths kits are in Appendix 2. 5.1 Record Halves and Quarters Worksheet, the students use their and a quarter. Appendix 3. 5.2 Make sheets • This is just a quick activity to check the students understanding. Should only take 5 minutes. Paper (A4) Individually to complete task then groups to go through answers. Worksheet Individual fraction kits • Activity is so students have learning aids they can work with. Individual at desks Paper, square and circle Scissors Fraction chart page

Getting the idea 5. How to represent fractions in pictorial, written form.

representational and fraction kits to decide what is a half

Students will work in pairs to make each other work sheets. Students create simple fractions using circles, squares and rectangles. They shade in a fraction of the shape and record the answers on a different page. They then swap sheets with a partner and the other person answers it. • It is about the students knowing how they make and represent a fraction and put that meaning across on paper

In pairs – the person sitting next to them

Wide pop 5.3 Fraction Kits (Grubs) Students make the fraction grubs. • Teacher has a copy of what the students do up on the smart board Organise and practice 6. Explore larger, smaller and same fractions. 6.1 Grubs Explore Students explore using the grubs. They will explore how they work and how they could help the students. By • Demonstrate how to find equivalent fractions using the grubs. Individual work, then demonstration, then individual Students individual grubs Smart board Individual work at desks sticks or tongue pressers

finding and exploring equivalent fractions. 6.2 Counters Students are given 20 counters of different counters. They are to work out how many are each colour. They are to represent this is a pictorial and written way. The students order the fractions from smallest to biggest using the sheet (Appendix 4). The students then find an equivalent fraction using their grubs.

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Give students time to work explore.

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Encourage the students to represent the figures in different ways.

Individual work

Counters around 20 per child (of 5 different colours but different amounts of each colour) Grubs

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Explain and demonstrate large and small fraction ordering on the board, but using different fractions.

Apply the idea 7. Using real life problems students find the fraction and represent them in a pictorial, written way.

7.1 Class Activity The students work as a whole class to work out the fraction of their class that are eating an apple that day. With the teachers help the students • the pictures of if each student eats an apple. 7.2 Name Code activity Student complete the Name Code sheet (Appendix 5) and if they have time they can make up their own code and sentence. • • Students work individually then in pairs. Name code sheets Blank A4 paper

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The aim of the teacher is get the students think about what fraction would be used. Allow the students to use the smart board.

Whole class activity with the students working on the floor in front of the smart board.

Smart Board

representational and use the “Maxs Toolbox” to display

Explain to the students the letters and get them to write the fraction in the book. This is an assessment task to check their understanding.

Individually at desks 7.3 Final Assessment task Students will work individually to complete the following worksheets, Building up Fractions, Equivalent Fractions and Matching Fractions (Appendix 6). The students can use their fraction kits to complete the answers. • • • Encourage the use of their fractions kits. The teachers aim is not to interferer with the students while they are completing the task. But if they ask for help ask open ended questions to guide their thinking.

Sheets (Building up fractions, Equivalent fractions, Matching fractions Students maths tool boxes (fractions)

Introduction

Context of Unit: This unit is based around a Year 4 class, although were I would teach it is in a Year 4/5 class, as this is where I help in a school. This class is set up in Year 4’s in their own area, which makes it easier to teach mathematics in. The school is in a farming area situated on Lake Albert, it is a small school with only 250 students from R to Year 12. The class has many students from a farming or fishing back ground. The students a mostly Anglo-Australian with a few Aboriginal students in it. There are a few students in the class which need special help as they have learning difficulties, but these students participate in most lessons with the rest of the class and do one on one work three times a week. These students have their own mathematics booklets they go on with. But the students with learning difficulties are encouraged to join in the class based activity, the unit allows for group and class work as well as hands on activities for these students. The students in the class use their Maths Tool Kits in their mathematics lessons as it allows them to complete the activities. These Tool Kits are the students individual kits, they put them together throughout the year when they have completed concepts, the kits are then taken through their schooling until they are no longer required.

Previous Mathematics: The students had been working on the concepts of whole numbers, relationships between numbers and the number line of bigger and smaller numbers. The students previously in the term before looked at graphing and data. This included a quick look at percentages and half numbers, but this did not include any detail.

Layout of the Unit: The first section is the SACSA information and the unit description, followed by outline of the sequence of teaching in relation to the cycle of learning and assessment. The outline and specific activities planner is in a table to make it easier to pick up and teach. There are 15 activities in the specific activities planner; this is so that if the students have the knowledge already the teacher can just continue with the

lesson and if they do not they can spend more time on one activity. This is also designed this way so if a relief teacher come in they can do a previous activity and get an understanding of where the students are up to. The conclusion follows then the resources and appendices.

FRACTIONS

Unit Title: FRACTIONS Year Level: 4 Term: 2 Band: Primary Years Length of Unit: 2 Weeks Standard: 2 Week: 2 to 4

Unit/topic outcome description

Students will be able to represent fractions, whole and part numbers in pictorial, representational and written forms. Students will be able to work out smaller, larger and equivalent fractions. Students will be able to explain when fractions are used in everyday life.

