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Nature Tourism: Impacts, Planning & Management EQUATIONS 15 Feb 2008
In the quest for sustainable tourism, many terminologies and products such as Nature Tourism, Ecotourism and Wildlife Tourism have emerged. This paper examines their various definitions. It enumerates the various laws, policies, regulatory frameworks, impact assessment methods and administrative arrangements around such nature based tourism and examines the extent to which these are practised.
1. Introduction Nature tourism is a broad categorisation of those tourism activities that primarily depend on attractions and beauty of a natural landscape and its various components like landforms, flora and fauna. It is a niche segment of the tourism sector. Tourism in such landscapes needs to be planned in a sustainable manner so that unregulated tourism does not destroy the very resources on which it thrives, and upsets the lives of those communities whose lives are also linked to the resources. Therefore, nature tourism may be considered a sub-component of sustainable tourism. It can be classified further into nature-based tourism, wildlife tourism and ecotourism. Sustainable tourism: Emphasising the need for all kinds of tourism activities to apply sustainable tourism development guidelines and management practices, the UN World Tourism Organisation states that “sustainability principles refer to the environmental, economic and socio-cultural aspects of tourism development, and a suitable balance must be established between these three dimensions to guarantee its long-term sustainability” (UNWTO, 20041). Nature-based tourism is linked more to the natural attractions of landscapes like snow-capped mountains or the Grand Canyon while wildlife tourism is more focussed on the fauna, and sometimes to flora, of an area. Wildlife tourism in some cases may focus on one flagship specie like the Asian Elephant, Royal Bengal Tiger or One-horned Rhinoceros, or in some cases showcase the entire biodiversity of an area e.g. the African Savannah with its diverse species of mammals ranging from the largest land mammal, the African Elephant, African Lion, Cheetah, gnus, zebras, giraffes etc. Ecotourism involves travel to natural areas that helps conservation and benefits local people. As a concept, ecotourism has been classified as a sub-component of sustainable tourism practice by international organisations like the UNEP and UNWTO. Ecotourism is a form of speciality tourism and is an important niche in the tourism sector. Within the fast-paced growth of the tourism industry, speciality travel is the largest area of expansion. Ecotourism is not a homogenous term when it comes to practical application on the ground, and very often it overlaps with naturebased tourism, wildlife tourism, cultural & heritage tourism, rural tourism, adventure tourism and sometimes health tourism when tourists visit say natural hot springs for health reasons. Ecotourism promotion and marketing seems to have sidelined nature-based and wildlife tourism. More and more nature-based and wildlife tourism projects are now being propagated as ecotourism. In India, ecotourism has come to be understood with tourism in protected areas and/or areas of significant ecological values like wildlife; though the kind of tourism being promoted and practised is very much mainstream or mass tourism. Only the locations being targeted are more fragile than the cultural and resort-tourism destinations that have been developed in previous decades. 2. Spatial distribution of nature tourism and status of the space The regulatory frameworks comprising of policies, laws, notifications and regulations also reflect the political climate that may affect development of nature tourism. 2.1 Legal status In the discourse on nature tourism, the spatial distribution of nature tourism needs to be understood in relation to its legal & political status. In India, the areas that are being targeted for various forms of nature tourism are either protected by law, or are administered under special arrangements; some are categorised as ecologically fragile. 1
2.1.1 Protected Areas The various protected areas in the Indian context are wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, community reserves, conservation reserves, reserved forests, ecologically sensitive areas and coastal areas. In the conventional sense, protected areas in India are those that are governed by the Wild Life (Protection) Act, 1972. These are wildlife sanctuaries and national parks, both on land and marine areas. The Wild Life Act was amended in 2002 to include two more types of protected areas: community and conservation reserves, in recognition of areas conserved by indigenous and local communities and areas set aside for conservation respectively. Wildlife sanctuaries allow a limited level of “human interference” while national parks will not tolerate any. However, tourism is allowed in both wildlife sanctuaries and national parks at the discretion of the state chief wildlife warden only. For this purpose, all protected areas have a tourism zone earmarked in the buffer zone. While it is difficult, or nearly impossible, for a private tourism entrepreneur to commence operations afresh inside protected areas, governments through their respective forest departments have developed and promoted tourism inside them. The proliferation of private tourism establishments in vicinity of protected areas has also been observed. The International Year of Ecotourism, 2002 has had a larger impetus to the establishment of ecotourism projects in and around protected areas. States like Kerala have prepared wildlife and ecotourism managements for almost all their protected areas (12 wildlife sanctuaries and 2 national parks). Protected areas like Corbett National Park, Periyar Tiger Reserve and Kaziranga National Park have a large number of hotels around their periphery. All forests in India are governed under the Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980. Any diversion of forestland for “nonforestry purposes” or activities that do not support conservation, protection of forests requires clearance from the Ministry of Environment & Forests. Reserved forests administered by the state forest departments under the Indian Forest Act, 1927. Tourism in reserve forest areas would mandate clearances for private players. But government departments and corporations carry out tourism activities without obtaining clearances most of the time. They claim that tourism supports conservation. Ecologically sensitive areas are areas that are notified as such under the Environment (Protection) Act, 1984. Permissible and non-permissible activities are considered on a case-to-case basis. But there is generally a regulation on all activities in ecologically sensitive areas and guidelines are usually formulated for carrying out such activities. Matheran in Maharashtra is an example of an ecologically sensitive area, where tourism was the main factor contributing to the