Dynamic evaluation of eigenvalues depending on the parameter variation is a fundamental problem. Meanwhile, dependence of the eigenvalues on the parameter’s variation cannot be obtained by numerical methods, which are generally not effective for problems with the parameters. In such circumstances, the possibility of an analytical representation of the eigenvalues may be a decisive factor in the successful solution of the problem.

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Dynamic evaluation of eigenvalues depending on the parameter variation is a fundamental problem. Meanwhile, dependence of the eigenvalues on the parameter’s variation cannot be obtained by numerical methods, which are generally not effective for problems with the parameters. In such circumstances, the possibility of an analytical representation of the eigenvalues may be a decisive factor in the successful solution of the problem.

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parameter

Analytical Approach to Calculation of Eigenvectors

and

Eigenvalues for 5x5 Impedance Matrix

Mathematical background.

(by B.Tsoniff)

Introduction

The three phase line with two grounded shield wires algebraically described as

VA Z AA I A Z AB I B Z AC I C Z AN1 I N1 Z AN 2 I N 2

VB Z BA I A Z BB I B Z BC I C Z BN1 I N1 Z BN 2 I N 2

VC Z CA I A Z CB I B Z CC I C Z CN1 I N1 Z CN 2 I N 2

0 Z N1 A I A Z N1B I B Z N1C I C Z N1N1 I N1 Z N1N 2 I N 2

0 Z N 2 A I A Z N 2 B I B Z N 2C I C Z N 2 N1 I N1 Z N 2 N 2 I N 2

212\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

or, in matrix form

Z AA

VA

Z

VB BA

VC Z CA

0 Z N1 A

0

Z N2 A

Z AB Z AC Z AN1 Z AN 2

IA

Z BB Z BC Z BN1 Z BN 2

Z CB Z CC Z CN1 Z CN 2

Z N 2 B Z N 2C Z N2 N1 Z N2 N 2

IB

IC

I N1

I N 2

313\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

Z AA Z AB Z AC Z AN1 Z AN2

Z BA Z BB

Z CA Z CB

Z

Z

N1 A N1B

ZN A ZN B

2

2

Z BC Z BN1 Z BN2

Z CC Z CN1 Z CN2

Z N1C Z N1N1 Z N1N 2

Z N 2C Z N 2 N1 Z N 2 N 2

414\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

correction terms formulae, depend on the finite Earth resistance R. In

parametrically depend on the Earth resistance. Dynamic evaluation of

eigenvalues depending on the parameter variation is a fundamental

problem. Meanwhile, dependence of the eigenvalues on the parameters

variation cannot be obtained by numerical methods, which are generally

not effective for problems with the parameters. In such circumstances,

the possibility of an analytical representation of the eigenvalues may be a

decisive factor in the successful solution of the problem.

In the set of equations (1.1) the last two equations are homogeneous

(free terms equal zero). In this particular case the number of equations

may be reduced by the number of homogeneous equations.

The matrix equation (1.2) may be represented in the block form:

Z AA

VA

Z

VB BA

VC Z CA

L L L

0 Z

N1 A

Z

0

N2 A

Z AB Z AC MZ AN1 Z AN 2

Z BB Z BC MZ BN1 Z BN 2

Z CB Z CC MZ CN1 Z CN 2

L L L ML L L

Z N2 B Z N 2C MZ N 2 N1 Z N 2 N2

IA

IB

IC

K

IN

1

IN

2

515\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

Introducing

Vabc

VA

VB

V

C

0

0

0

Z AA Z AB Z AC

A Z BA Z BB Z BC

CA Z CB Z CC

Z N1 A Z N1B Z N1C

Z N A Z N B Z N C

2

2

2

I abc

I A

I B

I

C

I N1

Ig

IN

2

Z AN1 Z AN2

B Z BN1 Z BN2

Z

Z

CN1 CN 2

Z N1N1 Z N1N2

ZN N ZN N

2 1

2 2

Vabc

A B I abc

C D I

0

Vabc A I abc B I g

0 C I abc D I g

818\* MERGEFORMAT (.)

From (1.7)

I g D 1 C I abc

Vabc A B D 1

C

Iabc

10110\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

A B D 1 C

Obviously, matrix

is the (3x3) modified

impedance matrix which comprises the impedances from the last two

rows of the initial matrix (1.3).

Finally

Vabc I abc

R

The reduced matrix equation (1.10) from maths point of view is fully

equivalent to the initial equation (1.2). The next step is to get elements of

R

in explicit form.

