J

ad i Lh '.U •• " 'n" .,.

TRA .. SLAT-OR' ,[NTROD .eTtO .

This monograph was originaUy an extempowt:: in UI~~ titl~ • Taq!eed Ki Shariah Hestyal' eTaqh:ed~s ~'OSlU?n, ~o Islam") and ls preseoted here for ,,~e nrsl urne _ 111. ~h~ ERgHsb language. It is an expesmon of. the posltlon amongst class~cl1 scholars 10 Taq teed l 1i1 particular e.nd the fullowinS of Matbab (legal. school) in general,

TIle lIudlaI, Justice Taq\ Uthnumi. is ,I w~rid-reno\\~ed scholar! all. alcknowledged aUlibnrlty in FLqh, Aha,btl1. Tafseer and lslMuic eeoucmlcs. He has snthored .numero~ Titles on thesetopics in Arabic. Urdu and Bngljs~, H~ I~ presently the deputy chain"na.:n for. the. Islamic Plqll_ Academy (Jeddah), Judge of the SUPr.erne C01!l~ of Pakisttui., !lIod chair of mrmeeeus Shad·~. supen'lsmy board s for many ~lmks ,tluou~_h0ut the IsJanuc ~:odd.l!e ~ also the vice 'PtM1,de.nt or DMIlJ Uloem Kara,chi where

presently ~ec:tureS.

PR.OLOGUE

MLlC~ has been wri't[ell on ihe sLlbjec( or "Taqleed and IjtiIHttil·· - or fotlo\;l.'irlg !I MacUmb and I~! discretion. h'l fact, 1 , .. as IIdalllralU that I could add nothing further te mls V~St subject Howev4.'lr. the article arose' quhe coirreidemally,

]1'1 1963. the respected brothe'r Mahin.!1 Qadri. the editor af Fa,.cm the mOluhly Jom,i~ai pllbl~sltoo frorlili Kaiaahi,.,tuked me 10 pn 8111 arricle 01'1 me i$~lI~ of Taqleed due to SOme immed'iate ,md pressing cnncerns, Like In} dear respected father} Mufti Shan. l do, 1101 like w engage in c~l!ltroverf6y. Ho,wtvtr I wrote a brief lract on the subje [ \ lth the view !ha:t I.h~ issues are l1iu~,cb: coiti01lr SO lhal [hose who endeavor to p,recipital.e strffe amongst Muslims by oalling each other infidels and polyrheists s.holllcl be ~sked to re-evaluate 1hejll" ceseluslens. The IIL"iticie W<lS ptlbiish.ed ill 'FcW(JII' in May 1963 aad was received with ~'\rra ordinary popular.ity. It became pubUshed in several magazines t:hroughotn. lhl,;l Asiall su'illconrlinean:, illfiRct h \Ioi'·as IPubI]slled as a sepamr,e beok in Jndia,

Supri!fingly, even thQugh the ap,prooch o,f my article I;!,'U far rrOin i:lldll,lg, polemical 11~()Se who E1r~' hostile Ie, rol[~owitig hmllllS of Ijllih.ld, ,c:ritiC'tlCd the work. OLle of ~I~ose criticisms was wri'Uen by Malliana Munammed ]smail g,alfi and was ~ubH:shed in thirreen ~SSU'~5 of AJ-f"tiSUUJI.I'. This 'crjHds!T! hi'OOT beeeme the basis fef two of b.ils books l1il1ln~ly The m()l~/wmlfi»' /ru;/epem/eu(X of thought 81ml Th;J B!!lIivalitrs Effort,!; df Shah Wnlliyulloli. The seeend erltieisrn '''{as pubHshed in Karachi caned The ExposiUon.' .4u ans~JI'e" to taqieed This was wriiuetil by iE'l peli'SO'I'J, who open I~ co L'ldem ~H~d lh~ lmams of Ij~ti had as fabrie:ators, of Islamic Law; 111eir foUowers as infidels and flo1ytheu!'its and den.oumH.:~d Islamic jurisprudem:e as .. , coneocli'®IiI. The third critucisln was \winen lin I-=lyderaood. fndi<ll

·1nO potMs.lin:d rn <l IQc~] mc:mtMy. B~11 sl:1'!lce flil,j' hlten~iOMWe[\e net IOg~~ tang.led h11tO a b ittel' Or lengthy de'b.aile. ~. did not S~ it fil' to pHJ~on(g dHl disiG:uJ.l!il~O·J'1'Uld eonseq,uentiy Wifhdrew fronf'l \Hh1Ilg: e:l1 ~1~,~ rS$ue fQrthineen )'~'!!rs,

n i.s .~J'il icle was w~ ~ I reoe'ivt'di. m~lIlly d(lsoi "ed lhal Ll shmu!d be fiubliished as <I. ~epr:lra~e book in! Pa.kiMan :lJS was dene iu I nd ia As.<'I resl'J,l t ~ dec ided to r~'j ise C'e!f~ail1 ari.laSi S® lhlu CJ'i~i es COli I(J] be ~nswe~~d ~nd dOll b1~ reHl()lv~d. Ac~dJc:l'nntc cO\L\tr~miol~s a~ Ilt~0 exa,~lilfled. As ] ,Elm IfGit in f.<IIvOlilf Qlf d~w.til'~". ~ ~~ave ilm>e,hld~d lhe r{;'JI~it!s~o :mch cQ!'llef1:tuol~s <It 'V'<IdllJ ~I ~ pla~es as ~a!1 of life ol\,l!l;lmH I'¢~pcm,se.

To f,eilJeJ,lIte the. p~~,rpaS>e of t[~is book is not to create iim a:tmosphere ef d ~sp,l~,tatiml bi~l [0,(; lari fy t,I~,e posihon N'i~~,en by,the InajOrit,Y of Mus[~:m$ :~or l~.e billS.!: Pllrt .or Ihfll'rr~e:i:J o.:Ci!lm~rfes on Tnq:,~ed - \vhk:h is te faUo" Ihe humus of Ijtihad, By Jl\'o~dit1g !he extr-emd.:lhe ,go;'ll i~ u), show the biflillllJced position whi(.\h the majority ef tllc sehQi{l,FS fromlh~ A'I~~le Sunn!lIill/~'lIl ]a;m!l'ah h~ve aclq:pted. lh~r~fol'e, this tract should be read w~lh 11 'View to s!mly t.he :s!Ch0~a!ltie evideJ~c@ 0,1' the issue, r .. uherthfi.n to d~s:pu~l'! ~POll the issue VQid o:F komQwl:edge, 'rJ~e:iI"e is a .!j:reltt d~1: of pf(!pll~nda ap,unSl 'fflCjLJ,ee,d, I hope thai thus tJfe:Hi se hel ps to !utlJ.;e (;I~r the (Si$W~ ofY<lqle~<II to the dQul;i[!lIiL

"Ml! r~cotUldJ lHJtffion b wH 11 A Il~ h :lI1'llUllQ •. I~ ,is' Pli:1iIII tba~ I trust

• llinli1 t'0l Him ~:h9il ,~ ~U~.·.n, ,,,

Muh9imm~d 1'IHJji U,tlull.ll!ni

Sen'an~ of Darn II Ulooltl"KiI.~alCbi ]i'j-idayNigbt. 41~ J,l1:m~'Hnul. 'fhaQi. 139'

THE N.ATURIi: OF l'AQLEED

No Muslim f;811 deB)! that lsl~'s rea! message is to, obey Allah alene, EI'L'lphMis has been placed. uipon fo]l~wing the P]"lo:phet M uhaermed tf bec-aUise he represented Allah's comrrumclme:n.tslhm.u:gh his wo:d,s_ and ~ctions. AUah and His Me:s&enlge'll' havem be unequIvocally Ihlh:nwd in what is balml (J)ermissib1e) and Wa'1i.~U ~s hara..m (fu.rbi,dden)~ what is allowed and wh.at is not, WhQev~ bel ieves i u f6Uow~ ng an~Oirle besides Al1~h and HIS M~senger ead regards tb~t person as i[ldep~[ldem (of AUab and His Mess:eng~r) ]S su~-ely outside the fold of [SlamThU!l. awry Muslim :should! alrempi'!. t\tOl[ono;w~he; eemmandmenrs of the 'Our' ~n and S1!1m'llstil'll (the ltaditio,lI]£ and norms of the Prophet 1.!), There a:r,e ced3:iu ~c~1rnatld:ment~ in tile QIM"ru'J 18Jl:Cj, S'l.'HlInahl!;lfnieh a ~3y person call. uudersnnd. $U!eJI commandments _ are nat l.ntric:alte. ~m~biSuous, ~rc:ontra,di(;tcJII.l". UndCj'standtllgthese ~l)Jnman,dmMti1:. and [[;LeJ[ impli:catlorlS esn be e.ffunl.ess]y achieved wimm1.tco.ni~1:51oil'l. For 'ulSlEl[lC'e, Allah 'says:

~jJ).o n~t blllck hilieU

(SIlII ra.h AI-Huju mat: 12)

AI]'yfin~ familiar with the Al:'tIblc klngnage wlll ImmecHa,t~ly um:I~['Sl~nd the verse). since rlihen is ['Jjo, amb]~1]~tY in 'tile sttltemel11t, and ]')Ot does it (I]a.s:h wlfh fll1l.y ether l~la!l1Jic value h. is Ye'adily ij:nth~ifS[l)OO,

Uk..ewise. the .Propl.l!et ~ saJd:

"There is htJ preference a/an Arab Ol'er" 12'0/7- Ar,a". ,.

This Haardl is also dear and llIu::,ompUeated. A 1.'Iudimentary knowledge of Ambic would enable ~ts understallding. Com/«sely. there are many commandments in the Qur·,a,n and Sunnah which ar-e am biguous , 10 fact there are SOUle' staremenrs which 'seem '~O' courradict other verses (If the Quran or a Had i th., For example, the Qur'an says:

U And (bJOse w(;.ulen \vho 31',e d1Yon:ed. sltould 'wait for three ~Qu.ruu t .n

(Sluah AI.-8,a1qarab ,I 218)

The verse has stipul.aited tnait tlie wailing period for a divorced wQman~ in order to remarry. is ibree QWllU' .. The word Quruu in 'the Arabie language is used to detl:ote 'bod1l the monthly mellsl.ruatio,n period (Haydb) and dle: time in between the monthly period (Tuhr), If the former- fl.1r@aning were 'taken, then the ru~e would be rbat a divorced WOlman should wan for three monthly menstruarlon periods {Haydh) to ,elapse. If the laaer meaning is taken,. 'the' rule would be that the divorced woman should wail until three months in between ber monthly menstruation peried (Tuh!,") have expired. The question is whiCh one of these two meanings ap]l.ties. Similady a Hadith of the: Prophet ~ sa.ys::

'Whoev.er noes nm stop the p"Clarice ofMukhabar,a/~' should hear IheprY),c/al1wtio'f2' cfwar (against him:) from Allah and His Messen,gt!r. "

Mukhmmrah is a specific kind of fart1.lIing in which a landlord makes an agreemem a nd a farmer, wha is, biied by him. to culliv~te his: ]a,lid, The agreement stiPllbltc.s; tbe amoum of p:mduGe ",vh!i:c!i:l is W be di.vided bx each party,

There were sever-al fomls' of Mukhabarah practiced during (he lime of the Pl'Opnel, . This parti.oular Hadith is brief and v.aJgue as 'to' which partieul ae kind of Mu.khabal'ahi s .forbffidden.

The Prophet l!i said in another Hadith;

"WhoelifJ:t hQ$ em Imam, (hen the l~utm: .. recuation is his f(tciuuio.R. ,01

Th~8 seems toindieate while the Imam is r'e:citing in s~laa~, the follower should remain silent However, another Had ithl says:

'There is no s.alool for he whQ does not recite Surah

AI.Ei' .L. •• "J •

.-,r(]t~'f,m.

This, seems to indk:a:.te (hat ev,eryone should feci te S urah Fatiha. The q nest ion arisGs whether the fi rst Hadith sho ~dd be taken as the Jlififnary S01lJ1'ce l'ererri1'l!g to, tl'lie Imam Or the one who offees salaat individuaUy and the second Hamtll explain.ed as a cOir.roborating evidence; or should 'we make the second Had.ith the hue mni tbat the fin~ Hadith refers to the' Ima:U':l'S l1'ecitllll£lon ,after he recites Surah FaUha.

NeedLe.ss!o say from li1!,e above examp les, the process of eX1ra],'loLaiting rules Ii'om i:be Qut"ml and. Sunnah can be cGmp]icated. One 80.1 ution is that we exercise our U:nciersMndmg and. b:l!s"ight ill such Issues in order 'to make aUT judgements: and ruHngs. AnG'ti'ller sQ,iuti.on 'cQu~d be that Ins;tea:.d of makingi.l:lid'epenGefU riJU.ngs ourselves we look. jnt:Q what tile predecessors ruled CQLi;cemlng these [ssues.

2 l1uUt.arl vol. I, Hl!Idijih !:In, 'i,n

H} Arrer il1ivest~gating the Otpinfll<lUl ocf the scbolars whom we knnw teOl be mere 'Ilili!llifi.ed a.nd 111W'e ~rl'ept in these issues than omse]ve3~ we r-eJy 01.1 lhe:irura:cJ..ers·ta:ll~i ngm.d insight aiJa act accc,)"\(Ung to th@i:rruUng,&, If we oO.lD.sider wi til fairness .. from the-two options (mendQiJled abcve), the ronnel' opti.on GOtf ex:ercisi.ngoU'1' QWA ui1clel"Stmdhlg) ls fraugln with di fficul ties. wbi'~'&l wi] ~ 'be ex;am];n...ed later, The second! option (of relyhlgsl'l dw Oipimol;!l'0f a sohota'r from the P!!:Slt) is mud rn.o,te ctl;li,tcious. TIris is..so, notm.crc.ly be(1)use it seems like it bl;ullbleapP'r'Q@.e!l bt1~beea.l;lse itis m undeni able [eali~y that ... ve have v'e:ry ] inle :re.seJub]j;.n~e Wt't]l the scbiuUars ~f the first Muslim era. We' fall short Qif thei r know ledge, unde:rstancHng. i 1ilt;e,llige:Jlice:l m.e'Juoty. mCH;~ls; and piety. In add] l]Qh" the scho,Lm's of the first era. were clese tQ the envlronmem m1d time Whe:D the: Qm'oo l,'!,133 revealed whieh allowed um::lie1:standing the Ql.l["'auM'ld SU.llnM1 in its- tnn[ret~~. We, on [he contrary. are so 'di:8tan~ from the time 'when the :Qllu'~all was revealed tha:t we are not disposed to t! c~nlpl"ehe'l;l!live Ilniler:mandiillg arftl"H?: Qtn:nnfs ba.ckgr:ound. '[0 irs ei]viromnent~ tbi.e 5!@~hd norms of th:a:~ lin!}!;! ,and 10 the l!!Illg~¥wge of tha~ era, The factor'S listed abeve aFoei.nci]spensaible if ~u~ol1e is to ulldel"stal~d the Qur'an and Sunno:h.

.4:fkr' oonsiduil"lg 81] [ of these poi:nts~ if Wij donOl relyupoli1 OUlI" o;wn under:st:anaing but instead fClUew the opinion. of a sdhoilar. of the ~t in n~alterswililjtCh are ~mbiglto:us or complicatEd"" l-he]li t win 1b~ sai:~ t1Th~t weare fGllow:ing., Oir making Taqleed, of th~t seholar, Ihffisl Is, tbe esseuee of Ta:q)eed. Taq]eeid of ~n hnam or a MuJtah~d is CliI_]Jy \laUd in areas where u~de:rst;mdi~g a rule ~,f the Qut~M and. SliI.1mah is diffircuH: er ,c.()tfllplieat:edj:regardi.ess ·of whether tbis isbe:calll se au ,add-lUana] m.e.atQ!ing .may be drawn from the te:x.t or tb~l"e is some intri!cacies in the te\!!:1. Oil' e'Veniflh.ere steims to '~e a certain conU'.!lI:diffiet5io]1 in the

l ] til';:t. An a;osolu1ie ,and oo:nc;lusive te::t~ where. Were exists no .un'~rgy:~t-y~ bD'ev;i~y or ,apPilIrcluCIOntrndiclioiJl in theteoct of [he Qu:r'an or SunU'l'ah. there is ~~.O Tia.q1eed of f:lf:'II}" [mam er Ml~lmli'lid. The famGlIs H,mrfi jurist. Sha~kh Abdull Oha:rI~ A~,,"Nabh.llsi St"ai!:t1!$;

'"'The lssees whicll ®ire a!greoo upon - wi.t1'1rmut Iny dO!J'bU Mel by nle(1:essity - 60 Il'lot ret'J:u~t-e any Taqleed ef flJ'IIY Qft:1tle to,ua: .Imams like tbe(j,bliga[iQo ·of Sala:a;t 1P~St[l1Iig, .Ziilkaat and Ha4i, etc. and J! ike tile: .pro'h i b]160," of ad l~lteil~ and fctn:i.~artio!l!, drili1:k~u'lg wine, mllrde'r, stealing a;V'lo usurping .. Thelssues wh ith are deba:t~d are the issues where Thq leed becomes :11:e~essary." .3

.~ As far as the lo;~ em i.e ru les are cOiu~,ernf_d., the~e are of two tYPJ~S; The first are those which are known b~ necessity to' IDe pa:rl .of the noon 00 the Prophet :i:~' like the five prayers, llIk:a.a!tl- fasting in Ra:m:ardlnn. Hajj; the proh~btlklll"l of ad'll I~e.ry ~ Vii' imH~ Qnd :SD; on, T aq.! eed is not al lowed in. these i~:sues!· Sirl'itce: they SIC such lhat €Vei.Y0:Fle sheu I d knowand !Jnde:rsl!WlIa .. The ~ecolnd type af,E! 'lhos.e rules whi.(;~ meed to be understood and ~trap>Qla~ro such as the detl'i~B (l'~f' die rituals o.f worsh i.p~ transactlous .and wedd~1flIgs. 'IUr eXi!lirmp ~e T~qh::ed is allowed ill these issues since AI!~11 s,a;ys-::

~~s;o lIsk tlilJ,e: pei[l p~le o:ftlet~elilIll bl1il1 n~e i,f you Iien'!)W notH

(Sill, Ii'.d~ AJ-Na.h ~;: 43)

~ Kh(lias(IIId T"()hrrft,iJq fi .H.!lhm at· Taq/€edwli it I- Ta:ffoeq - pSlg~ 4

printM :by tU··Y.l."!s.hee~,I[iI~~!Itnd ..

If Taqleed was not aliowed in tn,ese' issue ~l would mean that everyone would ha e to learn threse particulars {dJreClJy}, Thiswoliid ti.d off people from rheir work and livelihood; ruin CI'QiPS end destroys eartle, Titus. this requirement [of (,earninG chese detaib] shvuld be dropped. ,.·1

The ST",Uenu:nts above elari'l) [hat fo 11.00l,vi n g~ an Imam or iii Mujtahid does not entail believing the MlLl,j'tahid to bean indepmd,enl source of law (Shari-ah). who has. to be foHo,w,ed ln totaUty, Rather the idea ~ 'that the Qur':all and Sum::liah should be tbUowed. howewn, a particular J rn ems u ndersrand ing 0 f the Qu r' an and $11.111 nah is bei ns 'foUol1!!io'edi. The MlIjtah1Q is regarded as a scmmentator of'the law and h,ls i:fllerpletaliol1 is held as authorl~alli,e. This is wh_y, Taqleed is not M issue in these r.u~es. which are eeneluslve sinee 'the purpose ot~ follo\will1g A nab. a]~:d His Prophet • is. :readiil~ achieved whhour Taqleed, The Imarn whose ,opinion is foUowed is reg{trd'ed as an illt,erpl'e[!.!r ortd not a lawmaker ls in fact implled in the rneaning of the word Taqleed itself. Ibn Humam :and! Ibn ujaim, bmh define Taqleed thus:

"Taq I eed is tp fo IIb:w the Oplrl COm ~,r III person - whose opinion is nat a proof vn Islamic law - witbout asking for his [the perSQ,11'I rQlloVi/ed] proof." s

-I AI-Fottift 11'(,11 :t4mofillJqiho/l ~ p.ilge 67, \'01, :l '. priniedilly Daml mao. Ri}'adlll. S1!l1.ldi ;'-\.ralbia 13,89

s :rQY~'i'!e'i'ul ~"'Mf~W; byA!uh' !Jm1!1JMJllhtkhu/'i - pas~ l46, ~oJ, 4 printed in Rg)'pt '135 Hind ':citlml GhqQol', (hi! CcmmretlItJIJ,' ml.-l/~ M(J11(J1'. by Ibn Nl~iQjf.fl - pil,gt! 39, vol, 2. p:ril'ite:d in1 Egypt. I H.:;

13

Th~s' sJt:atem'~fLt has clari Fled fhe faet ~h<lit tI. perml:1l ~hQ practices Taqlced (the' Muqa.Jlid)i does. :r.'!O~ hold the' opi~ion of the one who,m he foUc;vws (the MUJUlhid), as a source of I s1amh:: ]aw beeaese 'the sources fol' :~siami,c ~a_w:an:~; confined to the Ql.lr'an and SUl'IIlah (b~)th ]jma" alild (:l!iyas ~:!d(ll,gy] are deriv,ed from the QU'Ii~an and Sunnah), TIJ:e onlyreas(]n why a Muqamd f~l!o:~s an [~(1~ is b~allf~ of the eOl'wid:iol:11 that jhe MUJtlilhld has InBEgI~:t.s mto the Q'Ur'an and Sunneh (whicb he, the fol.lower" does n~t possess) b~ which the Mujttlli:d i:s table 'to lm.d,f:rsta:nd [hEnr rti,e-al~l]ngs. in this' Jleganj the follower has relied upon the Im!!l'l:Jls opinion. Perceived in 'Ihis perspeetiv,e Taq[eed ca:nl:1:0't in an fai'rnes&, perceived be equaled 'with shrur'k HOI!' blind folJowlng. Belleving th~t me lmam (MlJjtahid) isa lawg~ver and maker and 'to :reg,ard o!bedi~~ce t,c .hi~ as bind~ng~ thls Is most d,eii.nitely an act of Shu't. To; behen one as an i,flterpttrt'er ef the. law and trust his opinion filt~er then one's oWll Is necessary, if one has net reached '[he le-veJ of a Mujtm ld and i ndi,s,en sable In thi:sag~ (}If schotastic ballkruptcy.,

Reoolti.ng to the Mujtahid (legal exper:t) 1S Ile(!essary to understand the complex lnterpretations oftfle Qur'an and SUilnah. Thus, there are no grQunds to accuse [hose who, pmttioe T,aqJeed of foUQwing the lmems O.fUti~~ [(nh,ec than tile Ql!,I;r' tan and Sunneh, rather Taqleed raelh.tates t:he roUawing ,of the Qulan and Sunnah, There are two types,of Taq;leed. -In UU~ fil'St catego:ry ~ the 'Fe 1 i,owel' does net ap~~~nt anyone Imam or Mllj,tahidj b~L ,inst~ ~1lows me OPI~lOl1 of ,one ~.mam in one wssue and the oprun[on of another m ,I differmt issue. m the seoond type of Taq]ood. the fo1Iow,e:r thoose.s the: opinion of one psrticu lar Imam and Mllj,labhf and does BOil resort to anyone else besides him in allY rssue, Th~ fo:~m;er 'is knewn as T.aq leed i n ge.nem~ and the I atteI is klitown as Ta:.q,h:ed ofan in.dJviduat The essence of both

types o'fTaql.e5d IS nothing rrrere i:J1;1l1i'll (he fact that. someone who doe.s ~;ot have' the academic caJpabil~t:y to extract rules from the Qur'm and SLII:mah cheeses someone whom he regards as. 81111' expert in the .'lI'Iterpl1etation .of the Qru: r ·BiI1 allO :£un~ah relies upon his unolcr.;tso.ding .and: aAJllheres 1:0 Ih:ts opinion. The v.alidiity ~ if not th~ mandate - for th~s apprmich appears in numereus proofs from t:he Our'en and:

SUnneh.

