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Number 589 March 2016

Oil & gas

Ambitions, plans
and technology

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We often use words like durable, reliable and future-proof to describe a product, initiative or
process in the pump industry, but what does it take for one of these to really stand the test of
time? This months issue takes a look at the companies re-evaluating their strategies for longevity,
the collaborations that last and the products that have proved their worth.
Our first application on page 16 begins back in the 1990s, when NAM (a joint venture between
Royal Dutch Shell and ExxonMobil) set out to find the most cost-effective way to extract gas from
Europes largest natural gas field. This article explains NAMs choice of magnetic bearings for every
motor-compressor string in the project and how they exceeded expectations.
Durability matters on every scale and in every component of pump manufacturing. The article on
page 24 explains how specialist gloves not only reduced cut finger incidents for Torishima Pumps,
but lasted longer, making savings for the company.
We move on to an interview on page 28 with SPX FLOWs Colin Elcoate and his ambitions for
the company in the Chinese nuclear power industry. Colin discusses these developments, along
with new opportunities in power generation and what structure an organisation now requires to
succeed long-term.
Next, we resume our coverage of the BPMAs 75th anniversary special on page 32. Having been
manufacturing for 144 years, Wilo knows all about longevity. This article shows how its longstanding membership with the British Pump Manufacturers Association has helped the company
adapt to radical changes in the pump industry over the years.
Our final feature on page 38 tackles the all-important matter of lasting pump performance.
The clearance of an impeller sealing ring is the main reason for the loss of leakage volume in
a centrifugal pump. This article presents the findings of research into the effect of sealing ring
clearance on pump performance to maximise opportunities for a long-term product.

Europump, the Association Europenne des Constructeurs des Pompes, counts more
than 450 pump companies as its members. Seventeen national associations of pump
manufacturers are represented. Within the EU alone, its members have a collective annual
turnover of more than 5 billion. Among Europumps objectives, are the intention to be
acknowledged as the principal body representing the European pump industry, and to
become the recognized European source for, and forum for, the exchange of pump industry
related information.

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Oil & gas



Product focus
Centrifugal compressor performance prediction

Business news

Product news

Product focus






Frequently asked questions


Product finder


Oil & gas

Bearing installations stand the test of time



This article explains why NAM chose Waukesha Magnetic Bearings to provide the
magnetic bearings for every motor-compressor string in its project to extract gas
from Europes largest natural gas field.

Oil & gas

Flow assurance for offshore production


This article takes a look at how metering pumps were customized to effectively
deliver chemicals to record depths, for deep offshore production in Indonesia.

General processing
Durable hand protection from hazards

Diary dates


A focus on the Cmap software designed to evaluate centrifugal compressor

operative performance and predict machine performances under different
operative conditions.


The story of how Torishima Pumps found Globus Showa gloves not only reduced
cut finger incidents but lasted longer, making savings for the company.



Pulp & paper




75th anniversary



Pulp & paper

General processing

Plug and play pump benefits printing plant

When a European printing company needed to make major repairs to one of its
fixed speed vacuum pumps it chose a new VSD-driven vacuum pump from Atlas
Copco. Heres why.

High working efficiency of rapid custom design

This feature discusses how 3D digital prototypes and evaporated pattern casting
play an effective role in rapid custom design and production, with maximum

Power generation

Pump performance

Chinese nuclear power industry ambitions

Colin Elcoate of SPX FLOW discusses developments in China, new opportunities in
power generation and what structure an organisation now requires to succeed.

Effect of sealing ring clearance on pump performance

The findings of research into the effect of impeller sealing ring clearance on a
centrifugal pump, through analysis of external performance and flow characteristics.

BPMA 75th Anniversary

Taking pumping to a higher level
To celebrate the 75 years of the BPMA, this feature shows how with the
associations help Wilo has adapted to radical changes in the pump industry.

World Pumps March 2016 edition. Cover image courtesy of


Dates to remember
10th March 2016

6 8 April 2016

Oxfordshire, UK, Pump Industry Awards 2016,

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, Asia Water 2016,

15 18 March 2016

11 12 April 2016

Milan, Italy, MCE Mostra Convegno Expocomfort 2016,

Kuwait City, Kuwait, 4th Kuwait Oil & Gas Summit,

Business news


New management
for Lewa
Nikkiso Co Ltd has put a new
management team in place for
the Lewa Group, as the Japanese
company reorganises its Industrial
The Lewa-Nikkiso Industrial division,
which includes the Lewa Group,
Geveke NV, Nikkiso Cryo Inc and
Nikkisos Japanese pump business
activities, will now be headquartered in Leonberg, Germany, the
home of Lewa.
Naota Shikano, the CEO of Lewa,
has resigned to become a director
and vice president of parent
company Nikkiso, with responsibility for the groups industrial business segments.
Peter Wagner will serve as the new
CEO of Lewa, while Hisanao Amino
has been appointed as chief financial officer.
A graduate mechanical engineer,
Wagner has worked at Atlas Copco
for many years, most recently as
president of the Atlas Copco Gas
and Process division. Amino spent
30 years at The Bank of Tokyo-

March 2016

Amarinth ships bespoke

nutshell filter pump

Mitsubishi UFJ Ltd, before joining

Nikkiso as general manager of the
Medical Divisions Medical Administration Department in 2014.
Stefan Glasmeyer continues as
Lewas chief marketing officer and
Dr Martin Fiedler remains chief
operating officer, with expanded
This step to form a strong division, reorganise the structure and
align our activities where it makes
sense will help to serve our
customers globally in a better
way. It also will generate operational efficiencies within the
Industrial division, said Shikano.

Amarinth has designed a

bespoke low-shear vertically
mounted API 610 OH 1 pump
with Plan 13 seal support system
for AI Energy Solutions to use
with its nutshell filters in
cleaning produced water.
AI Energy Solutions (AIES)
approached Amarinth to design a
pump for the final cleaning phase
of produced water using its nutshell
filters on an offshore platform.

In order to fit with the nutshell filter

package, Amarinth had to design a
bespoke solution, taking the OH 1
hydraulic design and engineering a
vertically mounted close coupled
arrangement so that the suction
was at the bottom and the
discharge at the top.

From left to right: Peter Wagner,

Dr Martin Fiedler, Hisanao Amino and
Stefan Glasmeyer.

Manufactured in stainless steel, the

pump incorporated an open
impeller design to handle the high
solids concentration and a vacuum
operated backwash facility to allow
for ease of cleaning and maintenance. A single seal Plan 13 seal
support system, normally used on
vertical pumps, was integrated with

the vertically mounted OH1 pump.

Amarinth was able to supply the
bespoke pump on a fast track
basis, with delivery in just 23
Oliver Brigginshaw, managing
director of Amarinth, said: Amarinth
has successfully delivered reliable
pumping solutions for nutshell
filters in the past and is pleased to
be continuing our successful
working relationship with AIES
established during previous

Final preparation of an Amarinth

vertically mounted API 610 OH 1
nutshell lter pump before shipment to
AI Energy Solutions.

Bilnger to sell Water Technologies division

The engineering and services
group Bilfinger SE is selling its Water
Technologies division to Chinese
water technology company
Chengdu Techcent Environment
Bilfinger Water Technologies
specialises in water and wastewater management, screening
and filtration technologies for
separating solids from liquids and
gases, as well as vacuum technology. Products and services are

marketed under the Airvac,

Diemme Filtration, Geiger,
Johnson Screens, Noggerath,
Passavant and Roediger brand

The Bilfinger Water Technologies

division has about 1600
employees and had a turnover of
approximately 300 million in

Diemme Filtration piston and

piston-membrane pumps are
manufactured for filter press
feeding and are suitable for
pumping particularly abrasive or
corrosive liquids, whose chemicalphysical characteristics are

The sale of the Water Technologies

division will allow Bilfinger to
focus its business on the industrial
and real estate sectors. Bilfinger
will receive net proceeds of
approximately 200 million from
the sale of its Water Technologies

We are pleased that our

successful water business has
found such a financially strong
and long-term oriented buyer,
said Bilfinger executive board
chairman Per H Utnegaard. The
move to a company in which
water technology is the focus of
business operations opens up
excellent development prospects
for Water Technologies.

For more business news,

read Pump Industry Analyst every month.
Download a sample copy at

Business news


March 2016

Cimarron Energy acquires Diverse Energy Systems assets

Cimarron Energy has purchased
substantially all of the assets of
Diverse Energy Systems, a Houston,
Texas-based manufacturer of
production, processing and environmental equipment, including
separators, scrubbers and jet
The acquisition is part of Cimarrons strategic plan to create a
single source supplier of production, processing and environmental equipment and related
services for US customers in the

upstream and midstream markets,

and for select international
John Clarke, chairman of Cimarron
Energy and a partner with the
companys equity sponsor Turnbridge Capital LLC, said: The
combination of Cimarron and
Diverse creates a financially strong
company with capabilities unlike
most in the industry. It brings
together two capable and highly
motivated teams with deep experience in engineering and design,

Duncan Cooper to leave

Duncan Cooper, Grundfos
Pumps Corps regional
managing director and group
senior vice president for the
Americas, will leave the
company this summer.

A replacement for Cooper has not

been named.

and natural gas production

equipment providing separation,
flowback and environmental
devices to exploration and
production companies
throughout the US.

Norman, Oklahoma-based Cimarron Energy manufactures oil

Duncan Cooper

Cimarron was acquired in 2014

by Turnbridge Capital, a private
equity firm focused on energy
services and equipment

Sulzer to provide process

package for Finnish mill
Sulzer has signed a large-scale
process pump delivery contract for
Mets Fibres next-generation bio
product mill in nekoski, Finland.
The Sulzer delivery will include
AHLSTAR process pumps, the latest
generation of Sulzer MCE medium
consistency pumps as well as agitators and vacuum pumps. The equipment is designed for high reliability

Since his appointment in 2013,

Cooper has helped to improve
the Danish companys performance in the Americas region.
The financial turnaround has
been exceptional, and our
employees are to be applauded
for what they do day in and day
out for our customers, said
Cooper. Grundfos has been a
fantastic place to work, and
whatever course the business
takes now, it is set for an
exciting period of high

manufacturing, and field service.

Together, we can offer customers a
broad array of equipment ranging
from standard products which are
integral to the cost effective
production of oil and gas, to
highly customised solutions
designed to address more
complex production and
processing applications, environmental compliance and

and energy efficiency as well as for

low operating costs. The contract
includes the manufacturing, testing,
packaging and installation inspection of the equipment.
Construction work on the new 1.2
billion mill is scheduled to be
completed during 2017.

An AHLSTAR A range process pump from Sulzer.

Berkshire Hathaway seals Precision Castparts deal

Berkshire Hathaway Inc, the
conglomerate run by US billionaire
Warren Buffet, has completed the
acquisition of Precision Castparts
Corp in a deal valued at US$37.2
Precision Castparts is now a
wholly-owned subsidiary of Berkshire Hathaway. The company

remains headquartered in Portland, Oregon, USA and continues

to be led by Mark Donegan.
A worldwide, diversified manufacturer of metal components and
products serving the aerospace,
power and general industrial
markets, Precision Castparts is the
parent company of Environment

One, the producer of E/One

grinder pumps for low-pressure
sewer systems. Niskayuna, New
York-headquartered Environment
One has two main segments:
Sewer Systems and Utility
Systems. The E/One sewer system
is a pressure sewer system that is
powered by E/One grinder

Berkshire Hathaway's subsidiaries

are involved in a range of businesses including insurance, reinsurance, utilities, energy, freight
rail transportation, finance, manufacturing, retailing and services.




Boost torque, increase

safety, reduce costs





Product news


CSA-certied, natural
gas-operated range
Wilden has announced the release
of a new line of CSA-certified
natural gas-operated doublediaphragm pumps.
Specifically designed for the oil and
gas industry, these new pumps
have been certified by CSA International to be used in applications
where natural gas is the energy
source to drive the pump.
Ideal for upstream and midstream
oil and gas applications, the pumps
are available in Wilden Original
(clamped), Advanced (bolted) and
Advanced FIT models, and come
equipped with either the patentpending Wilden Pro-Flo SHIFT Air
Distribution System (ADS), which is
CSA-certified ANSI LC 6-2008, or
the Wilden Pro-Flo X ADS, which is
CSA-certified for the ANSI LC
6-2008 and TIL R-14. Wilden CSAcertified pumps are offered in 13
mm (1/2) clamped and 25 mm
(1), 38 mm (1-1/2), 51 mm (2)
and 76 mm (3) bolted

Wilden says its CSA-certified pumps

also comply with all CE and ATEX
requirements, and feature extreme
shear sensitivity, high-viscosity
handling, dry-run capability, superior anti-freezing and no deadhead
damage. The maximum flow rate is
993 lpm (246 gpm) for the 76 mm
(3) model, and the maximum
discharge pressure is 6.9 bar (100
psig) for all models. Wetted paths
are aluminum or stainless steel, and
available diaphragm materials are
Buna-N, PTFE or Wil-Flex.

