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# Candidate: 000738-0003

Arandia Jimenez 1

Mathematics SL
Internal Assessment

## Candidate: Maria Ren Arandia Jimnez

Candidate Number: 000738-0003
Session: May 2016
Course: IB Mathematics SL
I.

Introduction
Calculus is the study of how things change, by which a person can create models and

predict quantitative changes and sequences. (What Is Calculus and Why do we Study it?)
Differentiation and Integration are the two main branches of Calculus. I was attracted to
Integrals; I saw it as a second method of finding the volume of an object, and not only

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## multiplying the dimensions of a geometrical three-dimensional shape. Considering its purpose, I

wondered: Could be possible to calculate the volume of non-regular shapes, such as a vase?
Figure 1. shows a sine function on a graph with its shaded area under the line, and Figure 2.
shows how it looks when the area is rotated 3600 around the x-axis.

on a set of axis

on a set of axis

## Figure 1. and 2; Solid of Revolution - Finding Volume by Rotation; WyzAnt; wyzant.com;

Web; 10 March, 2016.
r is changing for every point in the x-axis, and if r f ( x )= y , the area of the imaginary
cross sectional circle inside the vase will also be changing, because it is an irregular 3D shape. In
2
order to find the volume of the vase using the area ( A= r of its imaginary cross sectional

disks inside, the volume of a cross sectional disk has to be calculated. The area of the disk should
be multiplied by its infinitesimally small thickness (dx).
V d = r 2 dx
Next, we have to integrate in order to find the volume of the entire base. Integration will
add up the volume of all disks that form the vase, considering that the volume of each is
changing for all values of x. The area under the function f(x) will be rotated around the x-axis,
with limits established by vertical lines x=a and x=b. (Clip 2: Solids of Revolution).
a

V=

r
b

a
2

dx

V=

( f (x))2 dx
b

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I felt enthusiastic to find the volume of an object, but to challenge myself, I decided to
create a flower vase and model it. While designing the vase, I got inspired by the Golden ratio,
which are used for artworks and architecture since Ancient Greece, and is found in many aspects
of nature, such as flowers. A Golden spiral created by the Golden rectangle will be fancy!
3. Math
ImageWorld;
of the mathworld.wolfram.com;
Golden spiral
Figure 3; Golden Spiral;Figure
Wolfram
Web; 15 March,

2016.
The Golden ratio

## by its width (x):

Golden ratio=
The specific value of

L
W

## is achieved by getting a 2 by 2 square, and finding a midpoint

on its base, where a diagonal line will be drawn until it touches the upper right corner of the
square. Then, draw a curve-like line from the upper right corner to the bottom of the square, and
connect it with a horizontal line to the midpoint mentioned before. Draw the margins of the new
rectangle. The final drawing is shown in Figure 4:
Figure 4. Drawing of how to find

L
W

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1+ 5
2

Arandia Jimenez 4

## (using a 2x2 cm square) 1.6180339887 .

L will be calculated by adding half on the squares base and the length of the red
diagonal:

x
x 2
L= + x 2+( )
2
2
I will use this method to find the distance between the points of the functions that follow
the golden spiral shape, so I can model the vase and then find a best-fit function that will allow
me to find its volume. Finally, I will rotate the area to find the volume.
II.

Aims

Integrals give us humans a method to find the volume of original and non-conventional
objects. Therefore, the aim of this exploration is to apply integrals in a possible real life situation,
in which I created and modeled a decorative and irregular solid object. With Paint program, I
could portray the idea that I had of creating a flower base, inspired in the golden spiral, as seen in
Figure 5.
Figure 5.Contour and dimensions of the created flower vase.

Figure 5. is the contour of the vase: the black lines represent the outer most surface of the
vase, and red vase are the inside contour. The volume between the lines will be calculated.

Candidate: 000738-0003
III.