The Concepr of TI.1,qleed In the QQr'~'an

Beth c.lass:ifl:Catial'ls elf Taqleed, in the fbrm mendoned ,S!bove are folIJ.J1d in the QUf'a:n. The fOlllowing seje>cteti verses 0' ,the' Q IU'~3lI'I demo\llsttat(~' this,:

Verse Number]"

uO Y(I,U who, beUevle!' Fo,,~10W AiIll!!hi; ~tln!)W the Messelll.g,e-r' aM tlose Orf,lu(luJlrity (Am·r)·amongst' l'rI:I!B."

fSllInml Al~NiS3:11:: ,S!)) Tbat of au.tlil.m~tv ~Amr) hils been e-xp,lai ned by same as Mlilslmm ruiers whUe others have viewed them. M tl~e jurists. The lat~$f view was the opin.ion of Al5duUaI11 wlDn Abb$6~ Muja:hid. iA:W ibn Abl Rabeh, 'At~a i:bn Saib, Hasan of Ba§m~ Abu AHyahand many ,o'th.~r5\ After sU9\Staotiltiflg the proof's, for this second Yi~w!, Imem Razi g~'\I\es prefer1ence to it and wri'tes:

Il Thhil eQI:MLatiQID Qf Ab:dullah llbn Abbas ttla..'> 'be.M Ilar.MtlZd Ii;Qm MI!.I·a~EIIh nun Salah. "om AU ibn Talha whiiidh is xe:gardiea as: a: Vtl)l §lund chain (1b~. bJili Vol, ,5 iP'age 88 e.f Al.ltqaan: NUmb:erSQ"

14

"S.ol tak i~g those M Amr to mean seho lars Is Ill. ore app(\Oprhite" ",7

lrnern Abu, Bskr Jassas position is llil.9l there ls no tDnlndi,etio~ be~wee.n 'the !!WO eplnions, [11 fa~l. beth are ~m~l.ied. R~.Il:lrS &hQ?ld be .fo~lowe~ in poptic:at rnsttersand j urists sb:f;1IuJd be followed In leg.a,1 issees,

ln13m Ibl:i Qanim says that following the rulers is in effect fOUO\Cv1l£lg the 5';1; no'il:lfS, since ru lets am 3 ~S() rg~IU i red [0

fotlaw scholars, in regal, issues Hence, ", fOUowing rulers

is subj~ct to fQUowing gc,holars.'# "

[Ii sh.orl this verse .r,equ.ires Mtllsiims ttl' follow A~jak .a.llldi His Melilse-!J,']get and those scholars alf'ld jurirSts ·",'ho., int~rpret the primary - sourc-~s. The ~egali term fQr this ·~t)How il~g ls Tlql~d. There remalns tile q~ery regarding the remainder

·of the: ver5e :

'~And if yltU I'll ~SlPu te :then rdet" jt to Allalh H!D,(I t:h~ Mle~!u;~n'ger ifYiiU really do b~lievle in .A~lah ~d in the Last Day i U"

~Su ra h .AI-Ni:s.:ta : 59)

8as'-ed on ftlesec:ond v1ew .of those of Amr (to mean jurists. and! .scl1o:la~~,',tlhe acliIDress in this verse would be ~ se~~~be oommand to the, Mujt;al1~ds (the. legal experts)r. Jr~S[I(Ylng the inwr'p:retat~on. of EJhnse with Amr·M jurists,! Imam Abu .Bal~,f J,lS$2~ says:

b I 14'.[""" '~.' ..

. AUah s' .Statem.e.nt SlI sequClr:lft Y I r. , you I!Ir~Spll:lJre"", proves

that those of Arnr are lndeed juri.sts, because He Jrt~s I),lJdered,

• Alrkaetmul Qilr '~n. ib]{ Jassas. Vol J, pa.~n 2561

'!i 'IJtiQ'i,i.iiJ.~ Muql'een. by [b\t'I Q~imi Vol. I, page 'i

everyone else ro rol.low them and then proceeded 00 sa'll' mat ·~:if YGl;.'Il displne ... !~ Hence AU,ah has ~ilrd,fitred those of Amr 'EO refer the disputed issue lO the BOOok of Allah and the traditions of the. Prophet, The ~3i)' person is 'not a per-son of knm\'ledg,e!, he is mot of I.h~s callbcr. The lay person would be unav sire of how to refer ihe displ,lt~d issue to the Book of Allah and to the Sunnah and h,'O\Y lheir ,pcroors WGu:ld apply 1" situations and events. Thus, it is established that the second cersmend .. is for 'the :>'ChoIM~."IO'

The famous sehelar of the Ahle l adilhj Shaykh awwab Sidd]q Hasan Khan Saheb has ,alsO' aoknowledged that the address irn:l tthhl st,atelni3nt ("'If yOlO d,~sr:n,g,t~ .. , .. ~') is 10 tPe Mujl:ahids.. He lvrites in his, tafsee:r: "It is apparent th('H thls is 'fir s'Il:parate ,andi new address direc1i:(J to\lviluds Ih. Mujmh[i:!s.',ll

h is not alid rtcr conclude Lha't those who are inept of Ijtih~ should refer directly Ul the rQur~an and SI:U:mM in disputed issues, In r-ea.iijt. the command in the. first. part of the verse (to foUow these of Amr) is for those people who cannot exuaet 8'11I)' ruies from the Qur'sJrn and SUF'lllah directly. They are reqll~ired to folh;;;w the Qur'an and '. lInnah by asking lho,~ of AnH (meaning j,urists) and foUowing iheir guidance, The second statement is eX!CJu.&ivei.), f'Or (he MUj,IShids thRt is l0 !lay dlsputed issues should be referred to tile QLLr",an and Sunnah. The: MujiWtljds ~~ou.ld nsrcise their skHls ,ofJegadJudgmel1l and 'extr>ict: rules, So there Me in fact [we cOlnmaJrnas. the firsl staunnem is to th05E!" wbo

I t1 .. .1 hknnmi QUl" 'au· Vori. 2, pa.,gc 25i

11 1'qft2e:r oJ FQihrr! n~ ~ voL, 2. ,a.g~ l08. 'tinltd 1;)' AI~·A:siAnM. C~im

i'1 ad()r~n Tl!qleecl and ~.hre second is direc't'ed to the Muj'tahid '~ practiee Ijtiilad.

Ve:rse Number 2,

nd whcq there ~om,es to 'them ,3 matter '~~ne~mi[lD' (p,ublie) :sruety Orr fear,; they rela}' ~·t. U ~tIlley ha~1 tlmJly referred it 1'(1 the M.cssenger and. t11:i rbo~£ of ~gl~Clrlit)~ (Aln.r), II~osc wbo ,can ifivQS1t~g3:te and l&1(tr:act '(~nfQ:r.a~ion) aWilohg th,em ·wrOt1.ld knlllrw (th0 ru n]C)r's \lalidir~), .•.• "

(Iu"dm AIBNisaa: 83)1

!h~ baC'l~:grOIU!I1d1 lothis. verse ~s thaI: the hypocrites o~ MadTlI\an woald spread rumors l"Cgm-dhlrg war aJnd peace. S[mpL,e-mi.nCl!ed Mns,lims would beli,ev¢ these F~~mors smd exacefba.~c the shua;tion~ Crea;tiina an iittmosj')here of

" • ~ I

ms.~9unty and pan~c in ~he 'City. The verse quoted above

prEvented Mu.sHmiS: fromr ta.kJlI'Ilg [his 31pproach nd advised thel11 wID refer news of Wi.1ir and! peace ~o those ,~f Amr and ~'ot '~ ,sp'rcfld rumors, TlUlS, clpa'ble individlJa~s Lnvw,tlgatJl1g the rumors wouLd be able ~,O reach 'the truth of the: 1SSU"€ and Ulilforim ethers coneel'l'iled. The role ,0: the lay person was not to take Hll'1:y action ex,c@pt to refer sueh rumors and report~ (0 (_hose of AmII'.

Alth..clUgh thjs verse was r.evealed t'Or BI specific ~S.on - iff is V0J) w@1I estaJhllisbedJ in the prin.cip'le~ of tafs0et and jurisprudence that in extraetil1g rlJ'~es, and llaws rrom. Sp:eei:ficcirc'wmstlllMC13S of r,ewlation. the speelfie dera lis grve way- iIlo the. genera I mean i n,g of the text e- such a ~enera~ p.~·inci?,le 'is contain.ed in 'tihev,~rse q!llo~ed above'. ~ &Ie prlnc,lpJle rs that: iIlhose who do no~ pOOSleSS 'the tools' of 1llIve:sti.gadon should J1der to those who, een, This is: precisery Taqleed,

Imam Rm: I 'iiwh-es eencern i ng th i s verse,

'So it is establisliedCnat Istinbaat Oht: legal precess of otn.ctl:ng rules from the QUr",an and S~nnalt~ is a proof. An3ilogy is slither lstin'baat, in "1selir. or is ]m:luded in it So .anal,o,i»' (QjYi1B) slundd aJsrI be a pr()of. TMs verse denotes se eral rules. The firs( is tillattbere are some indden!S arid i:siSUSS~ whi,c;h are not app.arent fr,o:m (OJ, ilne) '[e:d. The'seoond is ~hl;'(t tl!l1i,nbaat isa proof. The third is that:a lay person s~olUlJd follow scholars i:o the rules of events ansI ~n issues,' 12

Cert"lllJiin people have ebjeetecl to ttl "s lilne 0'" reasoning claiming that this 'Verse lS peeuliarte the state of war and! should not. be 8Dalogl)i]$tQ ,~ state;; of pe~e.n A ffSipan:se has ,aJr,eady been flrrnished previously 'to this question that specific emc~mstaJnees of the verse -extencl to the ge:n~m] pdrllf:~p~es, efthe verse. lmam Ilhli.L writes:

".AUahig, sf~:ate:me'.Iilt 'A:B'il'~ when there comes 00 ilhern a maner .... ' includes aU affairs relatrulillg ~o Wit ami tOM,)!, otl"l,er il1.,cident relating to lSii~ami,e I.w" This is because me states of war and peace iLnc]ud@ ev'ery legll,1 com.mW1Jid., Hence there ~s n,oili.~ng ill tbIe verse wlliaic:h r~stric"tsU1Je command] to a sta:te 'O,fW,U 01:111)".',10\1

Imam. Abu Bm J;1I.Ssas :blaiS, also 'g~ven a :s.i'mUaf detalled answer tel thl~ ,qlllestion; he his a'lisCl refuleil .many doubtS

t9 which relate to thi.s questiQf1i,I:S This is the .I"~SOIl1l why the f..1lHlOlllIs s,chollf of the Ahle Hadi,jall Naw"\vab Siddiq has 81110\\100 Qi,yas ICanalogy) giv i ng his reason i ng based on this verse:

"'Th,ere is a hint in this verse to the pli:rmis8~bmty Oif' QiY3iB and 'that there ~te sOfD,e Issues ,of knowledgewhjch ean be PW"04i:-ived: by i n,~~Ue-ctlJali~ dedu ction, ,.16

If taere ls 110 geidance in, the verse rega£<dil'l,g the s!a.te of peace how wauld substan~illating Qiyacfi from the verse be perm sslble?

V~rst Numbe-r 3.,

~~" .'U' a cOlI!nul:e:n,t from every SlJlld ilion r-emaiJl.td bebind! jllli oM,e:r to understaud r-elig;ioll' (Deen)., :IOId JO ~bat ~he:y etIuld admonish tbehr f.Joople when til ley f1e:tlUiIi! to them l(frllJlm w3.r) ftUlI ,thus, tib.rty (may 1,eluD to) g)U,ar-d tl1imselv,eg ~gaiiliSt evil.V"

(!Surs.h AI,-Taubali = 122,)

The verse S1Jp'po:m Uliat ,n01 all Mu;u"limsl silim:puld' go OUL and beollme p1I~occupied in Jihad. There sbouJd be I group who devote' them selves il,Hilc~Uisjvel.y to ]~arn]rn:lg and Uilliidarstam:l.fun,g Deen so rh~t they esn 'leacl:i Is~amh: rulle~s pnd rega! lations to' rhose wl10 are not: abl;e to dedieate thernse lves to learning. This verse b~s ordered these who learn and un~w;s,tand~ to impart !:mo,w]ed\ge of ls;lamic [!iliW m others snd it hili also instn'lcted others t'OI act upon the instrpctions

II '

AhltioQmut r#11""QI;I, :by J:asrsas ~ vol, 2. Pl~ 63

lli.tf"'"

. "i/N{!,l' -eJ/ FaJ'lmllJa:yan, :by N~WWlib; SrddiJjJ vol, 2. 'p-Q!I.33

to avoid the dlsobedieace of Aliiall. lmam Abu Bakr Jsssas eomrnerus on ehls verse:

'(So AUah lias comm~nded people (who d,o, not. learn) to take heed of tOe seholars' wam~[lgs- and to act Ulpo,n thei r advice.;'!'

V,e.rse Number 4.,

••• SOI, if y'Ow. do 'Dot kOO\¥t ask thm;e '0':1' ren1i1llID Ii;Iran,ce. n

,(Sul'l.h Al-Na h L: 43,)

There Is·an academic prlnclple ~n this verse, whieh is: lh. ti:ro.8ewho are not ex:perQ in a ti eld should resort to seeking advk,e fron:u those who are and act .accord.illlgly.

SbaJkh A~oO$i writea In the commentary ,of tl'n~s verse: '

~)liTMs: \le1'S'e has been used to pr,o,v·e that refer:ring to' scholars ,is li1e~y in cases where one does not heve knowl edtgle of tli]5 issue in questlen, Imam Suyut~ in his '[kJeel' wri:tes t!hat th is verse hn boon used ~~, preve the p~,i nt that th e tfry peesen may f()lI'ow another imam [make Taq[eed of] in aetaiJs ofIsJWnJC !.iiaw,,,loS

A ,questLo:n oftin ra~sed eencerning thls verse ~s that it pertains ~~ .8, sfleCl~tic incideiO~;the polythl'ists gi@ni,oo 'the pmphethood ef Muhammad] ,and: they would mockilllg!y ·r'eqUlest as to, why no .angeJ] was sent as: ,S, .Mwenge:r.~ ~n reply the foUowimg verse was revealed:

1"1 Ahbaml.ll Qu'r' an; by ],was • '~ol, :2, .p. 262 II Ihihul:Ma'a,uJ ~ ·!lot, 14, palge l4,s

'And We have 0101: sent rt!!1yone btloin~ you 'ex.cep~ ,that tbey '","er,e fuen (b urns D:S,J la w hom. We revealed, So>, j', YOIil do n,(jtt know, askthoSlI: of' remembran,ce. ",

,(Slll:':abl NQld : 43)

S<Ot'l:Ul eomment~rors lake ... those of remembrence (Dhikr)' to mean fhe seholsrs of the People of the Book. Others. elaim '~h,al jt refers U) the Peopte of the Book Who were p~.smt during 'the era of the· Prophet, few ether sc.h:ol~_fs beUeve lt is in reference ~,th~ 'Ahle Qur"an [peop.le of'the Ql.lf w.ffi!] Ithe M'lUs.l~ms, W.haoov,~r the m~a.ni:i1g 'of tlIe verse people were aware o.f the fact thart Prophets were human btljngs and not M.,gels. h ;!s c~aLmBd that in this context of the verne has 1'1:0· relation widl Taq~etd or rnjtih,ad, However, Taqh;~d is impl:ied :in this verse, The command to .... '.Qsk tnoiSt': of remembranee', implies the' prlnclple that 'every unlearned person (or non-expert) should refer to 'uhe one Who kno'ws'. The verse directs to\Yards FoUo,wing qualified. scilola.rship' and a. case for Taqleed ls (:I~ar!y establ~shed fr~m this verse. As previously m~nti'@,ned, the sllUe.nt prhlll:.iple while im'l~e'rp:roting the Qur~~m and Sunn~ is that 'The ct)1'lslderatfonfo:r theg.enf1ral mec.ning afthe text is 17.0,1 Umited /0 ilS speciji,r; baakgroiJnd incl'tiJ!fll, • Although the sp~cifie backgfO'lIl11.d incidem pertains to the p{I,lytiheists, of Makk>ah the: urtrestricted wo,njing of the verse is, s'ti.U app!k~~~I,e and considered, Khafib A:lI,.Baghdadi wf.ites.:

~~A.s I:o,r the question; 'wlw is allowed to follow (and make Tllqleed)·J It is, the lay person who does 1I:I0t. have ~hi3 reols to undle,rslall1:d the laws ,of Islam. The lay person is !.1illlo:w-ed to f.o I (.o'w a .seho,lar- and act upon h]s adv ice. Ai lah says;

~~SOr~ if y,j),'lJ do nllt know, ask Ulose' of l"cm!e;mbrnim,ee. n

22 Afmr qu;oting this verse Khatlb has l1ill'rarea with his chain off n~rr~t~'rs: from Arm Jbn Qai:s, that i,n: this: verse, ' 1'hrOse' of remembraD'C:IC'~ are rho,se of kno,'wb:::Q.ge.19

TAQLEEDINTllE So . NAB.

The Su.nn.ah, eOl:re$pli]'nd~ll"Ig~y to HII;:: verses in the Qur "alii are !1eple'l!e wi.th references, to aqleed, ail feware menticned below.

Hudaifah Mid thai t~e ProphfJ·t 'said: "l.da nni kno.'II haw IOJ'~g I will remain Prldth ,l'iVt$. So foUow these hila peopiewn() will rem'ain) after me: Abu .Btlkr 'and O;t;T(:W;" (Tirruidhl, lb", M"fiah afu;;1 Ahmed)1O

In this Hadlth, ]!pechd attelltkl·n -shcOJIJd be: given flo the word '[q~idal!lr (foUow) wbieb is used in the Arabic

~""'"'~, ,j ~i"Il""ld"'''''' 'I i!" ·t . .ill t· ,j:'! d'i • • .. I!.

,~ .... ~~l~ aa 'iii no, IIJseu. :ED mean reuowing In tne

organi:sta.i:ona! sense, bu~ rather it is used to relet to retigiOllis foHaww.llg. Ibn Manz:oor~ the famous; expert on the.

Arabic 1,!lI1!lI,age wriles:: .

"Tba 'WQrCIls Ql.ldwah and Qidwah are used for people who a~e filHo'w~d in thei, tnlidUiollS, 'QlUdwa,~ means Uswah (81n examflle' or a role ltil:odel)"~'!.

IV Al-Faqi h 'W'8~1 MUJtafaiqqih, by KJi~tib ef Ba'g,M ;'lei -. \lIot 2., page 68"

'i'i'[u~d D)' Clawl J'futa-. Riya-d'h, Sau:ciiii Arabia; 11389 fHj . .

~o Mlrqfiiind Millmlteeh • voL 5. page 549

:l: I l"' '''~.I. -I "In .. 31 .I. Ih .

. .rsaQ1fU, nmu·' \liD • zu, page .... Ulli.!el' 'i! root wor,a, (;lads,

_.3.

This, word has been used in the Qllr'an 10 'mean follewing prophets W1d gOfid [Xi-ople in religious ~ff~Dril: -

'Th:e\!le are tile UD,e,s whom. We IIIII,Ed1iMl, So ,ro~low t:D,eir gllllidance ..

(S'Uill1!h All-An'lounn: 90)

The fulLowing Hild'ntb narrated d~lring Ule Iast momel:Jlts 'Of the Prophets life is ample preof of this approach:

'ii b~'U Bakr 'wos following the prflJNl~' of the Prophcel and p'eopie were !allolV,i.ng the PTll>,?" o/AbzI Bakr. " (Buk.harl)

Imam Ahmed has liHlrrated -:kll his MUBll.iid . ., from Abu WlIil;

'1 ~'Qr with Sh(JiiJan the Scm of Ullum:m litho said: '~OI11,{Jl' sat' in fbi's very place wi1(!.t€ YG,U (J'P:e .siu,ing, Omar satd: 'Sometime'S / ~waMt ttl dis-trib,ute' ,every piece of goJ.d and

silver that Is here ttl the Kclb:ah'. " IIShalbah) asked him {Om,",.]: "Don;t you have the QUlJwl'iry to do so?" Oma', sald: "1our twoO Comp'Cmions {the .Prophcet ,cmd Ahu B~kI'J p.recede,d y",,~ tmd' did 'I'Iot do so. Th:ey are two peopl'e who

sl1('l~ld be followed .. (11 .

hnam Ahmedi" also. narrates in his MtII'$n:ad from

Arras ii'lat the. :P~o',phet was, s,iUing [In a gatlli1eri,n,g ,lrnd

stat'€d:

':ti per&fJM' wn'O J1S enJ'itl€d ta Pargdis€ wm' ihor.lty ,enl:er this. g:alnerif1g; ,,,

So Q person .fi'OtlI the MiSaal' ent~md< The next d~y, the, same incident accup.f'cd ,"nd the third dClJl. the same ihin'g itapp.e,tled. Abdulloh ibn Amr deC'fci'ea to follow the A,nsQQt one day ,mil vO'Sef'Vl]. hin.:r, .Abdullal} o:f/Sumed thai the. AnMar was lJ.bso'riJea in worship (/u.,.i1Jg IhlZ nigi1r. bur the o'nly thing he no.ticec! wo.s' ,'hat the Ansaar made Mme .Dhikr (I'e~,ui:mb"'Qf'1.e'e of Allah) amJ wen,{ to Jleep until Fuji'. in li~e morning, Abdr:lllah .sa,tel to tlu! Ansaar:

'1 wanJed to Ii{i/ma tire nighl ".,U12 ymi to S.e€ ,YOUI' aC(/I(Jm' so .that l "Ol-lld follow .'lI()~!I" but J did not see

., r· ,if;

)IOl.l excessive m wm·smp.

ln 'atll ofth.ese jinstan,of$, the word ; lqtMaa' .hatS been used ttl mean rollowmg someone itO a religious. sense ~ ,especially in the first two, Ahadi.dul where the word hwS'; been used! for Abu Bakr. The Hadith in qutestitm ··i . .foUow these two peop/e ,after me ... " speaks abollt foll.mw.in.8 Abu Bakr and Om.aJf' in .r-el.igiious issues which is the essence of Taqleed

Abdullah ibn Amr n~!lI'rntedlhat [:rll~ Prophet said:

"Allah will m;u snatch away lmowled~· aiJru,p#y ji-Qm people, ht,; rather He' will Jrnau:Ii' knowledge by removin.g J;choiar$. This ·will happrl'fJ to .I:/?r;: l!Xt'(mJ lf1.iJt w/nm no scholar r-eluain'S. pf!ople wl/l i'(lke ~gnoral'l'l letldfW~ (J,I) their guide.~. These l~uu:/.'grs will be: o_sked arid [!Joey wiU gf1'''! Dpinions (FatIelIQs) ~vithmJ,t knowledge. So lil'ey wiil b« misguided and they 1Vm misguide., ,. ~Bukl1a.ri QfM Mm;litn)

:2J The ~UilS9iif Ifepl!id mat a! nhol!g'h he; di:d nolcio 3. ro:t o.f fomi1al worship, he 1I'1~'II'eT kept alilY gll!dges «g:lliI1\S't ~ MLI~im, nor d~d he envy anyone. N~M"a~ with a solUiid Cltll'il1l ilJ'l VIIStlad A.hltmd • YO.I, 3. P3I8.e [65)

25

This Hadliith dearl)' states Lha giving ,Ilel.igiou's; and l!egaJ o:p:ini,o·ns I(fatw,as) is. the oeeuparion of a scholar-. People enquire concernin.g '~UgioU:5, and lega! issues and act according ~I} 'me 3'11iSWer.S received, Th]S is the gll-St of Taqle6d. The P·r,ophet foret'Glld that there wou,~rl 'comes. time when scholars will become. exti:rlll:t. and i.g1l'lor-al1'llt people wUl iss'UI€: F M\!iaS. Wn tf~:~!i seenarlo wtn~re. there are no Hv':in.g scholars to refer tOI 3llGi hence there wit! remain none to ,ex.t:raC:l rules from the Q!t:I.l·"llIroL ~nd Sunnah dil'ecU:y' \,vhat olhu process win there be for people to foUow th~ Ql]r'an :and] Sunnab e;x;cept 'to r-ely upon the dec:nsio:l1ls of previous ~o~W's, Thir:5 HadUil infolIms· that as long as the Mujlahuds remain, reference should be directed te them alone endwhea no scholaa" remsias, instead df r,e_sort;i~g to the tl'1I>G(lmpetent and unquaHfi'ed for sO~illti0ns,. Taqleed should be made o(prev.iou.s scholars,

"fifho.(!ve,r gives a F Qf1'~o' (/cI,d oph1ion) lvitlWUJ knowledge;, lhe si« will bi' an the one whQ gilt{!S the ')',J

F atWQ, .. (A,au DQll!Uo.dr·

This Hadith is also v¢(ry clear alb-out. th!3 vaHdlty of T3q~eed. 1:( Taqleed was no~ permissible, [hen just es there is slM for offering an opinion widu:lU:l ,k!1owledg~ and li'nvesti§adoll, 'th.ere should be an: :equlaI 3imOunilQifburdel'l en the per'SOM: ·as:ting if he did no:!; persevere to reaeh his: own «n~cllls.iQns~ but the Hadlth stams th~l the burden i~ on the one givu~g the Farwa and not 'on thee one asking. 1:ltitn.dicates ti'tat the. resp(tlfilsibi lity of a person 'Who is not a scholer is to ask som.eone' who has knowledge of the Qur'an arrd Sunf.l'ah. If that iklll:owh~'-dgeable pCI"SIOn, gives him an

erroneous Fatwa, "tire burden of sin ]S OH the M ufti and not on the q uestioaer,

·'R.¢l'itible pefjpi,~' ft'oru fJu.~'h ~'u(,'r:,ft,,?,ding gen!tnlti.6Ju '!<I'ill Ctll'''JlIlhi$ kn.(!Jwlerige. Th€:_y (lh-e,relio.o,le people;) wtl! fv:ll!te 'he disrtprtiolls q{ tho,H: whQ e~agge:rme and tJ~1t (g:r.iQJil,fWUlJ) ,r:.Jq.Jim'uJtiorl8 of the 19N()rant. " (S'(Jhiql iwrM{'!dk~~'.Il; 1S

Thls Ha.d.ith cendemns the erroneous i2:i!{pOOlll,lio,'lii (I f the .lgl1;ornrnt. mid m.tI.tes it clear lhHl the refUl3Jtiol] ',of these eilpl~ailtt.l.~.ns 15 t~e I,espOllsffbi ~ityo'f the ~bola_n, Agal~n. ~hi s S~flWS thatrrhose who do nci pnssess the ~Clnu:1ef1 of ~ MliJ'[ah~d .shrul](I not ve(ntul't: intn ,~:o;;plainilng the' QUI!'~,an 'ilJnd Sunnah accm"iling [0 tJlei,,' own Wlcle[stindillg. Rather th@y should refer 00 lhe, sctiIolaJ"'$ in Jorder to undeJ!'stand the eorreet meanings of the' Qur'an and Sum'JJah.~l isreeognised thut in ol."del\wo ex:plainthe Q~f'jan a[1d SlllUY;1h .~, pel~O!l needs ~o be extl.iLOmin..arily iju~li,fioo .. Rudimentary kll@w]eodg,e of the Arabic i.~llguage does ]10t: 'fun I if'}' one as a. Mujt~hi:d al1td hence s-u;C:hex.pianadQllls by a flolJ'l-prore-:S~'IO:Il!}l would be rega.\-de~. asspurions.

lmam Bukll~i bas narrated 3!8, a ~a,!s;~Ili!~d. !.li~a"fati:(t1'! anti [nJam Muslim lias, narrated with his ,eh(lJln Qif rrru;r,atclI'S frem A'I\'lu S'a,le~ Kili1Judri tha.t clel:it~in eon1~a:nil0I1S made 'it a.llabH to join praye.¥s late, The Prophet empb~1ittedili2l:t fire)!. should come ear!ly arv:d.jo':ins the'firstro,w aJl~tl then :sald~

2?