Better suction properties

for fluid handling
KSB Aktiengesellschaft has
launched the latest version of its
self-priming centrifugal Etaprime
pump. KSB says the pump sets
offer good suction properties, also
under relatively poor inlet conditions. Fluids with entrained gas
can also be handled, while it is
not necessary to install a foot
The pump sets are designed for
handling fluids of temperatures
between 30C and +90C. Their
maximum head is 105 m and the
flow rate can come up to 180
m3/h. The type series of the new
generation comprises 28 sizes,
which can be driven by either
2-pole or 4-pole IE3 motors. The
pumps are available in compact
close-coupled design (Etaprime B)

Permanent magnets
cuts energy costs
Flowserve Corporation recently
introduced the Flowserve Pleuger
PMM8, a new submersible electric
motor that utilizes permanent
magnet technology.
Based on the reliable Pleuger
three-phase, AC, squirrel-cage
induction motor, Flowserve says
the PMM8 has proven advantages
over asynchronous designs,
including higher efficiency at full
and partial loads, lower thermal
losses and a robust, large air gap
configuration. The company says
the result is a motor that can
reduce energy costs by up to 10%
and boost power output by over
100%, while extending the overall
life of the motor.
It is claimed the PMM8 motor
technology has demonstrated

Wildens CSA-certied natural

gas-operated double-diaphragm pump.

or as classic baseplate-couplingmotor versions (Etaprime L).

Depending on the application,
the customer can choose
between oil-lubricated rolling
element bearings or those greasepacked for life. It is also possible
to provide connections for
temperature or shock pulse
sensors on the bearing brackets.

The latest version of the self-priming

centrifugal Etaprime pump. (KSB
Aktiengesellschaft, Frankenthal,

March 2016

over 93% efficiency, one of the

most efficient 8 in submersible
motors on the market. Operated
in conjunction with variable
frequency drives, the PMM8 runs
at synchronous speed with no
rotor losses, which allows the
pump to run at best efficiency
point under variable flow
Since the new PMM8 is available
in the same diameter size as
competitor units, customers will
often be able to reduce their
energy costs by upgrading to the
Flowserve motor. Because of the
high power output, in many cases
the 8 in PMM8 design can be
substituted for conventional 8 in
asynchronous motors.

Vacuum systems ideal

for thin film coating
Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum introduces a broad line of vacuum
pump systems and accessories
specifically optimized for thin film
coating processes such as flat
panel display applications.
Oerlikon Leybold Vacuum develops
complete vacuum solutions for all
coating applications. The compact
and smart vacuum solutions
consist of high vacuum, booster /
dry pump combinations, as well as
control devices, if required.
Standardized systems based on
DRYVAC dry screw pumps in
combination with roots blowers
from the RUVAC WH family are the
optimal solution for flat panel
display application like fast load
lock, transfer and deposition processes. The company claims the
systems offer the fastest pump
down times with the highest
pumping speeds in their class. It
adds that the major customer
benefits are standardized inter-

faces such as electrical connections, purge options and/or

cooling water, paired with easy
maintenance access and a very
convenient backup pool handling.
Major processes in which it is
claimed these systems excel:
- Load lock / transfer
- Transistor sputter TSPT / Color
filter sputter FSPT / Cell
- OLED encapsulation / Evaporation
- Transistor TFT-PECVD / Thin film
encapsulation TFE-PECVD
- VCD Photoresist coater

The company claims the systems oer

the fastest pump down times with the
highest pumping speeds in their class.

Product news

March 2016

Europump guides the

European Commission

Pulseless pump delivers

high dosing accuracy

Europump members will gather in

Ghent, Belgium from 2528 May
2016 for their annual meeting, to
consolidate their position on
legislative initiatives.

Swissinnov Product recently

launched the NaoStedi, a pulseless dosing pump compatible
with Masterflex L/S drives. The
pump serves multiple applications in pharmaceutical, medical,
laboratory, chemical and industrial markets.

without a need for a calibration

or flow sensor.

Swissinnov Product says the

NaoStedi pump delivers high
performances in dosing accuracy,
flow control and is a new and
fairly easy to use alternative to
traditional peristaltic, diaphragm
and syringe pumps. The pump
head can be sterilized and integrated as OEM component in any
devices using pump system. The
NaoStedi pump functions with
reciprocating pistons driven independently over the pumping
cycles to ensure a constant flow
delivery. The company says the
pump delivers pulseless flow

In partnership with the European

Commission, Europump is
currently working on the revision
of the energy efficiency legislation
for water pumps (EC 547/2002).
While the current scope is limited
to clean water pumps, the
Commission wishes to include
wastewater pumps. The Commission wants wastewater pumps
tested in clean water conditions,
but these do not take into
account the contaminated
surroundings where wastewater
pumps are used. Europump is
pressing for wastewater pumps to
be tested in their normal working

Chairman of
the Europump

The Europump Ghent meeting

will update the pump community
on a range of upcoming legislative initiatives. For further information and registration details, visit .
Europump, the European Association of Pump Manufacturers, was
established in 1960 and represents
the interests of 450 manufacturers
from 14 EU Member States,
Turkey, Russia and Switzerland.

Swissinnov Product is a Swiss

company specialized in pump
systems. It provides consulting
services for custom designs and
personalized solutions.

The NaoStedi pulseless dosing pump is

compatible with Masterex L/S drives.

Fast andEasy Fixes.

This is How I


Independent welding in forestry and the timber

industry has become reality with UTPperform.
voestalpine Bhler Welding
amloos-1 1

15-02-16 09:1


Product news


March 2016

Pump station models &

Back pressure regulator
equipment consolidation for gases and liquids
Smith & Loveless (S&L) announces
the shipment of its first EVERLAST
Wet Well Mounted Pump Station.
The new Everlast product line
consolidates all of S&Ls abovegrade pump station models and
equipment options under one
single brand. S&L says its Everlast
pump stations are housed
outside of and above the wet
well, making operator maintenance safer, simpler and more
The company adds that the
pump stations are designed to

provide a long, successful service

Everlast pump stations feature S&L
technology like the DURO-LAST
Stainless Steel Baseplate with
25-year warranty, QUICKSMART
Touch-Screen Station Controls, the
X-PELLER Non-Clog Impeller and
RapidJack Quick-Clean Check
Valve. Supplemental packages
offer solutions for extreme clogging applications, enhanced
station monitoring, cold weather
protection and more.

Pharma manufacturers
benefit from dry
disconnect couplings
OPW Engineered Systems is
pleased to announce its Epsilon
Dry Disconnect Couplings, which
are claimed to help pharmaceutical manufacturers decrease
product costs and increase safety.
The Epsilon Dry Disconnect
Couplings feature a series of
design and operational features
that make them ideal for use in
critical in-plant and railcar/tanktruck chemical-transfer applications in pharmaceutical
manufacturing. Examples of volatile, hazardous or high-value pharmaceutical compounds whose
transfer can benefit from the use
of Epsilon disconnects include
dichloromethane, toluene,
ammonia (23%), pharmaceutical
slurries and Syltherm.
OPW says what sets the Epsilon
apart from competitive dry
disconnect technologies in these
applications is a design that
utilizes ball valves rather than
poppets to facilitate the opening
and closing of the coupling. This
unique construction allows a
convex ball to seat with a concave

ball when the valve is opened,

producing a straight-through flow
path that creates no areas where
chemicals can nest. The result is
fluid transfer that experiences no
reduction in flow rate while virtually eliminating the occurrence of
product spills when the coupling
is disconnected.
A series of five independent and
redundant mechanical locks also
prevents the Epsilon coupling
from becoming accidentally
disconnected, which removes the
threat of unintentional spills and
catastrophic chemical releases.

Epsilon Low Spill Coupling.

Cashco, Inc. recently introduced a

new Model BR back pressure
regulator for use with a wide
range of gases and liquids.

chamber and trim material combinations. Trim designs include metalseated or composition-seated with
a metal or composition diaphragm.

With the appropriate options,

applications include upstream overpressure regulation of cryogenic
liquids, sour gas, industrial gases
and chemicals, as well as the
common industrial fluids water,
oil, steam and compressed air.

Two body materials will also be

available, with 27 different trim
material combinations from which
to select, Rogers adds. We are
sure to have a cost-effective
option for just about any application. Equally important, it allows
us to offer our customers another
choice when their needs call for
an in-line back pressure regulator.

Available in globe or angular

porting configuration, the Model
BR valve controls inlet pressures
up to 200 psig (13.8 Barg) in
multiple spring ranges and can be
utilized for the majority of industrial pressure relief applications.

This is the first in-line back pressure regulator of its type to be

offered by Cashco, explains Clint
Rogers, president of Cashco, Inc.
According to Rogers, the BR regulator is available in five sizes from
3/8 to 2 in, and can handle materials from 20 to 400 Fahrenheit,
with the appropriate body/spring

The Cashco Model BR back pressure

regulator for use with a wide range of
gases and liquids.

Variable Speed Drive

oers smaller footprint
Schneider Electric recently
launched the first wave of its new
Altivar Process 660 Drive System for
the water & wastewater, oil & gas,
and irrigation end-user markets.
The new Altivar Process variable
speed drives provide integrated
safety and automation functions
that Schneider Electric says meet
the requirements of the most
demanding applications with a
smaller footprint. The drives
include various optional communication cards available for seamless integration into main
automation architectures.
Altivar Process drives feature
numerous configurable I/O as

standard to facilitate adaptation to

specific applications. They offer a
plug & play solution, where
parameters are preset in the
factory to the desired configuration, which the company says
helps to save process control and
operating time.
Schneider Electric says the variable
speed drives combine the reliability, flexibility, and ease of use of
the Altivar drives family with
proven, validated, and tested drive
system designs to provide an ideal
solution for the water & wastewater, oil & gas, and irrigation
end-user markets.

Product news


March 2016

South Eastern Europe

mining installations

Explosion-proof series for

hazardous locations
The new X-Series by Liberty Pumps
are heavy cast iron sewage and
effluent pumps designed specifically for use in hazardous locations.

The supplied pumps have a multistage centrifugal design (both horizontal and

MZT Pumpi has manufactured

and installed 12 pump aggregates
for different mines, for the
company Elektroprivreda, Bosnia &
The pumps are indented for the
transport of drainage water for
mine pits with a flow up to 933
[m3/h] and head up to 258[m].
The supplied pumps have a multistage centrifugal design (both
horizontal and vertical).

The capacity was ranging between:

17-933 [m3/h], head 12-258[m].
MZT Pumpi has specialized in the
production of industrial pumps
transport or water, oil and oil
derivatives, in the region of SouthEastern Europe for more than 70
years. Its production facilities are
located in the industrial suburb of
the capital of Republic of Macedonia Skopje.

The XFL- and XLE-Series meet the

standards required in hazardous
locations. Available in and
hp, these pumps have been certified to Class 1, Division 1, Groups
C & D and Class 1, Zone 1,
Groups IIA and IIB.

Liberty Pumps is a privately held,

family owned company located in
Bergen, New York, founded in
1965. The company is a domestic
manufacturer of sump, sewage
and effluent pumps for the
professional trade in North

Both series feature a dual-sized

discharge, 2-vane semi-open cast
iron impeller (bronze optional),
epoxy powder coat finish, dual
silicon carbide shaft seals with
seal fail sensor and stainless steel
In addition, Liberty has added the
ISS- and ISD-Series intrinsically
safe control panels for use with
X-Series pumps.

The XFL50 explosion-proof pump.


This is How I

Pumps fitted with GRAPHALLOY
wear parts survive upsets.
and case rings:
Run dry, keep on running
Run hot, cold, wet or dry
Reduce maintenance
New pumps or retrofits
-400F to 1,000F
-240C to 535C+
Corrosion resistant

Independent welding in agriculture has become


reality with UTPperform.

Yonkers, NY 10703 U.S.A.
ISO 9001:2000

voestalpine Bhler Welding


amloos-1 1

15-02-16 09:1


Product focus


March 2016


Centrifugal compressor
performance prediction

ata presentation is one of the main difficulties for the analysis of

centrifugal compressors operative performances. However, actual
performance is strictly related to field inlet gas conditions. Cmap
software is designed to evaluate performance and predict the
machine performances under different operative conditions.

One of the main difficulties for

the analysis of centrifugal
compressors operative performances comes from how the data
is presented. Expected performances is generally described in

inlet pressure and temperature.

However, actual performances is
strictly related to field inlet gas
condition that are actual different
from design conditions. Cmap is
a software tool for PC, windows

"Cmap is a powerful and easy tool that

predicts the machine performances
under dierent conditions."
terms of graphs of discharge
pressures, discharge temperatures, polytrophic heads, efficiencies and absorbed power, related
to the design inlet gas conditions, i.e. gas mix composition,

based, designed to perform easily

and quickly centrifugal compressors performance evaluations.
Cmap has been built in order to
give to the centrifugal
compressor analyst or industry

Figure 2: Compressor performances can be compared when obtained

with the same inlet conditions.

user, a powerful and easy tool to

predict the machine performances under different operative
For a centrifugal compressor,
performance is strictly linked to
the inlet gas conditions (Figure 1).
Also note that it isnt possible to
accurately compare different inlet
conditions. It is necessary to
adjust and align performances to
the same reference inlet conditions (Figure 2).
When attempting to evaluating
performances by comparison
between field measured parameters and expected parameters, the
special trick is then remember that
one of the two performances need
to be manipulated and adjusted to

Figure 1: Compressor performances

map are valid for specied inlet gas

the inlet conditions of the second

one. In brief inlet conditions need
to be homogeneous (see Figure 3
for concept flow).