degradation of the area. It is now permitted on a regulated basis. A notification under the Environment Act, the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification of 1991, governs tourism and other activities in coastal areas and islands. Whereas there is a general rule that areas upto 500m from the high tide line is considered as a no development zone, rarely is tourism seen to abide by this regulation. In many coastal states like Goa and Kerala that have tourism as a significant economic segment, tourism establishments can be seen located as close as a few metres from the high tide line. 2.1.2 Administrative Arrangements Biosphere reserves and tiger reserves are not protected under separate laws. Biosphere reserves are designated areas under UNESCO’s Man & Biosphere Programme. Tiger reserves are areas that receive special administrative status and funding. Both types of reserves may comprise of different types of protected areas mentioned above along with other areas including non-forest areas. In the Nilgiris Biosphere Reserve, comprising of 12 protected areas in the states of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, tourism is an activity that has in fact severely degraded large areas of land e.g. Ooty. Now it is spilling over into surrounding areas; a disproportionate proliferation of tourism resorts is also occurring in the peripheries of protected areas in the biosphere reserve. 2.2 Political Status Most areas that are now designated as protected in India are the traditional homelands of many indigenous and local communities. The effect of notifying protected areas has in many instances meant that large populations of indigenous and local communities were displaced when these protected areas were notified2. Their control and access to land and natural resources has been taken away from them. They have suffered social degradation brought about by foreign influences and the commercialisation of their culture. The rich biodiversity of their natural resources has suffered from pollution and large-scale environmental damage, unable to support activities like mining, industrialisation, submergence from mega hydroelectric projects and urbanisation. In some Indian states, 2
governments have devised policies and laws that facilitate state capture of land and other natural resources like forests, water that are later handed over to corporates at throwaway prices. In the bargain, the indigenous and local communities are given a raw deal, and sometimes they have to lay down their lives while demanding their rights. 2.3 Status of Regulatory Frameworks At the national level, there exists a legal and policy framework that only supports nature tourism and does little to regulate it or any of its forms. E.g. at the state level, there are several states that have developed their own ecotourism policies or that have tourism policies with specific reference to ecotourism. There are many variations of state policies. Analysis of these policies reveals that each state seems to interpret ecotourism in its own way. The National Environment Policy, 2006 recommends ecotourism in all wilderness and ecologically sensitive areas. The Environmental Impact Assessment Notification, 2006 has omitted tourism from the purview of environment impact assessment and clearance. These are a few examples to show the changing face of regulatory frameworks. With newer policies and concepts like special tourism zones (STZ), the tourism industry has been given holiday from accountability. Drawing from international guidelines3 prepared by tourism industry associations and organisations, the Ecotourism4 Policy & Guidelines, 1998 issued by the Ministry of Tourism – Govt. of India, represents interests of global industry players. The policy approach is environmental protection for sake of profits. The policy outlines all ecosystems of India as ecotourism resources and states that these have been well protected and preserved. Where the policy enlists its principles and elaborates operational aspects for key players in the ecotourism business, the role of communities is considerably reduced to protecting environmental resources and providing services to tourism in the role of ‘hosts’. An environment protected by communities is a resource for ecotourism when tourists experience the natural beauty. Indigenous and local communities become important “stakeholders” thereby becoming subservient to a process where environmental protection is vested from their control and is being pursued for the sake of supporting economic enterprise. What the policy fails to realise is the cross linkages between ecotourism and the social, cultural, economic and institutional processes of indigenous and local communities. Their lives are very closely linked to the environment they live in and their customs and traditions bear strong linkages to it. The state policies focus on ecotourism through private sector investment. The policies lay a thrust on opening naturally important and ecologically sensitive areas for ecotourism. That the lives and livelihoods of communities dependent on these natural resources will be impacted, and severely so if ecotourism is unregulated, is hardly acknowledged in the state level policies. It is the rich natural heritage spread along the forests, mountains, coasts and rivers, all of which are the living spaces of communities, which constitute the ‘tourism product’. Even Protected Areas, which have by definition prohibit commercial activities, are now being seen as potential tourism areas5. It is the location of tourism, a resourceintensive activity, in these areas that gives rise to a conflict of interests between the needs of local communities and conservation with the needs of a consumer oriented industry which understands nature as an economic commodity. 3. Impacts In nature tourism, the main component that is impacted by tourism activity is the environment. As the lives and livelihoods of indigenous and local communities are closely linked to the environment, these will also be impacted by tourism. 3.1 Environmental The nature and extent of impact of tourism depends on the intensity of tourism activity as well as the sensitivity of impacted ecosystems. This must be ascertained on the basis of specifics of ecosystems in consideration. However, a few general statements may be made regarding major impacting factors. Most studies show that more severe impacts of tourism on species and ecosystems arise from infrastructure and building activity it involves, rather than from recreational activities themselves, as in the case of coastal tourism. In contrast, with nature tourism, which needs relatively little infrastructure, tourist activities themselves are more profound in terms of impacts. In places where sites have already been selected and developed for tourism, many conflicts are unavoidable and impacts can only be diffused to a limited degree during the operational phase. The aspects that need to be looked into for determining the impacts of tourism are: 3
1. 2. 3. 4.