Consider a matrix equation of the form

Ax b

where A is an

n n

Cn

complex vector space

. Assume that the b vector has two zero

elements in the last two rows. Then (1.4) may be written as

a21 a22 ............. a2n

M M O

an-1,1 an-1,2 ............ an-1,n

an1 an2 .............ann

b

x1

1

x2 b2

M M

xn-1 0

xn 0

13113\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

The last two equations are constraints by definition like any homogeneous

equations (free terms equal zero). In this case the order of matrix A may

be reduced to

n 2 n 2

by eliminating

xn-1

and

xn

using the

constraint equations

14114\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

and

15115\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

Reducing the order of the matrix will be given in two steps: in the first

xn

xn-1

step we eliminate

, then

. Generally speaking, the elements of

the vector x can be eliminated in any order, since the exchange of two

rows does not change a matrix.

From (1.6)

xn 1

n1

an, j x j

an, n

j 1

For the

i th

-row (

in

)

n1

ai, j x j ai, n xn bi

j 1

17117\* MERGEFORMAT

(.)

n1 a a

i, n n, j

ai, j x j

an,n

j 1

j 1

n1

x j bi

18118\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

n1

j 1

ai, n an, j

x b

ai, j

an,n j i

19119\* MERGEFORMAT

(.)

Denote

a a

n, n

ci, j

in

j n

turns zero for

or for

. Thus, the last row and the last column removed from the matrix A and

equation (1.4) may be written in the form

Cx b

where

n1

ci, j x j bi

j 1

determinant of the second order normalized by the self-impedance of the

eliminated ground line.

ci, j

an, n

an, n a

ai , j ai , n

n, j an, n

23123\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

Expression (1.15) provides with the algorithm of the matrix reduction. An

element of the reduced matrix is expressed through the four elements of

the original matrix, brought together into a normalized determinant of the

second order. Each of these four elements is, in turn, the normalized

determinant of the second order (except the first reduction) as a result of

a previous reduction.

xn-1

To eliminate

the above procedure should be repeated using

constraint equation (1.4). As a result we will get the matrix

Dx b

where

n 2

bi di, j x j

j 1

di , j

ci , j ci, n1

cn1, n1 cn1, j cn1, n1

1

26126\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

Now we have to express the elements of matrix D through the elements

of matrix A.

ci, j

ai , j ai , n

an, n an, j an,n

1

ci,n1

cn1, j

ai ,n 1 ai , n

an, n an,n1 an,n

1

an1, j an1, n

an, n an, j an, n

1

29129\* MERGEFORMAT

(.)

cn1,n1

an1, n1 an1, n

an, n an,n1 an, n

1

30130\* MERGEFORMAT

(.)

Substituting (1.19) (1.22) to (1.18) we obtain

di , j

an , n

an 1, n 1 an 1, n

an , n 1 an, n

1 ai , j ai , n

an, n an, j an, n

1 ai ,n1 ai, n

an, n an,n1 an, n

an, n an, j an, n

an, n an, n1 an, n

31131\* MERGEFORMAT (.)

After simplification

di , j

ai , j ai, n

an, j an, n

ai ,n1 ai , n

an,n1 an, n

an 1, n 1 an1, n

an1, j an 1, n

an, n 1 an, n

an, j an, n

an1, n1 an1, n

an, n1 an, n

1

an, n

The last expression is an embedded determinant. The factor in front of

the determinant is a constant, which depends only on the self and mutual

impedances of the eliminated conductors. The first term of the

determinant depends on the row and column numbers, the second one

only on the row number, the third one only on the column number, and

the fourth one is a constant.

Apply the obtained formula for the equation (1.2).

Introduce the normalized coefficient

N Z N2 , N2

Z N1 , N1 Z N1 , N 2

Z N 2 , N1 Z N 2 , N 2

33133\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

Zi, j

R

Zi , j

Zi , N2

Z i , N1

Zi , N2

Z N 2 , j Z N2 , N2 Z N2 , N1 Z N2 , N2

1

N Z N1 , j Z N1 , N2

Z N2 , j Z N2 , N2

Z N2 , N 2

34134\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

i , j A, B, C

.

After double Kron reduction the original set of five linear equations (1.1)

has been reduced to the set of three linear equations

VA Z AA

I A Z AB

I B Z AC

IC

R

VB Z BA

I A Z BB

I B Z BC

IC

R

VC Z CA

I A Z CB

I B Z CC

IC

R

MERGEFORMAT (.)

35135\*

R

R

R

Z AA

Z AB

Z AC

Z BA Z BB

R R

Z CA Z CB

Z BC

R

ZCC

36136\* MERGEFORMAT

(.)

For convenience we drop the superscript (R) in (1.28)

Z AA Z AB Z AC

Z BA Z BB Z BC

Z

CA Z CB Z CC

37137\* MERGEFORMAT

(.)

but will keep in mind that elements of

according to (1.26).

should be calculated in

Similar matrices

The matrix equation

y Ax

where A is a

n n

Cn

and y are vectors in the same complex vector space

may be

considered from two points of view: algebraic and geometric.