Arandia Jimenez 5

Modeling
In Figure 6. I had to define the points that I wanted to graph. Finding the points will be

easy for both of the lines (before the yellow dots), but from the yellow dots to the right, the lines
follow the golden ratio proportions, so I had to decide what dimensions the square will have, in
order to find the other points on the golden spiral.
Figure 6. Coordinate plane and draft sketch of the
functions, with defined square dimension

I decided that the dimensions of the squares will be 4x4cm for the red spiral (ABCD) and
2.5x 2.5cm for the black spiral (EFGH). I will refer to the length as the longer side of the
rectangle, and width as the shorter side.
Red Spiral (ABCD)
As shown in Figure 6, the green points have to be located on the coordinate plane. Point
A on the red spiral is already defined as (14.9, 4.7), so it is necessary to find the point B. It is
obvious that point B will be at (18.9, 8.7) because of the established dimensions of the square
(4cm to the right and 4cm upwards). To find point C, the length of the entire rectangle has to be

## calculated with the equation found before:

x
x 2
L= + x 2+( )
2
2

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DS 1

LR 1

):

4
4 2
LR 1= + 4 2+( )
2
2
LR 1=2+2 5

6.4721

## The answer is given in 4 decimal places. To find the y-coordinate of point C (

y-coordinate of point A (

yA

yC

), the

## ) has to be added by the length of the 1st rectangle

y C = y A + LR 1
y C =4.7+(2+ 2 5) 11.1721

## To find the x-coordinate of point C, the dimensions of the 2nd square (

DS 2

) have to be

found,
DS 2=L R 14
D S 2=2+ 2 54 2.472
and then subtract the answer from the x-coordinate of point B.
x C =18.9(2+2 54 ) 16.428
Therefore, point C has coordinates (16.428, 11.172). The 1st rectangle can be divided to
form a 2nd square and a 2nd rectangle. The 2nd square will have the dimensions 2.472x2.472 cm as
shown in Figure 7.
Figure 7.
Dimensions

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The length of the 2nd rectangle is 4cm, but I wanted to make sure that my numbers were
accurate, so I decided to make the same process this time replacing the dimensions of the 2nd
square ( 2+2 5 4 or 2.472) in the formula, and expecting a 4 as an answer.

x
x 2
LR 2 = + x 2 +( )
2
2

LR 2 =

2
2+2 5 4
2+2 5 4
+ (2+ 2 5 4) +(
)
2
2

LR 2 =4
This means that the process is correct.
The same process can be repeated to find point D, but, since I have enough information, I
will just find the dimensions of the 3rd square by subtracting the length of the 2nd rectangle by one
side of the 2nd square:
DS 3 =LR 2 D S 2
2+2 5 4
D S 3=4 )

D S 3 =62 5 1.528

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## Therefore, the coordinates of point D will be obtained by:

y D = y C D S 3
62 5
y D =( 6.7+2 5) )
y D =0.7+ 4 5 9.644
The x-coordinate of point D is the same as point As. Point D has coordinates (14.9,
9.644)
The points found on the red spiral (ABCD) were:

A(14.9, 4.7)
B(18.9, 8.7)
C(16.428, 11.172)
D(14.9, 9.644)

To proof if the points on the Golden spiral were found correctly, I have test the
dimensions of the rectangles followed the Golden ratio:
=

L 1+ 5
=
1.6180339887 .
W
2

Table 1. Dimensions of Red rectangle and proof of Golden ratio in Red spiral
L
W

Rectangle

L (cm)

W (cm)

1R

2+2 5

1+ 5
2

2R

2 52

1+ 5
2

3R

2 52

62 5

1+ 5
2

Proof:

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LR1
=
W R1
4
1+ 5
=
2
2 52
2
5+1 1+ 5
(
)=
2
51 5+1
2 5+2 1+ 5 5+1 1+ 5
=
=
4
2
2
2

## Black Spiral (EFGH)

I used the exact same procedure to find the coordinates of the black spiral (EFGH).
The points found on the black spiral (EFGH) were:

E(15.6, 6.6)
F(18.1, 9.1)
G(16.555, 10.645)
H(15.6, 9.690)

The following table shows the dimensions of the rectangles and how they proved to
follow the Golden ratio.
Table 2. Dimensions of Black rectangle and proof of Golden ratio in Black spiral
L
W

Rectangles

L (cm)

W (cm)