Location and development of tourism areas Location and operation of tourism related infrastructure Tourist activities Indirect impacts
Tourism related facilities are preferred on attractive landscape sites like coasts, primarily sandy beaches and dunes, in proximity to lakes and rivers, and forest areas in the interior, and in the mountains, exposed mountaintops and slopes. These are often species-rich ecosystems or transitional zones in between ecosystems, i.e. ecotones. Due to establishment of tourism related infrastructure and facilities, the species generally found here are either destroyed or severely affected. There is also a non-adaptive approach to existing natural site conditions. One example that can be quoted here is of the coastal wetlands where, for lack of more suitable sites, are drained and filled in for the construction of buildings, roads and other establishments. Sometimes, boat passageways are blasted in the coral reefs situated near the coast. Mangrove forests are a transitional zone between the land and sea, and are particularly impacted by both development types. Building materials are often removed from ecosystems for tourism related constructions, like hotels and roads, in a non-sustainable manner, e.g., as in the case of extracting the fine sand of beaches, which is used to mix concrete. This increases the danger of erosion on the beaches, so that in some cases, sand is pumped onshore and coastalprotection steps have to be taken. The use of traditional building materials such as wood or reef limestone for tourism related constructions can also pose problems when the use is from the ecosystems themselves and is excessive. The most severe destructions are caused by untreated sewage, inadequate garbage removal and excessive water consumption. It is beyond any iota of doubt that pollution from sewage is one of tourism’s biggest problems, as it can scarcely be confined spatially, and the changes in the nutrient balance it causes inflict extensive damage on the impacted aquatic habitats. This is particularly true of oligotrophic mountain streams and very sensitive coral reefs. In contrast, naturally nutrient-rich ecosystems such as, for example, mangroves can perform important buffer and filter functions to a limited extent. Solid waste is another major problem, especially in developing countries where there are hardly any capacities for regulated disposal. The problem is further aggravated by the rampant use of non-biodegradable and toxic wastes like plastics. Water consumption by tourists and tourism facilities amounts to many times, sometimes up to ten times, the minimum domestic requirement. Only a least portion of this amount is taken up by drinking water. Water is used primarily for showers, swimming pools and watering gardens and golf courses etc. The problem primarily occurs in arid climates and on small islands with limited water supply, but also at many destinations with more plentiful precipitation, which are frequented by tourists preferably in the dry season. This results not only in social conflicts but also in the fact that wetlands dry out and salt water intrudes into near-coastal freshwater biotopes. Many tourism activities are concentrated on traditional tourism locations like sandy beaches. The recent trends show that the inclination now is to move towards more distant locations hitherto untouched by tourism, which are now being made more accessible through developments in transport and transportation related infrastructure. Construction of hotels and other tourism related services are increasingly being set up on the coastal regions especially in states like Goa and Kerala, altering and destroying sandy beaches, sand dunes and coastal vegetation. High concentration of these tourism facilities also cause a major threat to the ground water level, since water consumption is extremely high in tourism. Water sports, adventure sports like snorkelling, scuba diving etc. are currently gaining momentum in our country especially in places like the Andamans. Speedboats and surfing etc. are found to be obstructing the traditional fishing activities, and also disturbing shoals of fish, their breeding and spawning grounds. Large-scale tourism projects can have considerable distorting effects on the economies of developing countries, especially when economic systems that are more typical of advanced service economies are introduced into agrarian economies abruptly and in massive form. These have both social and ecological consequences because of the huge income gradient, displacement of local communities and migration from rural areas to the tourist centres. Thus, 4
increased population density leads to further environmental strain in the affected areas, particularly resource depletion, sewage and garbage. Water treatment and sewage disposal systems are generally absent in tourist locations. When large-scale tourism service providers may skirt around environmental protection norms, the informal sector like shacks and restaurants also follow suit. The cumulative effect of these complicates matters. With increasing loads of wastes, blames are shifted from one stakeholder to another, responsibility to clean up the wastes is dumped on local governing bodies and eventually everybody washes their hands from the problem. The net result being accumulation of amounts of solid wastes beyond managing capacities and direct dumping of sewage on land and water bodies. With degrading environmental conditions, the indigenous and local communities bear the brunt of it while the tourism industry sets out to find greener pastures. 