You are on page 1of 3

POLITICAL IDEOLOGY

15. DOVISHNESS any political belief favoring


compromise to avoid conflicts.
Political ideology means a set of beliefs 16. IMPERIALISM it advocates imperial
interests.
about the proper order and how it can be
achieved. Typically an ideologyis the creation 17. ANARCHISM favor the abolition (dont
recognize) of governments.
of some identifiable groups (political,
18. AUTOCRACY favoring unlimited authority
economic anf others.)
by a single individual
This groups are created for the purpose 19. CENTRISM avoiding the extremes of left
and right by taking a moderate position.
for spreading or maintaining its perspective
on reality among themselves and others. On 20. COLLECTIVISM promotes that people
should own the means of production.
effect an ideology creates the assumption in
a society that this dominance in natural and 21. COMMUNISM - favoring collectivism in a
classless society.
desirable. The characteristics of political
ideology may be summarized by noting the 22. CONSERVATISM theological believe
advocating preservation of the post in
following aspects, that are:
society and apposing radical changing.
23. SEGREGATIANISM a political believe
- Coherent set of views on politics
favoring political or racial segregation.
- Dissemination among the mass population
24. CONSTITUTIORALISM - is advocacy of a
- Subject of alteration
system of government according to
- Powerful motivators of human behavior
constitutional principles.
- Manipulated by political movement leaders
25. DEMOCRACY is a political believe of those
- Etc.
1.
who favor government by people or by
their elected representatives.
Actually are well known next variants of
2.
political orientation as an integrating set of 26. SOCIAL DEMOCRACY is gradual transitiona.
from capitalism to socialism by democratic
attitudes and beliefs.
b.
methods or means.
c.
27.
ELITISM

the
society
must
be
government
General division of them is:
by an elite group of individuals.
3.
28. EXTREMISM political act for outside the
1. Conservative resistance to change
perceived
political
center
of
a
society
or
2. Liberal tolerant to change, not bound
otherwise claimed to violate common
by authoritarianism, orthodoxy or
moral standarts.
tradition.
29. FASCISM political theoru advocating an
4.
authorian hierarchical govern.
MODERN POLITICAL IDEOLOGIES
30. FEDERALISM an ideology about a federal
organ of more or less self government
5.
1.ABSOLUTISM/TOTALITARIALISM- the principle
units.
of complete and unrestricted power of
31. HAWKISHNESS- aggressive method of
government.
politics.
2.LIBERALISM is a political ideology that
6.
favors reforms and the distraction of the
POLITICAL OPPOSITION
old order.
3.MERITOCRACY represents a belief that
Political opposition as usually represents
leaders/rulers should be chosen for their
the major political party opposed to the party
superior abilities and not because of their
in office and prepare to replace it in case of
wealth or births.
elections.
4.LIBERTARIANISM it is an ideological belief in
freedom of through and speech .
As usually the political opposition in known:
5.MONARCHISM is an belief in a advocacy of
monarchy as a political system.
a. Recognized political party, that is
6.NEGRITUDE is an ideological position that
present in parliament
holds black culture to be independent and
b. Unrecognized in one party state
valid on its own terms. It is an affirmation
c. Actions by one political group
of the African cultural heritage.
against political group by using
7.PROGRESIVISM it is a political belief of
governmental power popular actions
those who favor progress toward better
of protest.
conditions in government and the society.
d. A more general case of
8.RADICALISM the political belief of those who
disagreement in politics
favor revolutionary change in government
and the society.
9.REACTIONISM the political belief of those
who fight against changes in society.
10. REPUBLICATNISM the political belief of
those who holds that a republic is the best
form of government.(ex. Republic of
Moldova).
11. RIGHTISM in an ideology of the political
rights.
12. SOCIALISM the political theory advocating
state ownership of social order and
relationships.
13. THEOCRACY it is the belief in government
by divine guidance (ex. Vatican).
14. UTOPIANISM the political belief in
impossible idealistic schemes of social
perfection.

is considering as well as the 4th branch of the


government.
The borders between media, politics and
economics are increasingly diffusing today.
LEVELS OF COMUNICATION
1.
2.