"Foll(JW .~J':ie (bJ' o/)serving what ! do) cmd lItO-S(J; who C(m:M~ aller Jj'h(r1Il'6i!Qw.YO,!!! (njJ ab.~'rM·ving wlfm J1!OlI do ...

111is Hadith h"15 a, Il:Inlh~'ariou~ ~f1teJ1l.ri!U!.tia!ll" one possible Lnterprotadoil is tlUlt those in the fi:onl" row s h:oHld (llmnlrvewh~t the. Pr\lp.het £s domg ;and follow hun In ~ray~rs ood tl'lQse'wilnare belTh~~d shou ld fo][owtb_etJ.o'llt rew, A fiuthel" po.ss]b,le n:)!~anhlg ·of this Hadith is ·th~il. the C>O!I1].pmJl[Ql'lS were ~dvi.sed: co' come earJy 5:0 that they c0ll11d @ib~e.rve Ute Propbet's: J?J'alye.r· in roraJ:il)', Those Whiil OOH1:~ afterthe Comparo]Qrus. will leam theitprayets: by abservlug mid FbUowin;a: then}. 1&1 Hajar writes: in the (;4!JmU1.eiltu"y of this Hadilh;

"~h lS 8midltJam the' IilleoM:ll~g of this Had]lh is d~a!t the CO!lll.p'B.ni ons &hou_[dlearn the rules of Isi~l!n :fIoIDl1 the P['Opi1et and til1Q'S'e: wJlo fcHow the Companions (the T,abi~een) snotdd f.oUow the Compsnions and so on lllntjl

tfue werld.comes kl· an eiLm, .~:B .

ll!l'.lilm Aru~~dl Ilarrates in hls Musnad trha:~. S,ahaJ. Jbn Sa '0: narrated from his futa1Jer that ~

~'!A woman CaJ11r! to thf1 P"lophei ;emf! scdd: "My lms'bfl,fld has go;n~ ()Ulrn~Mm' Cil!d I used to fi)Ji{-)w him i~ his pna:prwhen. he: jJJ1'(;l,YiEtti emo. b~ all other aJjair.", Sho"'1!' .m~ a/~ fI'Cl: lll'hich will matcb hi.~· act eJ'

jihad until 'he re'lU1"rut. ,137

~!I F';uthljlllwi ~ '\0'01 .. 2, ~iigeI11. Primed' try Meeri~h 13,00 H J:1Mr/fll'Od A h~l~eJ - vol, j., ji)!lige' .43,9 A I-H.ai~ha[l1l,i ~~as a'r,~o i1jjrn~ed. i~t,"" M'aJ."i~ 'lU ZQwt1id'J. aad [flen :mys:AIl:melill has naml~ed iir from Dha:bbaln

~n this H:adith" the lady has ,exp[jc'it'ly informed the Prophet that she foHoM 'her hIusb~d ~ not only L:rI pntycii but -in all 1lIC1ts;, The Pmpheu ". did not 800 any reason to rebuke her actions. Imam Tirmidh! narrates 'tll!:ll Abdullah ibn Amr narrated from the Propbet .:

"WJUJ~'vur has two qualiNe,:!' in him Allal1 wm make hIm ,(1 gratefid nJ'J.i/ p'ot i(ml' person. (TIlt! first q uolily) Who,ev(Jr lou"'!! i(Jll.-'arcis someone \\'110 is higher than IIii'll in religiou 'md Jolimvs him and (the S(?C()~1d q~uJli~y) whoever looks to"wlrds SDmeQmJ who Is lower tlmn I~im in the w,Q'rhi cwd thrm praises AUah .~8

rho Hadith praises U16 quality of adhering to, others; there is not an inkling of disapprQv~l~{Wlin this Hadith to foUowing the Q,ood in others.

'ibn F'nid whoR11bn H.nim has classified as weak. Everyone else in the eh atn tucli 'ble. (Fa! hur R~1bbani - "'.01, 14. p~ge 16,

!H Jami' ··nr'l1'1icihi wil.l" Ibn Arubi's commentELlj' ~ vol. 9. p!1l.g.e 31

29

THE RA OF THE CQ·rPANIO ... AND AD" OL TE TAQLJE:ED

Taq[eedl was prevalent durin' '[he era of the Companlon.s. Companions who were not immersed with s"'cholmrslup. or did not use their nwn judgen:umt (ljtihad) in certalu issues w'Clul.d l"eSOt~ to the OO·m.pln~o:ns, whl) were l1Icknowledged as jurists and act aeeording to their advice. Evidence ,of absol:ute T,aqJiBed WlJJd Taqleed IOf au individual .dlo.'lr:ing the :SUCoe.SSOfi; era are copious., lfla:ny volumes devoted e:ntire1y 10 this subject wO'tdd J'I.O't do j,t ju:stlee. However, tar want lof bte'vily here sre a few examples of absolute Taqleed durillg [he age of the successors.

Ibn Abbas ltm1i.tes that Omar ibn KhattaJb g:tve a sermon at JabiYW:l and said:

"0' people! lfyou l'vanl' to knOll' tl.fl)llhing abolU the Qur 'an. go to O/J.(lid fbr~ Ka 'b. Jf yQ~IW,QI~t tv know tfmoul il:l'herii'ance, go to Zaid' ibn Thcibil. If}'Ou ~MJ11 to know aq.mll FiqIJ (what is hQ/a} and whot is hOl',am). go 10 Mu 'adh ,ibn Jabal. .. /fyQ'U w,am to kn.QW ahmli wealth, then come ~Q me /rJ'l" Allah has l1ltlde me tl gJ.ielrdi(fn ,{J}1d a

distributor. "'. (Tabal'unt' in Al-Aw&at) ,~9 r

Omw-' has addtessedpeopl'~ in general in his 'Khutba (sermon) amd advised that in matters 00 Tafseer, inheritance and tiq.h. Ute)' :Jho:wd refer to the-se distinguished seholars

l:'iI AI..1-Jlititbam] hiI.'J I'nl!nUollIed iIh<a:1 there: is S'ublumal'! i~1'i D~wiQod iblil Hussain if'lllluJ; ch.ail:l YIIhom no one Ihas m~r!itio!FIed' .. (MUjrtlQ'ijt Ztn!'(lid !la:g'C 131).l (d1eauthor) would n~.e ~o poInt out (hiit Ibn·ab; H:atim has ~rnti.Qnr:d him (Al.JaI'IUJ w.a TQ 'dd.eel a VO~. 2, Ipan I, I I), and also Khatib ~1lI we Hisbory 'Ii)f B'a.ghdad (wI. I O~ p.age 62). rNeitiu.':r (l-flhern h~'If;'e.l!dllh~r :plaisedi hi.11I Qr dis!lril!dtred him ..

and learn fiiom them. It 'is cleer 'thal not everyo,ue fuscl}!,able of W1dersit:andin;g the' proofs and r:lliri:onale of the text, The instruction in this add.fess is two f:bhis" The first is that of 1l:!ose who are. "Capable should refer to these scholars to understand the proofsand rationale ,and those wbo ~'e not capable should ]rier to them fur &OIb.ltions and] act UJlon their recommendlnons. Companions wh,o' did not regarci themselves c-apo.bl,e of extl:u~ting rules would refer to those who were jurists without iltve.stigating dl.e pRlG't'S. Tbey wbUld men::lyfoUow "their ~dvjce. The ioUowmg is: an example of tlds. approach.

Salim ibn, Abdullah narrsted tha1 Abdullah ibn Dmar WIS, asked ahout a person \'fho o,wed another :pe:r:sOD some IlWLtey arJ:d had III pay the Joan, at n fixed time. The creditor then agrees to forgi,ve ,aportirem of the' lean if the debtor pays before 'the deadi,i:ne. Ihn Omar dlsUkedl 'mls agooenl~eni and foiQade it.1O There is 'no !;:'K;plidt Hadlitl1 of the Prophet, which has been offered as proof. '[~ .is 'O!ear that tbisruli'llg W~ tbe. pel'somd j'1Jelgement, of Ibn OmM. 80, neither did Ibn Omar volunteer any ]J'J"CofJ nor was ,Wl~ proof sought,

Abdur RMm'laan narrated that he asked Thn Sireen about entering publie ba:ths. ibn Sireen mid that Ol1lUl" ~se to dislike the Idea.;11 Ibn Sireen - who, 'W,as One of the most learned fOUQWler-$ of tile CO'JlJpaflJions 0'. did mot mennon .atoy proo'f except to say that Omarr used t~ dislike 'the ~de!$. This is despite the :fact that there are sever~, Hadittl relarclltng the

J1 Tt'tUlSJnjtl~d :by Musadldacl (M,u,allbul 'Au./i,.ah, by IDn Najar· vel, i, page 51)

30

31

lS5.1JJe of p'1.~blic' baths. 0:1I1lW" himself bas a Hadith in this ~ssue.

Subimam ron Yasar said that Abu. Ayytib Ansalllri went for Hajj ... When he' reached a place called Naziyan - on the way "to Maltab - he Lost his camels ~ ""iiicD. were fOf sacrifice, He approached 'Omarr on the Day of Sacrifice and mentioned li1isplight Omar said:

C Do wna!l those willlo per.fu1tm Umrah do (which is the Tawaf and Sat'ee} and rl'ier:l you \~ll become halal ,(y,QU may take off you lb1m:Il Then, when you come fOT" Hall nest year, perfonn your Hajj and after whakver sacrifi.c-e :you can offer,.,':;ll

Again" Abu Ayyub did not request Omar 's proof and no~ did Omar offer -any. Abu. Ayyt1b took ms advice ~nd acted accordi ngly,

M1I.Is'~b ibn Sa'd said ilhat "his fatber (Sa~d1 ibo Abu Waqqas) -when praying in the masjid ~ ~rould! shorten b~s rrayets and complete b£s ruku and sujocd. AHd ,w'ilrm W,iymg at hamre. he 1jJsecl~o I,erngtnell his, p,raytl'S, and. also liJJ!IS liuku and sujlood~ Mlils ab asked:

"Father, when in the masiid yOI!l. sbo.rte.n your prayers ~d when. ~t borne y,olA ~engtlaen them. Wh;y is "this'!"

H- . - .I:'.,,,~,1I.. ... , , ~l" d'

15 iI,~~r ])~ 1I!~_. __

~'MY' so~- We ar~ leaders and Imams who ar-e followed by others.~~ {Tabarani ib, A 'Wsaat - the chain o,f Ilm"Jt'.atOT"S are

oo~dr3

II MJIWfIQf.a oflm~"lMMli~~ Pilge ~49

;i.lA l~Ha:ilJtami ill'l Mqjn,IQ '11t, 2~iti ~ vet, I, ,pa.ge 182

The meaning of Sa'd s rC'j:)iy is ubaJt since people look tlQl\vmils their leaders. Uley would assume 'that lengthy p,rayers ,are ob]ig!l\OO!rY and .make sucb a practice an essential cempenentof the prayer.

This narration d~n'l.6nslrates that tile masses during the time of the Companions followed them, (lot only in their statements but also in their ac:tiolllS. It Is woo clear that folliOwmgM eminent €lo.mpanion praQ,(s Me not required and for tbis. reason the COl'lilparniOlJs observed even 1[,1,6 m.OISt, meticulous derails in their actions - g,u~h as not givl!l]g an incorrect in'1lpresslon that lengthy prayers are iii. re Ligio'US duty.

Om.ar ibn Khattab saw Tallha! lbn ObaidLu][ab, wearing a coloured p~ece of cl'o,th whHe he was in lithe state of nram. Orum- asked him what he was 'wearing. Taiba re,] ied tb:ilrt it 'Was made frQm fabric. wrucb was; not scented. [Unscented coleured sheets fur lltram is permissible] Omar said;

"You are .,a group ,00f leaders who are folluwed b,y other people. If an ignorant person s'aw this elosh he would presume that Talha ibn Oba.idUtlDah wor-e this type of cloth while he was in Ibr-am. [and thus asiSUlIDe that even s:ce.ttted! material was permissible]. Do Rot wear these eeleured garments." (Muwaata Imam MaUti'~

Likewise, Omar had. advised. Abdlml:' Rahn~aru'J ibn Auf 10 remove a certain type of seeks, which he was.

33

wearing end said: "I hnplore you to re.1110V,e them. ] fear that others wUl ]oQk a:t )"cm and fellow your lead. ~l 35

The previous three incidents adequately

de,monstm:le that Com'panions were being foUowed m their actions and! Fatwas, Following the Companions in actions ,did not require pr-oof or reasoning, for ti:Jli::; reason the COlummioru; were very stringent concerning their actions and would empbaslse others; to be likewise ..

Omar sent Abdallah ibn Mas'ood to Kula and! sent the fMla-wing letter to the people. of Kuf:a:

"l am sending Ammar ibn. Yassir as, your governor and AbdluHruu ibn Mas;ood as your teacher anci adV~s,ef. Th.ey are .amongst the most no bJe ,of the Companicas of the Propb~t. They at-e also amongst thesewho prutidp~ted ait Badr, So follow them and listen to them, ,.

Abdallah ibn Mas'ood explained some principles of ruling in cases and said:

"If anyone is faced with a case afie£ todaY1' be shouM judge aceording rutile. Qur' an. If t.he~ is ,3, case VI/here the'" _. _I has not ruled, then he should judge accorditlig to, the Prophet. If a case appears where neither has ruled, then he shaubl judge according to 1:h;e rulings of the prOllS. If a case' comes where no one has ruled. he runrtlldjudge' according, to his cwn discretioJ).n36,

l~ AI.l,Yll'atlb. by [bJil .Abd'Ult Ban'. vel, .2, pag.e J .15. A!Flstlllbah. by [bn Ha[jnr ~ '10:1. 2, 'pag~ 36 ~ anel "lIa(JRl'ili Muqi '(.>en, by tbn QayyiP"l1 - vc I. :t pa~ 171

... , ,s'In"i Nimm ~ vel. 2. page SO.l'l:IIild SUm'ri of fJa.Mmi' - .... 01, 1" p!l~e ~4,

AlbduUl,dil ibn Ma5~pod ~ has ec¥pressed [bur levels of rUlllillg in this: l'ii!lf.ra:t.iol"L. The Q1il!r'oo.. the SUI1ItaJr, the decisions of the pI,O~Si9Jild ~:nidividll.;l j ll1ifJl~en1=t. The pO,i.111 whicih is evident in this O.rd:er ilsthat no one would assume thatwhile liefe!ll:ing to [he Q'lllr·:8:D fi:rs[. neceS:Sru'Hy entails. ]grlg,r.l.tlg the: Stmnah.whil.ereferrihg' to the QUlr";an, to iLmde.r.stalld its meallJ'l!lng. The conseusus 0'( the schclars [5. that th~ ~N;:planati{l!fl. ofHle Qur'~I,[ should be Sotllgln tiu"Ough the .a(d of 11~e $,ul:Jna.i1. NOl ~ftioY1atif:lg this pn:mise wCilldd open 'the deor to mafl:Y predi.came:nts~ [Oll" fn&l~tJ;ae .. riO direct feference tS .i'iv,el'l in the QlI.l:r· en ttl fl!bl,ggh~ OlE STICH1[ng an adu~rel,"e:r. T.®o 'oo.rnake stoning. dae to this type of reasening would be ab~UIrj and totally aga'i ust the eonseasns of' the

'1·" • (1[ T . 'Il. ,

M'i;u,:;, tm oQm['Ji:!ln~ty ~ ..... mmanr,

Refurwing to the rulings of"tthe ,PJi'0U:S entails that tneir opiniQ[ls SiiOlU,[d be 'co.lnprel~end,ed M Subsid]ary ~Uf(es faeilitating, to estalb[ish the f1l1!.%litllng ,ef tlle Qm'an and SU11!WHiI.'l, On the oontrnry. t1r:mh views shouldnet be used. dioe}ll1 to uA.der3tancl~he' O'ieaning of ~be Q'lJt~6in and S1[ll1!nah, Ta~Jeed leQuireSlh.d. 'While lr;yil.1!g to determine and. fix one' m~<Uli'l'!Jg o~ of several po:ssib]e r1:l!e,~!lin~s afa primaryte.Xt - whicli ifl an~!bjguou~ - the view of a.Muj~ah ld is ,enJ("lojo'XlcL F'(li( instance the- fac:~ that AbduJiah ibn Mas(@QC! wasaddn~,ss.il],g someone wh~ was already appoinrood as a JUidg~ shows 1b~t Taq]eedi,S net omy valid M.d. ~ess~ felll' a bay per,so!f1 alone, bont 11100 f'Or a scholar wlu;) should net :re[y m0'Iel~ron his seumen. '.(The variance in t1~Ci: type of T <'I~]!OOd a seholsr makes <lIJ:ld the~pe a. nODscl~J)hU' makes that will be explained ShOirtly.}17

n The; :a~¥~ cxp~'H'i!d:mil,rafl!te'5an Illle q~'I1ii0l'1lli: r3:lsed by Ibn QlIyyi.m in 'fl(lm~d MfJqi'een ~ vaLl. peg.~ r7SM tQ'ill'l,g to rea~1lI with this na",~"i!i!jom.

34

Sa~.]:m ibn Abdulhlh said :thea,! Ibn Omar did reeire behi J:1d the lrnam, SaUm ~sbd Q,!H;iul MulJw.ml.led about this and he .repJied:

um ibn

. n~f you do nor, then p~O(ph1 who sho,yld be; fOUov'i,.red hllVeaLs:o . ~&ained frOlll reciting behind tbe Imam. AI~d if y,QU do, th~l~ people who should be foUawed have also

recited behil.'I;d rt\iie Imam." e

sru~ Ill: l;a~cl thal Qacsim was amongst those W~~O' did L10l reclte.

36

Of pnc1I.llar interest. is 'the fact that Hasan ,5 only pro of was 'the action of lli.'~ two Comparnlcms. These were ~erely selected. examples ft~m t:h.e Iivesand statements of th.e Companions and their followers, Ibn Qayyim states that the FaltWas 0.1 more than em COlnp~mns have bee~ recorded and meili1l10nlled. Including tllose O'f wOnlen,~o TI1.eseF;at1MlS include borth where pr-oof is offe:(oo from the Qur'm:lmld St1ml1ilh and in other instances. where it is not. 'fhrarmpl,es for each approach ba:v·e been presemed a~ove. For other esamples, one m1l.(}' refer to Mw.~dta of .~mam Malik Kit'abu.t Aath(u'll' of Imam Abu H~a' Musannaf of Abdlli1 Razzaq .and of Jbn Abu 8baibah; the Ccmmentm'y em Ma'(J.ni111 Aarliaar by Imam Taha:Wl :and AI-MolaaUb:uJ ''Aali-,ah elf Ibn Hajjar.

TA:QL'EED OF AN INDlVmUAL DURING TJDi TIME OF THE 'COMPANIO S ANI) TfJEIR FOLLOWERS

'Companions did n01 make r.aql!::~drlgidly adh~iDg to oae scl:a.(IIL~ in all issues but rather the CompallUJDs approached different scholars and adhered. tothe di,sparrare Fatvll'as; which were rec.ei\~ed .fromtLte different scholars mno:ngs,t the CornpanioJ1l5.This is,mOf:tJlaUy referred to as Taq_leed in general. 'fibere are abundant references to Taq~eed of a pam.cu~ar: in&1vidaal in the b00ks O1f Smwah. A few examples are offered below,

bnatm BuJ<had nmrates from Ik:rimM thatthepeople of Medinah asked Ibn Abbas abom a woman who ' •. during Hajj ,. :maklesher first taWViaf am:!I tktnenters he:l:_tnens:tmal period before she ean make het fined t!l:'WWaf. Ibn Abbas

~ol '/{amul Muqt'een - \1\01. 1" p.age 9

oo]d them that she eould go home 'without completing her fi~aJ, tawwaf The people o.fMadiD~ said:

UWe willnet take ,yo.u]' opinion. over the opi:llion of zaid ibn Thahit" ..

TMs l'lafctlitiQn is found in th~ Mu 'ajjam of is-ma'W from Abdul \Vahhab Thaqafi,

The words o:f the people of Madinab. in this narrnt:io,n are: HWe do, not care whether you give USi this Fatwa or you don"t Zaid ibn !habit balds the opinion that tl1is, woman should not go home I[but wait until she is abJe [0 complete the final taWwat].'~ I

Also. this narration is found! in the Mranad of Abu Oa:wood Tayalis fr,oLn Qa;tada where the words IOf the people of Madinah are:

IIWewiU not follow you, 0 Ibn Ab'ba:s as you go

• .."I.. •• f7n'd ••

l'I.gamst !LUe opunon Q LAt .'

illbn Abbas, replied; "Ask your compoo[on Umme Saleem when you. leach Madiinah [whether my opin~on is ,correct 'Or net] ~~4:l

Two points, are dear from this d1aLogue,; between Ibn Abba~ and the peop~e, of' Madi'Uiah. The fir.st :i's that the pelople of Madin3h. regarded and followed Z-ald ibn Thab~t as an authority .. His epininn 'was g~ve:n prefe.rence over any olhe:r sabom. In fact" the narrauo.n in the .Mu 'ajjr:lI.rt of Is.mai 'iii teUs. us' that Ibn AbbSlS gave the' people ofMadinM

3S pmof of his Fatwa by referring them to Umrne Saleem:~J Despit,e this prooft the peop:I.,e of Madinah s:dU mainutined 'th{lt they trusted the opjn~on of Za[d ibn Thsblt and his sDt~emen.t was proof enough. lbn Abbas did net object to this behaviour from the peo'p]e of Madinah, He did not reproach the people nor bas aflyliling difiie:reot been n~rmJted.. lit': instructed ili.em to return b) Za~d, and ,oo~lfhmr.~ tile ruling wii1h Umme Saleem, ,Zaj,d did confirm the' opinion of Ibn Abbas with Umrne Saleem and retracted his previous apil:lJon. The latter part of the narration is, confirmed. in the books of MlI:dim. NiStlal, Btlihiqiand oiliern,.44 Certain q:uarlers contend that. if the people of Madinah were among those who prooti:eed Ta;qleed. vlil'l' did they bo,tli:er ItO confirm the Hadith from Umme $aleemfls

This contention is based on the misunderstanding tha1 while making Taqleed rO'f II certain MujtaJli,d. cont'im.l:il:lg research into tbe Qur'an and. Sunnah is somehow forbidden or dormant. Those who reject Taqleed base many arguments on this misconception. Tbenature of T eqleed in esseaee is mat ,81 person Who does not have the immed'itlite tools 'to derive hukm .shari~ab from the Qur1an and Sunnah directly relies u,pon the oploion of a Mujtaill,dI .and acts upon 1ft. The concept of Taqleed does not hinder seeking knowledge of tl:n,e Qur'an and Sunnah, This seekin,g of knowledge continu.es even whilst p.r~cticing Taqleed .. For this reason hundreds of scholars - who. ]practiced. the

~:; The people ofMa~~.ilab met wJrh libn Ab.b~·iJ!3iUl ;uoj iraf,O§'nled him Wtllllhe Hadiitil (from Umme Saleem) was: as he rnellt coned!. UmdfC1/:ul Qar! - '0'011. 4,. page 717

39

Taqleed of a_!I1I 'individual ~ cotlti!lu,e.d to' write conunentaries 0'" th~ QUr"an and Sunnah al)d expMld thel" sehclasile h(lri'Zons. If dm:ing I'\~el'lr-ch an 'l.}pinj,on ~rf fI, certain MUj'tehi,d was conclusively proven to be against file QUI"'an ~\Ud'til:Jil.18!b. 'the • unsound" opinion would be relinquished and the stronger evidence would be adopted,

If ... 1Vhlltla~lEd (someone who follows a Muj~~hid.) finds tb~t t~e opinion of his, ~.n.1am is contrary to a Hadith, this ,is not necessarily antitltetical to Taqleed. The narration in Question. ra.th.eT; proves that both Taq!eed and constant ex am in®i,ti,on and re=evallJ~ti,on of primal)' evidell~e were 1;lolh in vogue simultaneously, The people of Mad~tiah took eounselfrom Zaid who confirmed the Hadith with Umme Saleen1 aed retracted tfiCI.fi1 his original position, This apPwo3Jcil enabled reconciliation between II conf'i.rmed Haditb and the opinion of 00 Imam, but the ke:,' to this narrnt len Is thtlf1rm stand of the people of Madlinah:

tl Vile wm not m,ke your opinien over Ole' opinion of laid lbu Tb.abit."

[f this is not followl1i1g (making Taqleed .of) an hllilvidU!ru" men it begs the question whartis?

Imam Bukl)(lIfi bas narrated &001 lhJ:zaUihn Shurnhbml that some people asked Abu Musa Al=Ash',m a ~lle~UoJl on inlleri'l.tanc~e, Abu Musa J1eplied ;advising 'Haem fa ask Abdul1ah ibn Mas'oed. ~hey did so and AbdluJl!ln g~ve them an answer, which was 'very dlffc-r-ent oom that of Abu Mus!!. \Vhell Ab,u Mus! heard of Abdulleb's Fatwa, he Ickllo;'Wledg~ed, 'his J.e~rrning. and s~.~d:

''''010 not ask me anything as long at! thisgreat scholar is

present amongst you." -

The fant that Abu Musa acknowledged the supedo'l' knowledge' of Abdullah ibn Mas,'ood and then aetua,[]. instructed others ~o ask lilim ~n their questions C onceruing II e Deen, is in fact a. mandate for foUowing an individual.