3.2 Communities Indigenous peoples & local communities are paying a high price for tourism. While they were earlier left untouched by conventional tourism activities, they are now being targeted for large-scale tourism ventures; their homelands and cultures are now the prime target globally for rapid commercialisation and exploitation by the tourism industry. To start with, governments, especially of the developing and underdeveloped countries, and multinational corporations have disregarded the interests of indigenous peoples & local communities in their desire to cash in on the billiondollar profits from this industry. The few benefits that the indigenous peoples & local communities derive from tourism are far outweighed by the damage it has caused to them. They have been made to bear the brunt of an industry over which they have neither say nor control. With globalisation, these threats have been exacerbated. International agreements that open up access to the local tourism industry by multinational tourism corporations will only hasten the exploitation of the natural resources, culture and way of life of indigenous peoples & local communities. Ecotourism, which has been touted as the fastest growing form of tourism in the developing world, has not proven to be sustainable at all. Rather, it has targeted indigenous communities as areas of destination and exploitation in the guise of being environmentfriendly. Moreover, community-owned tourism initiatives are still playing a marginal role compared to the other tourism schemes, which are often labelled as ecotourism and developed by large, often global, tour operators. They consider ecotourism as a source of sustainable livelihood supplement and not to compete for markets. It is extremely hard for communities to compete with a market that is fiercely competitive and which controlled by financial interests in tourist destinations. Most often, governments have overlooked these initiatives and have extended little support. They have also promoted different versions of tourism as ecotourism with no inkling of conservation. Another worrying factor is that governments have used undemocratic means to assert their roles through policies. 4. Planning Since nature tourism is different from mainstream tourism, it is important that there is enough planning for such an initiative at any site. Planning is required to see how feasible nature tourism would be at the site, to see if it would be acceptable to communities and to see what potential impacts would be. Importantly, planning would help define what the community’s and other stakeholders’ vision of the area and activities is going to be. There could be many different methodologies used for such planning. The Dzongu initiative in Sikkim used a methodology called the Appreciative Participatory, Planning and Action (APPA) methodology that finds and builds upon positive attributes and values in local environments. 4.1 Security of Tenure For complete control and management responsibility, ideally, local people should own and manage the area in question. A community-based tourism initiative is one where the community has decision-making powers on the initiative in question, how it must be managed and how the benefits accruing out of it should be used. Roles and responsibilities should also be determined by the community. This is a rare situation, especially in a country like India. Homestays perhaps come closest to this situation where the community has control over the hospitality related aspect of tourism. This is not possible in protected areas unless communities have tourism initiatives outside the protected area in question. The next best option is to ensure that local people are involved at every level of the enterprise; they are assured a stake in the enterprise and are able to share benefits from it equitably. 4.2 Community Institutions 5
For an ideal ecotourism initiative the presence of a community institution is important. Ideally, it is best to build upon an existing institution. In the Periyar Tiger Reserve for example, ecotourism activities are being handled by the existing Eco Development Committees. In some cases community institutions can emerge as a result ecotourism initiatives. In Pastanga, Sikkim for example, a local NGO was established with a vision to make Pastanga an ecotourism destination. In Khonoma, the Khonoma Tourism Development Board is community institution that was established and with one of its objectives being to promote ecotourism. If a community institution does not exist, then the process of establishing such an initiative could be facilitated. At Korzok, WWF India has facilitated the establishment of the Tso Moriri Conservation Trust, which will eventually handle ecotourism related activities there. Community institutions would help in the management of the tourism initiative; facilitate the equitable sharing of benefits and also help resolve conflicts if any. 4.3 Vision and Strategy A detailed and participatory visioning and strategising exercise that takes into account perspectives and needs of different stakeholders and allows varying and even conflicting interests to come into play needs to be done at the very outset. The policy-making process requires inclusion of and meaningful dialogue between all stakeholders for participatory and people-centred tourism development. To supplement such strategic exercises, detailed technical studies need to be undertaken on carrying capacity, impact assessments and/or limits of acceptable change. These cannot just be commissioned studies (focussing only on a promotion and growth agenda) but need to be designed to take into account the whole range of needs, capacities, opportunities, constraints and aspirations of all stakeholders. 5. Management 5.1 Regulation, rights based approach In most countries experiencing severe adverse impacts of tourism, regulatory failure has been a main contributing cause to the process. In India, the decimation of the coastline along several stretches is largely attributable to the poor implementation of the Coastal Regulation Zone Notification. The need for regulation is more pressing in the context of social impacts of tourism, which governments are often hesitant even to acknowledge. Problems of child labour and child sexual exploitation in tourism, trafficking of women and children and gender discrimination can be addressed only through enforcing a strict penal code of justice. Any form of tourism being planned needs to be gender-just and child sensitive. Bringing in sustainability in tourism involves continuous involvement and integration of all stakeholders who benefit and will be affected by tourism development. This process poses a challenge to governments as they must review not only external influences and policies but also reform and amend their own internal systems to direct tourism development towards sustainability. It also involves challenging mainstream ideas, notions and definitions of tourism advocated by the UNWTO and World Travel and Tourism Council when they are in opposition to grassroots perspectives. 