IA IB Mathematics SL 2016
Volume by revolution

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IA IB Mathematics SL 2016
Volume by revolution

© All Rights Reserved

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Arandia Jimenez 1

Mathematics SL

Internal Assessment

Candidate Number: 000738-0003

Session: May 2016

Course: IB Mathematics SL

I.

Introduction

Calculus is the study of how things change, by which a person can create models and

predict quantitative changes and sequences. (What Is Calculus and Why do we Study it?)

Differentiation and Integration are the two main branches of Calculus. I was attracted to

Integrals; I saw it as a second method of finding the volume of an object, and not only

Candidate: 000738-0003

Arandia Jimenez 2

wondered: Could be possible to calculate the volume of non-regular shapes, such as a vase?

Figure 1. shows a sine function on a graph with its shaded area under the line, and Figure 2.

shows how it looks when the area is rotated 3600 around the x-axis.

on a set of axis

on a set of axis

Web; 10 March, 2016.

r is changing for every point in the x-axis, and if r f ( x )= y , the area of the imaginary

cross sectional circle inside the vase will also be changing, because it is an irregular 3D shape. In

2

order to find the volume of the vase using the area ( A= r of its imaginary cross sectional

disks inside, the volume of a cross sectional disk has to be calculated. The area of the disk should

be multiplied by its infinitesimally small thickness (dx).

V d = r 2 dx

Next, we have to integrate in order to find the volume of the entire base. Integration will

add up the volume of all disks that form the vase, considering that the volume of each is

changing for all values of x. The area under the function f(x) will be rotated around the x-axis,

with limits established by vertical lines x=a and x=b. (Clip 2: Solids of Revolution).

a

V=

r

b

a

2

dx

V=

( f (x))2 dx

b

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Arandia Jimenez 3

I felt enthusiastic to find the volume of an object, but to challenge myself, I decided to

create a flower vase and model it. While designing the vase, I got inspired by the Golden ratio,

which are used for artworks and architecture since Ancient Greece, and is found in many aspects

of nature, such as flowers. A Golden spiral created by the Golden rectangle will be fancy!

3. Math

ImageWorld;

of the mathworld.wolfram.com;

Golden spiral

Figure 3; Golden Spiral;Figure

Wolfram

Web; 15 March,

2016.

The Golden ratio

Golden ratio=

The specific value of

L

W

on its base, where a diagonal line will be drawn until it touches the upper right corner of the

square. Then, draw a curve-like line from the upper right corner to the bottom of the square, and

connect it with a horizontal line to the midpoint mentioned before. Draw the margins of the new

rectangle. The final drawing is shown in Figure 4:

Figure 4. Drawing of how to find

L

W

Candidate: 000738-0003

1+ 5

2

Arandia Jimenez 4

L will be calculated by adding half on the squares base and the length of the red

diagonal:

x

x 2

L= + x 2+( )

2

2

I will use this method to find the distance between the points of the functions that follow

the golden spiral shape, so I can model the vase and then find a best-fit function that will allow

me to find its volume. Finally, I will rotate the area to find the volume.

II.

Aims

Integrals give us humans a method to find the volume of original and non-conventional

objects. Therefore, the aim of this exploration is to apply integrals in a possible real life situation,

in which I created and modeled a decorative and irregular solid object. With Paint program, I

could portray the idea that I had of creating a flower base, inspired in the golden spiral, as seen in

Figure 5.

Figure 5.Contour and dimensions of the created flower vase.

Figure 5. is the contour of the vase: the black lines represent the outer most surface of the

vase, and red vase are the inside contour. The volume between the lines will be calculated.

Candidate: 000738-0003

III.

Arandia Jimenez 5

Modeling

In Figure 6. I had to define the points that I wanted to graph. Finding the points will be

easy for both of the lines (before the yellow dots), but from the yellow dots to the right, the lines

follow the golden ratio proportions, so I had to decide what dimensions the square will have, in

order to find the other points on the golden spiral.

Figure 6. Coordinate plane and draft sketch of the

functions, with defined square dimension

I decided that the dimensions of the squares will be 4x4cm for the red spiral (ABCD) and

2.5x 2.5cm for the black spiral (EFGH). I will refer to the length as the longer side of the

rectangle, and width as the shorter side.