1B

5+ 5 5
4

2.5

1+ 5
2

2B

2.5

5+5 5
4

1+ 5
2

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3B

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5+5 5
4

155 5
4

Proof:
LR1
=
W R1
5+5 5
)
4
1+ 5
=
2
155 5
(
)
4
(

1+ 5 3+ 5 1+ 5
(
)=
2
3 5 3+ 5
2 5+2 1+ 5 5+1 1+ 5
=
=
4
2
2
2

## Figure 8. Graph showing set of functions and its coordinate points

1+ 5
2

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The following set of data shows three functions for the black shape and its points:
Table 3. Points for the functions in Black shape.
x [cm]
f(x) [cm]
x [cm]
g(x) [cm]
x [cm]
h(x) [cm]

0
4.2
15.6
6.6
18.1
9.1

4.9
8
16.3
7
17.2
10.3

7.9
8.2
17
7.5
16.555
10.645

12.5
7.1
17.6
8.1
15.9
10.2

15.6
6.6
18.1
9.1
15.6
9.690

The following set of data shows three functions for the red shape and its points:
Table 4. Points for the functions in Red shape
x[cm]
i(x) [cm]
x[cm]
j(x) [cm]
x[cm]
k(x) [cm]

1.4
0
14.9
4.7
18.9
8.7

2.5
4
15.9
5.1
18.2
10.3

7.2
6.3
17.4
5.9
16.428
11.172

11.2
5.3
18.6
7.1
15.3
10.8

14.9
4.7
18.9
8.7
14.9
9.644

Black Shape
Function 1 (f(x))
For function f(x), a cubic model will be used:
y=ax3 +b x 2 +cx +d
To find variables a, b, c, and d, I will replace points (4.9, 8), (7.9, 8.2), (12.5, 7.1), and
(15.6, 6.6) in the equation, and create a system (

S1

## ) of 4 equations with 4 variables:

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( 4 .9 ) 3 a ( 4 .9 ) 2 b 4 .9 c d 8

3
2
( 7 .9 ) a ( 7 .9 ) b 7 .9 c d 8 .2

3
2
(12.5) a (12.5) b 12.5c d 7.1

S1
=

## which will become:

117.649a 24.01b 4.9c d 8
1
493.039a 62.41b 7.9c d 8.2
2

## I will solve the system of equations by elimination:

Subtract 1 from 2 to eliminate d:
493.039 a+62.41 b+7.9 c+ d=8.2
117.649 a+ 24.01b+ 4.9 c +d=8
375.39 a+38.4 b+ 3 c=0.2 A
Subtract 3 from 4 to eliminate d:
3796.416 a+ 243.366 b+15.6 c +d=6.6
1953.125 a+156.256 b+ 12.5 c+ d=7.1
1843.291a+ 87.11b+3.1 c=0.5 B
Subtract 2 from 3 to eliminate d:
1953.125 a+156.256 b+ 12.5 c+ d=7.1
493.039 a+62.41 b+7.9 c +d=8.2
1460.086 a+93.846 b +4.6 c=1.1 C
Subtract A from B to eliminate c:

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## 1843.291a+ 87.11 b+3.1 c=0.5( 3)

375.39 a+38.4 b+3 c =0.2( 3.1)
5529.873 a+ 261.33b+ 9.3 c=1.5
1163.709 a+ 119.04 b+ 9.3 c=0.62
4366.164 a+142.296 b=2.12 I
Subtract A from C to eliminate c:
1460.086 a+93.846 b+ 4.6 c=1.1( 3)
375.39 a+38.4 b +3 c=0.2( 4.6)
4380.258 a+281.538 b+13.8 c=3.3
1726.794 a+176.64 b+ 13.8 c=0.92
2653.464 a+104.898 b=4.22 II
Subtract I from II to eliminate b:
2653.464 a+104.898 b=4.22( 142.296)
4366.164 a+142.296 b=2.12( 104.898)
377577.3133 a+14926.56581 b=600.48912
458001.8713 a+14926.56581 b=222.38376
80424.558 a=378.10536 II

a=

378.10536
80424.558

a 4.7014 * 103

Replace a in I to find b:
4.7014
3
4366.164 * 10 +142.296 b=2.12
b 0.1592

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## Replace a and b in A to find c:

4.7014
3
10 +38.4(0.1592)+ 3 c=0.2
375.39 *
c 1.5161
Replace a, b, and c in 1
4.7014
3
10 +24.01(0.1592)+ 4.9(1.5161)+d =8
117.649 *
d 3.8404

## Function f(x) results in:

y=4.7014 * 103 x 30.1592 x 2 +1.5161 x +3.8404

Equation test:
(4.9, 8): Replace x = 4.9 on f(x):
y=4.7014 * 103 (4.9)30.1592 ( 4.9 )2+1.5161( 4.9)+ 3.8404

y 8.0000
(7.9, 8.2): Replace x = 7.9 on f(x):
y=4.7014 * 103 (7.9)30.1592 ( 7.9 )2+1.5161(7.9)+3.8404
y 8.1999

## (15.6, 6.6): Replace x = 15.6 on f(x):

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y 6.5971

3

## f (x)=0.004314 x 0.1469 x +1.395 x+ 4.198

After the equation test, I graphed the points on Logger Pro package program (pink line)
and could see that the auto fit curve and the manual fit (blue line) curve were very close to each
other. Since the pink curve passes through all the points of the function f(x), I decided that the
automatic curve fit will be used in order have a more precise results.
Function 2 (g(x))
For function g(x), a cubic model will be used:
y=ax3 +b x 2 +cx +d

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To find variables a, b, c, and d, I will replace points (16.3, 7), (17, 7.5), (17.6, 8.1), and
(18.1, 9.1) in the equation, and create a system (

S2

## (16.3) 3 a (16.3) 2 b 16.3c d 7

S2
=

3
2
(17) a (17) b 17c d 7.5

3
2
(17.6) a (17.6) b 17.6c d 8.1
(18.1) 3 a (18.1) 2 b 18.1c d 9.1

S2
=

## 4330.747 a 265.69b 16.3c d 7

4913a 289b 17c d 7.5

## 5451.776a 309.76b 17.6c d 8.1

5929.741a 327.64b 18.1c d 9.1

## Using a Casio fx-9860GII SD graphics calculator, I found the 4 variables, rounded to 4

decimal places:
A=0.3829
B=19.2724

C=323.9507
D=1811.3755

and replaced the variables in the cubic equation, and the resulting function g(x) is:
y=0.3829 x 319.2724 x 2 +323.9507 x1811.3755
Equation test:
(16.3, 7): Replace x = 16.3 on g(x):
y=0.3829( 16.3)3 19.2724 ( 16.3 )2+323.9507 (16.3)1811.3755

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y 6.7800
(17, 7.5): Replace x = 17 on g(x):
y=0.3829(17)3 19.2724 ( 17 )2 +323.9507(17)1811.3755
y=7.2505

## (17.6, 8.1): Replace x = 17.6 on g(x):

y=0.3829(17.6)3 19.2724 ( 17.6 )2 +323.9507(17.6)1811.3755
y=7.8232

## The auto fit curve on Logger Pro has an equation of:

g( x)=0.1866 x 39.113 x 2 +148.9 x 806.9

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After the equation test, I graphed the points on Logger Pro package program (pink line)
and observed that the auto fit curve was more accurate than the manual fit curve (blue line)
because it passed through all the points of the function g(x). Again, I decided that the automatic
curve fit will be used in order have a more precise calculation of the volume.
Function 3 (h(x))
For function h(x), a cubic model will be used:
y=ax3 +b x 2 +cx +d
To find variables a, b, c, and d, I will replace points (17.2, 10.3), (16.555, 10.645), (15.9,
10.2), and (15.6, 9.690) in the equation, and create a system (