5.2 Impact Assessment 5.2.1 Social Impact Assessments (SIA) Social and environmental impact assessments should be the first step in any tourism development process, post the decision making phase. It has been recognized that tourist - local community interactions not only have an effect on the host country and its communities, but also on tourists. The cross pollination of concepts, beliefs and traditions, while conducive to fostering respect and appreciation of diverse cultures, can also be detrimental and insensitive when carried out in an atmosphere which is inherently unequal, both economically and socially. It gives rise to imposition of values and behaviours of the stronger community on the less powerful one and brings with it a host of socio-cultural changes that are not sustainable. Keeping the adverse impacts of tourism in view, it is important to develop tourism in an appropriate way. Therefore, for minimizing adverse impacts of tourism on local society and economy, impact assessment exercises are suggested. 5.2.2 Environmental Impact Assessments (EIA) EIA is a tool that uses defined indicators to identify and predict impacts of tourism on the total environment. EIA warns of adverse environmental changes that are always more expensive to correct than prevent. It obtains a comprehensive view of the impact and costs of such projects within the framework of environmental conservation and sustainable development. Thus an EIA serves to: • identify tourism effects on the bio-geophysical resources, including o flora and fauna 6
• • • • • •
o Abiotic factors like soil, air etc. o state and natural flux of these natural resources identify effects on resources from increased usage interpret and communicate information about such impacts work out project alternatives involving various stakeholders propose measures to mitigate negative consequences on environment and community predict probability of significant adverse environmental effects after mitigation measures are implemented Devise contingency plans for eventualities with unforeseen adverse environmental effects.
The Khonoma Green Valley Project in Nagaland is a good example where comprehensive EIA and SIA exercises have been carried out. It was felt that ecotourism in this area should not even begin before such assessments have been completed. 5.2.3 Carrying Capacity The assessment of tourism impacts is based on the important concept of carrying capacity. Carrying capacity is defined as the maximum population of species and interacting structures that can be supported indefinitely in a defined habitat without undermining or damaging the functioning and productivity of that habitat. In forest areas for example, the introduction and possible growth of tourism would not only affect the local environment but also the social, cultural and economic aspects of communities living in or around the forest area. The carrying capacity concept could then be used to as an indicative tool that provides inputs into the overall management of the tourism development and it associated activities. Carrying capacity can be estimated on the basis of the ecological parameter under stress and the data available on the amount of change it has, and ideally can undergo. For instance if the stress factor is increased visitation in a section of the forest over the year, then the possible stress factors could be the disturbances caused to birds during their daily activities such as feeding or foraging; another impact of could be the compaction of soil on the trails that lead to increased erosion. Determining the carrying capacity of an area is particularly important in areas that are ecologically fragile. Take the case of the Tso Moriri Lake in Ladakh. While tourism in the form of homestays is being promoted at Korzok, it is equally important to determine the carrying capacity of the area since increased tourism will only lead to the degradation of this highly fragile and vulnerable ecosystem. Once the carrying capacity has been determined, the ecotourism guidelines for the area could include a cap on the maximum number of tourist that this area can withstand. Monitoring protocols for this area can also use this as an indicator. 5.3 Monitoring and Adaptive Management No activity is complete without a monitoring component built into it. Tourism is an activity where constant monitoring is necessary. Monitoring of a nature tourism initiative would involve monitoring of ecological, social, cultural and economic aspects of this activity. Monitoring thus has to be well thought out and managed well. For this, the capacity of the local community will have to be built. Following this will be the development of monitoring protocols for all the aspects in consideration. Adaptive management would be an integral part of this plan where results from monitoring are used systematically in management and plans altered as and when required based on information from monitoring. If for example at Korzok, it is found through monitoring that the number of tourists has gone beyond the carrying capacity of the area and is leading to the degradation of the lake, then the number of tourist visiting the lake would need to be curtailed. 5.4 Code of Conduct / Environmental Guidelines A nature tourism initiative being different from other tourism endeavours, also has as a component of a ‘Code of Conduct’ or Guidelines, which dictate tourism development and tourist behaviour at the particular tourist destination. This includes a set of guidelines indicating why the particular place is of interest and reminding tourist of certain ‘Dos’ and ‘Don’ts’. Such guidelines or a Code of Conduct needs to be clearly displayed at the site in question in the form of a poster/ board and need to also be in more than one language. They could also be in printed form as in a brochure, handout or back of a ticket and distributed to tourists visiting the area.
