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C O M

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ALGEBRA

Quadratic Equations

Remainder theorem: If f(x) is divided by(x – a), the remainder is f(a). Factor theorem: If (x – a) is a factor of f(x), then f(a) = 0. Involution and Evalution (a + b)2 = a2 + b2 + 2ab (a – b)2 = a2 + b2 – 2ab (a + b)3 = a3 + b3 + 3ab (a + b) (a – b)3 = a3 – b3 – 3ab (a – b) a2 – b2 = (a – b) (a + b) (a + b + c)2 = a2 + b2 + c2 + 2(ab + bc + ca) a3 + b3 = (a + b) (a2 – ab + b2) a3 – b3 = (a – b) (a2 + ab + b2) a3 + b3 + c3 – 3abc = (a + b + c) (a2 + b2 + c2 – ab – bc – ca) if a + b + c = 0 a3 + b3 + c3 = 3abc

Linear Equations

A pair of linear equations in two variables, say x and y, is said to form a system of simultaneous linear equations in two variables. The general form of a system of linear equations in two variables x and y is a1x + b1y + c1 = 0 a2x + b2y + c2 = 0

**Set of Equations Inconsistent System means have no solution a1 = b1 ≠ c1
**

a2 b2 c2

Consistent System means have solution

Dependent system has infinitely many solutions a b c Condition: 1 = 1 = 1 a2 b2 c 2

**Independent system: Only one unique solution Condition: a1 ≠ b1
**

a2 b2

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**_________________________________________________________________________________ Quadratic Equations
**

General form of quadratic equation is ax + bx + c = 0 Roots are

− b m b 2 − 4ac 2a

−b a

2

Sum of roots =

Product of roots =

c a

Nature of roots

If b2 – 4ac = 0 real and equal b2 – 4ac > 0 b – 4ac < 0

2

real and distinct imaginary

**Forming Equation from roots:
**

If α and β are the roots of any quadratic equation then that equation can be written in the form x2 – (α + β)x + αβ = 0 i.e. x – (sum of the roots) x + Product of the roots = 0.

2

Cubic Equations

Cubic equation ax3 + bx2 + cx + d = 0 will have three roots (say x1, x2, x3). Then Sum = x1 + x2 + x3 =

−b a c a

Sum of Products (taken 2 at a time) = x1x2 + x2x3 + x3x1 = Product = x1 x2 x3 =

−d a

Important: If the graph of given equation cuts x-axis n times then it will have n real roots.

**Ex.1 What is the value of Sol. x =
**

2

n + n + n + .........

n+x

⇒x =n+x x2 – x – n = 0 x=

1 + 1 + 4n 2

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Ex.2 y =

2+ 3+ 2+ 1 1 1 1 3 + ......

. What is the value of y?

(1)

13 + 3 2

(2)

13 − 3 2

(3)

15 + 3 2

(4)

15 − 3 2

(5) None of these

**Answer: (4) Ex.3 One root of x2 + kx – 8 = 0 is square of the other, then, the value of k is (1) 2 (2) 8
**

2

(3) – 8

(4) – 2

(5) 0

Hint: Let the roots be α, α .

**Inequalities, Maxima and Minima
**

Intervals (a, b) means a < x < b (a, b] means a < x ≤ b [a, b] means a ≤ x ≤ b

For inequalities questions always go with the options and eliminate the wrong options by taking values for the variable in the given range.

**Some Important Points If a > b and b > c, then a > c. If a > b and c is any real number, then a + c > b + c and a – c > b – c. If a > b > 0, then
**

1 1 < . a b

**If x > y > 0, then logax > logay, if a > 1 and logax < logay, if 0 < a < 1. A.M ≥ G.M ≥ H.M a2 + b2 + c2 ≥ ab + bc + ca (n!)2 > nn for n > 2.
**

1⎞ ⎛ 2 ≤ ⎜1 + ⎟ ≤ 3 for any integer n. ⎝ n⎠

n

**a2b + b2c + c2a ≥ 3abc.
**

a b c d + + + ≥4 b c d a

a + b + c + d ≥ 4abcd. If (x – a) (x – b) ≥ 0, a < b, then x ≤ a or x ≥ b.

4

4

4

4

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If (x – a) (x – b) ≤ 0, a< b, then a ≤ x ≤ b. If |x – a| > b then x > a + b or x < a – b If |x – a| < b, then a – b < x < a + b. |a + b| ≤ |a| + |b| |a – b| ≥ |a| – |b| Ex.4 Largest value of min (2 + x2, 6 – 3x), when x > 0, is Sol. For this type of questions, Take, 2 + x2, 6 – 3x ⇒ x2 + 3x – 4 = 0 ∴ x = – 4, 1. (Since it is given x > 0 ⇒ x = 1) Put x = 1 in either 2 + x2 or 6 – 3x So, the answer is 2 + 12 = 3.

**Maximum /Minimum value of Quadratic Equation
**

1. 2. 3. If the sum of two quantities is constant, then the product will be maximum, if both are equal. If the product is constant, then the sum will be minimum, if both are equal. The equation ax2 + bx + c = 0, will have maximum value when a < 0 and minimum value when a > 0. The maximum or minimum values are given by

4ac − b 2 −b , and will occur at x = . 4a 2a

Functions

If f(x) = x3 – 3x2 + 2x, then f(a) = a3 – 3a2 + 2a. fog(x) = f{g(x)} gof(x) = g{f(x)} If f(x) = f(– x), then f(x) is an even function. E.g. x2 If f(x) = – f(– x), then f(x) is an odd function. E.g. x3 If f(x) = y ⇒ x = f–1(y) Finding the inverse of a given function. Ex.5 Find the inverse of y = Sol. −2 and determine whether the inverse is also a function. x−5 Since the variable is in the denominator, this is a rational function. Here's the algebra: Write the original function y =

Step 1: Step 2: Step 3:

−2 x−5 5y − 2 y

Represent x in terms of y in the equation. x = Replace the x's and y's with each other. y = Thus, the inverse function is y = 5x − 2 . x

5x − 2 x

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Important: If f and g are two functions defined from set A in to set B, then 1. Sum / difference of two functions is ( f + g ) (x) = f(x) + g (x) 2. Product of two functions is ( f × g) (x) = f(x) × g (x)

⎛f⎞ f (x ) 3. Division of two functions is ⎜ ⎟ ( x ) = . ⎜ g⎟ g (x ) ⎝ ⎠

Points on graph

If the graph is symmetrical about y-axis then it is even function. If the graph is symmetrical about origin then it is odd function.

For graph questions it is always better to take values and check the options.

Some Important graphs

Modulus Function

y f(x) = k x′ x

f(x) = x or f(x) = – x when x < 0 x when x ≥ 0

Domain: R + Range: R

o

y′

Greatest Integer Function or Step Function

y 3 2 x′ -3 -2 1 -1 -1 -2 1 2 3 x

f(x) = [x] Domain: R Range: Integer

y′

Reciprocal function

1 x Domain: R – {0} Range: R – {0} f(x) =

y f(x) = 1/x x′ x

y′

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_________________________________________________________________________________ Logarithms

Properties of Logarithms

**log11 = 0 logaa = 1 logaa = m log
**

an

m

a=

1 n

logbn am =

m logba n

**logam + logan = logamn logam – logan = logam/n logba = a
**

loga m

log a 1 = log b log a b

=m

If logaN = x, then N = ax.

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