Figure 3: Schematic ow diagram for compressor performance calculation.

0262 1762/16 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Product focus


March 2016

D1: design 1 condition

D2: design 2 condition

discharge pressures and temperatures map for different running

efficiency and polytropic head
map for different running speeds.

discharge pressures and temperatures map for different running

efficiency and polytropic head
map for different running speeds.

Gas Mixture 1

Gas Mixture 1

Pressure 1: 40.2 bar a

Temperature 1: 50C

Pressure 2: 53.2 bar a

Temperature 2: 37.8C

Table 1.

Figure 4: Design performances, adjusted to actual (eld/test) performances can be

used as reference for measured performances evaluation.

fully automated way and will

produce the expected compressor
performances for inlet pressures,
inlet temperatures and gas mix
compositions different for design
/ reference ones. The software is
easy and intuitive, and will
provide also automatic storage of
data in a project archives for
quick consultation and historic
trends. Cmap is structured to

allow to analysts and engineers to

build their own machinery database and to maintain records of
all executed calculations. Let us
consider the case of availability of
centrifugal compressor performances i.e. pressures and temperatures (Figure 5).
Once finished the project set up,
the software has all necessary data

Components. This is How I

Figure 5: Typical centrifugal compressor performances curve (discharge pressure vs
inlet ow and discharge temperature vs inlet ow) for a xed speed.

In order to proceed to performances evaluation comparison

weve applied this method in the
following steps:
Step 1. Expected performances
related to design inlet conditions
have been adjusted to field
suction conditions.
Step 2. Field performances are
compared to adjusted expected
At this point its possible to
proceed to the comparison of the

expected performances to the

field performances being both
referenced to the same inlet
conditions (Figure 4).

The starting point is the availability of a centrifugal compressor
performance curve, the relevant
gas mix composition and thermodynamic conditions (pressure and
temperature). Having this inputs
data available, the software will
perform all complex calculation in

Independent welding in the oil & gas industry has

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15-02-16 09:0


Product focus


March 2016

Figure 6: Software calculation output (performances map) screenshot.

Figure 7: Software calculation output (performances map) screenshot.

to perform calculations. The

following step is then to launch the
calculation task. To execute this task
its needed only few seconds to
input the new gas mix, and launch
the calculation for new inlet pressures and temperatures (Figure 6).

conditions, Analysis provided an

evaluation of performance and a
comparison to design values.
Centrifugal compressor performances map in two different inlet
conditions of pressure and
temperature were available,
(Table 1).

After this first calculation step it

is possible to run a performances
analysis tool that allows to
compare field measured data
with expected data (Figure 7).

Case study
Once calculations completed, the
software will respond displaying the
new compressor performances map.

The compressor under study was

running under off design inlet

Starting from the curves of the

D1 condition, the expected
performance curves in the D2
have been calculated using the
software Cmap. The obtained
curves, D2calc, have been than
compared to the D2 curves available as input.
The following graphics (Figures 8
11) compare the D2calc (x
points), obtained with the software Cmap, versus D2 (continuous line) performances curves.

Figure 8: Centrifugal compressor design performances comparison to calculated

performances (discharge pressure)

Figure 9: Centrifugal compressor design performances comparison to calculated

performances (discharge Temperature)

It should be noted how the

curves almost overlap: the
maximum error calculated is less
than 0.2% (polytropic work at
maximum speed). Measured errors
have been considered tolerable for
the purpose of the evaluation of
compressor field performance. This
confirms the capability of the
proposed method to predict
compressor performances aligned
with design ratings. One application of the proposed method is
on surge protection systems and
for diagnostic purposes. Typical
centrifugal compressors protection
systems are based on simplified
algorithms that use basically the
inlet flow, suction and discharge
pressures and temperatures.
These actual algorithms, are
based on a basic surge locus
equation obtained under simpli-

fied hypothesis such as the ideal

gas law, validity of hydraulic
affinity laws, reference gas mix
and inlet conditions. These algorithms are consequently
completly dependent on the
suction thermodynamic parameters (pressure, temperature and
gas mix composition): the protection action is than rigidly linked
to design suction parameters and
remains valid only for the design
specified gas mix.
Therefore these systems provide a
limited surge protection valid in a
small operative range around the
design conditions. The
compressor protection is not
correctly active when inlet conditions move to off design values,
especially when approaching the
high pressures range where introduced errors do not allow to
provide enough accurate predictions for more severe applications

Inefcient protection
Consequently the protection of
these algorithms is partial and
limited. When the compressor is
requested to operate outside the
design conditions, the protection
action may become inefficient
and potentially can cause the
damaging of the compressor.
A technical difficultiy in achieving
effective and complete protection
of compressor from surge
phenomenon is caused by the
fact that in reality, also surge
limits are dependent on the gas
mixture and on the thermodynamic suction conditions (temperature and pressure).

Product focus


March 2016

The proposed method for prediction of centrifugal performaces

can be profitably used to predict
centrifugal compressor overall
performances in every inlet
conditions and then to detect
surge points in every operative
The application of the proposed
methods allows also a new kind
of diagnostic capabilities. Infact
the software is able to store
automatically data and to
provide a real time indication of
the compressor efficiency and
comparison with expected

Figure 10: Centrifugal compressor design performances comparison to calculated performances (polytropic eciency).

This is a powerfull feature that
permits to have continuous indication about how much the
machine behaviour is alligned
with design expectations. These
evaluations can be than used to
have historian trends and to
build pictures of the machine
status along the operation
period. Collected data will be
useful to support decision
making on predictive maintenance activities plans and


IPC specializes in engineering

services for the process
industry (chemical, petrochemical, power generation),
offering technical services and
technology solutions for
machinery, systems, plant
devices such as turbo
machinery (gas and steam
turbines, compressors, pumps)
and relevant monitoring
control and protection systems.

Figure 11: Centrifugal compressor design performances comparison to calculated

performances (polytropic Work).

IPC services include: plant unit

engineering, operations
supervision, inspection
diagnosis and troubleshooting
for plants.


Methods proposed and described

in this paper can allow to:
Predict the performances of a
centrifugal compressor under
varying thermodynamic conditions of the inlet gas. The prediction of compressor performances
is accurate even at high pressures,
where the ideal gas theory
commonly used introduces
considerable errors.
Analyze the performance of the
compressor during operation and
compare them with those
expected provided by the
Implement advanced protection from surge, overcoming limits
of the current technology.
Have useful indications on the
health of the compressor (diagnostics) based on the capability to


analyze the performances and

efficiency of the machine in a
simple and immediate way.
Support decisions and planning
of predictive maintenance and
The methods and software
tools have been validated versus
many compressor technical data,
and versus all the available scientific papers on thermodynamic
gas theories developed in the
hydrocarbons research field.

The independent welding system

High Performance Electrodes
High Performance Power Source
High Performance Welding Results

UTPperform is a unique welding system that allows

you to weld independently of any stationary power
supply anytime and everywhere. A machine
designed for the demands of independent people
who go for individual welding performance.
Welding ller metals designed for the special welding
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Check out your live independent welding demo at:

Massimiliano Di Febo, IPC operation
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15-02-16 09:2




March 2016

Oil & gas

Bearing installations
stand the test of time

n the mid-1990s NAM set out to find the most costeffective way to extract gas from Europes largest natural
gas field. This article explains why Waukesha Magnetic
Bearings was chosen to provide the magnetic bearings
for every motor-compressor string in the project.

Project overview
Groningen, Europes largest natural gas
field, located in the Netherlands, was
discovered in 1959. Production began in
1963 and by the end of the decade,
nearly 50% of the fields reserves were
depleted. Nederlandse Aardolie Maatschappij (NAM), a joint venture between
Royal Dutch Shell and ExxonMobil, was
created in the mid-1990s to find the
most cost-effective way to extract gas
from the field and extend the life of its
reserves, ensuring the field could
continue to supply the region.

By upgrading the fields equipment,

including installation of motors and
compressors, the field could supply gas
to all of the Netherlands, Germany and
Belgium for an additional 40 years. The
challenge was to provide at least 87%
availability and a low total cost of

Solving the challenge

When Waukesha Magnetic Bearings
(WMB) joined the project, it utilized its
latest technology expertise to solve a

problem that other industry leaders had

deemed impossible due to the wide
speed range involving several critical
rotor speeds. In fact, it is claimed that
NAM was told It cant be done by the
other manufacturers it approached.
WMB partnered with Siemens to install
three radial active magnetic bearings for
the motor, two radial and one thrust
active magnetic bearing on the
compressor, and a digital controller with
analog amplifiers. The system allows for
remote monitoring and diagnostics and
frequent fully automated remote startups. Robust bushing-style auxiliary bearings were selected for their high
investment protection and ability to
provide remote condition observability.
The controller and auxiliary bearings
were fully qualified before product
delivery on WMBs magnetic bearing and
auxiliary bearing test rig. Featuring a
rotor mass of 1.5 tons, the test rig is
comparable in scale to the large
turbomachinery typically used in the oil
& gas industry.

Motor during factory test.

In addition to handling the wide

compressor speed range with minimal
vibration and noise, the AMB system met
user requirements for high reliability,
high energy efficiency, low maintenance
and low investment cost. Using
magnetic bearings instead of traditional
fluid film bearings eliminated the need
for additional building construction to
0262 1762/16 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved




March 2016

Facts at a glance
Natural gas compression, extracting
gas from underground wells utilizing
23 megawatts of electric power
Products used:
Three radial active magnetic bearings
for the motor
Two radial and one thrust active
magnetic bearing on the compressor
One digital controller with analog
Proven availability exceeds 99.9%
across 20 installations
Low life cycle cost for initial
installation and continuing operating
Minimal maintenance costs
Complete versatility to operate
throughout the speed range from very
low speed to high speed with good
vibration control
Environmentally friendly, efficient

Waukesha Magnetic Bearings test rig, the largest test rig of its type in the world.

house a lubrication system. This reduced

costs and provided a simpler, cleaner,
more efficient design to lessen the environmental footprint.
There are a total of 20 magnetic bearingequipped motor-compressor strings at the

Groningen field, and magnetic bearings

from WMB were installed in each of them.
The machines varied significantly in the
number of stages, hence the dynamics of
the rotor, but WMB was able to adjust for
the different rotordynamics through software changes in the controllers.

Performance counts
NAMs original goal was to provide 87%
availability with the lowest total cost of
ownership. Analyzing the results after 17
years, the magnetic bearings from WMB
exceeded expectations, providing over
99.9% availability and an investment cost
savings of 35%, all while saving on
energy costs. In the end it is the
performance that counts and when I
look at the performance, it is amazing,
said Wim de Groot, retired rotating
equipment engineer, NAM GLT.

Versatility with magnetic

Magnetic bearing systems are able to
accommodate a wide variety of rotating
equipment, so applications other than
large natural gas fields can reap the
benefits of magnetic bearing technology. Magnetic bearings have
achieved high availability, cost savings
and environmentally responsible operation in steam turbines, generators,
turbo-expanders, pumps, blowers,
compressors and motors in natural gas
production and pipelines, oil fields, the
chemical industry, the refrigeration
industry and more.

NAM motor (right) and compressor bundle (left) being installed at the Groningen site.


KPP / KPU Petroleum Chemical Process Pump

Xinjiang Dushanzi
Petrochemical Plant

SINCE 1954




March 2016

Oil & gas

Flow assurance for

offshore production

etering pumps are relatively small components on a

production platform but they perform a critical role.
This article takes a look at how metering pumps were
customized to effectively deliver chemicals to record
depths, for deep offshore production in Indonesia.

Milton Roys Primeroyal R triplex metering pumps that were specially-congured to the meet the
project requirements.

Today, deep water activity throughout

Asia Pacific outpaces traditional offshore
activities in many parts of the world. This
trend is growing in Indonesia which is
accelerating offshore production to
address its own domestic needs.
With a population of more than 250
million people, Indonesia is the most
populous country in Southeast Asia and
the fourth most populous country in the

world, behind China, India and the

United States. The countrys total energy
consumption grew by more than 40%
over the last decade according to the
Indonesian government.
Natural gas, which has previously
accounted for just 15% of the countrys
energy mix, is expected to play a much
larger role in the energy mix moving
forward. By 2025, the government plans

to reduce its reliance on oil, and double

its natural gas consumption to more
than 30%, to meet its domestic needs.
To meet this goal, Indonesia will need to
tap its western ocean basins which are
rich in resources, with fields such as
Gendalo, Maha, Gandang, Gehem and
Bangka containing up to four Trillion
Cubic Feet (Tcf ) of recoverable gas
0262 1762/16 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved


March 2016

A challenge in exploiting these energy

rich basins is the presence of gas
condensates which exist in many of

metering pumps must be configurable

through a modular design, and they
must be powerful enough to deliver reli-

"When working in deep water environments, power and performance matter."

these offshore fields, along with the
presence of natural-gas hydrates; ice-like
solids that form when light hydrocarbons
and water mix under high pressure and
low temperature. Hydrates not only
restrict flow, but they can also form solid
plugs that can block production and
damage equipment.