Red Spiral (ABCD)

As shown in Figure 6, the green points have to be located on the coordinate plane. Point

A on the red spiral is already defined as (14.9, 4.7), so it is necessary to find the point B. It is

obvious that point B will be at (18.9, 8.7) because of the established dimensions of the square

(4cm to the right and 4cm upwards). To find point C, the length of the entire rectangle has to be

x

x 2

L= + x 2+( )

2

2

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Arandia Jimenez 6

DS 1

LR 1

):

4

4 2

LR 1= + 4 2+( )

2

2

LR 1=2+2 5

6.4721

y-coordinate of point A (

yA

yC

), the

y C = y A + LR 1

y C =4.7+(2+ 2 5) 11.1721

DS 2

) have to be

found,

DS 2=L R 14

D S 2=2+ 2 54 2.472

and then subtract the answer from the x-coordinate of point B.

x C =18.9(2+2 54 ) 16.428

Therefore, point C has coordinates (16.428, 11.172). The 1st rectangle can be divided to

form a 2nd square and a 2nd rectangle. The 2nd square will have the dimensions 2.472x2.472 cm as

shown in Figure 7.

Figure 7.

Dimensions

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Arandia Jimenez 7

The length of the 2nd rectangle is 4cm, but I wanted to make sure that my numbers were

accurate, so I decided to make the same process this time replacing the dimensions of the 2nd

square ( 2+2 5 4 or 2.472) in the formula, and expecting a 4 as an answer.

x

x 2

LR 2 = + x 2 +( )

2

2

LR 2 =

2

2+2 5 4

2+2 5 4

+ (2+ 2 5 4) +(

)

2

2

LR 2 =4

This means that the process is correct.

The same process can be repeated to find point D, but, since I have enough information, I

will just find the dimensions of the 3rd square by subtracting the length of the 2nd rectangle by one

side of the 2nd square:

DS 3 =LR 2 D S 2

2+2 5 4

D S 3=4 )

D S 3 =62 5 1.528

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Arandia Jimenez 8

y D = y C D S 3

62 5

y D =( 6.7+2 5) )

y D =0.7+ 4 5 9.644

The x-coordinate of point D is the same as point As. Point D has coordinates (14.9,

9.644)

The points found on the red spiral (ABCD) were:

A(14.9, 4.7)

B(18.9, 8.7)

C(16.428, 11.172)

D(14.9, 9.644)

To proof if the points on the Golden spiral were found correctly, I have test the

dimensions of the rectangles followed the Golden ratio:

=

L 1+ 5

=

1.6180339887 .

W

2

Table 1. Dimensions of Red rectangle and proof of Golden ratio in Red spiral

L

W

Rectangle

L (cm)

W (cm)

1R

2+2 5

1+ 5

2

2R

2 52

1+ 5

2

3R

2 52

62 5

1+ 5

2

Proof:

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Arandia Jimenez 9

LR1

=

W R1

4

1+ 5

=

2

2 52

2

5+1 1+ 5

(

)=

2

51 5+1

2 5+2 1+ 5 5+1 1+ 5

=

=

4

2

2

2

I used the exact same procedure to find the coordinates of the black spiral (EFGH).

The points found on the black spiral (EFGH) were:

E(15.6, 6.6)

F(18.1, 9.1)

G(16.555, 10.645)

H(15.6, 9.690)

The following table shows the dimensions of the rectangles and how they proved to

follow the Golden ratio.

Table 2. Dimensions of Black rectangle and proof of Golden ratio in Black spiral

L

W

Rectangles

L (cm)

W (cm)

1B

5+ 5 5

4

2.5

1+ 5

2

2B

2.5

5+5 5

4

1+ 5

2

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3B

Arandia Jimenez 10

5+5 5

4

155 5

4

Proof:

LR1

=

W R1

5+5 5

)

4

1+ 5

=

2

155 5

(

)

4

(

1+ 5 3+ 5 1+ 5

(

)=

2

3 5 3+ 5

2 5+2 1+ 5 5+1 1+ 5

=

=

4

2

2

2

1+ 5

2

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Arandia Jimenez 11

The following set of data shows three functions for the black shape and its points:

Table 3. Points for the functions in Black shape.

x [cm]

f(x) [cm]

x [cm]

g(x) [cm]

x [cm]

h(x) [cm]

0

4.2

15.6

6.6

18.1

9.1

4.9

8

16.3

7

17.2

10.3

7.9

8.2

17

7.5

16.555

10.645

12.5

7.1

17.6

8.1

15.9

10.2

15.6

6.6

18.1

9.1

15.6

9.690

The following set of data shows three functions for the red shape and its points:

Table 4. Points for the functions in Red shape

x[cm]

i(x) [cm]

x[cm]

j(x) [cm]

x[cm]

k(x) [cm]