S3

) of 4 equations with 4

variables:
(17.2) 3 a (17.2) 2 b 17.2c d 10.3

## (16.555) 3 a (16.555) 2 b 16.555c d 10.645

S 3 =

3
2
(15.9) a (15.9) b 15.9c d 10.2

## which will become:

5088.448a 295.84b 17.2 d 10.3

## Using a Casio fx-9860GII SD graphics calculator, I found the 4 variables, rounded to 4

decimal places:
A=0.0842
B=5.1127
C=100.12 24

D=627.4719

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and replaced the variables in the cubic equation, and the resulting function h(x) is:
y=0.0842 x 35.1127 x 2 +100.1224 x627.4719
Equation test:
(17.2, 10.3): Replace x = 17.2 on h(x):
y=0.0842(17.2)35.1127 (17.2 )2 +100.1224 (17.2)627.4719
y 10.5395
(16.555, 10.645): Replace x = 16.555 on h(x):
y=0.0842(16.555)35.1127 ( 16.555 )2+100.1224 (16.555)627.4719
y 10.8588

## (15.9, 9.690): Replace x = 15.9on h(x):

y=0.0842(15.9)35.1127 ( 15.9 )2+100.1224 (15.9)627.4719
y 10.3895

## Figure 11. Graph of manual and automatic curve fit of h(x).

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## The auto fit curve on Logger Pro has an equation of:

h( x )=0.1630 x 38.989 x 2+163.6 x973.5
With Logger Pro package program I observed that, again, the auto fit curve (pink line)
was more accurate than the manual fit curve (blue line) because it passes through all the points of
the function h(x). Again, my choice was to use the equation given by Logger Pro, as more
accurate results will be obtained.
Red Shape
Function 4 (i(x))
The functions calculated were close, but not very accurate as the variables found by
Logger Pro. From here on, the variables of the functions i(x), j(x), and k(x) are to be calculated
through Logger Pros automatic curve fit.
For function i(x), a cubic model will be used, taking the form of:
3

y=ax +b x +cx +d

## Figure 12. Graph of manual and automatic curve fit of i(x).

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## Based on what the graph provides, i(x) can be:

i ( x )=0.01573 x 30.4696 x 2 +4.120 x4.382
Function 5 (j(x))
Figure 13. Graph of manual and automatic curve fit of j(x).

For function j(x), a cubic model will be used, taking the form of:
j ( x )=0.1551 x 3 7.585 x 2 +123.8 x 669.1
Function 6 (k(x))
Figure 14. Graph of manual and automatic curve fit of k(x).

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A cubic model will be used for function k(x), and with Logger Pro model, it will result:
k ( x )=0.005484 x 30.2414 x 2 +12.61 x106.3
Two systems of equations can by constructed by assembling the functions that make up
each shape: Black shape system (

IV.

SR

## f ( x ) =0.004314 x 30.1469 x 2+1.395 x +4.198 ; for 0 x 15.6

g ( x )=0.1866 x 39.113 x 2 +148.9 x806.9 ; for 15.6 x 18.1
h ( x )=0.1630 x 38.989 x 2 +163.6 x 973.5 ; for 15.6 x 18.1

SB

SR

SB

## j ( x )=0.1551 x 37.585 x2 +123.8 x669.1 ; for 14.9 x 18.9

k ( x )=0.005484 x 30.2414 x2 +12.61 x106.3 ; for 14.9 x 18.9

Integration

The next step is to find the volume through integrals. This process will have 3 stages. I will
integrate the functions found by using the equation:
a

V=

( f (x))2 dx
b

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Stage 1:
Figure 15. Volume 1 (

V1

a

V f (x)

b

V f (x)

15.6

0

V f (x) = (

1.861110
7

1.267510
6

x+

## V f (x) 2613.7947 cm3

For the following results of the integrated functions, Casio fx-9860GII SD graphics
calculator was used to find the volume, with 4 decimal places.
Replace g(x) in equation:

## 0.0336 5 0.3736 4 0.7126 3 11.7124 2

15.6
x
x +
x +
x +17.6232 x)
5
4
3
2
0

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18.1

V g (x)

15.6

## V g (x) 452.1702 cm3

Replace i(x) in equation:
14.9

V i( x)

## (0.01573 x3 0.4696 x 2+ 4.120 x 4.382)2 dx

1.4

V i( x) 1239.1658 cm3
Replace j(x) in equation (limit: a = 18.1):
18.1

V j (x)