Strand NUMBER

Key Competencies KC1 – collecting analysing and organising information KC6 – solving problems

Essential Learning Identity Interdependence Thinking Communication

Key ideas Students develop their number sense through exploring and analysing how numbers are used and represented in their daily experiences in other Learning Areas. They continue to refine their understanding of relationships between numbers, place value and proportion (relating to 2.6).

SACSA outcomes (verbatim) 2.6 – Represents and compares rational numbers in a variety of ways describing relationships among them.

**Outline of Teaching and Learning Activities
**

Cycle of Learnin g Sequence of core teaching events

Finding out about the learner

3. Questioning the students on whether there can be less

than a whole number. 4. Assessing student’s knowledge of equal parts and dividing numbers equally. 5. Exploring shapes, fractions through folding and working with solid materials. 6. Students will make their fraction kit.

7. How to represent fractions in pictorial, representational

Exploring the idea

Getting the idea

and written forms. 8. Explore larger, smaller and same fractions.

Organise and 9. Using real life problems students find the fraction and practice represent them in a pictorial, representational and written way (assessment) Apply the idea

Conclusion

The assessment will include many different aspects; these are included below in a table. Assessment

Criteria for assessm ent Assessment strategy Who will asse ss? Record of assessment

Students show a final understanding of fractions.

Assessment of the final lesson/activity. Through the worksheet and observation of the students undertaking the activity. At the end of each week the students write in their maths books how they are feeling about the topic, what they have learnt and what they would like to learn.

Teacher

Students will be given a mark of understanding but it is not to be seen by the student. In their books but also the teacher write down what the students do not understand and what they would like to know.

Students feel that they have a better understanding of the concept.

Students

Cross Curricular Links Maths links: Outcome 2.1 – Poses questions, explores pattern, and collects relevant data. They record and represent the data, and also use data presented by other. Outcome 2.5 – Uses direct measuring strategies to represent, communicate and record measurements graphically in symbols with correct units and performs simple operations on measures. Other Subject links: Technology: Smart boards English: writing journal Art: pictorial form of communicating the askers and mathematical concepts. Benefits of the Unit: This unit allows the students to explore shapes, fractions and gives them an opportunity to build their knowledge on fractions. This unit also allows the students to learn how to represent the fractions in a written format which they might come across in their lives. This give students the basic understanding of what it means and how it might effect them in everyday life.

**Resources / Reference List
**

Books: Bourne, J 1998, ‘Remedial Maths Series, for students aged 10+ requiring assistance in rational number skills – FRACTIONS’, Ready-Ed Publications, Greenwood, WA. Dunmar, B 2000, ‘Exploring Maths, Exploring fractions’, Blake Education, NSW. Dunmar, B 1999, ‘Exploring Maths, Number Games & Activities for 010’, Blake Education, NSW. Machi, J & Tilsley 1989, ‘Number, Space, Measurement – students support materials: Modules 11 & 12’, Rigby Education, Victoria. Way, C 2004,’Primary Mathematics – Book E’, R.I.C Publishing.

Websites: Banfil, J 2006, ‘Fractions – Table on contents’, viewed 10th April 2009, <http://www.aaamath.com/fra.html>.

Work Sheets: Rogers, A 2009, ‘EDUC 4151 Workshop 6. Make your own fraction kit with Bremex square and circles’. Hood, K 2009, Tool Kit pieces.

Teaching Resources needed to teach Unit:

A3 paper (1 per group) Textas Little packets of M&M’s (30) Shapes page Scissors Mirrors Paper, both square and circle Scissors Shapes page Paper, square and circle Fraction chart page Worksheet Individual fraction kits Wide pop sticks or tongue pressers Counters

Appendix 1

Cut out Fold

Draw mirror lines

Appendix 2 Maths Kit The Maths Tool kit/box is the resources that the students make throughout their maths lessons. This can be stored in the classroom and used in their maths lessons. I have see the Tool Kits in pencil cases, bags and video boxes. I have found for storage in the classroom video boxes are the best as each student has their own with their name on it and it can just sit on the shelf until the maths lesson. All of the things in the fraction kit need to be laminated so they can be used in years to come and so that they can draw on them. The pictures below show an example Tool Kit.

The Contents includes: Clock faces Grid Addition and multiplication chart (blank) Graphing layout Times tables Protractor

Ruler Tanagram Money Cards Tape Measure Small white board marker and cleaner.

This is the contents before the fraction unit. During the fraction unit the following would be included into the kit: Equivalent Fraction chart (2, 1 cut up, 1 not) Grubs Circle and square fractions (1/2, ¼, 1/8, 1/3, 1/6, 1/12)

Included on the following pages are a copy of the items in the tool kit (photocopied), the Equivalent Fraction chart and the Square and Circle Fraction

kit.