Face to face
Using mass-media a. printed type
b. electronic type

MEDIA AND GOVERNMENT


Mass-media definitely acts as a link between
government and the people. Thought massmedia the government can inform, explain
and convince the public over their programs.
ROLES OF MASS-MEDIA
this may have political function in
presenting one point of view.
ENTERTAIMNET REPORTING OF THE NEWS
Informing
Analyzing and interpreting
Influencing ( that means trying to get public
opinion to view the story in certain way).
IDENTIFYING PROBLEMS - agenda setting;
this is the most important role for politics
and government, because the selected
officials cant ignore the agenda set by the
media.
POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION mass-media is
strong socializing agent, both news and
entertainment.
PROVIDING POLITICAL FORM people and
government must use the media on their
advantage if they want to get coverage that
will help them succeed.
MAKING PROFITS.
Noam Chomsky to take a apart the
system of illusions and deception which
functions to prevent understanding of
contemporary reality is not a task that
requires extraordinary skill. It requires the
kind of normal skepticism and willingness to
apply once analytical skills that almost all
people have and they can exercise.
POLITICAL ACTION
Investigations show that politics is not the
learned of day to day life and many people
misreport whether or not they vote. Often
saykng they have, but they have not work,
facility, church and other voluntary activities
come first.

One of the main instruments for opposition


1. PEOPLE WHICH SEEM TO BE OF COMPLETELY
activity efficiency represents high level of
inactive they rarely vote or take part of
mass media development.
politics.
2. POLITICAL ACTIVISTS as usually are highly
MASS-MEDIA- means communication tools
educated are relatively rich and tend
that reach and influence large members of
participate in all forms of government.
people, especially news papers, magasins, 3. VOTING SPECIALISTS this group of voters voe
radio, TV and Internet. They are the voice an
a lot but do little else and as usually are
weapon of the people and society as whole.
older poorer less educated.
In modern society media tools play a
particular role. A scope of technological
media relay, telegraph, public transport,
mass transport, telephone, radio, cars techno
media is expend the flexibility of social
relations increasing. Thats why mass-media

POLITICAL SYSTEM. BASIC


GOVERNMENT STRUCTURES.
Political system is a system involving
government and its politics which includes
the members who are in power within the
country.

recourses, but on the state and how its Domestic and foreign policy of initiates and
supported by population. From this
executer
perspective its important to understand Armed forces chief
the complex interaction between the
Ceremonial role
movement and large social environment
at certain time.
SOCIAL POLICY. WELFARE AND SOCIETY.

Exists two types: unitary and federal.


In general exists two levels of political
system:
-

National powers(superior level)


defends, foreign, relations and
Functions of political processes are:
promotion of general welfare.
Inferior level(second level) regional
power, including services public safety Managing of public opinion
healths and words.
Competition of governmental actors
Bureaucracy inertion
ENVIRONMENT IN SOCIETY.
Constitutional constraints/limits
Input -> -> P.S.->->output
^<<inter independence<<^
Political system in this case if it is set
institutions and agencies that implement
goals of the society.
INPUT-domestic economy(societys
expectations)
OUTPUT-culture of society(political decisions)
INTER INDEPENDENCE-social economic
changes transforms the political demands in
the electorate.
THE STRUCTURE OF SYSTEM
POLITICAL SYSTEM
-

Political parties
Parliaments
Carts
Beurocracy
FUNCTIONS:

EX. Political revolution is most lively to


successes if the state is vulnerable or lucking
social legitimacy.
In political theory there are two kinds of
political processes in a state:
1.
2.

Separation of function presidential


variety
Fussion of function - parliamentary
variety

PRESIDENTIAL VARIETY.
Characteristics:
- Separate election of the president
- Government is controlled by the president
- President is real chief of the state
Advantages:
- President has popular mandate
- Decisive leadership of the president
- United leadership of central government
Disadvantages:

Interest articulation
- Government expansion
Interest agrigation
- Bureaucratic growth
Policy making
- Absence of high level informational expertise
Policy implementation
Policy adjunction
PARLIAMENTARY SYSTEM.
Political socialization - structures who
occupied with socializations; families,
Characteristics:
schools, media, churches, and political
parties
Election of the president by legislation
Recruitment selection of people for political
Collective leadership
activity and government office.
Central government is controlled by
Political communication
the parliament
Regulation of behavior
Extraction of recourses and taxes
Advantages:
Distribution of benefits and services to
different groups of population
Guaranteed majority in the parliament
Shadow cabinet formed by political
EVALUATION OF POLITICAL SYSTEM
opposition
Brevity of electoral campaigns

Differences between efforts and


actual outeame
Disadvantages:

Effectiveness of policies,
government, efficiency, corruption
Indeterminate term of office both of
and changes in conditions of internal
the president and the parliament.
and external investments.