Certain quarters contend that although Abu Mu sa instructed people 1101 to. follow l~hl1 as long as Abdullah was piMse~L th.i,s, does not ;n~cesshate tl1i~t he prevented them from asking other CQ'Il1Jp21niol:lS, who were shU present. Abu Musa \1'1.1\5 nler-eJy eO:IIpilsizinl, that since Abdullah is more knowledg.eable than myself; people should refer 10' him in aU matters. The answer to this coetention is lhat this incident occurred in Kuru dUr:i:~lg the time of UHuuan where Abdullah ibn Mas ood \. as the ez.taltdishcd scholar, As of yet AU 'had not arrived in Kufa, So iftne ~Irlderst~ruiing of Abw. Mus~r:s sraternent IS merely ·1.!1,art '\Ililen {1 SUIH!~'i(Jr scholar .iJj- prfJ .. sem, why go UJ .Q. lesser .rdro.iar? "then it still refers to' the .filet that Abdudah should be foHowcd in Kufa since therewas ID.O one ~iho couM match his kncrwl:edge .. A narralit)n In the MrI~(Jjj'tm of Tabafan~, tells lIS that Abu Musa WiiS asked! Ill, question ab,ol"ul sootling and he made a similar statement: ~'D(J 1101 ask me wh.ile this (Jlch(}ldl~'II"{)m the COflil"I11'1ians of {he Prophel is present am01'lg.~'{ us .... So it is eleer that the: c~~"CU'ms1t3.uces, and, envtronmeut under which. Abu Musa made this Slatem~nl supports the idea of foHowing a, specific indivldua], Taqleed of' I specific individual wasnot unfamiliar to the Cl)iDpanions.

Imam Titnlidhi ami JI~!lJm Alu~ DtlU',o,(}(;l,haw! bath n,Ctrrated 611al when the Prophel JJ'enl Mu"udh ibn j(;li101 tOI J'emen (a"] tl gOl~er~~GIi'). ,he oske,;j him "

40

Mu"{ulh said: '''I will jlldg.e according fa the Book of AUali. .,

'Then J wW'judb"lif! QCI.,'Ording I,(j In" Sw.-mah q_f 111"$ Mitss;.mg-er, "

The Prophet. '/~ ud if ymt do nOllfllt:! it iJl ,he SWlnah of the ~t1.r:;ssen~lt_r, ,f")#" ,i~i' {ha Book of I~ Iltlh? "

MU'odh:

"num I wW exercise my op'i.}'l'ion (;md I will no'l he m:btjfgtJnI will;' it, "

nut Propll'2t then p,aned lhtt cheu a/ Ml~ 'adh with his hands lly;~d' said: ':4lil praise j.~' ,h/~' Ie) AlI(J.h K'ho has gUided rhr3 emi.'iralJ' Q/ His J\leSSeJ21l.'e,· towards thaI \'14Jid~ He' g,l1ide.d

.U· \ A: .' ./6

rns J r.I_qSY-rmgeF_

The. Prop!het sem "me of the best scholars from

amongst ~,he Comp~llliQns. He appointed Mu~adh ..... :8£ a ~{r erner judge, mentor and MuJtahid for the people of Yemen and ordered, him 10 be fo~lo,'".,re:d. He alkn, ed him" riot only ~O' give Fatwas based on the QUi'":.!!" and Sunna'lMi. but also '~C' use and, exercise his own judge'rnelu .. h is cJear lha~ the Prophet dcc;ree(!llh.e peoJDle Qf Yemen [0 practice Taqleed of an indi,v~dual:n Toargue that this Haole!'! deals

"'1 1\ 1C~Iii::ilill cl'Ltl<:,., who h~ Ie:bclled 'rnI)ts'elr and oQ'lhCl'3 who pratdce Taq.tr:ed a-tl, frnftdels ~ hes wfill:~en tlile: roillo\'ViJlli!: eomm~nl:S.: "'Bc'rore olTeri'rll8 the Had,iltil as n pmof. perhaps he shouhJl ba\'t examined "'~Ilethe-t' a!h~ I-ladUn 'w.as ':s.Qlll1l!lli or 'not" H/-Ttrhq:&Jq Ii J;ubail"Q.h" 1 "mllrmtJ: p~g.e. 41). 'n1].l!;I[1., ~ne ~bcr'\l\~ ine'n~ioned cri!ijc Ilas ql!lolllHI Inti::

only \ lth juid~,cialpmctices and not with [jlihad and Ta.qll~edJ"i is misgllidin,!1, Aswas ibn .laid said thal MU'adh ibn Jabal came U) us in Yemen as a mather and as u govern-Of. '\\fe ,askt!d him 'I't:gardiinl, 1itO\.\' the inheritance should be-distributed ora man who had died leaving behind a daughwr and a sister, He ruled '[h:1!l[ the born t'hlil dB~,gh~eu and lhe silm::r should. receive half ea!th."'" ,,.,lelJie'j M~J" adh ...:;. ruled as a Mum and d"ld 1'11001 effer Il.I1Y proof for hjs ruling. H ~s view was implemented by merely floc'epting and follO\1\ illg il ~ as i,WI ·lll,qic~cl. Howe\lle!. even [!:u)lugh MlJ'~dh ;,(1.- did not otrt;"i" ,~ny IC:.XpIMatiof! fell' his. ruling, :\'Lis, opini,o,n WM 'bftsed on the Qur; an (II1l d SUIiL11a'h. ill ere is enother Farwa of Mu"adh .,' In 'which he used ~1is discr'etion and exercised hts Ij tih~d. Abu A swat! A l- Da i I am i sli,d th~u whe:1I'II Mu·a:dh was: In Yemen, people came '~up to him with a case of 'a, lew who had died and le.f[ a Mlltslim brother behil1d him. MIJI"fldh sald;

fal'Lto1J5. olijeelicm stated! b)' ~b1f,l)'kh Zl:i'lXitliJ-111 fron'l the fooinot~s. or Abu O[lwooci. Pe'rhBp:s the ltDel1SOiI III (11.1(:51101\, hims;i.llif ''''Q1)I,ld, like 10 ,(.lbsery~ how ~ in Ihl:' pr(lcess Qf C;OltdeRllliqg I'aql!t!!d ,. he has. used Ihe frillci~-'I~ of Taqleed nilllself b)' quolillg 's'~'\.'ilkll ZIlII'Qal'i!1lj'ls. o~jl."c:tio" lo Uh: .H:ldilh l\S; stlfficmenu WCloragall1S\ my rgWl1CIH, Mo~ol;'er.lu: seems toO ~l[lVC Ibund ~t :ill.! ffie] ~1l1 re III !JJOlc lite foalm.'lo~cs o,f r\ hu '1!):I.I'III·oc-d in ~rg1.fililg 1lI,~ il'lti;l-gr~I,)' ,of Ihf:' I-lil.dith. "F 1Ul~llIif'lg. perhnli's he CQIlI,~d hi'llf'e read cuul, summ~ri~L':d 'Lbe COrrlnll::J11!l IbTl Qa'y~jUlh83' made 011 tillis Hadith ~efutin@. Zurq3fii1i'~ dbj0Ctions, lbn fJayy;tn has arg1Jl.':d thOl, none: or the ~ra~15mjlu~r'S'ohJ;jis Htt1:i:ilh h3"'!jOe beliil~ clas.sijie~ ~ Ihus Qf as 'lM:ak. TheIr m-elirloliY Clod in~e$rllY hn,,",e Ml bliml1l qll~S.,tQflil.:d eft fill. B~Sidfs, Ilnlroc is ~8Qlher eh~in (runl Kiuuib or Ila.],hdad wh'i~h links us dimt~y to the l"Iadim 'Olf Mu',ad"'~ whose 'n~mUQr:s. am n U kncwl'I ;JJS authentic and '~U:able. Also. tile Un1n~DI(s a'CICCjlIlalllce Q'r~his Haditb is a ""f) impO-Ullml f'Dcror in seting the Rilltiu.:m,icil.. of Ibis I 'la~,lln. 0[ "II(JtlnmL\l~q 'ilum' vol, I. ptlge' 172).

.1 AS'I'I,lCnliQJleiil ill Tai'we.r!Ji.(! .-buii Fikl'" b; ~ralJ!iIl'~iI Mldu~,mHled bm:tLI

, ] have. heerd the Propher . SlY that lslam increases (givt':sl Sind daes 'Irun decrease UaktCi: away):'

SO' MU'adh then ruled that the Muslim should inherit from: the Jew.so Here, Mu'adh . used a Iladi'th l,vl,'[!o:se background h:s.d nOlhin~ In do \" lth lnherhanee. but stilI used it [Q form an O'l'in10n \1\,Fhich was acc,epIJ,~~d ID1d f'Oliowed by the peoplfi.l of'Yemen."

Th,(!]'C is ),;et smother inc ide"! wh ich has been f1arra'~'e:d. in (he' Miu~,f1ad 0[' Ahmed and In lh~ J'lv.fu '.c'ijerm or Tabarani whlch says rna! when Muadh carne: to Yemen, a "' .. oman from K.hau.Jan met him and offu.feci salaams to him.

'The P'ropher ,,:,vmt you Sf) IJwr m',(tRe.,r y(m (/ie meN.Wmge.r t),{ (he MeSJ!eJ~glu' C!fAl},ufl. "

:SlIo ilfff!mad of Ahri\cd~ v 01. S.pag'C: 230 ancllJG I=lakhtl hils also narrated t~i:s Hir:d ith ond, ,r;: hlis~ifi~[t5 !iOll~l d ,""'1:n IhoU£:h lltJkh.m nrtd IIlfio'lIm' did tf;JUI, liar1"llte il. DrmhHb~ saicrl L9al it is n.seund ' .. hdUUl j),fwsJruJrt11o qf JlaM", ve], 4, ;!)ag.e 34:5)

11 II S~10U!~ ~ nOI~d, U'1II1 thls IiiJrlilflg was Mi.I'.Mitl":5 OWI1i co:ndusion. The ~rpi !:IiOD of !.hI!: !J!ajQrhy Q r I~e (nl!m,!' CQ:r'I!lpllIlJiO:JlS 'is based On a I-llidil11. whi~h :S8,YS draL ,Ill. Muslim dees gmt inher.it from, IiIi r:ron~MlJdi,lIi.

• ,. s: J, " l." li a: ~ ~I'.".' ..IL S:J

'j.'!;SIC me wIl'al yOU' W~SI'I'. rep u~ M u QUIt.

n is dear tha~ MIUI,'ldh 40 was Sel::l:t, . asp. representative of the Ptopll(~t a. People would ask of him ques'lions abo'ut ]s:llamic issues and he wou~d 8i1:iI swer, The above mentloned wmn,an verified 'Ms statm:iS and. thetrl proceeded to ask him questions,.1u ,ndJh ..... obliged her and answered ller questi ens, One. of h,er quest ion s was .t,:l,lhait are the dudes of a wife towards her husband?" ~n replyto th~s. question 'Mu·,a.dh ~ did not quote ~h~ Qur"an nor Haditb, but mere Iy 6&p~a ined 'the broad I s'laN! iG pdocip'les" ~I e did l1lot ofter any proofs for bis answer' After' all, Muadh .... is the One about whom the Prop:nel saij:d '[hat he was the most informed of what ~ s Htli~!lI[ and wl1,:ii'~ ls Ham,.:53 The Propnet Iii also said:

'~Muradh wlll be raised on the Day of Iudgement far ahe'ad. of ~cholarE to a distance that ene 'C~HI1 shoor an arfow."~N'

Not (ndy did toe p eople 'Of Yemen foUow Mu 'adh ~' • but "Dr to did other Companions ~'" Abu M~8lim Khatllani saffid that he went to I~he mosque in Damascus :and saw a gro.lJ~ of Companions, gathered t:l1ere(and in the narradcn of Kathir j'bn lii'sh,amlS" there were cl'@seto 30 Campanions of

S~ A l.,Ha-iL1:ullmi in .H,Ojllll1.' It: Zalf!.flfd: ""01., ,41. P'1:lge l07/:HlS. AI5ic, Ahl11~ and Tsbarant from, ihe nlllrr:uil:ln ot" Abdu I Hillfl!li.d ibn. l3:alluum, tom SJt:ghar who were koo\vn 'm be: ~ak, bun dle,)' ga,y,e alse been Il!.ll~eltllicill'tc(lj.

»Nlswi; Tirmidhi ,aOIl!t Um ,\krjal, ~"aU with SQllPd mwrato:,s.

t 'f(Jr/.heiJ,lml .. bniaa U'QJ IAJghtw.l. by N:iliWifII.wi: '"'01. I. pag.c: ~9l

4,S the Prophet :Il). Amo~g them, there \ as a ~O'Ul!Ig man whose eyes had :a.ntimnny in them ,ana wl10 had wbite teeth, Ea.ch time tney differedl.i~ an issue, they\Mould refer to the YO'lJl1g man Abo Musil.ilill asked Who the young man, was: and! he was infa.TliIIlied '[hat it was Mu"ad.h ,ibn Jab-a,l. ~6 bll yet nno,th,er ~li'lati'on (lrrh~s incident, tlli,e words are:

,And :wh~ne\"er they di'f.fe«d,i~ an issue, th';f would refer' it w Mu·adh and accept !hIS decision as final"

MU~l1lidh ibn Jabal was among those Companions

WhD were scholars, and abou'~ whcm 'lite Prophet 11 Slid that: "the most informed itibo~t wb;a;t is Halal and what is Hm:am.

He' \WS also filHowed by severai €!llthei Companions .J.. The Prophet _~ sent him te Yemen as ill g,!)verner. judge atuil, :as a sc}uo~ar whose o:p.ilrl'non should be i ]~itened to and roUowed. The people cf Yemen ohHged and this is the' essence of T aQ~eed of an i'rld i vidual. There ~s a. nlI"B.'1Un On in the Sunmu1 of Abu Dawood in which Amr bin Malmcen alAwdai said:

~~Mu'adh ibn Jabal came to us in Yemen as dle messenger of the Messenger of AUah. I heard his Takbeer in FaJf and 'fo.uu,d that he :~ad a, deep voice. m deve:lo'ped an ,affi.l1izy with hi IN and m did :not leave his company Un,[ i I 'I burled him in S~:rda. Then, [ searched for the moot leaned :s.cho,lar ,afie.J him and found Abdull.ah 1I:m M(lscoodl. I Stlyed with him luu'til he died. !sa:

~'7 I'L".l' '

uliEu: (J':ag~ 2JJ

a "I hfl DrnilClod: \1IOt'l, pl'lg:~ 62 alTldA~lfIcd: \!IO~ • .5. j:la,g'ililJ I

In [J'IMs narratton, Amr ibn Ma.imQon. searched! for a scholar afnerMl:.I'adih ~ pa~se~ ,away. He slmyed lvitb Mu"adh "'" m~d ~bn Mas'ood merely 10 seek killlJw~edge of Isl'aDU~c law, So as IOl1g as [vuradh ...;.. was: alive, he C('Hisulled him and \>\lh'~n he diet;" he: ,00 ns U Ired Ibn Mas'god

• Referring [0 only one schQlar is ~novvn as foUowing. an lndlvldual,

Likewise, the Tabt'een followed individual Companions. The following are son':!€:: eillumples:

[roam Sh,a~bi 5'>ilud~

'·Whoever wlshes to take an autnodry in rulings and judgemi!'l11ts should ~pp.ly the statements ofOmar.'I',59

Imam MujaJlid said:

• IW'I'lG.m p-eople disagree abolllJt an issue. they should see what Omar d id ~lI1Id accept h .. 6(1

··I.brahiT:n did J,lot consider anybody's op,ini[on to be better thalli Omar and ,Ibn M,as'ood when Lhey both agreed upon an issue. When they disagreed1. Ibrahim 'WCIJ,ld prefel" Ibn Mas'ood's Qpini,an over Orner's ... ·6L

Abu TtiJlnimm~: sa'd~

'We eame La Syda and fnunc! people 'were rormi'lIlg 13111 t1!rnool,llrnge areuad ene person. I asked someone Who, this persen waS lind: h,e mid nne thar[ he was the mo,S'[ leamed of'

47

the Ccmpanions of the Prophet who was, :s~iIIJ alive, He

was Omar :iI~-B.a'kkaU ~:"~

,!mnm Ibn Jar1,' T.abari said:

e 0 sobo]ar had students who wrote his Fa.twas and arranged ~llS 'views [in Islamic raw except fo':r Abduiliaij:l, ibn Mas'ood, Even AbdLiliah used to forsake his view eomplel!:ely end give preference to Omar if he disag!-etci Vllith him. but uhey disagreed ~er'y infrequently.'

S~a·bi said, ~AbdlUllafi1 did nat recite the Q~llJ.ut in Fi:tjl·" If QrlJ;ll'l' had recited the QllI:nut, then AbduUah wouLd tha.w most de:f1:n'iw Iy reeired it abo ,;fIJ

TIl,e- several e.xamp~e.s pmvitde amplJe evidence of foillowin,g one p,:'UrtiICl,llar htdividual dtillr.ing th~ UlustrioLJS era of the Companions. There ,a:re, various degrees Of Taqleed . These dlffar with the qualifications of a person, FoUm.vtng one particu la r .1 msm does not exclude the possibi I ity of deferrlng to snotherin d'ifJereil1t issues .. This weuld not 'i;rtlp:ede the general permJI5sibmty of following or making Taqleed of an individual. For example, there are issues where Halrl!afa SC:ho~ars have n,Q1l applied the view of Imam Abu HSi!1ifa and have in fact given f'al'was contrary to tin" Imam s, However liliey are still cooisiidiered as followers of the' Hanif Scheel ()f jl.l.r~spl.'lIderlicc. This issue. wi II be e1!lporated upon under the d~5Cuss.ion of ,6{[I.ee'CIand its vadou! d~egrees. Shaikh Ibn {~aY.vk"11 ,A~ Jaw~dyy[l. has, used these VIeIry examples to show Un: mllibmty (j:f Taqle,e:d.(i.I1 The w-gu.mernt for Taq,leedi is C!o,trespondin,gly advanced by

~ IMeI;; pil1:§e 14 ~ Uno!: page' hS

N4 ~bid: \1'01. 2, p~~ ~:1iCi

41 the very same AhadiL~1!J.S en'l,pJoyed by ~lbf;'l, Qayyim AI laltvziyya.

The' narraiiens li'bOVil;: conctusive\y prove that both, forms ofTaqleed: Ib~ollLl'te Taqleed Cor ra.q1eed in gtll1U~r'J~} 1M'vd. T,aql .. eed lot an indi'\lidu~1 - both existed. dur'ing the Ilme of the COn1pa.n~ons. The truth is lhll 00(111. forms cfTaqieed are sanedcned and permissib~c ror lllDSC' ,,\fbo ca.ml1!Ol exoset rules d'ireiCtly from ihe Qur·,an and SUfilIUlh. Sltah WaHyyulhm of De,lhi wri~s:

"The Crt~ici'sm a~ams'l Taqleed does mH apply to the person wllol acknowledges lna,( ~lie should Fo!im,\!' oll1Jy the P'roph~I~S statements, that is 10 say\;vhuu Prophet made hatal and what. he made h,aram Since this person does, not possess the knowledge enumerated by the Prophet ~., and is not cap:ab.le ofreconcmng appareru comradletlons, nor does he have a structured method of exlracthlig rules (ro1:'11 those statem~lits, he mou1.d fo.ll.O"\I .a rightOO'l1s .schoh1r ~ssuming Lhtu he 1S right in is his opin.ton. provided lh~t the scholar follows, the Quran and Su.rlflah and gives Fatwas based en tb.am. KOWevf!I, i r thls assumption of the foUowe:r is round to be wrong. he must withdraVt.' from following that scholar immedi.lte1y without any questions. or debates, How can a,n)iorh~' doubt this Une ,of thjnk~ng since the practice of asking fo'!" falwas and giving Fmw,as has been in vogue' fram d16 'rime of the Prophet . There is no <Ii i'fere.ncc if he asks tke scholar whom he foHo\\'s aU Ihe tim.e or \vi'leflleF he asks him sometimes [as an foHowDng a partilcular sc~o.~ar] and ,others on 6'ther cecastcns [or pmcticing "a,qJl~dill1i

..., Mauli:ul'll: Habib Allunc:d K iron wi has in his.. ';Iil.nk ~ "lil/um n~· S,~klm ': !he 1~'I'IrodtJ~li.cm to 'Uumtt> Siliwi (\IoO~. 3.. pa,g!r 4-6.9! g.i'll'cn s~ii5(" Illig mISW·~ to the W'&-U1tI;l:IlIS mi ed j,., Ibn Q<l)1'j'~m

4~1 gen~mll as Iloms as the schoiar m@ts the or neria whic.b '1.,1, C h~"fe m,enlioned.',,66

TH·E NEEDI FOR. FOLLOWING A PARTICULAR [MAM

The: :pa~,e ot' Shtllh WalUyyul1ah. quotledaJbove. appanntly condanesth81. TaqJeed i.s permissible, However. Gtlnain historicaJ! changes oCiCurred and there WAS a need far systemisitkm,. May AUa.h have mercy .on !the scholars who $3,W t1i1wt lhecrc was a need to demarclue the' pr,act~c:e: Df Ta.qleed. for reasons of administration ,3ndlto avoid me possibmlY 'Of conttadic:t1ons ,a.mo.ngSl lhe &cho]EH's IDi" dijffering Udhad oyer a primary source, (he I,ai't)l were ertcolJiaged to follew Qn~y one ~mamJ and Mujrtihid inSifead of ref~U'ing to several. 1ihis idea gained hegemony during the thl'l"d. and fourth cenlury AH. Hef!,c;e~ this has been the dic~klmof the vast maJo:rity of th~ Ummah for subsequ.ent ce§lwries, ,3nd scholars themselves !la,v,e confol1Jled to Taqleedof a pal1icUl'lar Imam. In ord,W' 1.0 understand 'lhc reasons afld beneflts or lhe systemization of fDqh, the foUowiWlg premise has, to, be compreh~ndced: following ene's deslres :and pt)Bsiol1S: is a very gr,ive form of nlisgUl~da:nce. ,FoUo:w;ing desires and P\BS~DOflS in 'itsel.f is a graw! s~n. howwin' ~heJ1f' still rema~n5 the pro~peci rhillt 5i.u:b PCOpte may repent Fol.iowlng desi'res a'nd, passions to the' !Xlent that they believe w:h~t is halal re b~' haram and what IS haram tp be h.alal, is disastreus, Disobedience of thls n:tlu(c' is fatal and makes reli~rion and Jaw a mere sham .

These [pf'Clp]e are slJiblllerged in a sin, wl1i:ch is far more ser,ig~s ~lIid {ati~'~ 'Lh~n [,hall of the' firsl gr-o,up, The dloor to such evil obviously has te be avolded, as does the path, which flcUitates it This is, an 'e.s;tabl,:~Sh,ed pl'inc,iple in lls:oo~ ul Piqh (prindp[es of .julrisprude'l1!j~}. The [urists were eeacerned at the decay of piety and devoutness amongstthe Muslim POPUI,OIUS. devoumess bei:l1Jg the norm durh'llg ,the li:me of the Companions, The fe.aroo Ilun subsequem g;el1emtiom,s scruples wou I d not be as el evered !IS the gftn.e11llt.iora, 'of the fl nit three gertef,ati OIflS, (Saluj). I r IIIl.nder these c]rcumstances. the doer of rollowing an lmern in gene:mll 'Were U!fI.OOD1.ditio,,n11 11lladvertently desires '\.\'CIuldi become the eommandlng priru:::ilple. Pot ,e;m.m;pJe bleeding ,expatiates wudtl aecording tG Imam Abu Hanif , but not ,accordiilng to [mmn Shafl'ee, For (he Sak.e ,of convenience attd. ease a, person, '.i .. ho usu,aUy follll'WS Imam Abu Hanlfa, may choose to fo.llo,w Imam S,hai·fee.·~ cplnion and offer .rsabw:l ffirn this ool.ditio~: which accord.illg to the IHlnaf1~ is !'lot valid Ib~t.tuse' he i s wi.!!l~outr wllIdm. However to ueh i ng (II woman wouJd in'V,alidalJe. Ms wuda ,iil1(;{loirding to SheJi' ees and does not acooro,ing to [mam Abu HlllJira. A,ee,ording to tboth schooils. of j ~rispnld~nce (Hanafi aIld She l' f,ee) ,such a wudu is ,expatiatoo IMld '11'10 seheol would :tIicce:ptc,alaa.t of s'IJ,ch a ,Pe.rson as valid.