1.4

0

14.9

4.7

18.9

8.7

2.5

4

15.9

5.1

18.2

10.3

7.2

6.3

17.4

5.9

16.428

11.172

11.2

5.3

18.6

7.1

15.3

10.8

14.9

4.7

18.9

8.7

14.9

9.644

Black Shape

Function 1 (f(x))

For function f(x), a cubic model will be used:

y=ax3 +b x 2 +cx +d

To find variables a, b, c, and d, I will replace points (4.9, 8), (7.9, 8.2), (12.5, 7.1), and

(15.6, 6.6) in the equation, and create a system (

S1

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Arandia Jimenez 12

( 4 .9 ) 3 a ( 4 .9 ) 2 b 4 .9 c d 8

3

2

( 7 .9 ) a ( 7 .9 ) b 7 .9 c d 8 .2

3

2

(12.5) a (12.5) b 12.5c d 7.1

S1

=

117.649a 24.01b 4.9c d 8

1

493.039a 62.41b 7.9c d 8.2

2

Subtract 1 from 2 to eliminate d:

493.039 a+62.41 b+7.9 c+ d=8.2

117.649 a+ 24.01b+ 4.9 c +d=8

375.39 a+38.4 b+ 3 c=0.2 A

Subtract 3 from 4 to eliminate d:

3796.416 a+ 243.366 b+15.6 c +d=6.6

1953.125 a+156.256 b+ 12.5 c+ d=7.1

1843.291a+ 87.11b+3.1 c=0.5 B

Subtract 2 from 3 to eliminate d:

1953.125 a+156.256 b+ 12.5 c+ d=7.1

493.039 a+62.41 b+7.9 c +d=8.2

1460.086 a+93.846 b +4.6 c=1.1 C

Subtract A from B to eliminate c:

Candidate: 000738-0003

Arandia Jimenez 13

375.39 a+38.4 b+3 c =0.2( 3.1)

5529.873 a+ 261.33b+ 9.3 c=1.5

1163.709 a+ 119.04 b+ 9.3 c=0.62

4366.164 a+142.296 b=2.12 I

Subtract A from C to eliminate c:

1460.086 a+93.846 b+ 4.6 c=1.1( 3)

375.39 a+38.4 b +3 c=0.2( 4.6)

4380.258 a+281.538 b+13.8 c=3.3

1726.794 a+176.64 b+ 13.8 c=0.92

2653.464 a+104.898 b=4.22 II

Subtract I from II to eliminate b:

2653.464 a+104.898 b=4.22( 142.296)

4366.164 a+142.296 b=2.12( 104.898)

377577.3133 a+14926.56581 b=600.48912

458001.8713 a+14926.56581 b=222.38376

80424.558 a=378.10536 II

a=

378.10536

80424.558

a 4.7014 * 103

Replace a in I to find b:

4.7014

3

4366.164 * 10 +142.296 b=2.12

b 0.1592

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Arandia Jimenez 14

4.7014

3

10 +38.4(0.1592)+ 3 c=0.2

375.39 *

c 1.5161

Replace a, b, and c in 1

4.7014

3

10 +24.01(0.1592)+ 4.9(1.5161)+d =8

117.649 *

d 3.8404

y=4.7014 * 103 x 30.1592 x 2 +1.5161 x +3.8404

Equation test:

(4.9, 8): Replace x = 4.9 on f(x):

y=4.7014 * 103 (4.9)30.1592 ( 4.9 )2+1.5161( 4.9)+ 3.8404

y 8.0000

(7.9, 8.2): Replace x = 7.9 on f(x):

y=4.7014 * 103 (7.9)30.1592 ( 7.9 )2+1.5161(7.9)+3.8404

y 8.1999

Candidate: 000738-0003

Arandia Jimenez 15

y 6.5971

3

After the equation test, I graphed the points on Logger Pro package program (pink line)

and could see that the auto fit curve and the manual fit (blue line) curve were very close to each

other. Since the pink curve passes through all the points of the function f(x), I decided that the

automatic curve fit will be used in order have a more precise results.