5.5 Training and Capacity Building Training and capacity building needs to become an inherent part of any ecotourism initiative. It is unfair to expect local communities to handle tourism initiatives without adequate training. Training needs could be varied and very site specific and could range from training in house keeping, catering and finally monitoring of tourism related activities. In the Periyar Tiger Reserve local communities were trained by Forest Department personnel on various aspects of wildlife viewing, tracking of wildlife etc. Women of Korzok in Ladakh participated in an interesting training exercise where Ladakhi women from another part of the region who were running homestays successfully shared their experiences. Cross-Site Visits and Experience Sharing - Stakeholders in any such activity often learn a lot from other sites where similar activities are being carried out as also from other communities who are also involved in such endeavours. There is much to learn from visiting new sites or sharing experiences with others from different regions. This is an important component that needs to be built into the planning exercises for ecotourism. The women of Korzok were probably more comfortable being trained and learning from fellow Ladakhi women from the Markha valley because each identified with the others’ needs and were keen to get as much as possible from the exercise. In the case of Dzongu in Sikkim, there was a lot of learning when some individuals from the community visited Yuksam, the base camp of the Khangchendzonga National park in West Sikkim, where one of the pioneering exercises in ecotourism had taken place. 5.6 Education and Awareness Important for an ecotourism destination, is the need for good communication to convey to tourists the ecological and cultural significance of the place. This could be done through a variety of communication tools and techniques. Posters, written and audio-visual material are some common tools. Websites are increasingly becoming the single most attractive and effective means of communicating such sites to tourists. The Nanda Devi Campaign for Cultural and Sustainable Livelihoods that runs ecotourism in the Nana Devi Biosphere Reserve today has its own website. An Interpretation Centre is probably an excellent way to communicate a variety of issues to visitors. Many protected areas in India have interpretation centres that could be used effectively to communicate specific issues relating to ecotourism. Educational material needs to be creative an also attractive. Effective material, besides being educational also helps in marketing the destination to other visitors. Towards Sustainable Tourism It is evident that tourism is growing rapidly worldwide, providing economic, environmental and social benefits. Tourism benefits financially by through its multiplier effect, creates employment and brings about regional development. It also cultivates tolerance and encourages knowledge of different cultures, while aiding in the preservation of heritage and the environment. However recent trends within tourism development in the country have raised several concerns about the adverse impacts of tourism. Government policies seldom acknowledge the negative fallouts of tourism development and continue to render an open invitation to tourists and investment in tourism. Tourism depends heavily on natural and human resources and its in-roads into protected areas and untouched zones have often been at high costs. A marketdriven model of tourism development that has privileged industry and tourists’ needs over local people’s interests often leads to privatisation of common property resources for exclusive use by industry and displacement of local communities to make room for tourism establishments. Low levels of participation in the formal, more lucrative tourism industry and reduced access to resources have resulted in paltry benefits to local communities. Uncontrolled and unregulated tourism growth, often based on short-term priorities, invariably results in unacceptable impacts that harm society and the environment. In essence, tourism development today has raised serious questions as to who its real beneficiaries are. This has led to the emergence of a more sensitive form of tourism, which aims at minimising these costs and maximising benefits. Principles and Values of Sustainable Tourism In India, tourism is viewed and promoted as a 'development paradigm' and a major engine for growth. Developmental debate is broadly categorised under economic, environmental and socio-cultural dimensions. In this process, what we often overlook is the political motivation and support that plays a crucial role in achieving developmental goals and objectives. The principles and values of sustainability can be mapped using these five broad categories.