Overcoming depth, pressure

and power challenges
Preventing hydrate formation and corrosion is mitigated with the help of chemical inhibitors that are delivered
continuously or intermittently by
metering pumps. In order to effectively
deliver these inhibitors, high pressures
are required to overcome friction losses
in the long piping runs required to reach
the deep fields. Because many of these
chemicals are toxic, an efficient delivery
with minimal leakage is required.
To accommodate different operator
production and structure requirements,

able fluid flow to the required depths

efficiently to ensure hydrate inhibitors
reach the wellhead with minimal
When working in deep water environments, power and performance matter.
Beyond the ability to deliver chemicals
thousands of feet below the ocean
surface, operations also need to extend
far below the seabed, where backpressure can measure five to seven times
greater than the pressure on the seafloor.
Delivering massive amounts of hydraulic
power is a requirement, but it cannot be
accomplished through tradeoffs in efficiency. Electrical energy is a precious
commodity in offshore environments
that need to autonomously produce
their own electricity so any pump
deployed in these job sites must be
Although power, efficiency and flexibility are important, the one require-

ment that tops the list is reliability.

Metering pumps are relatively small
components on a production platform
or floating production storage and
offloading (FPSO) vessel, but they
perform a critical role. If the chemicals
they deliver stop flowing for any reason,
the entire production can come to a
halt. Because the value of a single days
production far exceeds the cost of the
pump, it is easy to see why reliability is

Pump design considerations

and engineering
An operator offshore Indonesia was
expanding their Production Sharing
Contract (PSC), by adding new wells at
depths of 3,200 feet which represented
one of the deepest projects ever undertaken in this part of the world. For this
project, the metering pumps selected
would have to be able to address pressures of 579 bar (8,397 PSI) and be able
to maintain that pressure throughout the
wells entire lifecycle.
In selecting the right type of metering
pump, the operator considered a number
of factors, starting with a modular and
configurable design that could include
different liquid end options. They also
required variable stroke length, and
adjustable flow capabilities, to be able to
address the wide range of flow assurance
chemicals and corrosion inhibitors
required at the job site.





March 2016

able to make a series of drive and stroke

adjustments to achieve the 1,200 L/H that
were required by the operator.

Technology and testing

All of the modifications and testing were
completed at Milton Roys manufacturing
facility in France. Its in-house testing
facility performed a number of API 675
tests, including Net Positive Suction Head
(NPSH) tests, and hydrostatic tests that
exceeded pressures required for the
project (up to 955 bar). They also ran
steady state accuracy, linearity and repeatability tests from 10 to 100% flow rates,
and custom modifications were made to
collect leakage from the plunger and
return it to the suction line. As a result,
the pumps ensure zero external leakage
for up to 20,000 hours.

Performance ratings of Primeroyal Triplex Pumps.

Through a long and trusted relationship
with the Engineering and Procurement
Contractor (EPC), Milton Roys engineering
team was able to get involved at the
outset of this project. The successful
delivery illustrates the value of detailed
planning, a thorough understanding of
project requirements, customization to
create a tailored solution, and comprehensive testing to ensure that the modifications made successfully addressed the
operators requirements.

The packed plunger liquid end oers the best performance when net-positive inlet pressure is an issue.

After a comprehensive evaluation, four

sets of Milton Roy Primeroyal triplex
metering pumps were selected, and an
additional twenty API pumps were delivered to provide injections for corrosion/
wax/scale inhibitors and demulsifiers.
A series of modifications were required to
address the operators requirements.
These included the ability to accurately
dose monoethylene glycol (MEG) and
other corrosion inhibitors to the required
depth of 3,200 feet - and they also
needed the capability to withstand pressures of up to 579 bar (8,397 PSI) with
flow rates up to 1,200 liters/hour.
At the customers request, the Primeroyal
pumps were fitted with Milton Roys latest
Packed Plunger NX Liquid End, which is

specifically designed to reach higher pressures and higher flow rates. The packed
plunger liquid end is best suited for
projects where net-positive inlet pressure
is an issue. With the packed plunger
liquid end, the plunger comes in direct
contact with the process fluid to provide
efficient handling of viscous fluids. The
liquid end is designed to handle temperatures as high as 315C (600F), with pressures up to 1,000 bar (14,504 PSI). The
plunger has a field-tested track record of
providing more than 20,000 hours of
continuous operation with limited
Milton Roys engineers also made adjustments to the pumps variable eccentric
drive. Because of the pumps broad turndown capabilities, the engineers were

A part of the first deepwater oil and gas

project in Indonesia, and with the equipment in place, the field is designed to
produce 115 Million Standard Cubic Feet
per Day (MMSCFD) and will be processed
from a floating production unit (FPU).
The project and other gas condensate
fields in Indonesias western ocean basins
will play a vital role serving Indonesias
growing domestic energy consumption
needs, and companies like Milton Roy will
continue to provide the innovation and
the technology needed to help meet
these needs.

Melvin Teo, General Manager,
Flow Control Asia, Milton Roy,
Singapore, China
Phone: +65 65682800




March 2016

General processing

Durable hand
from hazards

and protection is critical to working safely with

hazardous manufacturing applications. This article
looks at how Torishima Pumps found Globus Showa
gloves not only reduced cut finger incidents but lasted
longer, making savings for the company.

Torishima Pumps, of Osaka, Japan, manufactures centrifugal pumps for a wide

range of applications and is the parent
company for Dubai based Torishima
Service Solutions. The Dubai company
provides a pump overhaul, maintenance
and emergency breakdown service for
the parent company across the Middle
East region. These pumps are often used
in water transmission, power plants and
sewage. As well as providing a service,
Torishima Service Solutions manufactures
pump parts.
Torishima Service Solutions started as a
small entity some five years ago with
five or six staff but now employs a workforce of 90. The 30 glove-wearing staff
wore general standard issue gloves
which were often discarded at lunchtime, sometimes simply because they
were dirty. The company decided to find
an alternative solution to improve hand
protection and reduce hand injuries. Any
potential cost savings could also be

staff work with 8 to 10 metre long pumps

which have to be dismantled, overhauled,
cleaned with solvents and put back into
operation as quickly as possible.
Machinery is sometimes rusty and may
have traces of contaminants. In the
machine shop, gloves are worn to
protect hands while setting up
machinery, operating cranes and
handling sharp components which may
be oily.
A Globus hand protection expert
worked with the employees who tested
potential gloves and gave feedback, in
order to source the most appropriate
solution for the company. By involving
the workforce at an early stage,
employees provide valuable insight into
any problems and possible solutions
and are more likely to wear and
look after their gloves, rather than
discarding them.

loss of dexterity, matched with an

appropriate level of cut resistance.
Comfort and dexterity were vital to
enable Torishima workers to handle
small components efficiently.
The Showa 380 embossed nitrile foam
grip glove was chosen for general
purpose handling duties in light oily
and greasy environments. The palm has
an embossed grip pattern which channels the oil and grease efficiently
allowing workers hands to maintain a
strong grip. This glove offers far more
grip than a standard nitrile glove of its
type. As well as providing protection for
Torishimas workers, the Showa 380
provides a comfortable fit. The seamless
nylon knit liner and anatomical shape
bolsters comfort and dexterity with no
loss of mechanical resistance. The
EN388 certified glove for mechanical
hazards suits a range of applications
from mechanical, to machinery and
maintenance in dry or light oily

Optimum protection
Glove trials
Globus EMEA was brought in to assess
the companys glove requirements at
their 2100 m2 site in Dubai. Assembly

Following the glove trials and hand

protection survey, two durable gloves
were specified from the Showa portfolio. The gloves which were chosen
provide optimum protection without

The Showa 541 cut resistant Polyurethane

(PU) palm-coated glove was chosen for
workers exposed to cut risk hazards. It
consists of a seamless knit, with a High
Performance Poly Ethylene (HPPE) liner
0262 1762/16 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved


March 2016

and an elasticated cuff. The glove is flexible and durable providing effective
protection against cuts and is also very
resistant to abrasion. Its elastic and breathable and allows the back of the hand to
breathe to reduce perspiration. The glove
is certified to EN388 at cut level 3.
Robert Walker, the Workshop Manager, at
Torishima Service Solutions, explained:
Health and safety is of paramount
importance to us we dont want any
injuries to hands and fingers workers
should be able to go home at the end
of a shift in the same condition as they
arrive in. The hand protection solution
we have chosen is designed to protect
our workers hands from cuts and from
contaminants on the machinery. After all,
we should all feel safe in the jobs that
we do. Its also very useful to have
Globus on hand in Dubai.

The Showa 541 cut resistant Polyurethane (PU) palm-coated glove was chosen for workers exposed
to cut risk hazards.

Globus has also provided the employees

with advice on how to look after their
gloves. This has been useful as the
workers appear to value their gloves.
They are no longer disposed of unnecessarily or carelessly cast aside. Instead
workers go out of their way to put their
names in them, look after and wash them.

Savings add up
Since Torishima Service Solutions
supplied durable Showa gloves, instead
of regular industry standard gloves, to its
Dubai workforce there have been no cut
finger incidents for over a year. As well
as better protection, the old dirty gloves
used to be discarded at lunchtime, but
now the Showa gloves are lasting for a
number of weeks.

The seamless nylon knit liner and anatomical shape bolsters comfort and dexterity with no loss of
mechanical resistance.

The gloves may initially be more expensive, but in the long run with far fewer
glove changes and the facility to wash
them, the cost savings add up. There are

environmental savings too because less

waste helps to protect the planet. By
working with Globus to protect
employees and save waste, Torishima has

been able to enhance its corporate

social responsibility values too.





March 2016

Pulp & paper

Plug and play pump

benefits printing plant

hen a European printing company needed to make

major repairs to one of its fixed speed vacuum pumps
it reassessed their combined operation to establish
potential savings that could be made. They chose a
new VSD-driven vacuum pump from Atlas Copco.

Polestar is Europes largest independent

printing company and is predicted to
save more than 10,000 off the annual
energy bill at its Sheffield printing plant
by adopting a new VSD-driven vacuum
pump from Atlas Copco.
When Polestar was confronted with the
need to make major repairs to one of its
three existing fixed speed vacuum
pumps at its 100 million purpose-built
Sheffield Gravure plant, a production site
that has received environmental awards
for its green credentials, the company
re-assessed its combined operation to
establish the potential savings that could
be made by installing a more energyefficient replacement.

Polestars printing site in Sheeld, UK, produces around 2.5 million high-quality catalogues,
magazines, brochures and supplements every 24 hours.

Clear synergies
Recognising the clear synergies between
compressed air and vacuum in the field
of air movement, it was a logical move
by Polestar Sheffield to seek the recommendations of Halifax-based Pennine
Pneumatic Services (PPS) for the
optimum solution to their vacuum
needs. Atlas Copco Compressors premier
distributor in Yorkshire, PPS has been a
long term supplier of compressed air
systems, both fixed speed and VSDdriven, pipework and maintenance services to the company.
As a result, a GHS900 VSD+, one of Atlas
Copco's new generation of intelligent,

Printing production line at Polestar, Sheeld, UK.

0262 1762/16 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved


March 2016

oil-sealed, plug-and-play rotary screw

vacuum pumps, was installed on a trial
basis to show how it could deliver peak
performance at the required operating
pressure, and help achieve substantial
energy savings.
Of the three existing units, the two
smaller fixed speed vacuum pumps
previously used by Polestar Sheffield
were running at approximately 20 kW an
hour (one rated at 11 kW and the other
at 9.7kW combined). The single GHS
VSD+ vacuum pump that replaced them
is a 15 kW unit, which operates at
approximately 20% load, equating to just
4 kW. Based on an operation of 8,000
hours per annum, the estimated savings
are expected to exceed 10,000 (16 KW
x 0.08 x 8,000 hours).

New vacuum pump technology

The Atlas Copco GHS VSD+ vacuum pump system plays an essential role within the
transfer of work from the presses to the print finishing and bindery operations
The GHS 350-900 VSD+ range, generates a nominal displacement of up to 900 m3/h,
incorporates VSD technology that enables users to adapt their vacuum generation
requirements to match the demands of their process. The GHS VSD+ vacuum pump
only delivers energy and performance when and where it is needed. If demand drops
to half it only delivers half, and the power consumed is halved.
The GHS VSD+ range is designed to aid a range of manufacturing industries, such as
food and meat processing, bottling, canning, plastics, packaging, printing, paper,
electronics, woodworking, house vacuum and central systems. Typical applications
include lifting and handling, forming and shaping, vacuum packing, preservation,
freeze drying, pick and place and pneumatic conveying.
The range offers energy recovery features on the larger models, which leads to minimal
hot air carry-over in the workplace and air-conditioned production environments.

Advanced technology
Ensuring reliability and harnessing
advanced technology are key to Polestar
Sheffield's success, which has led to the
site winning the prestigious ERA (European Rotogravure Association) printing
award. While the gravure process is traditionally employed for long print runs, the
latest engraving technology allows for
short-run work with significant paper
usage savings. Polestars elite printing
site produces around 2.5 million highquality catalogues, magazines, brochures
and supplements every 24 hours. These
include many of the top consumer
magazines including weekly TV listing
titles and national newspaper
A vacuum system plays an essential role
within the transfer of work from the
presses to the print finishing and bindery
operations. In addition to its modern
rotary gravure printing facilities, Polestars
34 million investment has included a
purpose-built web offset 96- and
64-page size press installation together
with multiple stitching stations.