A person IltRfreely to Jl'dOPL the vi~';l,/ which suited him best andl abandon the Fatwa, which d~d not n:H~M his, filstanliardsM of ~oim tOft begs ~u: q uest ion IUrpOl'1l, what, ibls~s i 5· tl~'e K"l'!IIOn-(5ClllJ~sr''' to choose bet\!lte.e1:1l t\Jl,'C! cont ra:ry Fal.Wi!lS if net 1~"UU'lS o¥Vn nlfs (d,esilles). [t 'is., elear ~hal 'Ihis line ef action 'would result in people w;,ing lslaraic la'l.V as ,p tri\(i~li'ty to enreltaln l,he I.ower self. ·0' MusUms _~dholar of an repute has validated [his kind of practice, imam lbn Taymlyah discussed the- dec,~ption of this app.r,oaeh and wrote:

50

SI ·'Jnia,m. All rned ~ ~Oflg others - have cawgQf icaUjI stated [h~u u I~ not befi,hm:g tor anyone ~ deem ~.ml;'l!thi:ng haJlt'am ~ sf one U me snd then deen'll the sarne lh ing h,aia:l' a~ another _ me-f'el), o:n ~!lJh_in1.3!fld ra.ncy. Feu' ex,ample. i[ is I'UD'l proper fo', oom,eon~ to be.IIGYe that the neisJ1ibcmr h;as the right of preemphon {when someone is buying his neighbour's J bouse) and 'I'hen 'when he ~' ishes to, sell ~ds; house 10 iii 110",.. nej~'hbolu'r de lines to give hi's n,oighbO'l:J17 the right of preel1'rpUa,.If1I, U~ewbc, it Is nOil p'.f\IJ'pef' feu' O:ne ~IJ> belie e ~ [ha[ a brothel" s~Q!u ld in hail when the :g1~and-f'.M'her of the ~e!i:~a_sedl is llJ i ve om d when hie becomes a gr.un,iI'-:ftlther be ~en I~S: f he broth'f!r of the. deceased 'h is: share 0 r the inheritance. , •. So this kind of person who deems {hat s(J'm6~11Iing is ,erl'llli:s.-sib~e Or fOlib:id'deilil necessary or lUIn.neeessary merely IbeeauSt!' of whims and fancies is cQndemnd and outside the' boundaries of a just [rellable] person: ~milm, A~med and others: have cawgorica1lly stated ~ballhj's practice I'S rmt pCf1f.JJissible. 61

lbn Ta;ym~yah contimJles.;

~"Tjlgey fo.uow - at one point h'l, t]lTlf: - rhose scholars . ~\lho see the _nu'l.lil~ia,ge as void and at :another pGint of [inle~ ~heyfoUow_those schol'arn ~vij.Q say th,fllt the lInam,age is sdJJ !~tac~ ~lerc,I,y' be~-8JLlSe of vested interest anl'!Jl aesifies. This I k!~d.'l}f pr a ence IS not all-owed a'C.cordiOg 're' the' unanilllllo'Us 'OPJnIlJtI ,of ILhe IDma:ms, An. example of t1his ~s' that the: man ~O?:sidW's th~' right o,f: pr,emption to be \land for a Ji1~'II~hbcmr ,w~en he',]s bu;ying and nor vaHd when he' i'~ ~·dhl!:lfg. Th I S IS not IUow~d b:y Ijma~ (the consenses of the Umm'21h). Likew:i_se_ it ~s not aUowed to beJieve tbat tl~:e Ihtm.n~ge of a. sinner lS valid \\'hen he gets m.urted' ,8-l1d ~lJn ~n[.e.r'S the Satflie patmn«ge to iDe jnv,1I1idi wheml he decides

(1)0 dlvot"4;e" And eVen if the one seekilfllg the ra'twa ci'aim:s

L11aJt he did not kno ..... ilobou't the dlifkrenQes IlJlf op~:nio:J1'l. he wCJlJlid nut b~ gi:ven any dlscretlon siil"liCJ:~: tha,twcmld open the doors of pH lying with re]ision :aind wou~d open, . S:I~EUU\)' avenues of perm"tlill'lg and forbidding bued on [llillcu;s,and1

d. ,,68

~reL •

Subservience to desires and assl!lllllling somethmg to

be pcrm.ssib[c or ro:rb~d1den based on pcrsonalranl~Y is s~th a colossal·crime' lhf\t no scholar has allowe.d 'it. The Quwaln, and Sunnah are replete with proofs for this IlII"gumcnt. However, we ~a"e sufflced \.'1iilh 'bIDll Taymiyah's qlLll.}les sinoo he is highly rle~rded even by lbnse. who, ,do n01 belleve that Eallowing, a, p.11rtic;ular IT,lna~'n IS 'valid: Ibn Taymiyah himself llleli'f!ved that felJ:owl~g 3. pa~lcular lmm was not permlssible, bUl, despite lhatl he dUJ: '10t subseribe' w the idea 1.hat a person can fD~ low an ~mam based on 'his fanc.i,es and desires, in fact. he sald that .11 was

not aUowed by th.e c"OMensus of'lhe Ummah,

DUJin_g the times of the Companions and thsir foUowel's me fear of A.~]ah end the H~reafler w~s so pileva\ent'mat abs.olute Taqleell fr~q,l,ud i~ generAl) dId tUJ,t pose a. Lhr.~t to the kind ,ca,f 'pe~avJ01;' _d.ll,~dated abo~~. _ or tnis remonpeop!e FoUowed different scholars Il dIFfe~n\ times and this was de~med to be prelse ~'orthY and, ~,l)l a.ccep~b.le. H'ow~ve'r with eaclh'. su~ceedmg gene~uo~n~e level of ,iety dWU''1dled and Ithe hkehh.ood of sYlccum1bln; to ones desor,es ,pe1!!t!y ilncri~msedl. Sch,ohllrS M~ jur.:lsts: concerned Zit me' dege,nelatfung cil1'Cumstooces l~Ued 3 gellulJ:all P,atwa IbasmJ 011 P1l.ll~[ic int~re:st" .as~~I~g that Taq[eed, is, restricted to, I) pMt10111a1 M,IlJtahu:l1 Lmam 'CHllr A~olu,te or gen~ml TaqJ~ed should IDe abmtdolnred. _ TllI.S was b~ n,o means m'II 'il"l'evooablle ls~amic: statut*l bu.t ~ath.er_lt was a legal opinion dictated by 'the'd:0'marJlds of'the tune and

52

tIle' needs of the Muslim community, illmam Nawwswl. the

. . -

eommemator Dr Mus,1i'11l eKpJ3Iins I! he' nec.essa.ty ofroUowing II pirticular sc!n.oh'l!r in the fo,Uo:wjng worclls:

"The reasoning fo,r this is :that 'if (oUo,wing any school 'of thought was allowed i~ would lead to poo;pfe hEtl'lieJi=pickilflg, t'he eenvenlenees of the scheols in order lOI follow lhei'r de-sires. They would choose between hala:r and IHlrru:n and! between neces$arjr an.d petmi.ssi:bk', This would lead ~O' r:eHnquishillg the coUar (burden) of respons,ibility. this was unlike in the early days or Islam Ii herelhe: s~hool!s of thoughl were not readily a:vailabJe, nor were Lhey stnJC1ul"sd or kll,own. So' b3!scd on tbi:$ reason:i:rng ,8, person should strive to choose one school of thought which he rDtl ows prec isel)S •• ~

We c;!!neJa)bora,te upon Imam N81i!~fawPs sfaleillent that opening me doers 10 this kind of practice would le.ad con~IlI's!on :rega_rdling the distinction between halal and halD;n1, Since the era of [he Companions. lJa'1Itii new 'there have been ll'1u~liUSands of sc:ho~ars and Mujtalbid!s who have had very diverse and di:s,parate opi:nions, and concessions cClncemrng different issues" TheD1~ '\.\1m aJ:mys be concessions in (Hltl sclux,i of t'JU)Ugihl1 wI-doh Me not found in anotiler, regardless of the' fact 'lha~ these were great jUfis.ts~ ther were nor wmmune 'fifomerr.ofS. IlI1l fact" every Mujtahid has one o;r tWQ opiJlJion:s. whi'.oh go aga-i!l)Sl the whole Muslim Ilrnmah's position (Jumhoorl AUowing "faqh~,ed in gcmsl'td (foHowin,g any an:d e'Very ~m!llIJml}lwi~1 il'll;e\'itt;EJ,bly resujlin w,hst il!lflsnI'lI Nawwaw[ Ihn rer,lned! "relil\1lqulsh[ng ~he oollar of r~:pol1siibmry",

For ,e:xamph~, Imwn S:h,afi~ee allows chess; fmam Abdulhlh nibn ,Jai'far {appS!relii~~y)1 anowed, $,jngiinlg with

I'A AI.Majmi;'. lhe: commcrtl~I':y 10;MI M~ihmMhah, by Nr!"~wi, 'v,ct ~", j:)11~ J1UMi~b:l,labd 'Aasim •• Cai~Ql

,~4 musical ins'trurnents7tf:ln~am Qasim ibn Muhamme-d aUowed, plct,1.ul!-s ,!'!,fhie" did not have 81tli)l sbad,o,ws1L: lmam 'A 'amus:tfl held the O,pi,nton. [hal fasting- s'Larted. wil'l'll sunrlse end nOI at dll.y,rni2; 'hn~D1 Ataa ibn AbLJ R;abaah maintaieed that if ,E1d fen on ,a friday" both the F'ri,day prayer and the A f1ie'!1fI0on ,( Zullr) prayers w,ou~d 00 dll"Oi'ped ,and there 'wtn.l~d be 110 sa,taal urliti~, • Asr'JIJ: hn~m Daw(Jod Tai and Imam Ibn Hum bolb believed that a person could see his potential fiancee ~f!, r'ht f'lud,e14 and ImMl Ibn Sa~:'Lnoon has supposedly aUmved anal irl't,on':l'llJfSe,_7ii Thereare numerous Instances ]!:'II the books of FIQh and Hadith w'hick oo.rroboran:~ foHowing every ~mam would gIve rise to a new sch O{ll I IOf thought based on carnal desires. and the devil's wll1ptation~; making a mGc'k;ery QUil of lreligioill in this, mann.er is not pern:ilrissib'le. hus Ml mar '''~nne!

'~f,a manoook th,e o,pinlo~ 01 the peopbl of Madjna~, with rel13ros to rnusie and ana] ]91:I.e'li'COUfK; the (ip]nicm ,of the people of MBkkah regardirng MlJt'~h [tempcrary nUlrriage) and barter and 'the o,i,nioli! ,of the poop lc of Kufa

'7~ /?,rlh:uJ M~ '001'1,(, by A,'!!LJoo-si in the eQmtll!emaij' of SllPQl1. nMJOQ'Otl1h. ~TSiLl 181 - ,A~loosl wrol:t !nlU only Illblll'ld iPe,l'solll\votllld rolk)w

• Amllsh i( \\lhos~ !f}arilJc means lht' one: Willi tlll~ squinted Il!)el i~ this

f~glU'd, -

'1J T{lnr:J'hlhf/! A.smag liIaf Lug/mGI. by ,8\:\''W~:\"i; vol. i. page 134 ~~ 1'c1hfQn~1 .·j.mf'Qdhi. lzy Mu b:ilrllkplITi; vol. 2.,. pillse l'70 apllli FUlrwl !Uulhim, vol. 3" p;lge 416

u 'fU!ftlmflslilJee1", by lbn li:ajaf:'iKl:I, l. pa,g,e i S:6n '8,.

5S re:gMding intoxkiatin,g drinks" he would !be tfle wmsi err A nan· s servan~s. ~l16

Despite bein.g the worst-case scenartes, lhe above instanCes demonstrate the 'possibility (lit the abuse DJ,:f the eoncept of TaGJ'leed in general (foUowing all hnams indis'Cfim'inBtciy). The jurists folloCli,vi,l1g the first three g6ldt:n gen.eria!tions advised ~ha! Taqleed should be exdusi,ye on,ly'[('i a partiicuiaI lmarn 8,w,idh]g the ambush of r"l!u\vim'lg one's desires and passions. S:httykJl A'baul" Raouf Manavii has, discussed tb'is issue (Ill: length ~nd has, quoted $hl'lykh Ibn, ~1,a<malll1:

~I;t is most probable that these types of res[rictlo];ilS are '~tl !pte. em 'people groping few ccnvenienees, ·17

Sh:aykh Abu 'ishaa'q Shmlibi, 'lhe great M,aliki, jurisl has ol,JltH",~d the reasons for not a~ lowing people ((I search tb'r conveniences by fonowing d:iffe.rent sd'lOols in h,ls fanwU8wotk At",lWuw,£:fiqtJQ,l... He discusses '[he VS1"IOU::; i ru:::qu uies wh ich wou loCI ~rise: in :such 'cases and il!n fact he h s ened s'everal examples 10, 'shQ\','11 how those who, foil owed ottler schools because '0 f se I filsh desires mere 1)1 dlid so 'no s-at1ate t'hellt" own elves. ~'mI this context. he quotes ~he famous Mali.ti scllol:a.r, Sha)'Jid~ Mamri who refused to givel a Filtwa, agamst the accep,ued Fetwas of the Malfuki School 0111 one occasion. The cholaJ' asserted:

",'1 am n.t;llt ,a,mm~gsl those whe prompt. others 'to at' f!glins.t what is known and popuhu from the. school 0;

,r.. l!'iid. abd '[qdulllice,d.; page 62 11 Ii'. """- I n,~_JI .. -,

. • (h~i'l '~~1oI~.r, 1he oommel'ltBlI')' 011 Jaml' Sag!lliliic:r:, vel, I. page" ,21 I

l\1hlle ;l\:QI1I~meninng. on fuel IfiQ.d1.ll'i; "'DilierencEs j'lTI rttw UJIIlI'n'lilh are a I

lIletc;y." ' ~ - -

M®.Hk and hili C~mp'ani:ons+ This' is oeto,us:e pie!)' a~ong with' Gad""'CDnSlCiQ'l!~Jijes;s are almost 11011-~;d.:steT:n, Desires hfl:"'~ muhip~iecl as well as (hose who cilla.im steke 'I!C knO'wl:ed.:'ge and au d:aciou s:i,¥ ~111.mg.einro oH"erl'1:lJg Flltwas. ~f ·thedQqr too go ~gai:r!~[ tll'~ p'.l~};'ai Ili'l1._g school (DF thought is. opened! tor ~tn~m, lhel~ wi I ~ be i rn:pru:alb~~ dilllul,ge done, Tiley \,vill v.~o:~s~ the cov,er or respect mi.' mllowil1g the ~hll)ol [meaning tJ'~~1 'wi U !nop fono\~ting], Th.is is amQIlg$t the lnequitles that are Pb'viOU5 .. .."i5

Sh"l)dth Sh,afd)j GS'Mn1€!rJits 01'1' th;~:s reasoning:

·'},!oit:e how t1dS; lmam ,. whose csedentials were LU n iversally reoO-Q,Dlhled: - refi',i.a! ned Ftom g! viing 111. F9!lWiIi COintrary to the prevailing: ~'~ini,ofl III'i :the Malik] School, This was basedon ta~,e neecsseryprinelple off public interest since m~lllywl1o clalm In be k-ifIIow.i~d.~ab:le [l:fidl i5is,uOO F'a:twas liell ~i10lt i 11 p'ie1!}1 a_lId God-censcieusness. "Thf c*~mpte$ l1a-v.e been quoted: ear:1 ier. lf N1Lts, dool.' remalned opened the whoke' '0 f the Maiiki s(;;hiool - in fact ali the

1.... n ld ..... .. ,,7<)

~~;~OOiS. '= 'WDY " '1dIBll'l:b~~'ra1e: •

. Sh.aykh U:ml ~ha,ldOlu:11 ex'p ~a~'I'L~a why TaCJlleed pr-evlt led:

·jThe Taq !eed of fum: .1 mam s beeame :p~pl.U:i,arr tliJ,l'OugJhout Muslilll citie~ an'd! '(he: 'Taqle~d of oth~r sd:ilo~.ar:s Viles forsaken. The doers of dlverse op'i'lI1!ol'ls were c.liI)~~d b&8!1.!1Se so [~~n) academic terms were be'i:lnig used 1)0, denote '0 m mny different OO,l1lC-e'pts and beeeu se it had become 00 d1Lffl'cull t>o [\~,c~ ~'e ~m8e of!lrv'h.~jltJkl~d" 'fiherB was the apPire:hmsiol:1 tl'JJatt the title of Mujl:all~~d be atttri~lIllted to one who W1;lS ~Iot 'Woortll~Y" (Iii someene who is: ~n~ut~!!en~~;c. (:awo.d.

Galit'lot b~ trusted) in hieS opll!1'tOTil. aad ]:JiII his re.1islolls pra~u!ce. S~]ruoJaJrs decl~red n~ln all~imil:)g the stage of a Muj'&ah!'d wasnot possible find restricted pecple to. follow 'I piifl1i'oular lrnam, They ~re'ilei'ned people .from foiloWill,g h'a"HU1'11S aii~emat~.ly as ·this was t:i'In'l-amOljnl Uo 'playing I[with Islam]. 'i~~D

.In bdd'• the' l:eve:1 of "iif:l)" ,and God .. oonsedousness dl:;lr,~lilg the era of tile eompa!!'1.~.enS! was intenS'e. PIIUSll.il,i,~g, desT:r~:s f!~d passions was the exoo.pti.cu~ r,athtr than the norm dij,rj'ng~ha:t era, UUJS ~mxiety that d'!Z:sires wonld <G""'~rGQme the IlOP!..i~,Ou:s. in lliI'auei'S of ]slami,c lawwss :noI1~~.li:isrelni~ .. Balb typ~ ·G·f Taq Ieed were p:i"ap~i~ed in l hat era ~ the Th:qlee.d ·0'( all i~~dividlJ:a.1 In.d T~qleed iu ,Wenem!. The for~boding PQssp'bil ~ty thllt desires would 'b'eco:me the IlIi:adiu;:lg p:rinc~ple governing the selccUon of P~twas and no1. 'pil~t;y w~,~ re~ill one, 1" 0 ,~tvo[d til is i t was ,decided that Taqtesd be n,ecessaui,liy re&EI:"iCii!(l: [0 foiiowi~g OAe' partilCul!u' lmem, If this Was rlol implemented. hi1~gil1ai~()1'1 is fhe ,~imh t:o t~e chaos and 'turmoil thaJw.oul.d be lnflleted upon ls i~m i:c :hllW.

8Jralli'1 W~I iyy~ Ila:11l !l:vI"O'te:

'~VO'1iJ g:hou]d know t'haitlP~op~ e .. d'lIJIl:i ng the :nl."st two h!!lm~lI:ed yellll"S, ~. we're n0~ .I"e~lii'.Icl'ecl totb~iow one p.artic'uhu l'maJlll. DUf.Drug the third c.e.ll~ury, [he concept of ro~,!QW~r:lg ene Pii]'lit'I1II~'ir lmam em~iL"ged. There' wc~re "",·ery fe"'II!'! :&cbcdat~ w~G did not rely r~poin the opinion of a sil'l,(l,I,e MlJjta~~,id and Jm,;1l1l(lr. This wSs: the lr:u:,cessary .ap;pm~ah fo'~' th,e,m at 'til!at

time.' ~ll - .

'fllllt~'~''{JddanjQh (if lim' K:1N:Ildr:mfl," ~a.ge 4~8 ¥uJbl:istac:d by M,akitf@b 'fI!.I31"1jl:ahr ~l!Jbra.lII. :Egypt

A q'l,u~'s!ion, rn.lght arise frorn 'this tltll.!JIil:ysis·: How can somilthiog thal was n01 necessary during d'lc times of the Compa.ni'olfls and their f{lHow~m;. heen.MIl II'lece~sary for '13 IJpJe "I,!;!ho came aflt.er Ihet·(I.? An e1rGqU~l1t 11"ej) 1)1 1:iIa..s been ofrered by 'Shah W·a+iyuHa'h 'I1iil'l'1:!lClf:

"It is mandalio.t)r thal there sbould be someone in the COOlrii:iU.!Illi,ty (Ummah) whakcno1ws d~U1i'~s of palnicu~3rs 1:1L1,[e!t and 1~'~v,'S with [l1ek ~easoninB and 'proofs. The peop,ll! ,ort.rudt have unanimously agreed to this premise, A science or actio,fI \l'!.ihic:h is neeessary t,o fulfil" ill mandarory a,etion also becomes manda.tory in its~lf, For example. the predecessors did not w~'i'l~ t'I'lie $aylngs of'th,e Prophet ~, Today writ'il1g aad deeurnenting Hadith has become necessary, beceuse the only wa.y we can know and loom. Hadith is by knowinlg ihe books of H,adid~l, Likewise. lh~ predeeessars did m:n engage in smdying s)intax and! etymo),ogy. Because 'their' I!.aflguage was Arnbi,c •. advanced S"MJ.dy of these <lncit'lal)' sciences was not l'e~liuired. ·,oday. leaen.ing these SI~ienC~5 has become 'llfl:8indatory since rhe ~lflgu8ge has drin.eci cons,i,de.r.a'bly fronn the ori.gina1 la.·rnguage of Arabic, Based on this acceunt, one must dll"iw an .ana'i'!J',~)I for pn)vi,li,g 'that foll&wh'l one. 'l'arlicubn· hnam and M'lLJjtahld is sometilnes. necessary and some·times 11I10t.

'S'" neeeasery." -

Based Oill thUs Il,I;:CSII!.U'1Il. he 1~\'Ier e,'I{p~.fIiined:

o.!tf there is aa i.gnorarn p~O'l:'l inlndi.a or in Ce·ntral Asia 'where there are no expert sQ~o'~ars on 'SbaJi. Mallki or H:anbaU law, and if ,t'here 8I:e n~lther In)' books of' those 9choo.ts readily availla"b~ej then ihis person must foUowlhe' school of [m.am Abu n~mira. tt would mn be perl'l'lissibWe ror him t'o le@ve that s_choo'l because he would be t::'ffecllvely c.'i{one:rat~rng himself from t'he dUlies of Isiam.He \. ou.~d be

I:) Ibid: 69171

58

SQ an 31utrchist This would not be the ease for a person who Ii ed in the Two Sancti fled _osques [Ma.kkah and Ma.din<1'h where scho~ars of the rJu-ee orher s.choo~s would bereadilyavai!able]l,iJ -

Shah WaHyyull!ah hiared 'toward lhe C'nfl.IY, and c:onuptio:n which '\,,'15 prev·entedr D_ restric~blg Taq lelld lD' one M ujlah id:

"In short, follO\lving rhe MlfJlahids \WS D. slubUe inS'sqiralion which A:li!:ah l.Hlvd".::d tJIi'i the ~ehQlnl's. t\ consensus arose among the rightly guided scholars. I~O ~t$ in~i~~ens~bi~ity. Kn.DwiJ1gly or ul!knowin,g~y. L't was upon th,iS mSj!lIJt.lUIQn 'whl·c.h the vast majori!t)' or the ummalrn

"""d l),j4 unrte .

r"'lev.tr-ote in anolhe r pi ace:

"The Umrnah ~i':;IS unal'li:liJfIous~y agreed UpCD'I'li the \f~l~dhy of fotlowing one of (h·e fOiIJr scbools I()t rbo1Lmght _ which have 'been organised and documented. There are many obvious benefits if .I this 'f,spec:ICliUy today WIH~'re delermin~uicln bas dw:il1dled: wher1e desi:res have penetrated OUf consc.iousness and g~oatjt!g \ j'm Qnes ov n apin.iot1 is seen as a virtUe.:,BS

A very elear example ofwhal Shah Wali~~yu"ah hals

laled Can be' found dUrlWig the cat'ip:haleof Ulh'l1'um ~ regam]'ing the compUaticm of the Qu!."'·an. A I'll seven dlalet:ts ofJ~e, Qur'am;. were' bei:ng recited, Uf.hmln. ~ r'e.qucsled'llnn Ell! coples of the Qur"an be s[3!I1D,aooized ujpon the dualec:t of the QiJlra~s'h who\Soe' A~abic: was lUloontamina'loo ave," S~Cc~ive generatiens, H~:fi:z lbn Jarir labawi ~ the ~R:at historian and comm~lilt:aJtOr of the Qur"an adhellled to [he

.~ Ibid

_l, IltljjWll/ttlh,' vol. I., pelge .54,

opin.i!en that U1hman .,... ~bTOgi!.t~d [h,?l'emai,nil1g six di~I~t$ atnd retained the dialedt of the QuraH;:h. AU other eopies of the QU~'~an were discardledr. From the time of the Prophet ~. Abu Bekr« and Omar e-, people were 3GCustem.ed 10 recite in any of the seven d~alect'S. Uthmaill . _ perceived that failure to standardize the QUf'ar! WOLliId, bdlll1S about a state of ehaes 811l1.d commotion im successive g:tl:l'l,en3jtion~.