Political Democratisation, decentralisation, participation, decision making, empowerment, local ownership, benefit sharing, equity, justice, public accountability Democratisation is a process of creating and supporting spaces where informed consensus building and decisionmaking can materialise. In the realm of collective decision-making in tourism, information collection and sharing hold the key to making informed decisions. The two components involved in the process include – firstly, information regarding new projects, plans, policies, procedures, legislations and agreements that are directly or indirectly related to tourism development, which must be disseminated by the tourism industry and government to local stakeholders; and secondly - information on the impacts and effects of tourism (both positive and negative) that could be researched and monitored collectively (involving industry, government, academia, civil society, local bodies and concerned individuals) but must be disseminated to the relevant decision-making bodies at the local, regional, national and international level. Participation in decision-making spaces and seeking accountability are integral part of good governance practices. As a process, democratisation could be achieved on an issue-specific basis as well, where the tenets of democraticdecision making and participation are applied to specific areas affected or involved in tourism development. Socially, democratisation could stand for involving vulnerable groups (like women, children, indigenous people) in decisionmaking process and empowering them through it. Sustainable tourism should constitute the components of meaningful and informed participation of local people and institutions of local governance in decision-making spaces that in effect influence the course of functioning of the tourism and related industries. Building stable partnerships and empowering local communities are prerequisites for tourism. Local self-governments and tourism administrations should engage in dialogue with multi-stakeholder processes and evolve destination management strategies and practical responsible tourism guidelines. Economic Revive growth, change quality of growth, address basic needs, small and medium enterprises, responsible action on part of tourists and industry, integration, gender -equality, empowerment There is a need for governments to set a legislative and regulatory framework to ensure that the local self-governing institutions as well as the tourism industry meet economic responsibilities. Development of a diverse tourism base needs to be undertaken that is well integrated with other local economic activities in addition to integrating initiatives for small and medium-sized enterprises within overall business support packages (including access to financing, training and marketing). While these are of a general nature the tourism ministry should provide detailed technical guidance to communities, local governments and the industry to practically implement these. A prerequisite of tourism is to minimise negative economic impacts on local communities and set in place a model where the main beneficiaries are the local community. This can be realized by ensuring that hotels and related tourism services are encouraged to strengthen the local economy, training and employing local people and wherever ecologically sustainable, source raw materials from the local market. This can be done by promoting linkages between tourism and the other economic sectors (like agriculture and fisheries, hospitality education colleges), promoting a broad network of small and medium-sized local entrepreneurs which multiply the economic spin-offs of tourism, extend the number of available small-scale services, and actively and beneficially integrate the local population. Such yardsticks to measure the economic benefits of tourism are far more useful than the conventional growth in visitor numbers. We also need to ensure responsible actions on the part of the tourists in privileging locally owned and run enterprises. Excessive reliance on tourism as a ‘mono-crop’ industry is recognized as a bad strategy. Therefore governments should maintain a balance with other economic activities and natural resource uses in the area, and take into account all costs and benefits.
Environmental Conserve and enhance resources, optimal utilisation of non-renewable resources, access to common property resources, respect, protection, within capacity limits, responsible action on part of tourists and industry and management of solid waste, pollution Tourism development incorporates principles of conservation of natural resources and biodiversity; rational utilisation of resource: land, water, conventional and non-conventional energy sources, for creation and maintenance of tourism infrastructure and facilities that are in coherence with the needs of local environment and culture. Tourism by definition includes the conservation of biodiversity and natural resources through sustainable resource use and monitoring of impacting factors. Tourism needs to ensure responsible actions on the part of the tourists as well as the tourism industry in working towards the conservation of resources in the region they visit. The tourism industry needs to be aware of the fact that communities have rights over common property resources and cannot be used without their consent. To achieve sustainability in tourism, environmental management systems need to be put in place to monitor, evaluate and ensure minimum ecosystem degradation. Requisite regulatory frameworks need to be developed and implemented with local self-governing institutions. The basis of the participatory approach for the sustainable development of tourism in India is the 73rd and 74th Amendments to the Constitution. These amendments accord rights to local self-governing institutions by bringing into their jurisdiction matters related to subjects of land, water, social and urban forestry, waste management and maintenance of community assets. Tourism development falls under the purview of these subjects and therefore participation from the local self-governing institutions is important. Social and Cultural Learning experience, respect, protection, responsible action on part of tourists and industry, within capacity limits, empowerment, revival of disappearing folk traditions and art forms Tourism development has social dimensions and when unregulated its social costs are high. Tourism often