Rough vacuum technology

As Simon Robinson, engineering

manager at Polestar Sheffield explains:
We pride ourselves on using the latest
technology and continually look at ways
to save energy which is why it made
absolute sense to accept PPS recommendation to trial a variable speed drive
rotary screw vacuum pump. The Atlas
Copco GSH900VSD+ has proved a
success and the projections are for major
savings on our energy bills over the
course of a year.

The GHS 350-900VSD+ rotary screw

vacuum pump range is an advance in
rough vacuum technology that is based
on Atlas Copcos advanced screw
compressor principles. The GHS VSD+
range offers benefits to manufacturers.
According to the manufacturers, these
include average energy savings of 50%
compared to conventional oil-sealed
and dry vane pumps, as well as best-inclass noise levels and oil retention properties. Primarily, its VSD technology
enables users to precisely adapt their

vacuum generation requirements to

match the demands of their production
With approximately three quarters of all
UK companies that employ rough
vacuum requiring oil injected pumps,
which are traditionally fixed speed, there
is massive potential for energy savings
derived from the new VSD technology to
be gained across many sectors of UK
manufacturing industry.





March 2016

Power generation

Chinese nuclear power

industry ambitions

he Power and Energy division of SPX FLOW was

formed to meet the needs of the international
energy market. Colin Elcoate of SPX Flow discusses
developments in China, new opportunities in power
generation and what structure an organisation now
requires to succeed with World Pumps.

Spun-off from SPX Corporation in

September 2015, SPX Flow, Inc. was
formed to pursue a more flow-focused
strategy and capitalise on the organisations strengths for the global food and
beverage, power and energy and industrial markets. SPX first acquired a flowrelated business, Lightnin Mixers, in
1998 through the merger with General

Signal. Three more companies joined in

2001 Waukesha Cherry-Burrell pumps
and valves, Brann+Luebbe metering and
dosing pumps and Dollinger filtration
products in the acquisition of United
Dominion Industries. There were further
smaller acquisitions of Copes Vulcan,
M&J Valve, Hankison and Johnson
Pump, and all the businesses were
consolidated under a single management team.
By 2007 the flow business had grown
to annual revenues of more than $1
billion and the company focused on
specific end-markets process equipment for food and beverage, air treatment products and pumps, and flow
control products for the power and
energy markets.

Colin Elcoate, vice-president Business

Development, Power of SPX Flow.

Leading supplier to the dairy and food

industry APV was acquired in 2007,
while the purchase of ClydeUnion
Pumps in 2011 significantly expanded
the global reach of the company in the
power and energy industry. ClydeUnion
had been formed through the combination of Clyde Pumps and Union Pumps,
Clyde Pumps having previously acquired
the Weir Pumps business in 2007. With
the ClydeUnion acquisition, the final
product lines of SPX Flow were greatly
increased and include critical pressure
pumps, metering systems, dosing
pumps, speciality valves and valve

closures, chemical injection skids, filtration and air dehydration equipment.

The Power and Energy division of SPX
Flow now serves the oil and gas
industry, nuclear and other conventional
power industries.

Nuclear developments in
One of the major growth areas for SPX
Flow recently in the power and energy
sector has been in the Chinese nuclear
industry. As Colin Elcoate, vice-president
Business Development, Power of SPX
Flow explains, the companys historic
strength in the country has been a
major building block. China has been a
stronghold for us for some time, he says.
We had established a good installation
base of 300-400 pumps through a wide
variety of projects all over the country.
Consequently we needed to look at how
we serviced these installations. The
Chinese nuclear industry is quite a closeknit community, so we decided that the
best way was to establish regional meetings where we could meet the engineers
and inform them of all the latest
advances and upgrades. In this way we
have been able to build strong links
within the industry.
However, as the Chinese nuclear
industry has developed, a much greater
0262 1762/16 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved


March 2016

quantity of process equipment has

been sourced locally rather than
imported. Colin Elcoate explains: This
has occurred through a mixture of the
establishment of local companies
designing and building their own products and joint ventures with overseas
companies, through to companies
wholly-owned by overseas producers
but with a Chinese manufacturing
facility. However, China has big ambitions in the nuclear industry and we are
very keen to be a part of it.
China has embarked on a transformation
of its energy mix. There are currently initiatives to improve the environmental footprint of the coal power generating
industry, while the development of gas
powered stations are also underway. In
addition, there is considerable investment
in the renewable energy sector at
present. However, nuclear energy is firmly
part of this mix and China continues to
plan new projects every year.
China is looking for a balanced portfolio in its energy market, but to meet
demand and help address environmental issues nuclear is going to be a
huge part of what they do, says Colin
Elcoate. They also see it as a big
opportunity to develop technology for
the future and use this expertise in
nuclear projects elsewhere in the world.
So we are now seeing them coming to
the market with new designs for export

to grow this capability in Europe, so they

can take this back to China when it is
Chinese nuclear expertise now extends
across a number of key technologies
small modular rectors, fast breeder reactors to Generation IV reactors. China has
a great many operational reactors right
now, adds Colin Elcoate. They are
gaining experience at a more rapid rate
than the rest of the world, because
no-one else is building any new facilities.
China now has a lot of experienced
people in the industry and their capability is fantastic. They have built US,
Canadian, Russian and French reactors at
home, and have learned from all these
SPX Flow is now actively pursuing some
of these new opportunities available in
the Chinese nuclear industry. We are
seeing three to four new projects a year
in China and we have started early
engagement in their export projects, for
which the timing is still uncertain.
However, it is a fascinating dynamic, says
Colin Elcoate.

Pump market over-capacity

While the long term future for the
Chinese nuclear sector looks good, there
have been problems in the local pump
industry. Although there are many

"China has big ambitions in the

nuclear industry and we are very
keen to be a part of it."
markets. This presents us with new
opportunities because many of the
Chinese suppliers do not have a global
support network. As a result they are
interested in forming partnerships with
western companies to meet these
export opportunities.
They are also investing in decommissioning and have established a European
office to service this. Having built all
these reactors in China, they are ultimately going to face the same decommissioning and clean up issues that the
rest of the world does, so they are now
investing in that knowledge. They want

A large concrete volute pump being installed in

China. These pumps are made by ClydeUnion
Pumps in Glasgow, UK.

factors at play, Colin Elcoate believes that

between all the western OEMs and local
suppliers, there is definitely over-capacity
in the pump market at the moment and
the Fukushima disaster in Japan was a
major factor. After Fukushima, every
nuclear project in the world stopped and
the biggest impact was felt in China, he
says. We managed to continue to
service existing power stations undertaking upgrades and safety work,
however, new projects have only gradually come back on-line.
Another major factor has been the fall in
the price of oil. As a consequence oil

A residual heat removal pump, which is now

being delivered to Tian Wan in China.

industry investment has been significantly curtailed and this has had an
impact on the pump industry. The thing
about the power industry is that it never
goes crazy it just continues growing at
2-3% per year across the globe, explains
Colin Elcoate. So what has happened in
the short term is that pump manufacturers serving both these sectors have
refocused their efforts on the power
industry and the market has got very
competitive. Companies have had to
deal with a short term lack of demand
and it has been an interesting challenge
for everyone.

Power industry projects

However, the time scale of power
industry projects mean that suppliers can
ride out economic cycles. For a nuclear
project, from the first conversation to
receipt of a purchase order can be five
years, explains Colin Elcoate. In big oil
industry schemes this can be two to
three years, while downstream projects
may be a year. So we do tend to be on a
slightly different economic cycle.





the power industry for 100 years. The

one thing that you will always be asked
for when submitting a bid is the
number of these pumps you have
installed around the world.

A safety injection pump made at SPX Flows

nuclear equipment production facility in
Annecy, France.

The fall in the price of oil and gas can

also provide opportunities in the power
generation industry. Colin Elcoate
continues: What has happened in the
USA is that gas has become cheap and
environmental pressures have placed
increased regulations on coal fired power
stations. So the shift in the Americas,
and the USA in particular, has been
towards combined cycle power plants
which have been a great opportunity for
us. We are seeing 30-40 combined cycle
projects a year at present.

As well as a track record in the industry

Colin Elcoate adds that SPX Flow offers a
wealth of experienced people in the
power industry. We have a proactive
sales force, he explains. The first look at
a particular market is undertaken by
business development. They look at
global trends and projects coming up.
Projects are identified prior to the selection of an EPC (Engineering, Procurement
and Construction) company.
For example, for a combined cycle
power plant we may identify and
contact many of the relevant EPCs, who
will request a budget price for pumps as
part of the overall bid. When the EPC is
selected, firm requests for a quote will
be sought and this is where our business
development and commercial sales
people engaging with the end-user can
get involved. We might be able to
provide some understanding or contextualise the requirements and see if there
is something that we have to offer the
EPC or other stakeholders that might

March 2016

pump ultimately meets the specification. Finally, we maintain executive-level

contact perhaps once or twice a year.
This is where we can discuss how the
job has been going outside of the
project environment, as well as future
However, managing a project and
keeping contact down to the optimum
number is also a consideration. We all
need to run a lean workforce, adds Colin
Elcoate. There will be a lead engineer
and lead procurement person, as well as
end-user representation. If you are
dealing with one office headquarters
or a procurement office then matters
are relatively straightforward. However,
for example, if a Spanish EPC has been
bidding for a job in Mexico and sourcing
parts in India, then you have to juggle
this internally.

Global representation
Being able to call on experienced people
on the ground throughout the world is
another area that Colin Elcoate believes
SPX Flow is at an advantage. Local representation is important, he says. From
initial engagement right through to after-

Combined-cycle power plants

A combined-cycle power plant uses
both a gas and a steam turbine
together to produce up to 50% more
electricity from the same fuel than a
traditional simple-cycle plant. The waste
heat from the gas turbine is routed to
the nearby steam turbine, which generates extra power. The combined cycle
power plant is a much simpler product
and a smaller order, says Colin Elcoate.
It is not a standard product and configured to the facility. SPX Flow can offer a
broad range of products for these
plants and this has put us in good position in this market.

"It is a truly global community and people

expect you to be on their doorstep."
make a difference. However, having the
resources and personnel to be able to
provide long term support is possibly
the most important aspect in establishing relationships with the EPC and
the end-user.

Key accounts
Building partnerships
Colin Elcoate believes that history is
firmly on SPX Flows side when it comes
to building strong business partnerships
and bidding for pump contracts in the
global power generation sector. The
most important thing we have is
heritage, he says. Everyone in the
industry knows that ClydeUnion
acquired the former Weir Pumps business, and that Weir Pumps had been in

Building and maintaining key accounts

is also key to being part of a successful
bidding process. With key customers
we have three levels of engagement,
explains Colin Elcoate. Firstly, we have
technical people engaged with each
other engineers discussing the latest
pump developments. We also hold
users groups to build relationships and
ensure that the end-user is part of the
decision-making process and that the

market support, and throughout the life

cycle of their project and your product,
you have to have someone based locally.
They will want a project manager in their
own country and when the pump is
installed, they will want local engineers
doing it. So it is a real advantage if you
have people around the world. A lot of
the competition in India, South Korea
and China have good products, competitively priced and rapid response times,
however, they do not have a lot of experienced people elsewhere in the world. In
the past we have operated by flying
people out from Glasgow to undertake
projects around the world. However,
those days are now gone. It is a truly
global community and people expect
you to be on their doorstep.




March 2016

BPMA: 75th anniversary

Taking pumping
to a higher level

ilo and the BPMA share longevity. This year, the BPMA
celebrates 75 years a comparative youngster to Wilos
144. To congratulate the BPMA, this article shows how
with the associations help Wilo has adapted to radical
changes in the pump industry throughout recent years.
the UK and in Europe on issues in particular related to legislation and to policing
of the challenges that face all pump
manufacturers such as the need to
address the import of non-compliant
pumps that masquerade as quality products. Gary Wheatley, Training and Technical Manager, Wilo UK, comments, Wilo
has suered from this issue as much as
any manufacturer but even they are
amazed at the poor quality of packaging
and labelling that counterfeit pumps try
to get away with. Some of the more
recent attempts are laughable with
obvious spelling mistakes even to the
brand name.
But its the quality of the products
which cause most concern failing to
deliver performance anywhere near
those of genuine pumps from the

Total solutions

A Wilo GIGA pump in action in a hospital environment.

In the UK, Wilo is based in Burton-onTrent, with a team of around 100 in

oces that serve as the head oce,
provide an assembly facility, a sizeable
warehouse and a training centre. Wilo UK
provides pumps for heating, cooling and
air-conditioning technology as well as
water supply and sewage disposal.