14.9

## V j (x) 293.7897 cm3

Add Black shape volumes and Red shape volumes, separately. Then subtract to find

V1

## V =V f (x) +V g(x) V =V i( x)+ V j (x)

V =2613.7947+452.1702=3065.9649V =1239.1658+293.7897 =1532.9555

V 1=V V
V 1=1533.0094 cm3
Stage 2:
Figure 16. Volume 2 (

V2

## ) (shaded yellow area) that is to be found in Stage 2.

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18.9

V k (x)

14.9

## V k (x) 1444.6748 cm3

Replace h(x) in equation:
18.1

V h( x)

## (0.1630 x 38.989 x 2+163.6 x973.5)2 dx

15.6

V h( x) 850.5552 cm3

Subtract to find

V2

V 2=V k ( x )V h (x ) 1444.6748850.5552
V 2=594.1196 cm3
As shown in Figure 10, there are two pink shaded areas (I and II) that are not subtracted
from

V k ( x)

, so

V2

will not be accurate. To fix this, I found both of the functions: I(x) from

points D to H, and II(x) from points F to B. I replaced them in the integrals equation:

Candidate: 000738-0003
I ( x )=

Arandia Jimenez 26

23
x
x2.27 II ( x )=
+18.15
30
2
15.6

V I (x) = (
14.9

18.9

2
2
23
x
x2.27) dx V II ( x)= (
+ 18.15) dx
30
2
18.1

## V I (x) =195.2634 cm3 V II (x)=199.1200 cm3

V Final 2 =V 2(V I ( x ) +V II ( x ) )
V Final 2 =199.7362cm

Stage 3:
Figure 17. Volume 3 (

V3

18.9

V j (x)

18.1

## V j (x) 135.5808 cm3

Subtract

V j (x)

from

V II (x)

to get Volume 3:

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V 3=V II ( x )V j(x )
V 3=63.5392 cm3

The three volumes found have to be added to find the volume of the entire flower vase:
V =V 1 +V 2 +V 3
V =1533.0094+ 199.7362+ 63.5392
V =1796.2848 cm 3
V.

## Conclusion and Reflection

Throughout the process of this exploration I was able to learn new mathematical concepts, as
well as apply previous knowledge on a real life situation. The new skill I learned was how to find
points on a graph that follow the Golden spiral and the Golden ratio. Not only have I practiced
finding the volume of 3D solid objects by integrals, but I also improved my skills on finding the
volume of irregular solid objects that require integrating more than 3 functions to be solved. For
me, this mathematical exploration was a proof that the disc method on a solid of revolution can
be applied in a real life situation or possible real life situation. This means that this method can
be used to find the volume of several, and different, irregular solid objects, such as bottles and
even more types of flower vases. There are so many objects that can be modeled to find its
volume that we, humans, will never get tired of applying calculus in several and unique forms!
My aim of finding the volume of a non-conventional object was fulfilled. After achieving my
aims, I was thinking where else I could apply the processes of modeling and integrating to find
volume of this flower vase; I wanted to find a real life situation where this would be useful. The
first idea that came to my mind was that I could use it to optimize the price of it. This means that
I could figure out what is the least or greatest amount of material (glass for example) that could
be used to create this proposed flower vase, and then find the cost of production by finding the
price of the material per

## cm3 , and multiply it by the volume calculated. This process is done

Candidate: 000738-0003

Arandia Jimenez 28

by several industries, which gives us another reason to proof that calculus is very important in
real life.
VI.
References
Clip 2: Solids of Revolution. Session 57: How to Calculate Volumes. Massachusetts

## Institute of Technology, 2006. Web. 10 Mar. 2016. http://ocw.mit.edu/

Kleitman. "What Is Calculus and Why Do We Study It?" Professor Kleitman's

## Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 9 Mar. 2016. <http://www-math.mit.edu/>.

Solid of Revolution - Finding Volume by Rotation. Digital image. WyzAnt. N.p., n.d.

## Web. 10 Mar. 2016. <www.wyzant.com>.

Weisstein, Eric W. Golden Spiral. Digital image. Wolfram Math World. N.p., n.d. Web. 10
Mar. 2016. <mathworld.wolfram.com>.

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