Function 2 (g(x))

For function g(x), a cubic model will be used:

y=ax3 +b x 2 +cx +d

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Arandia Jimenez 16

To find variables a, b, c, and d, I will replace points (16.3, 7), (17, 7.5), (17.6, 8.1), and

(18.1, 9.1) in the equation, and create a system (

S2

S2

=

3

2

(17) a (17) b 17c d 7.5

3

2

(17.6) a (17.6) b 17.6c d 8.1

(18.1) 3 a (18.1) 2 b 18.1c d 9.1

S2

=

4913a 289b 17c d 7.5

5929.741a 327.64b 18.1c d 9.1

decimal places:

A=0.3829

B=19.2724

C=323.9507

D=1811.3755

and replaced the variables in the cubic equation, and the resulting function g(x) is:

y=0.3829 x 319.2724 x 2 +323.9507 x1811.3755

Equation test:

(16.3, 7): Replace x = 16.3 on g(x):

y=0.3829( 16.3)3 19.2724 ( 16.3 )2+323.9507 (16.3)1811.3755

Candidate: 000738-0003

Arandia Jimenez 17

y 6.7800

(17, 7.5): Replace x = 17 on g(x):

y=0.3829(17)3 19.2724 ( 17 )2 +323.9507(17)1811.3755

y=7.2505

y=0.3829(17.6)3 19.2724 ( 17.6 )2 +323.9507(17.6)1811.3755

y=7.8232

g( x)=0.1866 x 39.113 x 2 +148.9 x 806.9

Candidate: 000738-0003

Arandia Jimenez 18

After the equation test, I graphed the points on Logger Pro package program (pink line)

and observed that the auto fit curve was more accurate than the manual fit curve (blue line)

because it passed through all the points of the function g(x). Again, I decided that the automatic

curve fit will be used in order have a more precise calculation of the volume.

Function 3 (h(x))

For function h(x), a cubic model will be used:

y=ax3 +b x 2 +cx +d

To find variables a, b, c, and d, I will replace points (17.2, 10.3), (16.555, 10.645), (15.9,

10.2), and (15.6, 9.690) in the equation, and create a system (

S3

) of 4 equations with 4

variables:

(17.2) 3 a (17.2) 2 b 17.2c d 10.3

S 3 =

3

2

(15.9) a (15.9) b 15.9c d 10.2

5088.448a 295.84b 17.2 d 10.3

decimal places:

A=0.0842

B=5.1127

C=100.12 24

D=627.4719

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Arandia Jimenez 19

and replaced the variables in the cubic equation, and the resulting function h(x) is:

y=0.0842 x 35.1127 x 2 +100.1224 x627.4719

Equation test:

(17.2, 10.3): Replace x = 17.2 on h(x):

y=0.0842(17.2)35.1127 (17.2 )2 +100.1224 (17.2)627.4719

y 10.5395

(16.555, 10.645): Replace x = 16.555 on h(x):

y=0.0842(16.555)35.1127 ( 16.555 )2+100.1224 (16.555)627.4719

y 10.8588

y=0.0842(15.9)35.1127 ( 15.9 )2+100.1224 (15.9)627.4719

y 10.3895

Candidate: 000738-0003

Arandia Jimenez 20

h( x )=0.1630 x 38.989 x 2+163.6 x973.5

With Logger Pro package program I observed that, again, the auto fit curve (pink line)

was more accurate than the manual fit curve (blue line) because it passes through all the points of

the function h(x). Again, my choice was to use the equation given by Logger Pro, as more

accurate results will be obtained.

Red Shape

Function 4 (i(x))

The functions calculated were close, but not very accurate as the variables found by

Logger Pro. From here on, the variables of the functions i(x), j(x), and k(x) are to be calculated

through Logger Pros automatic curve fit.

For function i(x), a cubic model will be used, taking the form of:

3

y=ax +b x +cx +d

Candidate: 000738-0003

Arandia Jimenez 21

i ( x )=0.01573 x 30.4696 x 2 +4.120 x4.382

Function 5 (j(x))

Figure 13. Graph of manual and automatic curve fit of j(x).

For function j(x), a cubic model will be used, taking the form of:

j ( x )=0.1551 x 3 7.585 x 2 +123.8 x 669.1

Function 6 (k(x))

Figure 14. Graph of manual and automatic curve fit of k(x).

Candidate: 000738-0003

Arandia Jimenez 22

A cubic model will be used for function k(x), and with Logger Pro model, it will result:

k ( x )=0.005484 x 30.2414 x 2 +12.61 x106.3

Two systems of equations can by constructed by assembling the functions that make up

each shape: Black shape system (

IV.