Wilo has been a member of the British

Pump Manufacturers Association since
the early eighties and sees its membership as an essential business partnership.
Apart from the opportunities it oers for
networking with others in the sector,
Wilo says the BPMA provides the
company with a strong voice to lobby in

The pump market is changing and has

changed radically in recent years, in
many ways and not just in the achievement of higher levels of eciency.
Perhaps the most important change
that Wilo has seen is the move away
from being just a pump manufacturer,
simply supplying pumps that consultants and contractors are ordering for a
project. The move has been towards the
adoption of a proactive approach to
supplying total solutions, oering a total
0262 1762/16 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved


March 2016

response to the need to reduce energy

usage, lower energy bills and reduced
emissions, whilst seeking new ways of
responding to the challenges of
modern day building provision and
Every major building relies heavily on
pumps of various designs, shapes and
sizes to run the heating, air conditioning,
chilled water, potable water supply, to

existing pumps with modern high eciency pumps, designed to do their jobs
better, quicker, less expensively, in a
more environmentally friendly way and
more reliably.
In new buildings, where you can start
from a blank sheet of paper, Wilo says
modern pump technology allows speciers and consultants to seek the
optimum solution for that building

"The payback from modern pumps is

usually extremely fast in relation to the
capital cost."

Lifecycle costs
The key words when looking at systembased solutions are lifecycle costs.
Modern pumps carry a more expensive
capital cost than their elderly relatives.
The new technology in the modern
pumps comes with a price. But Wilo
claims the payback from modern pumps
is usually extremely fast in relation to the
capital cost, because the energy required
to run these new pumps is far less. The
company also adds that over around a
fteen year lifecycle, huge savings in
terms of energy cost can be made, large
emission reductions can be shown and
with far less energy use come far lower
energy bills and maintenance costs for
the building.

distribute harvested rainwater and to
remove the sewage and greywater from
the building. Their roles are many and
various, but all are vital. Wilo says
modern pump technology allows these
tasks to be undertaken far less expensively in upgrade and renovation
projects, simply by replacing elderly

without any restrictions on infrastructure,

incorporating system solutions that
include the latest pump technology from
top to bottom, along with the necessary
building management system to take
advantage of all that new technology
oers, within the budgetary restrictions
they will inevitably have to work with.

Lisa Blakemore,
Marketing Manager, Wilo UK,
Second Avenue,
Centrum 100,
Staordshire DE14 2WJ
Phone: 01283 523000

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March 2016

General processing

High working
efficiency of rapid
custom design

anufacturers continually strive to provide custom-made

pumps, at a low cost and high efficiency. This article
discusses how 3D digital prototypes and evaporated
pattern casting play an effective role in rapid custom
design and production, with maximum energy-savings.

The working efficiency of a pump

changes with its operation point, which
is the intersection of a flow-head curve
for the pump and the flow-pressure drop
curve for the pipeline. Traditionally, the
pump specifications are available in very
limited quantities, while the character of
pipeline is endless.
Thus in many applications, quite a part of
pumps have to operate on the off-design
point, more or less. Of course, a custommade design can meet the special
requirement and make sure the pump
works on the high-efficiency design point
even without any additional valve regulation, but how can we balance the custom
requirement of pump and its cost of time
and expenses?
The concepts of custom development
and Rapid Response Advanced Manufacturing (RRAM) have been presented and
discussed in a lot of forums and adopted
in many industries. The demand of
custom production for large industrial
pumps is also imperative, for which
working efficiency is one of the most
important performance indicators.
For example, for a 1000 kW circulating
water pump in a thermal power plant,

An example of a virtual image for a custom pump set, including a pump and its matched coupling,
electric motor, intelligent monitor and control device, and metal mounting base.

the electric power cost within its 20

years life cycle could be over 10,000
times more than its original retail price.
With a 1% of efficiency enhancement,
thousands of pounds will be saved each
year. Only when the pump operates on
the design point can the highest energy
efficiency be possible. Given the relatively small order quantity of high-power
pumps, it seems very hard to realize the

custom development of pump in a fast

and low cost way.
Fortunately, with the progress of
computer technology and advanced
manufacturing, the rapid custom development of pumps becomes possible.
This article summarizes some of the
authors' experiences in taking threedimensional Digital Prototype (DP) and
0262 1762/16 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved


March 2016

Evaporated Pattern Casting (EPC) to

help realize the above aim.

Requirement denition
First of all, comprehensive and clear
presale communication must be made
between client and manufacturer. Typical
essential factors to consider are:
Technological parameters The demand
flow rate and head. If necessary, the
application engineer should join the
client and help to investigate the
delivery pipeline system and calculate
each pumps flow rate and head.
Property of transmission medium Physical and chemical properties of the
medium, including the name, temperature, density, viscosity, saturated pressure
and other special features such as corrosivity and toxicity. If it contains solid
particles, then the property of particles
like apparent grain density and diameter
should also be confirmed.
Application Scenario Restrictions of
working area and project cost should be
analyzed before determining construction type, pressure level and installation
dimension of the pump. The Virtual
Reality Scene is helpful for displaying the
work site and attracting the client.
Reliability and environmental friendliness
Vibration, noise and sealing are closely
related to the life cycle and maintenance
cost of pump, so the relevant technical
detection standard and test grade have
to be ascertained.
The customer requirement should be
transferred into quantitative specifications by designers. And it is necessary for
designers to take part in the commercial
meeting with customer, discuss the technical, commercial and price details, and
finally sign the contract. It is worth
mentioning that a fluctuating price
contract is recommended, considering
design modification is common for
custom pumps before the design validation stage. In addition, special material
and process requirements for specific
parts should be listed in advance for
early machining and purchasing.

Digital prototype
DP is the use of computer technology to
build the digital model of mechanical
products and their subsystems, which not

only contains the geometrical characteristics, but also reflects the function and
performance features through computer
simulation analysis. With DP, the conceptual design, model interation, optimization, validation and visualization of pump
can be integrated through parameterized
3D models in the whole development
cycle with the lowest interaction cost.
Besides, the traditional pump development cycle,
DesignManufactureTestAftersalesMaintenance, can be changed into
the customized development process:
validationManufacture. During the whole
cycle of DP, the virtual simulation with
Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) tools
is the most essential stage that determines whether the performances of
pump can fulfill client needs, so the
custom product failure risk can be minimized and controlled before final casting.
Hydraulic model. The key of pump efficiency lies in its hydraulic model, which is
also the first milestone of the custom
development cycle. Designing the
hydraulic model for custom pump from
ground zero is not recommended, considering the complexity of fluid behavior
inside pump. Instead, manufacturers
should collect existing excellent hydraulic
models as many as possible, and select
the optimal one with the same or similar
specific speed as the design target from
the currently available model library, as
the reference basis for further modification. The original hydraulic model can be
transformed into a target model with the
theory of similarity (for flux and head) and
Moodys Law (for efficiency). For example,
the flow rate and head will decrease with
the reduction of impeller diameter
according to the affinity law of impeller
However, simple conversion is not
enough for designing finalization, because
slight differences of design parameters
could be nonlinearly magnified into huge
performance differences during conversion process. Therefore, Computational
Fluid Dynamics (CFD) based on Finite
Volume Method (FVM) is widely applied
for the hydraulic performance prediction
and hydraulic model optimization. Most
commercial CFD software packages carry
out numerical computation by solving the
Reynolds Average Navier Stokes equations
together with a certain turbulence model
to get the mass and momentum conservation equations closed. And the fluid

An example of calculated stress distribution of the guide vane

stage of a long shaft pump, with deformation showed by
180 magnication. Uniform pressure as high as 2.7MPa is
loaded to all inner surfaces for strength check.

zone is usually divided into several

domains with two different reference
frames: the rotating coordinate system for
the impeller region, and the fixed coordinate system for others. The setting of
boundary conditions should combine
factual characteristic of custom pump and
designers calculation experience. In
general, multiple cases with a series of
gradually varied inlet conditions are to be
computed to predict the whole flow
capacity head and flow capacity efficiency curves. If the suction performance
is the concern, a two-phase fluid problem
with cavitation model should be
contained in CFD to predict the Net Positive Suction Head Required (NPSHr).
Structural design. The structural design
for custom pumps usually involves three
kinds of problems, the static strength,
sealing, and vibration and noise, and all of
them must be solved with the help of
computer simulation after the final
formalization of hydraulic model.
The real significance of structure simulation for a custom pump lies more in
locating the high safety margin area for
its weight reduction other than strength
check, which means less material and
casting cost under the premise of function fulfilling.
Static strength. Qualified static strength
is the basis of structural safety. The structural failure risk of the main parts of
pump like volute casing, flange and bolts
can be evaluated by analyzing the stress
and deformation lever according to a
certain material strength theory. The





March 2016

An example of half foam mold for a large industrial centrifuge pump.

structure deformation is calculated

according to load and constraint conditions, and then the stress distribution can
be deduced by material's stress-strain relationship. The principal load of pump
casing comes from inner fluid pressure,
which depends on the pump head and
inlet pressure. For main shaft, load forces
can be grouped into axial forces and
radial forces, and they can be estimated
referring to pump design handbook. It
must be clear that a safety factor for load
lever is indispensable in view of the
casting and machining defects, and the
safety margin should be confirmed by
both transaction sides according to the
manufacturers process capability and
related enforceable regulations.
Fatigue analysis. The most common
failure mode for the main shaft itself is
fatigue failure, and it will cause serious
consequence like shaft fracture. The rotation times of shaft under given load
conditions can be predicted through the
S/N curve (stress-number curve) of shaft
material, and the stress distribution comes
from static strength analysis results. In
general, the rotation number should be
more than 107.
Sealing analysis. Sealing analysis deals
with the leak problem based on FSI (Fluid
Structure Interaction) simulation. The
pressure load on the inner surface of
pump is not even, but comes from the
CFD result. Due to the nonuniformity of
inner fluid pressure, the structure deformation becomes asymmetric and finally
leads to fluid leak. For large axially split
pump with high lift, a sealing analysis is
necessary to prove the sealing performance of casing split and help the layout
of flange and bolts.

Structure dynamic analysis. The vibration and noise of a pump set originates
structure response for dynamic load, such
as the fluctuation of radial force due to
unsteady fluid flow, and the interaction
between drive motor and pump rotor
component. A modal analysis is usually
the first step for structure dynamic analysis, which calculates resonant frequency
and provides basic data for further
computations. The rotor dynamics analysis
is good guidance for the design of pump
set vibration reduction, in which the rotor
system is simplified as the combination of
shaft line, rotor mass points and some
bearing points. Both stiffness and damp
of bearings are taken into account based
on the rotating speed. For custom pumps,
rotor dynamics analysis can help
designers to find the critical revolution,
study the bend and vibration mode of
shaft, thus the reliability of the pump can
be guaranteed.
Manufacturability analysis. Manufacturability analysis promotes the transform
of custom prototype into real product.
The DFM (Design for Manufacturing)
group should give a rapid assessment on
the machinability and the assembly
process of design scheme and help to
accelerate the manufacturing process. For
example, the selection of hardened and
tempered technology for main shaft
should be carefully assessed by both
designer and experienced technologist to
ensure its strength and toughness.
Besides, pump parts other than casing
and impeller should be selected from the
standardized parts database as many as
Evaporated Pattern Casting. Although
the currently fashionable topic 3D Printing

seems the optimal solution for custom

product manufacture, it is not suitable for
large size metallic pumps yet. Casting has
always been the main mature way for the
production of non-standard parts
including pump casing and impeller.
Traditional wood and metal patterns is
uneconomic for custom pumps, because
the high cost of time and money for
mold making cannot be diluted by mass
production. EPC is especially applicable
for custom pump casing and impeller
casts. The major advantage of EPC is that
it uses foam as mold material. Foam is
relatively cheap and can be conveniently
carved by automatic computer engraving
machine with 3D digital models.

The custom production of high power
pumps according to specific client needs
is a promising way to obtain the
maximum energy-saving effect. The flexible use of DP and EPC can greatly
promote custom development and
strengthen the manufacturers position in
the competitive market.

Hehui Zhang, Ph.D. candidate
College of Energy Science and Engineering,
Central South University, PR China
Shengxiang Deng, Professor
College of Energy Science and Engineering,
Central South University, PR China
Yingjie Qu, CEO
Hunan M&W Energy Saving Tech.Co.Ltd., PR China




March 2016

Pump performance

Effect of sealing
ring clearance on
pump performance

n order to research the effect of impeller sealing ring

clearance on a centrifugal pump, external performance
and flow characteristics of the centrifugal pump were
analysed, to select a reasonable impeller sealing ring
gap size. Here are the findings.

Clearance of impeller sealing ring is the

main reason for the loss of leakage
volume of a centrifugal pump. However,
the analysis of the internal fluid flow in
centrifugal pump and the prediction of
performance of the pump generally
ignore the influence of impeller sealing
ring. But, the impeller sealing ring has
great significance to the performance of
the centrifugal pump, it will not only
cause the loss of the volume of the
centrifugal pump, but also to change the
flow in the centrifugal pump[1].
At present, there are some achievements
in the research of impeller sealing ring:
Chen Y etc.[2] have studied the effect of
front clearance and behind clearance on
the performance of the pump, it was
concluded that the effect of front clearance on the performance of the centrifugal pump is large than behind
clearance. Wu D Z etc..[3] have studied
the effect of clearance of impeller wearrings on leakage loss and mechanical
efficiency of centrifugal pump. Toshio
etc.[4] used CFX-TASC Flow, the numerical
simulation of labyrinth seal was
proceeding, and the effect of leakage
flow and clearance flow on the force of
the rotor was analyzed. Rhode.[5]
discussed the gap flow in detail, various

factors such as flow regime, compressibility and eccentricity were considered.

