Chapter 6

6.1 Reasons for conflicts among countries
1. Conflict over border
In 1947, India gained independence from Britain Inherited the frontier draw by the British However, China protested as it was difficult to have a clear border as the frontier was in the inaccessible Himalayas This led to conflict over two areas, the Aksai Chin plateau and the North East Frontier Agency (NEFA) In the late 1950 s, China contested India s presence in several location near the frontier China were unwilling to negotiate seriously and did not want to commit to a border In 1958, China built a road on the Aksai Chin plateau India government protested, arguing that the road violated its territorial rights China counter-argued that the boarder had not been fixed India counter-counter-argued that its border with China was clearly defined In 1959, fighting broke out in Aksai Chin plateau and NEFA By mid-1961, China occupied more territories which India regarded as its own India demanded the return of the territories China refused In 1962, war broke out But ended quickly Although territorial conflict has not been resolved, an agreement in 2005 had been signed. It was to settle the border issue in a fair and reasonable manner. Fisherman from European countries were over fishing around Iceland In the 1970s, Iceland and Britain were in conflict over fishing grounds, as the fish stock decreases around Iceland Iceland depended on the fishing industry for its survival. Thus they felt their national interest were threatened In 1975, Iceland extended its zone of control from 50 nautical miles to 200 miles. Thus no country would be able to fish within the boundary without permission. However Britain refused to acknowledge the new boundary Thus Iceland cut its diplomatic ties with Britain in Feb 1976 Ties were restored in June 1976 when an agreement was signed. The agreement allowed Britain to catch a fixed amount of fish with a maximum of 12 trawlers within the boundary at any one time It also allowed Iceland s patrol vessel to stop and inspect any British trawlers suspected of violating the agreement The agreement was to last 6 months, after that Britain could not fish within the boundary

2. Conflict over scarce resource

3. Conflict over ideological differences
Before WW2, Korea was under Japan rule In 1945, Jap soldiers left Korea after they lost WW2 Korea was divided into two at the 38th Parallel The North belonged to the USSR and the south was to the USA In 1947, the UN called an election to establish a single government to unite Korea The USSA refused and installed a communist regime known as the Democratic People s Republic of Korea In 1948, the Republic of Korea was formed in the south with the USA support In 1950, the North invaded the south to unite the Korean Peninsula under communism The USA and the UN defended the South fearing communist ideology UN forces counter-attacked and pushed the North and Chinese forces back to the 38th Parallel In 1951, China joined the war, fearing the national interest would be threatened and aided North Korea in pushing UN troops back into South Korea. In August 1953, an agreement was signed to stop fighting and set up a demilitarized zone

6.2 How is deterrence practiced?
1. A citizen armed force
y y y y y y y y y y Singapore cannot afford a large professional army Due to expense and workforce needed for economy development In 1967, National Service was introduced. All able-bodied male citizen were called to serve full-time NS Singaporeans learn to defend country, get to bond and share a common experience Thus, developing a sense of loyalty and patriotism. SAF started a project with research institutes and local universities to develop the 3rd Generation Singapore Armed Forces 3rd Generation SAF works to maximize defensive capabilities through modern technology It equips our soldiers to fight decisively in war and respond flexibility in peacetime E.G. Lightweight and comfortable boots, Body amour that provides protection from shrapnel and bullets, SAR 21 that is accurate and well-balanced and has low recoil For an army to be effective, it needs the latest technology and equipment Thus in 1967, Chartered Industries of Singapore (CIS) was established to produce small arms ammunition. Also in 2000, Defence Science and Technology Agency (DSTA) was formed to provide costeffective and modern technology to the SAF and Ministry of Defence.

2. 3rd Generation Singapore Armed Forces

3. Singapore Defence Industry
y y y

y y y y y

It buys, upgrades and develops weapons for the SAF (E.G. Bionix tank) The defense industry improves the capability and effectiveness of the SAF Enabling Singapore to develop a powerful defense force

4. Total Defence
Introduced in 1984 to involve everyone in the defense of the country Potential aggressors will think twice if they face an entire nation not just the armed forces.

o Civil Defence 
    Knowing what to do during civil emergencies Being valiant and alert at all times Building a strong economy that will not break down during times of war Having relevant skills to stay employable in a fast developing world So Singapore can be competitive and workers can remain employable in a competitive economy Singaporeans of all races and religion living and working together in harmony Helping fellow Singaporeans Thus unity will not be broken during testing situations like terrorist attacks Begin loyal and committed to Singapore Having pride in Singapore Having the will and mental strength to overcome any challenges Deterring aggression Begin operationally ready Being able to meet all kinds of challenges

o Economic Defence

o Social Defence 

o Psychological Defence

o Military Defence

5. Military co-cooperation with other countries
Bilateral military agreements and exercises 
   Singapore has agreements with other countries to allow troops to train there. For example: France, Australia, New Zealand and India Singapore also conducts regular military exercises with Malaysia and Indonesia These activities increase cooperation and strengthen ties among participating countries Singapore is in the Five Power Defence Arrangements (FPDA), along with Malaysia, United Kingdom, Australia and New Zealand The five nations conduct yearly exercises to enhance their cooperation and coordination.

o Multi-lateral military agreements and exercises 

6.3 How is diplomacy practiced?
1. Bilateral relations  When one country establishes relationship with another country on mutual agreement  Diplomats are sent and treaties and agreement are signed  Leaders of the two countries also visit each other to strengthen relations  In 1970s, trading ties had been formed with countries like Japan, USA and Germany  Allowing Singapore to acquires advanced technological skills  Bilateral relations also help Singapore to promote political economic and cultural ties with neighboring counties like Malaysia and Indonesia 2. Regional relations  Regional relations are formed by forming an association of countries in a region  By combining the strength of member counties, the association becomes stronger  E.G. European Union, Association of Southeast Asian Nations  ASEAN was formed in 1967  It was to maintain stability and build trust between members  And build stronger negotiating position with other counties ASEAN Free Trade Area (AFTA)   Launched in 1992   Aim to remove import taxes among Southeast Asian counties   Taxes dropped form 12.76% in 1993 to 2.39% in 2003 ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF)   Created in 1994   Maintain peace by promoting political and security dialogue and cooperation among countries 3. International relations  International relations involve ties among many countries and groupings throughout the world.  Singapore is a part of the UN, an international organization.  This has benefitted Singapore in many ways.  For example when Singapore became a member an economic expert from the UN, Dr. Albert Winsemius was sent to help Singapore in its industrial planning from its independence to the late 1970s.  Singapore has also been involved in the UN s peacekeeping efforts since 1989

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