SR

g ( x )=0.1866 x 39.113 x 2 +148.9 x806.9 ; for 15.6 x 18.1

h ( x )=0.1630 x 38.989 x 2 +163.6 x 973.5 ; for 15.6 x 18.1

SB

SR

SB

k ( x )=0.005484 x 30.2414 x2 +12.61 x106.3 ; for 14.9 x 18.9

Integration

The next step is to find the volume through integrals. This process will have 3 stages. I will

integrate the functions found by using the equation:

a

V=

( f (x))2 dx

b

Candidate: 000738-0003

Arandia Jimenez 23

Stage 1:

Figure 15. Volume 1 (

V1

a

V f (x)

b

V f (x)

15.6

0

V f (x) = (

1.861110

7

1.267510

6

x+

For the following results of the integrated functions, Casio fx-9860GII SD graphics

calculator was used to find the volume, with 4 decimal places.

Replace g(x) in equation:

15.6

x

x +

x +

x +17.6232 x)

5

4

3

2

0

Candidate: 000738-0003

Arandia Jimenez 24

18.1

V g (x)

15.6

Replace i(x) in equation:

14.9

V i( x)

1.4

V i( x) 1239.1658 cm3

Replace j(x) in equation (limit: a = 18.1):

18.1

V j (x)

14.9

Add Black shape volumes and Red shape volumes, separately. Then subtract to find

V1

V =2613.7947+452.1702=3065.9649V =1239.1658+293.7897 =1532.9555

V 1=V V

V 1=1533.0094 cm3

Stage 2:

Figure 16. Volume 2 (

V2

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Arandia Jimenez 25

18.9

V k (x)

14.9

Replace h(x) in equation:

18.1

V h( x)

15.6

V h( x) 850.5552 cm3

Subtract to find

V2

V 2=V k ( x )V h (x ) 1444.6748850.5552

V 2=594.1196 cm3

As shown in Figure 10, there are two pink shaded areas (I and II) that are not subtracted

from

V k ( x)

, so

V2

will not be accurate. To fix this, I found both of the functions: I(x) from

points D to H, and II(x) from points F to B. I replaced them in the integrals equation:

Candidate: 000738-0003

I ( x )=

Arandia Jimenez 26

23

x

x2.27 II ( x )=

+18.15

30

2

15.6

V I (x) = (

14.9

18.9

2

2

23

x

x2.27) dx V II ( x)= (

+ 18.15) dx

30

2

18.1

V Final 2 =V 2(V I ( x ) +V II ( x ) )

V Final 2 =199.7362cm

Stage 3:

Figure 17. Volume 3 (

V3

18.9

V j (x)

18.1

Subtract

V j (x)

from

V II (x)

to get Volume 3:

Candidate: 000738-0003

Arandia Jimenez 27

V 3=V II ( x )V j(x )

V 3=63.5392 cm3

The three volumes found have to be added to find the volume of the entire flower vase:

V =V 1 +V 2 +V 3

V =1533.0094+ 199.7362+ 63.5392

V =1796.2848 cm 3

V.

Throughout the process of this exploration I was able to learn new mathematical concepts, as

well as apply previous knowledge on a real life situation. The new skill I learned was how to find

points on a graph that follow the Golden spiral and the Golden ratio. Not only have I practiced

finding the volume of 3D solid objects by integrals, but I also improved my skills on finding the

volume of irregular solid objects that require integrating more than 3 functions to be solved. For

me, this mathematical exploration was a proof that the disc method on a solid of revolution can

be applied in a real life situation or possible real life situation. This means that this method can

be used to find the volume of several, and different, irregular solid objects, such as bottles and

even more types of flower vases. There are so many objects that can be modeled to find its

volume that we, humans, will never get tired of applying calculus in several and unique forms!

My aim of finding the volume of a non-conventional object was fulfilled. After achieving my

aims, I was thinking where else I could apply the processes of modeling and integrating to find

volume of this flower vase; I wanted to find a real life situation where this would be useful. The

first idea that came to my mind was that I could use it to optimize the price of it. This means that

I could figure out what is the least or greatest amount of material (glass for example) that could

be used to create this proposed flower vase, and then find the cost of production by finding the

price of the material per

Candidate: 000738-0003

Arandia Jimenez 28

by several industries, which gives us another reason to proof that calculus is very important in

real life.

VI.

References

Clip 2: Solids of Revolution. Session 57: How to Calculate Volumes. Massachusetts

Kleitman. "What Is Calculus and Why Do We Study It?" Professor Kleitman's

Solid of Revolution - Finding Volume by Rotation. Digital image. WyzAnt. N.p., n.d.

Weisstein, Eric W. Golden Spiral. Digital image. Wolfram Math World. N.p., n.d. Web. 10

Mar. 2016. <mathworld.wolfram.com>.

Microsoft Word

Logger Pro graphing software

Paint graphics program

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