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0 Timber Beam Design

Beam

The most frequently used and possibly the earliest used,

Loading can be imposed on a beam from one or several of a

number of sources , e.g. other secondary beams, columns,

walls, floor systems or directly from installed plant or

equipments.

Steel Beam

Steel Beam

Design Procedure (General)

The general steps in a beam design include:

For ultimate limit state:

a) shear capacity shear force due to the design loading must not

exceed the shear capacity, the buckling due to shear also should be

considered in some circumstance;

b) moment capacity bending moments due to the design loading

must not exceed the moment capacity. The reduction moment due to

high shear and lateral torsional buckling due to insufficient restraint

also required appropriate concern;

c) local buckling and bearing when loads or reactions are

applied through the flange to the web, the local resistance of the web

should not be exceeded.

For serviceability limit state

a) deflection the deflection due to design loading should not

exceed the limits given in Table 8, BS 5950-1:2001

Jan - May 2016

a beam.

The shear force Fv, should not be greater than the shear capacity Pv

given by:

Pv = 0.6yAv

Where Av is

a) rolled I, H and channel sections, load parallel to web:

tD

b) welded I-sections, load parallel to web:

td

c) any other cases:

0.9A0

A0 is the area of that rectilinear element of the cross-section which has

the largest dimension in the direction parallel to the shear force, see

Figure 5-2.

Jan - May 2016

resistance to shear buckling if it is too high.

Provided in cl. 4.2.3. for a rolled section, the web

should be checked for shear buckling when d/t

exceeds 70(275/py) where the d is the web depth

clear of the fillets.

Average shear stress on web = shear force/web

area = V/ (D x t)

10

11

Moment Capacity

Mult = y x S

where Mult = ultimate moment

y = ultimate yield stress

S

= plastic section modulus

12

13

Example 1

0 A 254 x 146 x 31 kg/m universal beam is used as a 3 m long

applied at the end of the cantilever if the steel yields at a

stress of 275 N/mm2?

14

Solution

Mult = y x S

= 275 x 396/103

= 108.9 kNm

Mult = 3 x F

3F = 108.9

F = 36.3 kN

15

Example 2

A single span beam is simply supported between two columns and carries

a reinforced concrete slab as shown in Figure below. Using the design load

indicated, determine the dimensions of suitable standard universal beam.

Assume S275 steel.

13.7 kN/m

6m

16

Solution

Solution :

a) Design a suitable universal beam section

13.72kN/m

A

6m

Reaction RA = RB= (13.72 x 6)/2 = 41.2 kN

Mmax = wL2/8 = 13.72 x 62 /8 = 61.74 kNm

17

Solution

Solution :

Step 2

Draw a shear force diagram

41.2

41.2

Step 3

Draw a bending moment diagram

61.74

18

Solution :

Step 4 : Calculation

A typical yield stress for mild steel is 275 N/mm2

S = Mult/ y = 61.74 x 106/ 275 x 103 = 224.5 cm3

Try 254 x 102 x 22 kg/m universal beam

( S = 262 cm3, D = 254 mm, t = 5.8 mm)

Average shear stress = 41.2 x 103/ 254 x 5.8 = 28 N/mm2 ( < 165

N/mm2)

Use 254 x 102 x 22 kg/m universal beam

19

Beam

span 4.5 and to carry an ultimate design load of 40 kN/m.

Check the suitability of the section with respect the shear.

Solution :

Section properties : 406 x 178 x 74 UB S275

t= 9.7 mm, D= 412.8 mm, d= 360.4 mm, d/t = 37.2

Design shear force at the end of beam Fv = (40 x 4.5)/2= 90

kN

Clause 4.2.3: Pv = 0.6 yAv

For a rolled UB section Av = tD = 9.7 x 412.8 = 4 004 mm2

20

Beam

Solution :

Clause 4.2.3 : Pv = 0.6yAv = 0.6x275x4 004/1000

= 661 kN > Fv = 90 kN

Shear is adequate

21

22

Timber Beam

Glue Laminated Timber

23

Timber Beam

Glue Laminated Timber

Space Beam

Blocked and securely nailed at

frequent intervals to enable

individual member to act as an

integral unit.

24

Timber Joists

Small timber beams are often used in the floor construction of

houses, where they are known as joists.

25

Timber Joists

26

TIMBER JOISTS

27

Timber Joists

28

Example

Figure below shows a house floor which uses 50 mm wide x 150 mm

deep timber joists spaced at 400 mm centres. If the maximum

permissible stress in the timber is limited to 7.5 N/mm2 , determine the

maximum allowable simply supported span of the floor if it supports the

following loads:

Dead load of floor

= 0.45 kN/m2

Imposed load on floor = 1.5 kN/m2

29

Solution:

Total load =

0.45 + 1.5 = 1.95 kN/m2

Load/m, w on each joist = 1.95 x 0.4 = 0.78 kN/m

For a simply supported floor joist with a uniformly distributed load:

M

= wL2/8

= 0.78 L2/8

For a beam with a rectangular cross-section:

Elastic section modulus Z = BD2/6

= 50 x 1502 /6

= 187 500 mm3

From above

M = max x Z = 7.5 x 187 500

= 1 406 000 Nmm

= 1.406 kNm

Equating the two values of M:

1.406 = 0.78 L2/8

L = 3.79 m

Allowable span = 3.79 m

Jan - May 2016

30

Exercise

A single span beam is simply supported between two columns and

carries a reinforced concrete slab in addition to the column and loading

shown below. Using the design load indicated, select a suitable section

considering section classification, shear and bending only. Assume S275

steel and that dead loads are inclusive of self-weights.

41.2 kN

3.17 kN/m

3m

3m

Universal Beam Section

31

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