commodifies and standardises original forms of music, dance, and ceremonies, adapting to accommodate tourist demands leading to a loss of authenticity of these cultures. Over time, unbridled tourism development can create social change resulting in culture clashes between local communities and the tourists. Tourism needs to address these adverse impacts by providing a base for social and cultural exchanges to take place between the local communities and the tourists on an equal platform without the former feeling inferior and taking pride in their culture and traditions. Tourists when visiting places need to be sensitive to local traditions and values, as also the tourism industry when promoting the same by not commodifying art forms. Reorienting the Processes The way forward is to involve all stakeholders of tourism that include local self-governing institutions, communities, departments of tourism, culture, social welfare, environment and forests, commerce and industry, women and child and, tourism industry and civil society groups. Democratisation involves creating spaces for the conduct of such meaningful dialogue and policy-making is one such space that can be used more effectively to achieve this end. In all sectors, policies are directives that guide and regulate development activities nationally and regionally. In many countries today, policies governing tourism development read more like publicity statements or strategies that market the country/region as a destination worthy of visiting and therefore worthy of investment. Their closed, lopsided and inward-looking nature has prevented governments from utilising tourism policies as tools to foster change in the sector. Such policies are often the outcome of poor governmental coordination. In India for instance, the National Tourism Policy is drafted by the Ministry of Tourism and Culture without consultation with other important agencies like the Ministry of Environment and Forests (which is responsible for conservation of biodiversity and pollution control) or even the Ministry of Commerce and Industry (that negotiates the country’s position on international trade in all goods and services, including tourism). Inadequate consultation has thus resulted in poor implementation of policy objectives like ensuring environmental protection and the non-inclusion of sustainability concerns in the country’s international trade commitments. 10
For policy to become an effective tool for change, the policy-making process needs to be reformed so that the product is the outcome of a process of consultation. Today, policies are the product of either government deskwork or corporate consultancy, which offer little scope for public debate and discussion. Consequently, communities are at best vaguely aware and at worst completely ignorant of existing policies pertaining to tourism development. If principles of participatory decision-making are applied to the policy-making field, the goal of bringing about sustainability in tourism can be achieved sooner rather than later. Also, through appropriate dialogue, research, policies and plans can become the first tools of information sharing on tourism issues to a wider audience. Governments must recognise that many of the social, cultural and environmental impacts that tourism perpetrates can be best mitigated through appropriate consultation with local communities at the time of project conception itself. Awareness about the implications that may hinder sustainable development and the strengthening of the institutional frameworks supporting tourism can also be achieved by drafting sound policies.
Paper presented at the International Seminar organised by School of Business Studies and Management, St. Xavier’s Institute, 14 – 15 February 2008, The International Centre, Goa You may reproduce this paper/publication in whole or in part for educational, advocacy or not-for-profit purposes. We would appreciate acknowledging EQUATIONS as the source and letting us know of the use. Contact us firstname.lastname@example.org +91-80-2545-7607 / 2545-7659 EQUATIONS, # 415, 2C-Cross, 4th Main, OMBR Layout, Banaswadi, Bangalore 560043, India www.equitabletourism.org
1 UNWTO, 2004. “Sustainable Development of Tourism - Conceptual Definition” data retrieved from http://www.worldtourism.org/frameset/frame_sustainable.html February 2008. 2 “Based on a ruling of the Supreme Court of India, the Indian Ministry of Forests and Environment passed an order to evict all encroachments from forested areas by the 30th of September 2002. While it is not clear how and whether this order has really affected the powerful and land hungry encroachers, it has created absolute havoc in the lives of the thousands of forest depended communities. Many of these people being thrown out of their houses and cultivated lands are people who have no other source of revenue and are being called encroachers because of their names having not entered the official land records for no fault of theirs”. An e-mail statement issued by Kalpavriksh - Environment and Action Group, India, September 2002. 3 The international guidelines are: Guidelines for the development of National Parks and Protected areas for Tourism of the UN WTO (World Tourism Organization) PATA Code for Environmentally Responsible Tourism Environmental Guidelines for the World Travel and Tourism Council ( WTTC) The Himalayan Code of Conduct prepared by the Himalayan Tourism Advisory Board Ecotourism Guidelines by The International Ecotourism Society. 4 The Policy defines ecotourism as drawn up by the UNWTO “tourism that involves travelling to relatively undisturbed natural areas with the specified object of studying, admiring and enjoying the scenery and its wild plants and animals as well as any existing cultural aspects ( both of the past or present) found in these areas”. The policy enlists the key elements of ecotourism as being: a natural environment as the prime attraction; environment friendly visitors; activities that do not have a serious impact on the ecosystem; and a positive involvement of the local community in maintaining the ecological balance. 5 The State Tourism Ministers Conference in 1996 that chalked out guidelines for the development of eco-tourism had identified the following resources for tourism development: Biosphere Reserves, Mangroves, Corals and Coral Reefs, Deserts, Mountains and Forests, Flora and Fauna, and Sea, Lakes & Rivers.
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