Uthman ·41 ,abrogated six uti used the dheileot of 'the Qur.aish for [he official 'L-enditio'!1 of the QlJr<an. Ibn ja.r1r wrote:

'''Thatt was the community wh~ch was 'Instructed 10 memorise the Qur'an and recite it, They were given the ehetee 10' l"ecite .~t in any ofthe seven dia,,l.e~ts tbey chose [0 do se .. For wJU!it ever reasen, it l[t~'1e coramunity] w:as ordered to maintai.n one seaadard dialect 8m'l,d to discard the remainingslx, .. S:6

There still remains the ·questiolll that h!GW esnan action be allowed!, d,uril\gthe time of the Prophet ::Ii (reciting the Qur\a:n ion an seven dialects) ,and ,prol!iLiiOif-ed lalte:t". To paraphrase Ibn Jarir, the Muslim community was m~rely given the choice ~o recite in one of those seven renderlsgs but no Clilile r'~ndfl~·ing was made m~ndaimry. 11\e COmmlU'l~ty la;~er observed that. there was benefit bl restricting the dialects to only one, lbn Jadl." concludes;

~Wh~t the'Y dtd was mMdatCiry upon ~hem. Wlrrtatever they did, tIH~;Y did 00 out ,0"11' coneem fer [slam and i.ts ~dh,ere;lIlls, Thus" their maJi1!da~olij'acti:o,n WillS what W'aS preferred for them. than to eontif::llUe [mciting wi'th aU se'Vleilf!lJ] with the statu~ quo which would have lead d;n,e eemmunity towaids more harm tham beJllie.filt,I~11

61

The a.CCOIllnf given above was based 0'1 Ibn Jarir's ~lew that Uthm~n had :abm,~··I:1t:ad ~he· remaining :'i;],x renditions. There is another opinion aJbOlll csncellng 'the remaining SIl'J: and thi:r is the view heln by Imam Mallk, Ibn QlJtaibab, Abu Fadl Raz~ end Slmyld'l U.'Iinl Jazrl. These scholars maintain that Uthmarn did not actually abrogate ~he remain i ng !*', renditi.o:ns btlit rat'her standard iZ·oo rhe seri pt ofdll'6 QlJf!8n to conform to one dialect w!r~ch is the diah.>ct of the QLu'3'ish. The other s~x renditions ftnd_ dialects al'e still very much accepted as the Ql.lr~an EOday.liS [f we Lake this IJpi,nh:m, which isit'he opiniun of the majority e,f researehees ,. then im: still supports the case for following a pan:ic!.Ilar indhri,d.ual This is because before U111man .,ijo standardized rite SC1i'ipft ~f :fue' Q,1lI!r"8ifl. people were writing the QlIllf'an with severnID different scriplSitlnd even the order of the Surehs varied,

Uthmsn .:If. annulled '~riJill'1:g the Qur'en lr:! different scripts, perceiving greater benc·f],t ~O' [he Muslim c~mmuni.ty. The order (If the Sl.lf"ah,s was also standardized, He rssuootitis decree throughout the Muslim wortd ,and had ;a~,~ oth,e,r copies of the Qur'M, d.iSic~n·ded.811' Uthman,t. united ~hec cOl1i'JlmuilThity 01'1, ,3 stan dard scrl pt, Th i s inclden 1. is an example of folJowing one pmtiC't.!lsll" scholar and '·mam.lhe eetlon of U'lhman+ proves dilat lf fhe Muslim commuJlity decides to adapt a way ~ out of several • to achieve all ideal (nk,t reciting or writing the Qur'an in a standard sertpt), it may UrmirUilite: the other practice if there is greater benefit For the '!2{lmmunwfy. and the: avcldence of a. harm. The same

Ui for {Ii full d!~liiitl:d a.c·OOl!llt of this vi~w. r~ tnedlommmt8ry of Ute ran: W0rd~ of til.'!l Qur' ':an, by N tsilapuri on the sides ot ]llli J"rir {vo:t. I. pap 2.1,), and FUlhul 8w'i; \llD1. 9,page 2.5/26.

~ Por fUn'hl!!f efLabtlratioi!; 011 ~his issue. read the au~1:iQ:r"~ bCQfo:: "~ne Seicnees of'lhe QU1r'81li."

prlndple applies in the case of restrlctlng Taqleed, to [he f:oUo\,vii,!'l!,g oHmc S"cholar rathfJ( (h;(l'O [hI lowing 11Hin:y.

I,Ms. begs the G1U'~Sl~OI1: flJblf(}wi.n,g one pClr'l.ic.r)iar .Mujlahid' is il'uii$fN!''M'abl~, l~lhJ' lhe 11(l,'lui lo res/ricI l(!lqlSl!d in' Q~:,l, .the Jour J;(_'Jwo.b,~ 0.1' too.!'tghl? S~V~lill~ gl'ea:t IllmaJl1r:iS al\l.d M~ljfamid:s l'iJ~\le occupied th;~ JJ'ages <;if IS:~illmic :5chQ]als~.ic 1.'lIf.si¢ory such pel'~onag,e~a:s g,uryaan Thanrl, rmam Awza,a:i, Abctunah~ba', Mubarak~ ]s.l~aq 'ibn R.a:~wi:liih, ~~m Bukha:d, lbn Abi La-ifla, ]bn Silb:rimaih, Hasan ibn Saleh and ma1l':liy Qi~he\rS. Are :an M!;I~rolilid& not ,e.qu~'IIy qualified ma be roHow~d? Sru.ch ~ comention ~s valid in prunc~l'le,jblLlt ra~he:i', It is no~ effeCi!ivelyp();ssM~le. J1.~!~ schools of th()iJg~l of the' Mujlahids mentioned above are rl)ot .syst~i!::vlallically documented. Had tl'lel:r sehoois b~t':n fbrm:alUy l:iedifie~, and struolur'~,d shnllar rm~he. major four schools" Hileii there would be ne hindrsnee W followi:J:"Ig them .. U!1llfl)rttl:l'Ila~e~y. thei .. scho~)ls do ru:n ·~xis~ fa,rmally, no,r ~lla:ve the c!t'igj,lJa:l sourees of the schools survived. T®, 'Fl)~ ~ow such schools would therefor'epro'l;!'~ dimcu]t. Shaykh AIb.dur Rao!!lif Ma~awi~ the' famous sci1:ohlf of Hadith.;, hils C!ll,QlOled Hafiz D'hal'ulbu:

~'We should Ibii3,li;~v~ ~~~t the f.qu[ lmams, the two SiJfyaans (Thauei ilind r:bfi lUY:li:iaii!h)~ Awzaa'i, Dawood lahid, lshaq ibn Rahwalh and ail~~ other [mam~, were eerreet, The non-M!lljt~ldd sholl.!l.~:'d foUo:w one s.peciJlc school, l~t is not perm~s:si.bh;l: t.o fuUow t~.~e '~);lItipl~u~iQt'i~'1 ner their [Q<J[o"we:rs - as stGted b~ the ~~ni.'!'t1 af the T'W'O ~;;k~ly Mmilqu~5. - simc~ tnair schcels are nClt dilJ,Cum.6I:i1ted or organised, hw oourtrujiings .d .i'r! giving faJtwast it is no:! permissible to follow a ",m:lJ-d:c]c~lmeli!lte.d or a ncn-organised sc~ooL AI:ro, 'l~e foUowiog of th~fQiulr sthoo]s. has

nQ~ri sh~d and has been l",~fifi!,ed to the exruent thai! absolute ~~'r:mS halve become speclfl!:l aJnd~heirgenera.l words have b~Oin:1!e defined. Th~si:s ul'dike the Clthel' scheols wIHl::~ tlleirfollOlwers have d~,:sappe:!lred. lmam Ra'l~ has q~,oled th:al it is the eeasensus of the: :sC:~oian:: dun a 'lay~ersol1 Ganll'l~J'! .ro:~low '[~e Companiens and tilei!" CompaniQfI,s:"~

TI~;iis pOii:l:iIl has be~n discussed by ]ma_m Nawa\;vi h~ the FO!.k.l",vi fig word$:

·'Althol1Jgl'n ~:h~ ~f[iD<wledge :~11d status of 'the Comp3Jni.ofls and their Cb.mpali1ioln~ is r~t s~]perioi' (han that of 'S1.ch~lar!) wh,o came a.rre:rmerfL, It ~s net pe:imisS~ble~or any lDrol~o.w thelr ~chQolS Oflihoug!lt,. Thill:! lsbecause lh~y were nOll abk~ te !docl.1im.enl {hell' f"atw,as nor arml11ge p'ril1u:;~!ple~ ;~mdl deJtai~s .af their ~cJIQO,ls OrmOtlghL Nm~,~ efthe Comprudo!1!~ {'Ol" (h~jrro,I~9Wel!,$)fOiiJIT.'fed af:!truc'~urad school oJ law. This Stt:I!JlCitUflllg was dOUIi€i by schQ'~ars \vho eame .~,ft.er ~hCil!1(JJ ''I<\rho. bl:::~ng thernse1ves ald~'1t students of tlleirpl~d!ec~Sots. 'D:ook t:il'l the task of f"'a.'mulattn~ p:l"emi~s~F:ld rules' of exnrapo~aJt:ifl:g end eli;tnlf.::Urq~ laws before' the incide'r1t eeeurred, liI

Taqltl3d bei:rig re.snictedl te these four sehoels Oir lhought has been e.xlP[a~ned b~ several gre:al schO.la:rs. A't this pO~:I:il,t~ hpw~v,er., lwould liksto drawatten:lion to two scl~,()lars in :particul:ar. Tille !':irst is lmam 11>11 Ta.ymiyab snd Ihe. seeend 1s ·Shah W.,:t!iYYUU;ilih. TllJ~irQpil1ll~iQns 'wm b:e ~.uDt~d since ~\I'enth'iZlse who de rM,[ agree w~[:h ti1,'e: GOl'1ce:p:t oflaql,eed ho·ld th~]n gr,~~u acsdemie :st~~dit1:g.

~bn Taymiliyai1 :has wdt~en in his book of m;ajlor ~a'Wil:M!

~"Tl1e~ - ~s' !'l!O (i,rufferel:itce., 011:5 far as th,e QUI r' enand 's,ufilnah ~IS conCerned. i n fo~ lowing (lll1e· Mujtah id and Ul('.!t ethers, So Mali.k, lahllt ~:bn Sald~ Aw~~a~L 'Thallll.rn were: ~maffil's onhei:r

!I>ll F'tJidf!J 'Q~~t". m)!!;_ CQimmcnmu:y of~ ~iltiJiS.ag;~ilf b, Malnll!.\!;1i: ... -o~ I. pltJ,~2HI

times, ponowing any ef them is pcrmi sible. No Muslim can sa~v tntlit It is, penni:ssib~e totbnow one but ~I1IQit tk'f! othsr, However, ifanyone has net snowed fb:llov in.g any of these scholars in our 'times il is for one of rite foIlO\~in,g two reasons. There remains nOI one who knows, 'thalt particuiai lmams school of thought This would render tl1un particular scholar [or his sch(l'O~ oflhought] dead. Them is the famous difference of opin'ion regarding rOUOI\1 ing a dead scheo: [meaning ,:.1 seheol of th'Qn:sgh't erased by lime], fOUOW~[lg these Imams today is. Hke foHo'l.\'ing a dead person. which is not aU(lcwed. rt would Ol"ll~;r be v!.did ]f kuo'wl,edge of his seheol existed, The second r~ason \ ouid be E'O say that 'the consensus of scholars bas determined that the epintens whi.eh 'CD:ppO&e those of these scnolair-s. pre ail R,day. If'some scholar whose !ilchuQI is stil I alive today ccnfenns wi'~h tJl1,1\:: oplnlon of those Imams whose schools do not exist klday, fhen ,(l,efinrte:iy. the~r eplniens will be used as 00 Ihtborati.ng and $.c-a:ndaryevi.denoo.' 91

Shah 'Vlaliyyulhih, has alloca.t'ed a: Viil'tol.e chapter to [Ms discussion in his book: "lqdu t Jeed" find called itt;

"The Chapter of El'uph.asi.singfoliowing one o.f these four schools oflhought and denouncing the Idea of forsaking them.

He ,started the chapter by sayin,g_:

"You should know that follm¥ing these four ~cJu)Q'I& has: 1]1 mendouspuallc advanteges and benefits. Fmsaki'llg them is wrought w~lh mischief ~iI1d 1,1 a nns We will expl!ain iliis wIth maJl,), inferences .. , .,-N2

He the~ gees on roexplaln Ihe many reasons whleh [ will parapbrase '~I.i points instead of translat1lng a v,ery

1)1 The; Major' Pai'was of 1 en T~,nirab: vat l, paF 446 9'l: Jqril.d ked: p;agoo.31

65 lengtl1,y pessage, It isincumbel1t to rely upon the em-]y prleaecessors, if one is to understmd r:i:l:amlc ]IW. The onl:1' WlI!Y 'fOI" us to do [his is either [-0 dj,e:lerminlethat ~;J,e 'Statem.ents of dIe predecessors have been 1ransmi'Ued '[,0 U$ via sound chI in of nerrators or to t"eadrJhelf :stA'lte:rrH:nts, which 8R docum,rm~ed in reliable books. [l is necessDr;yto establ,~.Sh that these stBlteroe-nil:s 'i'Latve actua li.y been UiL1!Swtl and used by other :scbolars .. F!nal~y. if their steterneetsere ",pen 1.0 seveeal mea:ll'I!illlgs.. then the most preferred meaning be adopted" Occasionally [he statement of a eertain Ml1jtahid may appear to be ge[Q.f!r.al,I, brut ~Iill fact it -rna)' be: quit~ spec~fi~ lt~IC:h would be .re{logn~sed by the schoiars wh,o have s,uudied his senna) I of Uflollgh:l. Thus. it is n~essary that the statements of this certain Mujtahid be ~()e;~lTIient~ed, underssood and explained sueh that th~ radonah: is, emphasised. If a certain Mllijtahid has not had his ,stMemeats cod'.ned then !UJI,cn a Madhalb should net ~e relled upon, In our 'age. fhe four prom,inent schools of 111 ~ught s'h~re_ this advantage 'whereas odu~r schools- do not, The' lmami,yah and the Zaidiyah schools of ttlou~b also ha'Vte- 'this privilege. However, since '[heir oplnlons are nonSunni, ~t wO.!lld not be permissible tOI util~~.e tbei~ r statements. The Pr:opilet . said: "FollfJW the vast maiority Df fhe commlmity, I' Since it is eomrnon knowledg~ that schools of tthoiU'ght besides these four have vanished~ lt would be going aJgahlst me pirinciple mentioaed in ~he

ladith,

Flnal ~y, if gi'!l r:tg \B f atwa basedr on any ,of th·e eartier SCb~1ar5 and UlelF schools of thoughr were to be m ade permissl'l1leJ ~ben. those corrupt scholars would take a~'liantage of the Shm-i'lan lind base their Fatwafs on the statements of any of tills predecessors. This would ir!'evitaMy open the doer to the abuse of ti1eir st:atemenb. COilTIlpt s-cholan would be eked t,ojYstizy se]fisn desires by

Gli quotin,g pious predecessors. Relyin.g. upon following the Vast majomy of the Ciommunity91 wQU,.ld srrest the drift to chaos, wlthln 'the Sluflld'~h.

T:aql,eeti at each ~ evel hIs, dIfferent fi~les. Nat dilffemntiating between the various leve~s, can lead [0 mlsceneeptiens. Fa'se iideas reg.arding Ta'ql'e~tI develop due to' flot dUfJereratiarting betwe.t!lill these levels, or l~trJJly ignoring them. This issue win be: djliscu,ssed at length be.catn~e ~here 're-m:alns 'some misinformation reg,ar-tling the diffc:rern levels (),f Taq leed,

In ·UJl.~ context ef Taqleed a ··I.ay person" IS defined as one who knows, U~tl.e regarding ~~e Arabic language, and aboUlls.lam in general -even though they may be intelligent ln other fi,e[ds of knowledge, Proficiency ttl read Arabk: titles conwning fhe Q,ur'im and Sunnah b~l. devoid of any fOlmal IslamIc studies w!ith a qualified instructor wOlill~d ·a'loo· place a pe;f.SQn within the ambit of faity, In .addit:io·n. students who have taken formal C()\iltses- in lslamie sciences but have failed to develop acemenwould also faU within t~ms e];a.ss,ificati'orl. The above ... .mer:rtio:n:ed. aee under an obU~dc:nto practlee Taqleed, They must follow .1 spe.ciflc lmam and Mujtahid becaus~lhey s,impl), do not have the .abHUy~o' refer to the QlllJt'lfiI and SlJlil.nah cHre!l:ltly nor CiU'll tihe.y di.fFe[l~ntia:te 'betwGeJ!ll w1'lat is aJpp.aref~,[iy oontr.a<iictory and giy.e scholarilly prere..re.noo to ene opi,n~on OVf3r the othel'Sh~ykh Khatib of'B.ctl,(i wrote:

6·1

"As for lhosewho sh,Il),IJ,ld appiy Taql1eed it is l1he la. person whq dJo-e;!I> net kl!1.DW (he m~lhod.s 0 f e·x('raC1.t~g Isl,pm ic ru les, his: perm issibl e for such a person [0 follow one specific Imam 8"d act upon his. I;flilwas. This is So b-et::au se he does 11.01. possess I~he roo Is fo·r ij~ iibad. so h1S d Lity 15 10 fol low Just as: a blind. person must folBow S-OIT!IOOr:J,e \1\'110 is able to see for determlning the direction' of the Qi bl ah . ,&L

. The Muq-allid (foIlQi~r} om this level caenot gel caught up :i~ ,cHscussmons of proofs tt} see whieh Imam's view is stronger, His cl'liltyis l1'tcred'y toe.ppo[rnl ~;;,me' Mujrahid and follow [~is opinions in aU mlttceiS, Thlls .is because he is iDot Icad<emiclUy capaJbleof ma.king judgments of that kind. So m ud'l so [~.tlt even I f th is person , Ind's a Hadi·rh. wi:deJ1 ap'.parently cPlllradiC'ls tl\,ec .Q;pinian 'Of .his :appointed IrnI:am~ he should net r.eoorl ~(l foll.aowing the Hadith~ but rather adh,ere to his hna.m's opinion. He shoeld assume thm: he has nO'1 understuod the meaning or comexr of till,e; Hiil;Uti'llpprn.priately 01". hesllQuM, have no dStlbt that his. lmam has a stronger proof chan the Hadith if1 question, wilioh he may not be all'van~ of.

This might. seem, t~ be Eli ludicrous tlroposili'ijJ1, explatnlng .away the Hadith and act upon the<lopinion of his lmsm, The truth is that at this ~ evei of Taq I.eed WI a Q:thet lile[na:tive. exists iP:reedpm to practice ~Ipa.n any Hadi'th ene sees" cOltliplew).y r;egard ies~ of the fact that A h.:adith lilemlJlIire [S sPfeld over !!e\~era[ hundred '~holl!!S<IInd Ahadi:~h col'ltainoo ill O~e'I' more than three huadred compflatDof;\s,. would lead to a distorti,o;n of the Sharilah ,~f'I.d resulr in C~aos and col1fYsioo.l' be'Cluse '1.iI1il.derS'twndilg ,how [0 exttl'C;1 I"1!;Il~g from the QU!fl an, and Sunaeh is so "!rus.t M enterprise that even ;if one spent a liife:tfme ·endea:voring to achieve

t'h~SI it .wo,ldd [lot be PiQ:ssib'~e ~o cla·~iT! eKpert,i~e, Many t~I~~~S. an l!Ip~~nt mearnir~g hi understood from a 'oorlain Hid ilb tnJ,t af't.er carefol e..,,<amioa!tien of the' p;ri,llci ples of 'the Qru"I~m'I and Slln~!;lIb.!lmd other equally ii3itll:th~n't~c AhHdith a tonln~ d,iffetet1llt meaning ~terges~ A.ctmg upon the ~,p:ar-e,1nt !TIeamruing ~f 9,. Hadhli ,~ill give rise t~ asm,any diff-ering interpretUi(ms (Jlf a J-!]adlJ~h 8rS there Ire mt~~.le~r:!l. 1 '1'r1'Y'self hSVl3 wi:1'I1Ies~d mm~y people whol have Sl.l"ni:led '[he ,Q~fj;:a:1"I and S:u~n:lh and (withoiut the aid 011 ill scholfllf ~r a !l:chQQi) hfl'.V'e m.ade 0uL~ooUS cOI1~,ius,iol!1~ wh idb! are far r:emovedfrom~ ~he truth. A 'friend ve~y ke.el1[O s:tucly books en !Hlil.dim beru'i:e'\led adrilm.a'l1lt,!,y th!:!''l 'Sil'th:ci!ugh hie was a fo]lower of ln~am A.Jrlu Harndfa, l1e wou'ld not hesitate to leave Ids :s~~ool Q,f d'iou;.~t if he :fa~ind afi.;yHaclith wh leb. contradicted it, Ba~drQn. thi s bel i,e!. 11'6 il\fbrm!M. sm~eOl1.e, in ruy preselill.a~. 'th:a,t a per,&Qri I 50 wlldu 01'. albi utlon I;:; ~lDt bIClken ~Dlless ,One s,{':,ul1!d1:y hears wln.cl pass.!]:l:! OF smel ls It. I I1l'i1detstbllJd immedi,aJet;y ftotn w~e:r:e th~s m'i$l'1Onee:pt:~on m'01~e: It l-S b:~,e that $-utih. a Hadith exi.s[S in Tkm idlhL The full Hadith narraled by [Imam Tirmidll,li, readS':,

jfAbli.l Hu~~~raJh ~ mca:..rr.ated that the Prophet ~ said:

"Wudu does notbrelltk unless: thereis ~ sound or smelL'"

Imam Tifli'llldhi iliernT'llaI'l'at..ed afLOLhe:r Hadith~ wh~oh is very si.lliIila:l' to th~ oriLea!mVie!

U[:f ':a~olie of' you ]s s.itting in tile m'I(jsq~e~d feels alr b~tween hrus 'blJdDe.k~ he s:bol!!rnd mIt leave unless ~e hears a

I!, .,1..' .. a:!l!li

mundlGl' sme ~S so:me!.u~lig.

My friemd. e'SlLrnu::d lhat w~du did ~Cl br~1 accordi~g, to ad.s nau~tio~. unless. there was eVlden~ of 3.

W1H"ld or a smell. The 'truth is qIJioornr from it A]I the SCholars '~IMl!'llmiQius.ly agree [bat this Hadhh eeneems only [host peeple who ~re Iy;a.bi'tualily sLDs:rPil::10llS of tthelr wudu bre:l,kinS \vUll~iut a va1id [~8ison, The Prorph~t i~~ro~ed (halt til!;};), w01.i!,ld nAftd mClJr-e< maHl their SlUSp icie illS, to confirm l!leinv,a.tidi~y of th'll1ir 'Wud~. Thr~ is elu'ci;cl,~fed ]'IlIil)ther mu:(~tnOlJiS such as th~ one in AO\I Daweed:

~'[f ml:YQ1l1Q of you fire hl I[he n1osq!,J1,e ,Jnd feels some nli()'ile:rnenl ]"ITI his !buttocks end t1'l:el1 stsrts ~(!I doubt wl~~ther h~' ha:i broken h]s, wudu Oir n.o.t,. shQul,d not :Iea:ve 'UiI'1l:Ie!.S_s, he smells an Odi!]'lU' Oll' h~r:; a, :sound."%

A:bu, 1D~'\wod himself has further narrated from AbdilllUah ibn Zuba.ir .~ lh~l the Prophet a explained this 00 3i p'e,~'11 who 'Was tPnUn'!.II0YsJy suspicitOliiIIs,pf his wlIld!l .. Only a personwl1:Q ls '1uanified1Uld :\111] expert in Ha~j'tJh C'a!~ reach diL~S, eoneluslen, Aot]ng UpM l'eadi:I,~g Q:I'IIe Hadith ftotn ene book would Q·lf.Uly lead to n.~liSICQif'lOeptiJol"ls iUndetr'-Qrs sud~ 3S;, the eae tQmmltmd by the PJ~lrS(lIn in ~u~sl~or't Wnal is -alarm]ng is tha~ he ~d been aG'~i."g UpOfl the appa~~t m~~~:lig of 'the Hadith fora long time, He ""id IrYOt know how m;:'lny prm:!rers he ~ado,ftered. witih:pl.!t. wudu,

Likewise, if the o~)n(]essiiol':l to ~eave ii:l'lilmam'~:s opinion fer the salW of ,!ft, Hadi'th ['5 g[aluoo, the fG~ l()lN~lmg Hadithn!9:r,!':9Itedlin Tirmidh.i wOlJlld ap.pear to go, aga~ns'~ tire t;oli.ooti.ve (JI~I~'lI1()e.r) Fah1lV,v.1 o'frlire hllams.

"Ibn Abha$ .;0 !iarr~ted ~~~t t:n~ Pro,phe1 ft oc;i'mbinoo ~he aAem(\)iQliI prayer (.t}lJJhlr) with t~elfate ,afteFiD"lOOill1l prnyel' (Asr) and l'he eve~~i~1!~ prayer (Maghrilll) 'vi~th the l'li.ghJt prayer (' ~:s:ha) in 'Madlirm,h even though there was no railin (H' Fear p.m~nt [bn Abb,1!:S, ~ was asked to expl~~n thiis acti.on

70 a~ld said rh,at the iProp,het 1!!i djd ,riO( wish ilIIny burtien to f:alli

h' . '''. ·,.9:1

CH I S Ciommli.lllu~y.