Matsumoto K etc.[6] have studied that
through increasing the radial clearance
of the impeller seal between the front
pump cover and the pump body in the
low specific speed centrifugal pump to
increase the leakage, thereby reducing
disc friction loss, in order to improve the
overall efficiency of the pump. Will etc.[7]
proposed a simplified two dimensional
model of the clearance of centrifugal
pump for calculating, and the flow in the

clearance of wear-rings and the pump

cavity was analyzed in detail. In
summary, although there are some
research about the clearance of impeller
sealing ring, however, there is little
research on how to select the reasonable
sealing ring clearance, under the premise
of considering the performance of the
centrifugal pump.
The clearance of impeller sealing ring
was selected as the object of the
research, numerical simulation method
was used, to analyze the inner flow

Figure 1. Model for calculation.

0262 1762/16 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved


March 2016

Figure 2. Q-H curves of dierent gap sizes.

condition of impeller, and to discuss the

effect of clearance size on performance,
leakage and internal flow field of centrifugal pump, on this basis, selecting the
reasonable sealing ring gap.

Calculation model and mesh

IS80-65-160 single stage single suction
centrifugal pump was selected as the
research object, the three-dimension
diagram is shown in Figure 1, where b is
the impeller seal ring gap. The design
parameters: inlet diameter D1=80mm,
outlet diameter D2=168mm, blade
number Z=4, volume flow Q=50m3/h,
head H=32m, speed n=2900r/min.
Dividing the geometry into different
regions for mesh generation by ICEM,
centrifugal pump seal ring gap was
locally refined and the inner part of the
centrifugal pump was provided with
enough nodes to satisfy the requirement
of the calculation accuracy, then unstructured grids were used in each area, to
align the grid nodes of each part. Based
on the analysis of the influence of the
grid number on the calculation results, it
was found that the head and efficiency
of the numerical simulation were less
affected by the change of the number of
the grid after the grid number was
greater than 1.47 million. As a result, the
mesh number of model pump was
about 1.50 million.

Parameter setting
In order to investigate the influence of
different clearance variation on the
performance of the pump, 5 group of
gap width: b=0.15 0.2 0.3 0.5 0.7 mm
were selected for numerical calculation
under 5 different operating modes :
Q=0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2 1.4Qopt.

Figure 3. -H curves of dierent gap sizes.

In the process of numerical calculation,

the RNG k- model was selected for
turbulence model, multi reference coordinate system was used to describe the
internal flow, and the rotating coordinate system was adopted in the
impeller region. Boundary conditions
including: velocity entrance was set on
inlet; outflow was set on outlet;
standard wall function was used in the
near wall surface; non permeable and
non slip were taken in boundary condition of wall, momentum flux and
energy flux through the solid wall
surface are 0; the QUICK scheme with
two order accuracy was adopted, and
the pressure correction was SIMPLC
algorithm; the convergence accuracy of
the calculation process was set to
110-4, the external conditions are
normal temperature and pressure, and
the medium was water.

Hydraulic performance
Figure 2 is Q-H curves of different gap
sizes under five different flow conditions.
It shows, H reduces along with the Q
growth; and H also reduces in different
degree under each operating modes
along with the b growth, the changes
are not obvious when b is in a small
value between 0.15 mm and 0.2 mm,
but the changes become fiercer with the
increasing of b. The maximum variation
of H under five different conditions are
3.663 m, 4.2 3m, 3.928 m, 4.168 m, 1.696
m, the maximum variation of H under
the same conditions reaches about 4m.
But when b is equal 0.15 or 0.2mm, the
maximum variation of H under the
different conditions is about 0.5m.
Figure 3 is -H curves of different gap
sizes under five different flow conditions.
It shows reduces along with the Q

growth, and also reduces in different

degree under each operating modes
along with the b growth. The smaller
the gap, the higher the efficiency of the
pump, which shows that the reduction
of b can improve the volume efficiency
and total efficiency of the pump. The
changes are not obvious when b is in a
small value, but the changes become
more and more fierce with the
increasing of b. The maximum variation
of under five different conditions are
4.607%, 4.387%, 5.294%, 4.973%, 4.703%,
the maximum variation of H under the
same conditions reaches about 5%. But
when b is equal 0.15 or 0.2mm, the
maximum variation of under the
different conditions is about 1%.
Figure 4 is , H-b curves under design
conditions. It shows, with the increase of
b, H showed a clear downward trend. the
volume loss caused by liquid flow
through the front sealing ring increased
with the increase of b. The centrifugal
pump performance under design conditions is affected by the changes of b.
With the increase of b, show a
tendency to decrease obviously, and the
general trend of the downward trend
was gradually decreased with the
increase of b. It means the leakage of
impeller seal ring gap increases along
with the b growth, which leads to the
decrease of . the maximum efficiency in
b=0.15mm, The changing trend of is
basically consistent with H, which verifies
the smaller b, the better performance of
the pump.
H and increase along with the b
decrease, and the liquid flow back to inlet
through the impeller begin to reduce,
making the leakage reduction, the energy
loss is also reduced, thus increasing the
volume efficiency of the impeller.





Figure 4. , H-b curves under design conditions.

In summary, b has influence on the

performance of the pump, and when b
is greater than 0.3mm, H and begin to
decline significantly. when b=0.15~0.3
mm, little difference on the performance
parameters. But the smaller the B, the
more difficult to machine, when the b is
too small, it will lead to friction between
impeller and seal ring, it will seriously
affect the operation of centrifugal pump,

Figure 5. Leakage ux-Q curves in ve gap sizes.

the result is 6.2%; when the flow

decreases, the volume loss increases
slightly, the calculation result is 8.9%
under 0.6Qopt condition.
Figure 5 is leakage flux-Q curves in five
gap sizes. It shows, the greater the B, the
greater the leakage will be generated in
the impeller seal ring, the overall curve
showed a rising trend, indicating that

"The impeller sealing ring has great

signicance to the performance
of the centrifugal pump."
in considering the processing difficulty
and cost as well as both efficiency and
head, select a reasonable impeller
sealing ring gap size of 0.2 mm.

Leakage analysis
Due to the existence of differential pressure at both ends of the impeller seal
ring gap, the gap is bound to leak,
resulting the pump capacity loss.
Impeller seal ring leakage is the main
volume loss in single-stage pump, it is
proportional to the theoretical head of
impeller. The volume loss caused by the
impeller seal ring gap under design
condition is not large, when b=0.2mm,


the greater the B, the greater the

amount of leakage; the leakage of
impeller seal ring reduces along with the
Q growth under the same gap condition.
When b is smaller, the change trend of
the leakage flux is not obvious
compared with the large b.

of the flow conditions is selected to

carry out analysis and comparison.
Figure 6 is static pressure distribution on
the section of Z = 0 under different
clearance at design conditions. It shows
pressure distribution along with the
change of the gap size is not obvious,
the change of the pressure in each gap
is also basically in the same trend. When
b=0.3mm, the differential pressure at the
outlet is slightly reduced, indicating that
the selection of 0.3mm is reasonable.
Careful comparison shows that, with the
increase of B, the low pressure area in
the anterior chamber is enlarged to the
vortex chamber, The separation effect
between wall surface area of the water
absorption chamber and the main flow
area is obvious. It means the large the
gap, the more obvious effect of the high
pressure fluid from high pressure area on
the low pressure fluid in the inlet region.

Gap ow eld analysis

Pressure eld analysis
In order to study the influence of the
clearance of impeller seal ring on the
inner flow field of centrifugal pump, the
radial surface Z = 0 was chosen as the
research object. It can be seen from the
front program, the total operating point
is 25, it is too large, so the design point


Figure 6. Static pressure distribution on the section of Z = 0.

March 2016


Figure 7 is velocity (left) and pressure

(right) distribution of different gap sizes
under design flow conditions.
Figure 7 left is velocity distribution of
different gap sizes, it shows high speed
fluid flow to the pump inlet through the
impeller sealing ring clearance under the
differential pressure between the pump




March 2016

energy is obtained in the flow passage

when the liquid flows from the inlet to
the outlet of the impeller, and it shows
that the pressure increases with the
increase of impeller radius, the overall
change trend is uniform, but there is
some disturbances in b=0.5 mm. Overall,
the change trend of pressure and velocity
distribution is basically the same, so it is
better to choose smaller clearance value
to improve the efficiency of the pump.

cavity and the impeller inlet, with the

increase of b, the velocity of fluid in the
gap increases gradually, and the velocity
gradient is uniform, and the flow state is
stable. when b increases to 0.7mm, the
fluid flow in the gap is unstable from the
graph, it shows that the leakage is more
serious when the gap is larger. That
means that in the range of processing, b
should be as small as possible. Because
the smaller the b, the smaller the flow
loss inside the gap, the smaller the
volume loss, and improve the efficiency
of the pump.


Figure 7 right is pressure distribution of

different gap sizes, it shows a number of

With the increase of b, the and H of

the pump under different working
conditions show a tendency to decrease

(a) b=0.15mm

obviously, and the general trend of the

downward trend was gradually
decreased with the increase of b.
The leakage increases along with the b
growth, and it decreases along with the
Q growth in the same gap condition.
When b is smaller, the change trend of
leakage with Q is not obvious compared
with the larger b.
The larger the gap, the more obvious is
the effect of the high pressure fluid from
high pressure area on the low pressure
fluid in the inlet region. When b is smaller,
the fluid velocity gradient in the gap is
uniform, when b increases to 0. 7mm, the
fluid flow in the gap is unstable.
The centrifugal pump impeller sealing
ring gap on the performance of the
centrifugal pump and the flow of the
state have a great impact, when
b=0.15~0.3 mm. There is little difference
on the performance parameters considering the processing difficulty and cost
as well as both efficiency and head,
when selecting a reasonable impeller
sealing ring gap size of 0.2 mm.


(b) b=0.2mm

The author acknowledges the support of

National Science Foundation of China
(Grant N0.51476144) and the Zhejiang
Province Natural Science Foundation of
China (Grant No. LQ15E050005).

Please contact the author directly for full
(c) b=0.3mm

Jiegang Mou
College of Mechanical Engineering,
Zhejiang University of Technology, PR China

(d) b=0.5mm

Zhenfu Chen
College of Mechanical Engineering,
Zhejiang University of Technology, PR China
Yunqing Gu
Lecturer, College of Mechanical Engineering,
Zhejiang University of Technology, PR China

(e) b=0.7mm

Tianxing Fan
College of Mechanical Engineering,
Zhejiang University of Technology, PR China

Figure 7. Velocity and pressure distribution of dierent gap sizes.



Pump FAQs


March 2016

Pump FAQs
Q. Can reciprocating
pumps be used as booster

A. When a booster for a

reciprocating (power) pump
is required it is normally a
centrifugal pump but may
be a positive displacement
pump under special conditions (see item 4 below) and
should not be done without
consulting the manufacturer.
Care must be exercised in
the selection and installation
of a booster pump, because
improper selection and/or
installation can result in
increased pulsations and
attendant problems. The
following are recommended:
1) Install a booster pump as
close to the inlet source as
2) The booster pump must
add enough pressure to the
system to provide sufficient

net positive inlet pressure

available (NPIPA) to the
power pump, allowing for
acceleration head, friction
losses and pressure pulsations due to acoustical

Type of reciprocating power pump

% over mean
rate of flow

Simplex (1)



Duplex (2)



Duplex (2)



Triplex (3)

Single- or double-acting 7%

3) Install a pulsation dampener in the inlet line adjacent to the power pump
liquid cylinder. Consult
dampener and pump manufacturers for proper location
of the device. The dampener
can often be omitted
between a centrifugal
booster pump and a lowspeed power pump under
any of the following

Quintuplex (5)

Single- or double-acting 2%

Septuplex (7)

Single- or double-acting 1%

Nonuplex (9)

Single- or double-acting 1%

i) Diameters of inlet and

outlet connections of a
booster pump are equal to,
or larger than, inlet connection on power pump;
ii) Diameters of all piping
between liquid source and

power pump are equal to, or

larger than, inlet connection
of power pump;
iii) The booster pump is
sized for maximum instantaneous rate of flow of the
power pump. The following
table gives the percentage
that the maximum instantaneous rate of flow exceeds
the mean rate of flow for
each type of power pump;
iv) Acceleration head is
calculated not only between
the booster and power

pump but also between the

liquid source and booster;
4) If the booster pump is a
constant-speed positivedisplacement pump, a selfregulating bypass valve is
required between pumps. The
booster pump must be sufficiently oversized to provide
the minimum flow required
through the bypass valve.
To learn more about reciprocating pumps, see ANSI/HI
6.1-6.5 Reciprocating Power
Pumps for Nomenclature, Denitions, Application, and Operation.

Q. What information is
available for measuring
the operating temperature
of anti-friction bearings
attached to the shaft of a
rotodynamic pump?