From algebraic point of view this is the compact notation for a set of

linear equations.

From geometric point of view this is changing the length of the vector x

and its rotation by a certain angle (more scientifically, mapping ndimensional space onto itself).

Any vector space has a basis (coordinate system) or a set of linearly

independent vectors and all bases of a vector space have the same

number of elements, called the dimension of the vector space. Every

element of the vector space can be expressed uniquely as a finite linear

combination of basis vectors. In different bases, the elements of vectors x

and y should have different numerical values (provided the lengths and

also depend on the selected basis.

If we consider the vectors x and y without reference to a specific basis,

the connection between them is the transformation (mapping) described

by a linear operator

y A x

different bases. These matrices are called similar and have a number of

specific properties.

y A x

Let mapping

matrix A so that

y Ax

Cn

is represented by

where y and x are vectors in the

new basis. Connection between the vectors x and x, y and y is defined

by the transition matrix T from one basis to another

x' T x

y' T y

40140\* MERGEFORMAT (.)

As already mentioned, the matrices A and A are similar. The relation

between them can be easily determined. From

T y A' T x

or

y T 1 A' T x

transformation

A T 1 A ' T

The similarity transformation guides matrix A from the basis to the basis

in the same vector space.

Eigenvalue decomposition

on the vector x in the

general case is made of two independent actions: the changing the

vectors length and rotation of the vector by a certain angle. If angle of

rotation is zero, then operator

words

A x x

and

is called an eigenvalue of the operator corresponding to the given

eigenvector.

From geometric point of view, an eigenvector x prescribes the direction

where the operators action is reduced to vectors expansion. Then the

coefficient of expansion is an eigenvalue .

If is complex then the geometric interpretation becomes pointless but

definitions remain in force. In this case only more general algebraic

interpretation exists.

Assume that for the certain basis equation (1.41) may be written in the

matrix form

Ax x

an eigenvalue of the matrix corresponding to the given eigenvector.

In explicit form

a21 x1 + a22 x2 .......a ,n xn = x

1

.......................................................................

.......................................................................

44144\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

One can see now that there is a product of two unknown in the right hand

xi

of the

eigenvector x, that is the problem of finding eigenvalues and

eigenvectors of the matrix A is nonlinear. In addition, the number of

unknowns exceeds the number of equations by one.

xi

solving the set of simultaneous linear equations.

Collecting terms in the right hand side brings (1.43) to the set of linear

homogeneous equations

a x1 + a x2 .......a ,n xn = 0

a x1 + a x2 .......a ,n xn = 0

11

21

12

22

.......................................................................

.......................................................................

MERGEFORMAT (.)

In matrix form

45145\*

a21

a22 ....... a2n

M

an1

0

x1

x2 0

M M

0

xn

M O M

46146\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

or

A I x 0

n n

where I is the

unity matrix.

In according to the Cramer rule, (1.46) has a trivial solution

x1 x2 ....xn 0

A I

is non-zero, and infinite

number of non-trivial solutions if the determinant is zero. The latter

condition

a11

a21

a22

an1

....... a2n

O

48148\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

In according to algebra of determinants, (1.47) is equivalent to the

algebraic equation of power n

Pn ( ) 0

If all are different, then each

fj

j 1, ... n

takes the diagonal form. It is easy to prove that

1

0

M

0

0 ...........0

2 ....... 0

M O M

0 ....... n

A T 1 A' T

50150\* MERGEFORMAT

(.)

if the transition matrix T made of eigenvector columns.

Vectors with the physical dimension and dimension

transformation

In equation

Vabc I abc

vectors

Vabc

and

I abc

of currents to the space of voltages.

A T 1 A' T

is defined only within

the same linear space and cannot transfer a vector from one space to

another. Since abstract algebra deals with vectors which do not have

physical dimensions it is not clear how the different physical dimensions

in the left and right hand sides of equation (1.42) may influence the

solution of eigenvalue equation. However, the general experience has

shown that neglecting some subtleties in mathematical reasoning while

solving a physical problem, may lead to fatal errors in the final result.

the same physical dimension, matrix

Vabc

and

I abc

Dimensionless of matrix

may be easily achieved by normalizing all the

elements to a certain number (numbers), which has the dimension of

impedance, the choice of which is more or less arbitrary. It is desirable,

however, to choose the parameters that have a physical meaning. Let us

write the equation (1.42) in explicit form

VA Z AA I A Z AB I B Z AC I C

VB Z BA I A Z BB I B Z BC I C

VC Z CA I A Z CB I B Z CC I C

52152\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

It makes sense to divide each equation by the corresponding diagonal

entry of matrix , which has clear physical interpretation ( selfimpedance) of the line.

VA

Z AA

IA

IB

Z BC

IC

Z BB

VC

Z

Z

CA I A CB I B

Z CC Z CC

ZCC

IC

VB

Z

BA I A

Z BB

Z BB

MERGEFORMAT (.)