The inititdimpre~silol1'S one gainsrrom this Had,:uth is the permis:r.ibiUtyto eembine Zubr with Asr and Marghrib w~tlrl lsha even without beiJl,g la, tr.avel~r" in "Fea.r O:T excessive rain, AJllrtb~ schQlars,. inclodin__g the pe,ople who claim to follmv Hadtth litIBm~ly. see' the HatHtll as m,eaning an apparent combrin[og 'of the prayers on questiorr, The Prophet

offered lw.hr when it was almost t~me for Asr and dum Malln~]b when it 'was ~lmOist time: ro,!' I r~hfll" This i~t:e!llretart.ion wo:uld be' in 'line with an other princ'iples l:'ill1ld proofs, from the Our'an DI1l,d Sun,n,an. whereas the first end

ppsrent metlfJJing would mot These are two examples from many, wh.ere a person who is not qU(3I,lifiloo can very easily mislead hamseff and others lnts interpr,eting texts ifLCOtreC'~I,y, For 'liArs reasen Scholars Inrave declared th:u a ri'Clil-scltruar who is not capable of '!.lITderstandi;lflg ladith sho'll!:ld h;am from a person who has e:\;pei1~se in [he fIe.ld., The Taql,eed efan lmam or Mujtahidl is made when there is an 'apparel1~oontradictiQn in the Q~r~an and Sunnah, If thereisa difference of opinion between Imam Abu 'H:anifa and Imam S11u~:'fee, proofs exlst F'Oir both sides. In 'instances where there exist dlscordant PJIOorfs fo:r two sides, the per~o'1! whO' cannot judge which one of the lWO scholars, arg'U1'1l1ll!nt is strongee shculd foll.ow a specific lmam and Mujtah,id"

Jf Me adopts lmarn Abu Hanifa to be as ones Imam and Hinds a- Kadufh wh i eh @ppanntly supporl.s [mam Shai':fee",s op,ini,on, he shtoul~d not leave tmam Abu H~n,i.ra·s opi,n,ion. bec.ausethe:re must be a stronger reason (acco,rding to the Wanat! view) for Imam Abu HaLlir~, (or Mujtal1ids within lillie .Hooafi school) [GJi leave the Hadith. NOllie c-an conclude mat the HilnJa:fi view is against the Haditb. This i,s

all mr more ap,pa:rent ;in 3 sQeni1lr' (I where the f'oUowet d,l)e>s' not hlil~the academic quallflcatlcns to jtldigewhich prO<Cilf lS strOI1,ge:i, even if this follewer finds <l' Hadith which oorllradicj.s his lmam" he should not for~e his Imam 5 apil'1ton but warher assume that he has not underseood the nn~-ooing of (he Hadith in its. applI;'O!'riate cenrext. The principle o,f tbis approai)b is v'e!)' simple, A persoll who is in need 0.1" legal advice goes to a reputable IItV(yer and attorney. He does not resort to reselu,ehong (he books: of laJlw ill'Ldep.e,l1dierntiy. ~r he ap'I'Maches a I'ega.! expert - whose re:(:)'~tMi'l'n is, nawlttSl) find abo'l,lt whom ~e knews tha:t 'he would net misl~ad b~m - and finds that l1~,ejle ls am aJplPf!ll:-enl eOiflwrul.nction lin me law and! what he is advising, he should still liste':I1 to the ano,rney and ~ct. upon his advlea He. sho\dd stU! give his ,attorney the benefit ef l:htl doubl ,and assume that !the law may he lnlerpl'ete~ in a \lvay. which us differem to his ,G,WliI understandll1'1g. This app,roach is, nscillssary (and ,accepted) because evel'yone knows ~hat. undersl3,nd:il:.g the h~iW requires treme:ndous e.%:pertise Sind acumen, These expertise ia all tile mere necessary where tile law is deduced from the QuO' an and the Sl!Irnm:dl and ~trapolated to the full corpus of the Shari'ah, which covers thewholl·e ambk of human existence. Scholars have i;l'Idicatedl ~hat 'the lay perso:n should not resort to Ltnd'errstanding the Qur'an snd SUi1illla1h di'r~ct~y. but r.ather c<ll:1icSult schQII,lIrs ;and j:lJIr:ists •. This has been pro.m~Eed 'to tihe eit'~elii.t tl!Ullt if a lay perSCl'r1 is g iven a Fatwa wh leh mums out to '~~ wrorng,lhe iiabiHty willi be witl~ rhe on.~ who ga~e the FatwifIJ and not Oil 'tine CIne who sought and applied it but if aJ lay person decides to consult the texts I~i;m~e~f !lU'1~ assumes ~U1 i[:u:orr,ec~ inrerp:r~don and sets upon it he: win not be freed from blame for his mistake' silliJ,Qc it was not hi:s responsibility to search fOf alii answer i,ndep~ndellldy ..

Fo!!" e:';:aJmple. cupping wnile .fasling do-es nOL invalidate a person's f<lsi. ~f a lay person asltts a Muflj if clipping b~aks his fast and the Mufti. ror wluuever reason. 'f-eplies in the ~ffirma:l"ilve. (ben the burden of the I~ person Mdng and drinking forthe'l,ema,inder of the day wi~1 [aU on the Mufti and not on the I~person. The a~lho.r of AlHidqyah ,a renowned book ~,I'I I-hnu'lf'i law. saJid thm the: lay person \;VQldd have to Make np ~he fast but 'there willi be r.HJ addttic,nal pelnattyon him. The autt,or. of Hfdayah explained this by se.ying thl'l the F arwa is a, I ega t pr,ouf for the lay person, but ;fthis. same I",y person read in Abu Dawood and 11.rmidhi mat the P..,o:pl'l:el passed by a peno-n who was cup.ping his blood while fasting and .s.aid:

"'Both the one cupping the ICl1l1e ell pped have invali.d:aled their fast_.1t93

He decided that his fal'l had broken altld starred 00 ,eal an.1 d drink, 'tben accerding to lmarn Abu Ym;uf. he weuld have to mske 1II,P the 'fast and 'be respanslble lor the p.enalty of fasl,in,gsixty d®.~s, eenseeurively, Abu Yusufexplained:

"''fhe: tay ~ersbn must rullo\Vlhe sci1-e,I,EI'[l' ,and the jurist since he .is not able to I'e~ch a correct ,conclusion by read;irn-g the Ha.diU'I.··99

~ This H acfidl is. sound as, (a;r..as its cl1 ail! (lf l'Iarrnwl"s, go. if1lilDl ,B'ukha.11i halO l'!alJ'l'It,ed Ihot the Proph.et ~ him,~I,r eupped 'blooil !.I,lni~e 'fasting ailC NisEi has ntirllt~f:i from. A b1.ll S{I"eOO K ~l,;Idr~ ~ that vhe Proph~'!: ~ ~ve him 'PJirniS1S~Q:r1 ~e' ~,,"'t his bleed cupped. while fiistin.;: Based on ih~:s.c lWO Il.'armtio,f'lj, ail fO·l,.If :j.chools of thoug,IU and ail OlHei s~nolW's 'IIn!l'Ihl1lol!ls,l'y a~ree' '~at th~ Hadi11ii menti(lmcd in, 1'I~'e ~Xl Cfron] Abu Dawood and 'fbfilTi'iIl1Jiii) is, li1oit~ltr a\uligati::l.! er 1l.OJ.s ilil'iG'~h~ ,MiiLte:;:t. Thef\e are wrkuJs othEr imel"prt!:~i1lio'ns ofl'hns, H8CH~h, R,e;fcj, ro Tohfoll'l Jf/'lIll'OJi/d,· vot 2, page 64 and 65

73 To summarise. the fi.rsl level of Taqleed is ,For the 18:.)1 person who ShOlUI,d follow the optnicn of his Imam.

.A.I'!. expert scholar ah:hough not a Muj'~anid. hf1JS I10l1ethe!less d:eve~(jped m.aslery and eornmand over ~slamic scieness such as rafse~r. H:adith and Flqh. Scholarship: of this Ileve~ d'OOlifWllds the dev~,IQpm.ent of the' capabiHey to e'xtWG[ rules fiom the QUI" an and Sunnah, SJlah Wa:HY'ylflUah e:xpJain,oo the term "Expert . cb.Qblr'· [11 the following WO~1jIS from his "Chapter on the- Expert Scho'lar on a schoo] of Thought":

This scholar memorizes the works of his particular seheol, Pool'eq1!:ltsiltes ,are- that he sho'ldd be of sound j.u.dgemen'l and undlerstand.ing; well,,]verseti 1l1J Ara'bi,e and rh~torilc; he should be a\cvste of the d:~ffe~rn levels of prefu:t'e:nces On arg.um.(int~) and he slmu,ldi ul'ldsrst~nd the context of the scholars of his school of thought; he should be EI.\;V;Bre of the shli~tmen.ts ,limited and ''e:s:trlctedi even though they may appear to be absolu.te:"'.'oo

This person is. caJpable of being a Mufti within a schooll of t1::l0'1Jgi1t. This classification of Taqleed differs from [:be Taqleed Q·f aJ lay person in the fo"ill~'wing:

"Thl s person is. 11.001 o:nl,y ,a WEIJ1;'e of the schoo I 0 f dl.0Ugjhl, but also of'!:hc 'reasoning behind the !Pat,was of that schcel, A.s .a Mufti; he is able to sift. li::Jr,Qu,gil the different opinions withi'll ~Il'is seli-ooll and ts quahfied to issue f'at\'II'as based on the needs of his age or to 'illucid~te them :aGCOI'd ingly. H~1:I;Ci. tl1Io~ .. e Issues, \Ii,lhicb are discussed 1:t1J the beoks of the sG,hoo,1 of nhoughn whic'h he adheres te, Imy 'Ile evaluated

aceerdlng l'~:) the premises ,of 'the sch,?-~L ln except,iolial ·ircumstlilim;.e:;. he may leave his lrngm and foltow the opinion of another Imam, The rules a:n:d condlnons for rnis pr-ac!~ ee rue e:Xphl.1Hed i 111' the pril,l~ cip les of jlllirisprlidem::e' end in the books ,o,fgivi.ngFatwas.,·IOI

A si,tuatio~l fI,':Ul:r srtse wi1J,~rce. the E:xp~rI. Scholar discovers a Hadlth \ hieh lotally contradicts the ephrlen of his lmam or an argurnerrt whtc:h is stronger: than '[ha~ 'of his Imam. In :spch ,a, scenario. WJ1O'~e Shah W.a:JiY),l.dl.a11; Should this scho!~ar practice '[he Hadhh and forsake hits school? There is a difference of opinion in this issue. The author of Khazan~lur Ri1li-!.aYaaJ has discussed thls lIt ~ength ,and quoted fr-om the bonk enti tied: . 'DasI'Q~' "J:Jl &tllke(t.J'l": We Sll-all n arl'ate his I,',"O:rdls'IIel:lb!llim .• ," IQ2. Shah Wa Ii yyu" ah continues ~o quote ,the: text, The summary is that some, scholars beJ iew that this scholar does not hav,e the prerogative to hn!lIv,e the opinion of his ~,mam and act on ~W1e Hadhh be(;fluse it iil"llighl be EilSt his; Imam had a perspective, \"'I~dch he does- not, However, tUne ITI~j,o,~ity of s,cnolal's beBev,e that if tbis expert scholar has evaluated al ~ arguments fr-om all angh:::s. then he does have the Pl"'e['og;atwe to acl1ilpon the Hadirh if be meets th~ fbU¢'l.Ving ~IU i:remelilS,!

I. ~~e is 1l,JCutally an expen schol~roflhe caliber mentioned above.

2. He has ad~ilJatelly established [hat rhe Hadith ln 'qllla,s!li:on is: indeed a sound Hadhh. Occ~ip,lf'lially., the MlIjt-ahid will rel:l:llqlUlisn actin~ upon a certain Hadill!il because it was 11 0'[ deeme-d sound, if'lh,al is the ease, then

Uil 1here ~redel:3iied a.OC()UnIS of Ilhe~e o0l!~ ilion!> i ill the bo~k or Ibn Abi De-en liii!:,(i "Uqt)DlI'.H:wmm/IUlljJr.

ire'iqdu'i./e_,t:d •. "

75 the non-Mujtflh[d does not h~ve th~ prerogadve 00' leave his scheel.

3. NQ verse of the Qur'en 01' Hadith .ilpps,rently cO!lli!.r,adi,ets nU! H adi!:h in QUest10iJ:Il.,

4; The !l1ea:lling of tbe HaJditb is, (It'!~r and G'DeS not carry the possib:iUty of another ·inte.rpretatkiil1. A ~'e:rtaijn Mujfahid may assume a meaning of are);!, whlch is: ,ag~inst ini appa.lieol meaning. If tha~ is the case, then lite non-Mujlahid ms:v not aSSlIlfne otherwlse . sinee his Imam has fixed its melnil~g accoi"d]ng to his ineellectual prowess Wi1lCh the. foi]ow,er does I100t have. Taq,leed r-equires lth~t a !I'Ion'~1ujlahid roUow a MuJ,taJl1d in areas where thi~.re i s severa] possil1! e ~:rnte[pr'0'lIUcm of a text. ~iU

5. It. is also Iluessary [ht!ll the opinion of the expert sc.holar does mn i'O aga~liIst the eensensus ef the four lmams, :t:fle dangers and. harms of going against the consensus of the four ~mams have been ouL'~ined 'ea~·H~r.I',",

With these conditlons fulfiUedi an expert scholar may leave his: lmam's opinion, The folloiwing excerp't,;s from prominent scholars veritY this"

] mam 'Na,wtlwi writes:

'Skeli:kh Abu Amr (Ibn SalaaM said that ~my schola'f of the Sl'Nilji'fee school ,@of t!n)lJg~~f[ who, find:s_ a Hadhi~ which contradicts his school, then if he' has p~i':recl~d the tools of ~jtihad within h'i:mrelf. 01' if he has acqlqircd command ovel" !:he charpter o.fjurispfudence 'IiInde.i' disc::us~,UOf!lj Of if he has. acql;l!~rod command ov.el' the 'i:ssyf.'; under discussion he In.a)' faUow ~haT part~iC!ldar Hadith 1I'lde:pel'1l.deifl!tly. Jf he has not ,feaCih@d perreolkHl., or lf he h'as noi acquired command. but

!!I:llhesc four conditicns weN: sl'ilptlJ~iJ.ed: in M3li~alfii'l A:s.hmf Thilllvi 's '~"k: ,aJ:-l,!Jlj~fi/111«1 r'uq'l(!(.-d /ji.ihQd,· pages 34 - 3,6

11'1 "i'1:.' . d"-" 'I:! •

IllilS 'cel't 1,II.0nl liS i'Ohmd im '{qdtll Jeeti: ,508

u) sHU feels 'IIery lIInoarmforlable in! eppcsing the l'I;t:ld,ith .and does net fi:nd a reasonable explanation t"crr his lrnam' S oplnion, then again ,he ,may fuH(l,,~r the Haclilh if ~ Mujm:hid other than Imam hai fee has !pracli($u the Hw.iilh in ~'UeSl[OI1 [I'mam Nawawi was a ShEli' Fee lfll1l P~qhI. This [,[hal ~nd~h_eF f",I.ujtiihid has applied the liadith] is: reason erl~ul:h for him to go again this hnam. This ill \\that heikh Abu Arnr has said and is good and a ilUllldal'd." 105

"'han Wal~YYllnah concurs with Na\i\'3wi ~

"The pwkrr~d Qpi'l'lio~' is the third ''I<\rhich is Wll!fiJl ] bl'l'abah bas said and ,,~'i ttl wh iell Nawawi agreed and deemed 'correct .. ., I 06

There has al"ays been a debate in the :prinei'l?les or j !lri'~prud ence wheiher Ij ti h ad ~an be P3rt iali:l,':ea or net. Om i scholar who is not an absolute MlIIijtah~d in the whole legal corpus. of [slam be a Mujtahid ln a particular field of Islam or in a partleular issue in Islam? Some scholars reJoct the possibility because 'ljLihad and lts acumen is ,only developed when a &Ciho~ali' has reached a stage where he h~s prowess in the -vhole legal corpus of Islam and lslemie (!!I'llV. 'n~i's tS 'only a ptivilege of the absolure Mujmhid. However. a very large group of scholars maintain [har a scholar may ~ I'ldeed be a Mujtahi.d in ,1 certal I1i chapter or issae of Islam ic law even if he has net reached the I,evel of an absolute MUjlah,id. Shayk'h Tajuddin Sebkl Ifld Shaykh Mahalli both hotd '[his view:

'''n~e' corNel opuuon h; U:la\ rjtiha:d ean be ll:umiali.zed sueh ll1811 eertaln scholars develop sn aeumen in certain dhapEers like inheritaace 'Wo,r ,111I'!stanee .• Tillis would he' acquired by garrhewing a,11 Lhe proofs and arguments ]n th~L

405 • .JM4o),nt(}() '. I,b~ Comm ImUlT}" of A I·M uhaddihBb-: vel, I, pai~ JOS 1!IIi "q.dulJlJr:1i

77 'cpapte.r II.hemseLves, oJ' by stu.dying the school (.If a cerr~in MlIIJ tah ld a nd then being :!libl e to an al yse the po,s, tions wi'ti:!

judicial expert lse." -

Sha,ykb Banani wrote in his commentary on Jam'l"/ Jl(L~ftlmi'!

"uriti~d ef a ~:hQQi, '1:1'( thClUght cen be pnrLJISJ. This stage ma_y be aC~l,n(1oo b_ a person who is n01 an absolute Myj't~ldd:'1O -

Sbaykh Abdul Azla Bukhari wrote in the oowmem:ary of the Ptinclples of Fakhrul lslern Bazdawi:

.• ~ lener~I, schoJ.u.lii hold th!.U ljrihad can be partial. lt is qUl'l1e pessible For a :9chol'ar tto become a Mujtalhid in some rules iIlnd 1aw ~l'iIstead of Oll.heL'$,!>IOlJ

lmem Ghazali wrote:

.. ," do not believe thal rjLihad cannot be p:artiallzcd. It rs possible for I scholar [0 be a Mujlahid in one area and not ~n: others,ul09

Sh:aykh Taftazani wrote:

iiAlso, you must remember lha:t U1ese. conditi.ons are fer ,M absohrlie Mujhl~id who gives F~h?l,/aSi, in all areas and issues. for a Mujtahid in one area. and not il'lloliters, he ~UgU know everrthing re]awd to his area and its rule-S.t,1l1l

IO~ 9Qth oftbe s:bO\iC q!lotll~i<i:nl'l talll be found in Sh~'kI1BiiJ1al'lf!! co~men~ __ ~n !'lJm 'ul JuU'omi' (in thefoO!fiolCs): Vl)t2, page 4.(13.4. ~nll'l.ed lJy rl!ITJY~ ai-Kuhar offigypl.

I~ trash/III AmlB, 'by Abd 1111. Azi,1!: Bllkj;Jari,; vo'~, 3, [.!<lge 13' 10>9 J'I~Mu:ITm/iJ, by (lh~li~ vol. 2, P1'l., I1)J

78

Maulfll_na Arnie AU 'wrote a footnote to ·what. Shaykb TaftaZ<'iHi said;

"The smttm,enE: ~As JOIl" tire j\4ujrahld oJ (I Cf1'r.lsin topic _ ... he should k,II'IIOW [he principles of his lmam since e,'very ,t:X:lraCliuriI '!I.nd e:ul'apobnion wi.J1 be. itccording to' those principles, A. new rule is kncwn as ~jHh<i,d in the' nIle; and a new 'proof fur II 1'1 eN.! SLi n g n III rrated II"U I e ~5, known as eXlrnOliol1 (TakhreeJ).."111

Shaykh 'ilib!'l Hamarn has als(l .agreed tll'at Ijllilul.d may be partiaL He hflls added fUf!her thata scholar 'Who is not an absohUe Mujtahid need IOnly follo'w his lmam in issues. where he has not reached the ]cvel of Ijtihad himself. I I:! SJ'It'lykl"l Zain~ddil'l, lbn Nuj,aim has also -quo'~oo the exact text.' I~

However, Shaykhlbr:il Amir aT-Hajj has q1uoted Shaykh ZUffilllIlkani's decisive statement:

"The ]jlil1ad acumen is of an indivisible: 11DtUl'e in that a sc ho lat· must be able '~O extractafidi 1.%.'<1r~pola.te rules; I,mdersland d'lc ccntext of text and proefs of prernises and what colul:'adicts them, His kn:owlledge must be com,luehensive in 'this sense aneil hen,ce, this acumen is nol divisU'.le a.nd is required even for partial ,~jtihad. Howe¥er~ if a: sc:ho ~al' possess com p',Il':ehensi ve knO'w ~edig'e 0 r a certain

II ~ Trtmslo/lGJ" 's. I;IW:e: I have I ()fl C1I.H lite \'~.d';attrl1J1. !ra:I'Iis;laj.io;tn)~i.lu: intrih;~t~ Arabic lC;:;Ulu(lted Of tke lilhor ~O' ~$ not 10 cOllfilse the English read~r. The quote is from An,ir Ali Shall Bluki'uu'j.lUl his wo:rk ''1(jy~.-t!t!I'iI! r(1-h~'Ce'f'~ vel, 4. Jlagi! 246 'P,rlilll~d by Mus!afa: a.1.,B,abi,

11A fgtlu/l' Ghq{frJl'. The com[l1cn~>lI)' Dr AJ.:M,IIn!lfby lbn: ujailin: wJ. 3, pag_d7 (IPrhltcd Ib~ Mus!aful-lBabi. E.g~.rp1 IlSS)

chap~er era certain issue. rlil,en he IIl1US~ use this acumen for dun pllrti'Gular chapter or issue, ·1 L'i

[iii summary. if an expert scholar fi:l"lds ~hQl Ids ]m~If'l 's opinknr'l ]n .a certain issue co!uradicts !li Hadith ulhich has preven to be sosnd and 'l;onc~l.lJsive, then based on the above meruloned opinlcns of s:cll:DI~ar$. he miiy leave his lmem's opi,B'!i,olf'l ad practice the Hadith ~ even lhoogh the expert &eho,lar may not have reached the level of absol'l.l~e Ijtihad himseU". MaulaJlat R:;,\sheelZl Ahmed Ghanghoh~, [he jurist of our times - wrote;

';Afte~ due diligence. if 'lhlS opinion of hIlS Imam is against tht Q!Jr~an 31flf,Q SUl'nna~1 men every believer must leave 'the lmarn's ophlion .. Nobody wm deilll.y this if UH:; case is provw. Thee question is, how call ,II. lai' person determine thrs? .Hi

The final. word in (his issue has been carved by Ma~!lalfla .Ashraf Ali Thanvl whese 1{):rJg qluQiLaticlI1 we will narraee here witt'1l0u.l an)' apprehcnsi 11 :

"]f ilII well-versed, iinteUigent and unbiased sehola.r finds - lhrough hi'S invcsli:gatron - Oil' if a lay person sild!oe~re'ly dlseovers through a God-f¢sring schollar [.hail rhe preference in a ce.l1a'in issue is for (he o'pposing Judgement. then it should be obser'!i,ed whmi1eJ :[he Jess p,refel1'-ed gpimiol!:l has any legal .Ieeway or o'utle! for implernemetian. If there are Ile.~,al grounds, (ulilder Is~aJl:iI!ic Ilaw) f.er the il11~:demeAt1tition of the less preferred opinion and if forsa'king that less preferred opin'ion 'i:\follil.ld lead 10

.. ~ AI· Taqner wal ~C1jf!f!r. b~ [I:bl! Amlit a,l-H~.: \'01. J, 9~gr; 194

II~ ~b"ef:l!lr /lQsll'aJ; by Maul.lma Ghill,81ho,hi: pBg,e 30·l1 IPfill~oo by M!tI:bolll'a ofDellill [lSl)

c:omrnotDQ[I1, di~{lflity or [Iuml!o'il with~~ ~ the MllIslim oo.mm:u!1it,.. lheir1l~hat less: preremd (or weJ.kElr) epnnon should stil I' be Jol~ow,oo. nilefo:llcwingg I~aclith is adeq,ua:te ~r.()af fcrlhis iapp.r(U!ch:

Ay'esbll ~nid !that, the Prophet )l a,ddlru.ssed hsr and said: ,. Did )'Oi\,!l knewthaf your ~{llP le _ - the QU[aJis'h - • had reducecl the foufldali.l;I:ns ,0,' t~e Ka'baih frnm the fou['l:d:n~o~s laid by [brah im w." Ayesha aSk:oo m~ Pmph~l: :" ~ f [I~l,~' IS the case~ men you should h a ve the Ka bah mJblL!i,dt,~ooow]m,g to the original ftH.!WlLdatiol"ls:> The Prophet ;ji' Raid: "If the Qumish h~d net been. sp new in lslsm, [a:~d~, do:s~' If] lh~ d~y~ of 'Ku r'd [ WOP Id h~\le dolte ~~atllJi !bat.' There w~s a fear that people weuld disa'gree a:1ilollilt the K,a' bah la~u'Jjg uffi}root,eJ.1I, wh iciTh m ~ght ~:J;~\1'l: reslJllted i,n ,001'1 stema~!on. Th~lI~ 'the p:refermd epunen was to te:bulld lll;e~a bah aCGording k'D' i ts Qrigirnal t'o~ndati'0mh lh~ Prophet ~. did If;Le[ sancMon rebu,ndin~dle Kathah bOOllJU5,e U'Le less 'p])efen~d epinien of laving uhe Ka~~ah ineompl~[e. was also ~~~,l~)' permissible, ~h,e less preferre~. Ctp!!lton. was, ~~'iIi~n 'preference. [fthe less prre:Wlfrff3d ol"'ulltln o~ers na Legltm~at~ l~way and instead actual~)' leads ro, am IU~gal~m or If ~~ leads 00 f()[s~ldng iii, rn8lndatory act .~ end d:Q~$ l?tQ't b;;i'l:wany evidef100 b~[des ,ruaaiagy !ll'ld if the p,reftrce;d epini'6ill has a SliIurnd Hadith ]n its favoury then tllille Ha:di,[h mlilisL be prncti t,ed with om amy hes,~ta:ioi'iL No 1"aq leed ~o!J[~ be permissib~e 1n this ease. Th~s, IS because the :rflli. Is~~e 1,8 W fol'lo\l'\l the Qurr4,M arid! Haduh an:d m.:u is Wll&l IS intended by practicing Tlqleed (dt~l rou,Qwing tha IQ'~f~a!11 and Ihdith is F"8cjl]Uted). Se when folloWing .th~ Q~r!a,n &l~d Had~th dD~ not agree wilh T~q~eed. tke fermer must ~e adopted. Stic~ing to 'faJq,lefld iI!lind-el'lI1ese ojl1ct!mstances rs ,:V:hat :Ilas been eeademned byL1\te Qur',an. S~nl'ilah and s{;ho~ars.