Performers of outputs (of political


Roles of parliament:
decisions and results)
POLITICAL PROCESS
Political process is used to study social
movements and is based on arguments.
That the success of social movements
depends not only on the movement

Law making
Representation
Constituency service
Executive oversight
Roles of executive power:

Social policy is defined as usually as the


study of social services and welfare state.
Social policy looks at the idea of social
welfare and its relationship to politics and
the society. It also consider detail issues on
policy and administration, income,
maintenance and policies for health
Social policy draws on sociology to explain
the social context of welfare position.
If we are trying to improve peoples welfare it
is helpful to try to understand something
about them that people are, and how welfare
policies relate to their situation.
The social structure within a state is usually
presented in the next way:
- Nation
- Work
- Family
Social policy can be seen as collective
responses to social problems and showed be
apart of existed political preferences.
The main directions of the internal social
policies within a state are:
- Economic
- Social insurance
- Cultural heritage
- National ethic relations
- Ecological situation
- And others.
The economic policies includes:
- Industrial policy
- Agrarian policy
- Investments
- Financial
Social insurance means first of all:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Health and safety at work


Labor law
Social dialog
Employment policy
Social inclusion
Social protection
Antidiscrimination
Help to people with disabilities
Equal opportunities
POLITICAL ELITE AND POLITICAL
LEADERSHIP
The term elite actually cover a distinct
group of people consisting of prominent
social and political individuals, which by
their ability to stay above of other
members of society.
For the first time about elite was written in
the book THE PRINCE OF N(Machiavelli).
This theory was developed and promoted

by Italian scientists G.Machiavelli, W.


Paretto and R. Michels.
Other theorists who analized the elite
phenomenon was German Philosopher K.
Marks. The proposed that the dominant
economic class because in the same time
dominant political force.

Political term ELITISM is used to describe


political class and explain appearance of
political elite by the necessity to be
governed by a small group of individuals
higher gifted with exceptional quality and
outstanding skills.
As usually political elite is used together
with the term political class. POLITICAL
CLASS means all individual political agents
leaders and legislative bodies and who are
aspiring to reach his power to make
decisions or influence decisions.

Political elite indicates all those ho have a


rare political resources in a abundant
volume: money, power, influence, prestige,
culture, skills, and creative ability.

TYPOLOGY OF ELITE:

Traditional elites have authority


and influence as a result of ideas,
beliefs whose sources are in the
past and is strengthened by

tradition(elite
aristocratic,
religions).
Economic elites has authority a
influence over the other elite
because they have income and
other assets (big industrialists,
bankers, landowners).
Technocratic
elites
have
authority and power as they were
appointed a elected because of
power (upper range of the
directors
of
industrial
corporations, financial and senior
officials occupying positions of
command
in
bureaucratic
hierarchies).
Charismatic
elites
possess
extraordinary
qualities
and
exceptional
ability
of
mass
persuasion and manipulation.
Ideological elites are persons
or groups involves define and
spread the political ideas.
Symbolic elites are individuals
and groups who are role models
because they possess same
qualities of intellectual, artistic,
sports and so on, which attracted
political sphere. Can influence
political attitudes and behavior of
other individuals.

CIVIL SOCIETY

At present civil society is widely


recognized as a key factor in global
politic as and a key factor for
democratization in both: domestic
politics and the still developing public
community.
In most cases global civil society is
identified as a totality of groups and
networks involved in struggles, for
global justice, sustainability, the
gender empowerment , respect for
human rights and so on. In shortly the
same kind of movements view in civil
society treats it as the space there
questions of public interests are
discussed by individuals or group
organized on voluntary bases.