In matrix form

Z AB

Z

I B AC I C

Z AA

Z AA

53153\*

VA

Z

AA

VB

Z

BB

VC

Z

CC

Z AB

Z AA

Z BA

Z BB

Z CA

Z CC

Z CB

Z CC

Z AC

Z AA

Z BC

Z BB

I A

I B

I C

54154\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

or

VA '

'

VB

V '

C

'

Z AC

'

Z AB

'

Z BA

Z'

CA

1

'

Z CB

I A

'

Z BC

I B

1 I C

55155\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

where the normalized elements are marked by prime.

'

' Z BA

Z'

CA

'

Z AB

1

'

Z CB

'

Z AC

'

Z BC

56156\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

space.

'

Vabc

and

I abc

'

Z AB

'

Z AC

'

Z BA

'

Z BC

'

Z CA

'

Z CB

1

57157\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

Minor expansion along the first row yields

1

'

Z CB

'

Z BC

'

'

1 Z BC

Z CB

1

3

58158\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

'

AB

'

Z BA

'

Z BC

'

Z CA

'

'

'

'

'

Z AB

Z BA

Z BC

Z CA

1 Z AB

59159\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

'

AC

'

Z BA

'

Z CA

'

Z CB

'

'

'

'

'

Z AC

Z BA

Z CB

Z AC

Z CA

1

60160\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

1 Z BC Z CB Z AB Z BA Z AC Z CA Z AB Z BC Z CA Z AC Z CB Z BA 0

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

'

MERGEFORMAT (.)

Let

X 1

'

'

'

'

'

'

p Z BC

Z CB

Z AB

Z BA

Z AC

Z CA

'

'

'

'

'

'

q Z AB

Z BC

Z CA

Z AC

ZCB

Z BA

'

'

61161\*

depressed cubic

X 3 pX q 0

The polynomial of degree n is called depressed if its second coefficient is 0.

bringing a cubic polynomial to the monic depressed form we have to

admit that well-chosen normalization allowed us to avoid tedious

algebraic transformations which should bring us to the same cubic

equation.

coefficients

1.

single-variable polynomial with complex coefficients has at least one

complex root.

Corollary: every single-variable, degree n polynomial with complex

coefficients

P x an x n an 1 x n 1 ... a1 x a0

has, counted with multiplicity, exactly n roots

2.

x1 , x2 ,... xn

Vieta's formulae

and products of its roots { xi } .

For a cubic polynomial

P x a3 x 3 a2 x 2 ... a1 x a0

this relation looks as

x1 x2 x

3

a2

a3

x1 x2 x1 x x2 x

3

x1 x2 x

3

3.

a1

a3

a0

a3

a3 x 3 a2 x 2 ... a1 x a0 0

64164\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

always starts with reducing cubic polynomial to the monic form and the

Tschirnhaus transformation which removes quadratic term from the

polynomial, bringing it to the depressed one

X 3 pX q 0

x1 x2 x 0

x1 x2 x1 x x2 x p

3

x x x q

1 2

3

66166\* MERGEFORMAT

(.)

4.

3 1 0

should have three complex roots.

In trigonometric notation

1 cos 2 k i sin 2 k ei 2 k

68168\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

3

1e

2 k

3

k 0; 1; 2

69169\* MERGEFORMAT

(.)

Correspondingly

0 e0 1

1 e

2 e

2

3

4

3

2

2 1 i 3

i sin

3

3

2

4

4

1 i 3

cos

i sin

3

3

2

cos

70170\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

From this result immediately follows

2 12

71171\* MERGEFORMAT (.)

and

12 1 1 0

72172\* MERGEFORMAT (.)

5.

(Method of D.Kalman and J.White)

Let start with not obvious but easily verifiable by inspection, identity

x b c x b c x b c x3 3xbc b3 c3

73173\* MERGEFORMAT (.)

1

is

from (1.68).

3bc p

b3 c 3 q

75175\* MERGEFORMAT (.)

X 3 pX q x b c x b c x b c

76176\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

which means that

x b c x b c x b c 0

77177\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

The roots of the last equation obviously are:

x b c /

x b c

x b c

After cube (1.73), equations (1.73) and (1.74) may be rewritten in the

form

b3c 3 p 3 / 27

b3 c 3 q

It is apparent that

b3

and

c3

79179\* MERGEFORMAT (.)

p3

x qx

0

27

2

That leads to

q q 2 4 p 3 / 27

b

q q 2 4 p 3 / 27

c

1

3

1

3

81181\*

MERGEFORMAT (.)

There are three complex cube roots among which to choose b and c, and

not all sets satisfy the original equation (1.73). To resolve this situation

one should choose any of three complex cube roots for b, and then define

c as

p

3 b

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