Figure A.11 - Instrument locations

A. Either a pyrometer, thermometer, or thermocouple,

should be placed on the
outer surface perpendicular
to the shaft centerline, over
the center of the bearing(s)
being recorded (see Figure
0262 1762/16 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved


Pump FAQs
March 2016

On pumps with horizontal

shafts, the instrument should
be placed as close as possible
to a vertical position. The
instrument should be placed
between structural ribbing
when ribbing is part of the
The pump should be operated at rated conditions.
When there are differences in
specific gravity or viscosity
between test and jobsite
liquid, adjustment to test
bearing temperatures must
be agreed to by all parties

prior to testing. Cooling plans

should be installed and be
operational if necessary to
duplicate field conditions.
This should be agreed to by
all parties.
Temperature readings shall be
taken every 10 minutes for the
first hour and every 15
minutes until stabilization.
(Basic temperature stabilization
usually occurs after the first 45
However, some bearings take
up to 24 hours to stabilize and

should be noted by all parties

before the start of the test.)
Stabilization is defined as three
consecutively recorded readings taken over intervals of at
least 15 minutes that fall
within a 2 C (3.6 F) band
when adjusted for a change in
ambient temperature, if it
When testing with a TEFC
motor, the air flow from the
motor should be blocked from
the bearing housing where
testing is being conducted.

Tests have shown that the

motor air flow can cause as
much as an 11 C (20 F) false
temperature reading.
Similarly, the ambient air
must be still. Circulating fans
and opened windows can
cause false readings.
For more information on
other troubleshooting topics,
see ANSI/HI 1.4 Rotodynamic
(Centrifugal) Pumps for
Manuals Describing Installation, Operation, and

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41123 Modena, Italy
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Caprari S.p.A
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Caprari S.p.A
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Sterling SIHI GmbH

Lindenstrasse 170
D-25524 Itzehoe,
Tel: +49 4821 77101
Fax: +49 4821 771274

Tsurumi (Europe) GmbH

Wahlerstr. 10,
40472 Dsseldorf,
Te: +49 211 4179373
Fax +49 211 4791429

T: +1 631 673 0072
T: +1 631 673 0072
460/$480/ 305

Near Kalyan Mills, Naroda Road

Ahmedabad, 380025
Tel: +91 79 30610100/166
Fax: +91 79 30610300

Sterling SIHI GmbH
Lindenstrasse 170
D-25524 Itzehoe,
Tel: +49 4821 77101
Fax: +49 4821 771274

Sterling SIHI GmbH
Lindenstrasse 170
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Caprari S.p.A

Sterling SIHI GmbH


T: +44-(0) 01625-876622
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Abel Twiete 1
21514 Buchen, Germany
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FELUWA Pumpen GmbH

54570 Muerlenbach,
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Via Emilia Ovest 900

41123 Modena,
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Sterling SIHI GmbH

Lindenstrasse 170
D-25524 Itzehoe,
Tel: +49 4821 77101
Fax: +49 4821 771274

FELUWA Pumpen GmbH
54570 Muerlenbach,
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Sterling SIHI GmbH
Lindenstrasse 170
D-25524 Itzehoe,
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Sterling SIHI GmbH
Lindenstrasse 170
D-25524 Itzehoe,
Tel: +49 4821 77101
Fax: +49 4821 771274


March 2016

Tel: +91 79 30610100/166

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HOMA Pumpenfabrik GmbH
Industriestrasse 1
Neunkirchen - Seelscheid,
Tel: 0049 2247 7020
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Markgrafenstrasse 29-39
D-90459 Nuremberg,
Tel: +49(0)911/4306 0
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Sterling SIHI GmbH
Lindenstrasse 170
D-25524 Itzehoe,
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Sterling SIHI GmbH
Lindenstrasse 170
D-25524 Itzehoe,
Tel: +49 4821 77101
Fax: +49 4821 771274

Abel Twiete 1
21514 Buchen,
Tel: +49 4155 818-0
Fax: +49 4155 818-499

FELUWA Pumpen GmbH

54570 Muerlenbach,
Tel. +49 65 94 100
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Caprari S.p.A
Via Emilia Ovest 900
41123 Modena,
Tel: +39 059 897611
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Lubi Industries LLP

Near Kalyan Mills, Naroda Road
Ahmedabad, 380025

Caprari S.p.A
Via Emilia Ovest 900
41123 Modena,
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HOMA Pumpenfabrik
Industriestrasse 1
Neunkirchen - Seelscheid,
Tel: 0049 2247 7020
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Lubi Industries LLP

Near Kalyan Mills, Naroda Road
Ahmedabad, 380025
Tel: +91 79 30610100/166
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Sterling SIHI GmbH
Lindenstrasse 170
D-25524 Itzehoe,
Tel: +49 4821 77101
Fax: +49 4821 771274

Sterling SIHI GmbH
Lindenstrasse 170
D-25524 Itzehoe,
Tel: +49 4821 77101
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Caprari S.p.A
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Caprari S.p.A
Via Emilia Ovest 900
41123 Modena,
Tel: +39 059 897611
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MBH Pumps (Guj.) Pvt. Ltd.

(Clean & Waste Water Pump)
14 GIDC Naroda
382 330
Tel: +91 79 2282 1018 & 3066
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FELUWA Pumpen GmbH

54570 Muerlenbach,
Tel. +49 65 94 100
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16-40, 4-chome
Tsurumi, Tsurumi-ku,
Osaka 538-8585,
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Sterling SIHI GmbH

Lindenstrasse 170
D-25524 Itzehoe,
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Tel: +39 059 897611

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Caprari S.p.A
Via Emilia Ovest 900
41123 Modena,
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Fax: +39 059 897897


Abel Twiete 1
21514 Buchen,
Tel: +49 4155 818-0
Fax: +49 4155 818-499

MBH Pumps (Guj.) Pvt. Ltd.

(Clean & Waste Water Pump)
14 GIDC Naroda, Ahmedabad,
India, 382 330
Tel: +91 79 2282 1018 & 3066
Fax +91 79 2282 1511

Abel Twiete 1
21514 Buchen,
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FELUWA Pumpen GmbH

54570 Muerlenbach,
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Zhejiang Cathay Packing &
Sealing Company Ltd
#26 Tonghui South Road,
Puyang Town, Xiaoshan district,
Hangzhou City, Zhejiang
China, 311255
Tel: +86 571-82700086
Fax: +86-571-82737227

Caprari S.p.A
Via Emilia Ovest 900
41123 Modena,
Tel: +39 059 897611
Fax: +39 059 897897

Caprari S.p.A
Via Emilia Ovest 900
41123 Modena,


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Number 529 October 2010

Growing the
trends in


Number 530 November 2010

Oiling the gears:

Pumps streamline
biofuel production

overview of the last 10 years
,""&' #'"
new building regulations
, "*%)&'!&!
can improve efficiency
in liaison with

t E-learning from the BPMA

Number 534 March 2011



t Dry-start vertical pumps

with PTFE bearings
t Avoiding contamination in
food & drink and pharma
in liaison with

in liaison with


Alpine rescue:
Dewatering glaciers under
Mont Blanc


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March 2016

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Europump information
Europump is a pan-European organisation composed of national pump
manufacturer associations in 17 countries. In total the organisation comprises
more than 450 member companies manufacturers and distributors.
The Executive Council is the board of Europump. Its members company
presidents, managing directors or CEOs are elected representatives of their
national associations. The Europump President is the head of the Council. The
Councils work is administered by the General Secretary and his staff.

EUROPUMP Officials
Kutlu Karaveliolu, Diamant Building, 80 Boulevard Reyers, 5th Floor, 1030 Brussels,
Belgium. Tel: +32 2 706 82 37; Fax: +32 2 706 82 50

General Secretary
Thijs de Wolff, Diamant Building, 80 Boulevard Reyers, 5th Floor, 1030 Brussels,
Belgium. Tel: +32 2 706 82 37; Fax: +32 2 706 82 50;

EUROPUMP Member Associations


FMMI, Wiedner Hauptstrasse 63, AT - 1045 Wien, Austria Tel: + 43 5 90 900

3468, Fax: + 43 1 505 10 20, Eml:


Agoria, Diamant Building, Blvd A.Reyers 80, BE - 1030 Brussels, Belgium

Tel: + 32 2 706 79 74, Fax: + 32 2 706 79 88, Eml:


SWISSMEM, Pfingstweidstrasse 102 P.O. Box, CH - 8037 Zrich, Switzerland

Tel: +41 44 384 41 11, Fax: +41 44 384 42 42, Eml:


Czech Pump Manufacturers' Association - CPMA, Jana Sigmunda 79, CZ - 783

50 Lutin, Czech Republic Tel: + 420 585 652 423, Fax: +420 585 652 400, Eml:


Fachverband Pumpen + Systeme im VDMA, Lyoner Strasse, 18, DE - 60528

Frankfurt a.M, Postfach 71 08 63 DE - 60498 Frankfurt a.M., Germany Tel: + 49
69 66 03 12 81 Fax: + 49 69 66 03 22 81 Eml:


Association of Danish Pump Manufacturers, Ornevej 1, DK 9230 Svenstrup J,

DK - 9230 Svenstrup J, Denmark Tel: +45 25 77 66 77 Eml:


The Federation of Finnish Technology Industries, Etelranta 10, FI - 00130

HELSINKI, Finland Tel: + 358 91 923 1, Fax: + 358 96 24462, Eml: lauri.elers@


PROFLUID Association franaise des pompes et agitateurs, des compresseurs

et de la robinetterie, Maison de la Mcanique, 45 rue Louis Blanc, FR - 92400
Courbevoie, France Tel: + 33 1 47 17 62 98, Fax: + 33 1 47 17 63 00,


British Pump Manufacturers Association - BPMA, The National Metalforming Centre,

47 Birmingham Road, GB - West Bromwich B70 6PY, United Kingdom.
Tel: + 44 121 601 6350, Fax: + 44 121 601 6373, Eml:


Union of Greek Metal Industries, Loudovikou Street 1, EVEP Building,

GR - 18531 Piraeus, Greece Tel: + 30 141 78412, Fax: + 30 141 73974
e-mail :


ASSOPOMPE, c/o ANIMA, via Scarsellini 13, IT - 20161 Milano, Italy

Tel: +39 02 45 418 531 Fax: + 39 02 45 418 545 Eml:


Holland Pomp Groep, c/o Vereniging FME-CWM, Boerhaavelaan 40, Postbus 190,
NL - 2700 AD Zoetermeer, The Netherlands Tel: +31 (0)88 400 8 538,
Fax: +31 (0)88 400 8 403, Eml:


Polish Pump Manufacturers Association - ul. Lelewela 15, PL - 53-505 Wroclaw,

Poland Tel: + 48 71 783 61 52, Fax: + 48 71 783 61 52, Eml:


APPR - str Ziduri Mosi nr 25, RO - Bucuresti cod 021203, sector 2, Romania
Tel: + 40 724 463 578, Fax: + 40 311 043 272, Eml:


Russian Pump Manufacturers' Association - RPMA, 1 Sokolnichesky Val, hall 4, of.6,

RU - 107113 Moscow, Russia Tel: + 7 499 269 3396, Fax: + 7 499 269 3396,


SWEPUMP, P.O Box 5510, SE 114 85 Stockholm, Sweden Tel: + 46 8 782 08 50,
Fax: + 46 8 660 33 78, Eml:
POMSAD, Bat Sitesi Mahallesi, F.S.M. Bulvar No:546, 06370 Yenimahalle, ANKARA,
TURKEY Tel: + 90 312 255 1073, Fax: + 90 312 255 1074, Eml:



Diary dates


March 2016

2016 Diary Dates


12th April

26 28 April

Birmingham, UK


10th March

Motion Control Industry


MTA Hanoi 2016


Oxfordshire, UK

Pump Industry Awards 2016

15 18 March
Milan, Italy

MCE Mostra Convegno

Expocomfort 2016

13 April
London, UK

26 28 May

Mechanical Sealing Technology

Seminar 2016

Ghent, Belgium

2016 Europump Annual

Meeting and General Assembly

6 8 April
Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

Asia Water 2016

11 12 April
Kuwait City, Kuwait

4th Kuwait Oil & Gas Summit

20 21 April

30 May 3 June

Antwerp, Belgium

Munich, Germany

Pumps & Valves 2016

IFAT 2016

25 29 April
Hannover, Germany

Hannover Messe

26 28 April

More diary dates are listed in our events

page on the World Pumps website:
All events are subject to change and/or
cancellations. World Pumps accepts no
responsibility for any changes. Further
information can be obtained only by
contacting the relevant parties.

Moscow, Russia


To list your event in our next issue and

website, please send the information to

All contributions, whether articles, news items, or letters, should be addressed to the Editor, World Pumps Magazine, PO Box 150, Kidlington, Oxford OX5 1AS, UK.
Tel: +44 1865 843686; Fax: +44 1865 843973; E-mail:

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the sealing industry

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0262 1762/16 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved

Nicholas Hankins
University of Oxford, UK
Universiti Kebangsaan, Malaysia
A new journal aimed at chemical and
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impact in all areas of the engineering of
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With quality pumps from a quality manufacturer, you can rest assured your
fluid-handling needs are expertly handled at the job site. Whether transporting
water for fracking, transferring solids-laden drilling muds or recirculating
tank bottoms, Gorman-Rupp has the right pump for your oil and gas field
needs and its all backed by the best distributor network and parts inventory
in the industry. Contact your local Gorman-Rupp distributor today for more
information on our extensive line of products for the oil and gas industry.




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Gorman-Rupp Pumps USA is an ISO 9001:2008 and an ISO 14001:2004 Registered Company