IF these dreUm!ijL~l'lee;s do arise, ~!QJldemning or k!3',epiln~p~tlmiIY ,against nnyolthescholars a~Rcl MUjtahids is nOI peinniss~ib~e. This is because th~we i~ a possibm,[}, lh:!'l!l. the seholar il'll IljlJeS1ion did nor 'Il::now of'this ~ladhh,!Or ifhe J id. he fQuQd' it to oewea,k 0.1' e ... plalned by another p ri ndJl~ I 0 f ]'fil am tiC' ~~V"', The sene 1.1:11' end Mujl,t;r{11'ud 'II~JfQLI ,I:a be exeused for this OVEI'sig~1t,. Simihul!y. the 'US:l.'UJ~ than [he Hadith in questioi!'! did I~Ql reach (his par.t.icuhlr scholsr decs I1CIl undermme his iliIc,mdif::'m[c acumen. There fire :liie'v~I::,d imIltlllncfS, where the' great schol'ars from arneng the Compa"J~on~ did 1101 hear of a certain Hadith until very hue in l~e1J1I li";I:I;,!;s;~ but '!h.l:i'r :iu::~d~mi.c ilCl!;li)lilOfl or expertise was never .qILil.s..sM:Qned or in doubt Uk:ew~se, .. a persen who pfj,eti'c'es; Taql~d does 11~1 hil'll've the prerogallive to de·~:ou.noe orcriti'~i,ze: ene ,;vhQ has lUll! made Taqleed in an lssue if [he c!']re'ri on ,G) f l he liliM~l'lli oned abQ'\"e are iFu r fi ~ ~ed (\\rtiei't faUowing dl~ Hadi.ll'I should Qe ad.opwd). This kind Qf diff~!~nte :has been in VOgi.H::' since the time' of o~r predecessors, SchoJI;:us hal(l1e g~nel'BiIly alcled upon 'the max i III (Qawa '~d) tilly s v;hcif!J} f:s .cUi's~~'lm1.d I~ be tpr1'€Gt ll'fth The lwssibilUy of ,t!t'l"Oi' and the. oJh.C!r scn(J'Gis a~t! 61;f'S11rJUMJ labe ineorrece with rhe !Jo.tsiMNty qf b;e-ing (;Ocn'ec;I", Thill dictlW!M enables 'f'6<ll:o~"tng a pa'l1i1eu~all" S~hODJ whUc 01$0 ac:cepling other scheols as 'OCJ];(a~,~y vifliM. i.,;jO'\Ne'l"cr. dU'fe;rillg in the buio lhool@.g~ctl~ preeepts aod eeacepts of th:e predeceSSQrs" Of eendernnlng the p'red!{!lC~.sSiors! pl.a~e the [)orpe'l:l\a1()r oUilSMo the Ahl,t S"'l'1ll11ij!l wal J.amal<'l!h, 'This is beCiltJ~,e [he Ahle SUrllH!:h wal Jarna'ah is [h'e: n1f1I,~body of the Mu:sHfD!iI c:of!1lnunity whese .o~inio:ns we're b~.litv~d aflle fQUO'w,oo by the Companions of t&!e Pmphei '.q. Thla .1.\ctuon ef CQndLeml1~tiiQn ~s t!~)laJfly a:gaillst ihe actions of rhe C{H1I'1panions, 3!l'J!d t~er~fd'r,e su~~ !3i !person would be outside the paramet~rs ef'jhe Ahle Suenah, Sim:L.larly. a. person who ,ad1opban extreme pes i~iO'rll wh h regards to Taq:leed. Butta t!1i.!,U he ~j,eCts the Qu.r'an .1ITH'!J SU!'l!:~'a.h sho'Lnld:~]so be

The :moderate pre'scri.pden offered in th:is Slfllement by Mauttlloa 1h:anvt w(!JlIil,td save the M:uslil.~::u cemmunlty ';om man internal disputes. With the above conditions fulfiHed. ~n expert: s.chola·1[ may leave the opinion of his knam a~d :WdHow a Hadith ~mnead. lEIl1:l despite this very partial d,fferooc-e with his Imam, 'he~ \.\foulcll still I he cOl.lsidered w i\hl1ovv~r (Muqallid) ef his Imam. Hence. many Hansffii scholars: have· QJvel"geeJ from lmam Ab1..J Hanifill's Opi:Rion ,on certain issues" F!1)r ex.amp,I'ec• dri.tlklns a very small amount of i'lnoxncati.l1,g drink .- from ill non-wine substence - in order to ~in some st.l1'el'lgth was allowed Iby 'im.am Abu Hlnifa but not any other scho~al" .. The Hensf scholars teft the .opinion of [itch' lmam and thllowed the opifJIio,1f'iI of the mf!jIOr'1cy. A'~so lmam AOlu Hanifa did I1O[ allow the practice of 'l,emponuy s'!rLa.r-e-crop;pung connact, Again,. t~e Ha'l'ls:fi sc,nol.a'L"s did a! 10\"V this prac .. tice under very strict eendalons $18 with definee shares, These are two examples \\4'Ler~ Ll1e later scholars agreed to dlssgree with lrnam Abu H.anifa. Ol!~e:f'\,1i,iU$e~ lhcre rue Se'\I~ri.l~ exsrnples where speeifle individual l-lanaf scholars hfl!ve diverged 'from the lmarn positien on aCe1()U~1t sf a Hadi,lI:l. The issue is indeed ""!!if)' senskiveand to assume thai the scholarly erederaials which are il1.dispti'l1sflbls for this k'fld of academic :acl:iv'ty ~s achieved whhlOu~ great exertion. would be atrocious to say the least, nisre~3rdiU'lg the ~Il!i)'man not even capable seholars have velilJtlllr-ed out 'of the ag~d pnsiliofi within lila Madh:ab to which lhey adher~-

Th,~ Taqieed ,of:a scholar ,,\,,110 is a Mnjfabtd in hits seheol

A schols!r \' ho is a Mujtah,iidin his sdloal follo\II,i'S and ade~t:~ an ~bso~lIJle MuJl.lhid's principie$ of exuacttng and deriving rules [useol] but possesses &iii!> ability to exiract h1\\.'8 direC1J¥ from the Qrur"an end Sunnah. SLIGh a Ml]jl:a~id M.1Iy differ with h~s Imam 'on C'ejl1aJ~n demih:; and rules blU follows me majorit of the I'ulings'l.vith ]0 rhe school, Imam Abu Yusuf and Im~UM Muhammed from the HaJ~~Ji !dhool~ fma:m Mlilzl1Ii aad Imam Abu Theur from the Shai"tee'schoo:l; I'mam SabnQo:l1l and] Imam Ibn Qasilt1J from the: Ma llki schoal aitld [mam [br.i)_n i m aJ • H ~r!b'~ and I m.aUl Abu 9akr 11!-Afhra:mf:rQlIl tIR~' Hal1loa;ii s.ehool are all exsmples afMUljtahids 'wiith bu [heir respective 'Sc,[1ools w:ho differed w~1!h the thunders Qfthuir $CI'M10ls" S:haykh lbn Abi

De~n imtrodllc:ing dn,ese schelaes writes: .. '

"The Se.cOflldi: !evel [of M1lIIIjtahidsJ are ~hosewh'l} 3Jf!:

MuJ'{.ahids in theirschool of thought trike Abu Yillsuf and M.~h~~ ]~ed. and all ether Hanaf s:ch~I~rn; who, are lcap~bJle 01 deriving rules fl"0I1tB the above men'll(!I1,ed proofs based on the principles of their teacher (Imam)'. These scholars ahh.gugh differin~ with their reacher in 'tenai,n details' ro!low him in the ll~es of his prindp~es:~117 '

This is. the reason why lmem Abu Yusuf 3:(!d' imam.

Mubsuul100 are' 'consid!ef1ed to be ["j,analfi $chahlrs even tliB.6ugh '~hey ~iff~red w~th fm:nfJ!ln Abu Ha:nifa in 'm3JOY

details. C

An ,absolute Mujlal ~d is a scholar who rulfiUs :ail the neee s sary requirements of Ijrtihad. He is 81ble [0 formulate prindples of cleriveidon ami €!'XU:ll.ction from the Qrur"EI'Il af;l,d Sunnahl end deduce-and tonnulate lslamle 13.,.", from the: primary sources.. Imam A.bu Hanif'a. hf~am MaUk. Imam Sh~j'f1ee and lmarn Ahmee ibn Hanbal are e,wJJI'Il1ple:s of ...such s.ol,10hu5. However, as much as these scholars are absollute in their 1jlihad, they too ate not iliilmillille to feUowill'lg [[rna.king a degree of Taqleed], These schol'3'l"S would resootl to ft~UCi\-\~lng a Compa:lilOI1 or 11, follo''I,i!fflr of a Companion iii! issues wlilere the Q'I,I,' all} and! SmJnaltlJ were silent n.ey would give preferenee to their opinions over ~heiT 'own f.lftalog[es and [jrih'aa. The. :l\"QUowing are some ~xll!J1'IiPles :!TUITI [he first generation of Musllm scholars.

Omar ~ s;t:i'ilt a letter to 'Q,l.\di (judge) Shlua'i~1 which fanned! the 'b~is ofthis practiee, Iltlam Sha'bi said:

"Shuraih reported lil'al Om~r wrote to him Md said:

"If yQU are in a d~SPUiU!: 10:11' in 21. case where 21 rule from the Qunm is levident. then judge ,atc.;orti,llngly. If there is: nothingintth,e Qlu:r'tm. then leok linin (he' S.U'llIn:alh or the Messenger of An~:h (~) and judge a,ecordingly. if the,re is, nothlng illi the SUlmlrl'ah! [h'eD see wh~t peop~lc (scholars) l1a. ~ aglfcerifu!pen. and, judge .accordingl,},. And ifthere Is nothing in the' 3ioove~men~io!'!.ed. sources, then. yeu have ,EJ, choice, You may e~~'h~:r exert. or e'X.ereise ,)lour own. olpin-lon and enforee it Of Y'01!l! may reserve jll!.lJdgcrnu:nL. I believe liktat reserving )IO~r opililffion can be n:otthi!1! except ~ood fur ym.lI.nt I

11:1 Sitrmi of Dam»#: '11',01 l, pa:ge.5S. Printed by Madiiiah Ma:[bu'ah, 1386,

~5

We sllould observe 'that Sh~rdl was an ilibsolllJitt!

Mt~id. Om:ar ..... advised :him to exercise :ljtihad IIJnly if'he did 1'l00l find anothee's opilli1liol'il. Abdullah ibn Mas'ood ~ 3100 made a simi ~at ;Sl2lil.ement as, m,emit'illlild earller under ~h{il dlscusslon concIlO'rnir1g ,absoillJ:te Taqleed, nammi has om-rated ill his Sijnni linn Ibn Abbas. - ~ ould ans\ er hom the Qur"all when he W1S asked ~bout an ]5 'tie. lf'he die; not itillid ilin the Qur,an. he would answer fr-<lm uhe Prop~elll. I f he did nmfind 8'f'11 answer there t:i'rhe,r. he W01tJ Id' answer Ii'om Abu Balklr and Onu),!". If 'there 'I';,Ie:I"C no answe-r there. J!!,e wow I:d then resort to his own opi:nic<n.I''oI f-lel1e again we 'see that Ibn Abba~ ..,>0 who ,,"I'l!S a cGmpelenl MujtaMdi hirnseh O()Il~Y r eso r ted ito' his .own opu:l'111ion if he did not flnd .a S'Ol'ution from Abu BaKr and Ol'Yllat. Sha:bi said that a ~ersOI1 carne tttl him and ,asked him ,!! ques"Uon'l', H~ (Sha'bi) aid that mlbn Mss'ood ~ made the rolllmving CO'lllmeR'l Ott tIre same' issue. The person Inslsted lhal Sha "Ill i glves him nis op~nio:ll'l" Sh:i~b:i exelaimed;

"Look a~, this linin! ~ informed ~llom of what Ibn Mas·oed sald Ind he is ®!s.k~n,g me for my OWn upiniclrb. Mv fa'ith is 11iII",:~h clearer to me than d~'at 1[1 sh,ould honollJlr h~~,

reql.lesltj:·I::lO ..

Here, mm.am Sha'bi (who was Ic,ne of ]m~lIUn Abu H'anifa $ reachers) :pfCfel'red to rely on lhe ,o,pinio,n of mlbn 'M~;,w~'oo-d .yo, Imam BUlkha!'i h'!lS narrated (",\rit'h a suspended I!:iha,in) Muj:ahid"s SUI~e'JiTI~n~ r-eG(l!jrdJiJi:1ig the COItt'ili1JnrenlW1 of the verse:

Ilq Illid.

I.:m "Io-AI . I

'1.1"'.1. '11'0. I pille: o;IS

85

'"And m'ake us leaders or [hose whQ are Godcenscieus, nl~b !.!IS ~'mlln:lrs (leaders) who fanow those whu came' bttlore 'llllS and alloi\,\! mose \ibn ceme afte; us to follow us", Hafiz Ibn Hajar said that Mltl!ia,~id':s !!nat~m,efit has been narrated W hl1 a Sou nd chain b~,I I bn J ilriir and faryab,i. Um Hajal' wel1~ on to coUabor;fH~ lhi~ statement \vitl:n. slmil.ar qeotations from everal otheer cmfHl,.em~ni s. 1-113 concluded with Suddi 's Q,l,.Iote from Ibn Abu Hulm:

"The purpose is not io became Imam (in salaat), These scholars ilfe supplicalli.l'l:g: 0 A!llsh' Make us leaders j1n meuers which are i'lal:flla:ndlilarlnl so others lit'lln fol:IO\\" 80C:Ofdingly.·'I~1

Ib.fll Abu hulm has ala llurrat(?8' from JI'rn:r Ibn M!oJ hammed.:

'~he mean i Plig is; 0. A llah! Give me ar~p't:tlnce among people such dUlil If I sa r SO!li0Lldng. l:li'llt,Y appro'Vc of it and accept it from lll·e:,I:!!

Mujahid, who was an aibsoh.ltc MujUhid. realised [he in'po.rtance of following his pred·ec~s!org~ iii principle. which unfonunately seems to be much maligned In ihe present tl'J';3 .•

1:1 rcrm.~Jl1Jl!' ',~ .I1'C!tl1.! ~In, IDlfrt~!" ~'fOr&: 0 A li18111! Milke 1.15 Smi God~lie!lrin£. thaI we ,C"iiljOY ~,..hal if. halall OlI'lG !IIbStB11I1 r:m:1'Il \ hl~ is hBiram and ~h~n 1I1.I~w others 1;0 rQlIo\\' us,

87

HE FOES TO DOUBTSRAJSED AGAt'ST TAQLEE:D.

'lb. ... ~FoHowilnG ~f FiIlIr~faU ers is, Cel1domm~d i,ll! i'be' Qur'l:liI

The Q~.r'a1'1l hils calegorically cendemned the folla:n lng of ancestors and lio:ref:tlhers:

I Alull wh'cH it is:aidliO tb,em:"FoHmw tluu: which AU.b ha' re'll~ealetl·-. 'iln:)' repl~'y: uNo,. rather \'V,e ~n'i'lll fOllllow wliil.ld~ owe h~ve 'found, OUI" FaU.'ern upon .. '" (TMs tlu:y s'~y) IE'VIQlQ du:ru:gb their ftdih,ers do 11101 uli1.der.d8lnd. nor are tJI't)' g1lllid~d. t

(Sur'3.h ,AI,-Daq""nlll : 170)

This verse o'lJitlines of lilile besie understandilillg ofthe religion. The po~ylhe,i l did nOl!lCcept the principle values 1J.f Tauheed ([he Oneness of Alllah~,: prop,helhood and the eoneept of the Hereafter. and used the argument that their fol:enuhersodid not believe in these values, The cQncc'Pl of Taqleed does not email following Imarrts Oil' Mujtallids in such f,~~nd,amem2l1 issues and truths as bel iefs because these arc nql subjec:L to Ijtih8!d. Ihar is why this is rnade e:auegou'i¢1 U)' elear i fI a I ~ ,~hl:ssi.cal I iU'Cramrc. rim ex,am,pb~,

hayth Amir Badslult'l 13~lLIlkhari wrote in I~t. cQ:mm~f.l!ltar'y 01'1 nJ'hl"fJ{trlt( U\l()'o'/:

"The dl:apte.l: on ~he areas where ask.ing for a Fa'l,wa is 'fali,d ~re issues and rules whi:c:h are nnn-eenelusive and which ~re nOL related to beliefs. This is betau~ .eertlrude IS required for ~sslU:es re1a:ling !O aqeeda, [be~iefs] aeeording ie tim!: sound epinlen. Taqleed will be disallowed in such

:as

The Taqleed, which is:, olidcmned in the abo eciLed verse. hiar also il!l:!efI calegorkaUy derried b:r the lmams, Shay.kh Kh-alib AI Baghdadi has used IIR': very same LO prove this, poi,lI'l!t :ill1 his. book U. oo! Aqu-i,tl, IJ" A.llah has given 'two reasenswhy [he Taqleed of for:effllhC'rs is condemned, Rej~cting the re, ealed werds and commia,ndmem of (iod and .al1lr.1olllnci'!1Jg to 'folJjow tne'ir fathers regardless oftil"lIf;: Inltn of'the messaJge ." he .eC:OI~d is Ililal lhe~t forefa,~h!!;.':l"S were berefl ,o.f uilldershmding and guidMlce. The Taqleed under discussion does not fa.n iruo these ll, 0 tarms of misguidance. one who expound's the doctrine oj[ Taqlaed sili'luns A.IIah and His Messenger and then follows an tmam in their 'place" In facia" they deem 1hei,r 'Imalll to 00 an lmerpreter of the Qur',~m ami UJ1l1il11h. Likewise, none ~. ,nQl even these wh,a denoul:l:c~' Taqleed .. can CIBl'11iI1 or say thaithe Imams underquealon were dl;;void of Ill~sil; Imderstanclil:1lg. A II \estify lO the scholership or these ~Im,il!'ms,. Thus. eqlullit"ing rhe Taqleed 'of tll'le~ rman~s with the 1,aqleed of non-believers is not only ill'lru)rr~C:l bUL a~so unjust.

"~TII,~ (fh~Peopl'l! of 'the 'Book) gdapted their Sa.v.IlIn.ts (p,riest's) and ]lunrmi'ts (sa~(lJlj) :aiS IloRils :IlS, eqllliis bes'd . AUah. I

(Sgrak A~-'[au balI ,: ,31)

,aqleed of a scholar r Mujtahid is not equated ;a ilcct:ptirl,g hi. opinion as I~" er l~gisl.atiloI1. No hnam is reg.,uded as b)Wmakel'. TI~,e'y are meroel), reg.~t.ded as lnrerpreters of the law, TOo con fI r the- statu of lin il'ld pendem la\l .. -msker upon au lmam who has LO be IQ II owed i.rrcspec;ti W (I r his i I~ ICI:'~WCUIil ion i 0 r C(lUIf"S!';: umtam,OLl,n:t II shirk. Opinions are fo.llo\led Llpon the bas,is of be ling im!.!l'pf.elarl ion" 'Of III e law,

Ibn Tnyt1f!iyah \""I'i{~s;

·'11 is 'In,cumbelU upon peopl to 'oIUm\, l\ Uah and H is Messenger, These ··iPoetIple of AlJilhorh)'" t'he n)UowinJ~! of whom has been decreed b>' Allial1. arc to 'oe fo,ll{t'l-ved 5b1bj~cl ~.' {hdr 10110\ ing ;\.llah 31"1d Ui Messenger and 110'[ as: independem sources sf guidamce:·~l:ji

Shaykh lbn TaYflti:)'aJ.h :r:U}S djff~rentiated between folll}\,i,ring 311'1 independenl seurce of .guidance and lallowing .sol11eG:I1Ie sl.Ibjec'llQ ami cOl1s:trained UllOl~ dl '1~'liC gU'idance.

"' .. SOl I!'ollolwing A.llla:hl and I-~is Messenger dllo:enli'l1g hala] what Allab aud His Me~!lilen~!}cr ~lav~ made hlillll<ll and I deeming h,ll:ram \ hal All h andl His es engel' have made haram and efb,:fordns wha~e\lel' AUan aitld Hi Mc'Sscnger have made 11uI.ndamry is iltCUI1;~lbenl on both IH,lIl::t1Ia~l:S, <lind jillm [1'1 priv,31te 3.t1lid, public, "'ell'~,iJin ru es and laws, <fire not C'!flsi Iy ;r~>:C(lgll ised or u nders'tood e. c~pt by [be SiC he lat ~ for Ihils i'iCQS'OIili recourse [,0 the kl1(ll!< ledgea:ble ~rn rules and la'wEi. c$~!llb]ishe.d by . 1I:ih and His Mes~eng~r i recommended. Imams of the rlvhJslim ,Il'I<lIliun ilIre iii lact means and a,veI1UC~ and proofs [S~rV~Iil"g as hll'idg·~Sil between th~ MusHm I COnlmunJiIty ,and! the Pllop,hel P. The)' convey his 5tlitJl~ilI1rJCJl'lts

and th..:y e;>;,pla:in lts l1u~!:IJnjng - tlccul'ding l,D their IJjtihrtd and ct1lp:.l.biliti,es. ltis pos.~,ible t'hal Allla,h hils gi'!;en i!I cert 1~11. scholar superior kJ1tl'" 1,ed~~ and unclelrsrandi!:ltg 'aha11

-1'1- ."I~" ano "L~r"

l\d\io'Cat~ of Taqleed cJtaim a"mhlll:l:g 1'l"I:QOO Lnan this, in

summary Taqleed a<.hrocalcs:

I. fhcre is 110 Taqleed in the fl.nu:l~lnlll1:ntal.bc'ij.efl!i of Islam.

"Ii There is no Taqleed in issues, which are obvious. and 'Ii I1kh IUI\!'~' h~~&l tnlillSI1'l iued to the degree dun !.hal Ll'\e~ have become almost u:rulou'btc:d.

~ There is no Taqleed in those issues of the Our-an and SunliilJih v"nidi are conclusive tllrld are not tlOnH'8diicwry.

4. Tatll,;co, is, made iI~ thoslo! iSSLICS where there are cJlifre:r1;1U and perhaps Ic(mtradiclol')' statcrnents on the same issue ln the Qur'l:In ®nd SLIT'Vl1ath and \'\ihere' instt'ad of relyi'ng on mh,;'s 0\' 11 judgcmer1ll. lhe opini,on of ::'IIll expert scholar is lnl$~ed VJnd adhered to.

5. 'Ill! Mujllthid is mn inranible and rnerelore 111i,s ()pinions

arc subj.ect 'iO oorreetion.

6. I r <.1.11 cJ(.perl scholar nnds asound Ha:dW'1I to !,iI .. ,hieh ~h~re are nn eomradictiens, lhelfl he must forsake 'the OP!JUOI'II ofhb;: 1I11a:m ,and IbtluI;v l'I1C Haditl~.

So if this method is t.ilTlI",unOUIH to' Shirk. then whaL act on ~~l'1h is prot~ctcd rroln thls son .011' Shirk?

In reality, even OP1101'lCln8 o,:F TaqJeed ,engage if! a form or $01 I owing, after aU even [hey were not born Mujlahid:s. Man~' Op'il men\s llI:r'c not ~ch(\llars in any SC:Il'IS!: :or the word and even those ""he are scholars do I1Ql have the aeadernic cOlTi1ma~lId over every 1~su~. Amflg;.onist:s of Taqlleed - II 1'10 Dire 11.r.m-:1cill;.dt'lIl'S - ...... ill roUaw tlhic ,QI.ns~,rs oni;rcd hI) s hol,iill's. Hence. there 3'1'\: several comjplhliuOn-

- .

91

nf ¥~[UlilS \.I,rhere no immediatl: comrnitment is m,adt: 'In presenl p;root's, and even where there c;;; lsts SO~'1e d:iraloQ,ILIf." 01' pl"Opfs. 11QW can, a la~ persen dc~e'l"mij'l,e righl ';'-m \,'IIU"Oflg? Thus ,~VIUI' the o;ppont!nls of T aqleed Ji:IlJ up bcin~ Muqallids l(fOUOWI;I'S). As for these ,,110' are scholars, they remain under [hie obli'gadc:m to 6)1,amirlc all Lil:Ile resoueees o~, l11~ QUli"all and Sunnjilh b.eftOre reachin~ i;!I d~dsion in an issue. ~1iI Jie'lllity. h,o .... !C\ er, nor ~VCI1 ;scholilr \:;>;:3111 ineeach issue a nelJ\ nnhl;;r ~he)' ton are (]bliged lCl' resort tll U,e books ,(i'f' flqh of the early scho,lars. The on Iy clirfl:l't:nc4! is that insteed of reading beeks from I'lle H'aru~JI. Shai'lce schools ,at lho'liiIght. tile) prefer to refer to Ibn ora_,} miyah, ibn Qa)'yim. Ibn Hazm and' Qadi Sblltukall'll. Thus. ll~ey eonslder the opinions of these schola'l"f> as hdng. sound and just, ;jIInd €:o'.llsequem:l)· follcw them, If lilHmg;Oli'lsts of a leed do haw the opportlilnity to researef mId comb Ihmugh all 0.( lhej,]" resources on the QUI,oiiIJ1 and Sunnah on an iss lie. lh~y are len '\ il1:i no a,I~~rnalivt· except lO (otl-;:"II:,. This is becae C - as (he)! try [.'0 establish (he authem icilY or certain .lladi~h

- lfte:y have 10 It'ely upon Ihe o'piniolls ~l1r the scholars who

screened the narrators of Hadhl11 (.1arh 1I'l!' T:('I ""('eI), No alt~malive cxis'lS escept 10 determine \\,helnty· one nlilfrator was weak as '~.ppose>d to another except by what 'lhl! ul"nm. dee hued earlier. ~n olh,er words, decid.in,g ahat a parlicl~.!ar Hadiah is \' e:ak one has. to rasort [0 U lama '0" ',lcwh \'I'Q Tu'aertl' who de.emed li'l~ narralors or the H3:dilh w~Dlk. This is Ta'lllli:cdi ''rI'ithi regards to the opmlon of tiun partioolaf scholar OTil Hadhh, The becks, which SC.l'~C'!i th!!: narrators of Hadith, do. [lot antI' r'e300'Jl$, For [heir jllJdgem'en'l:s! [hey l1li!erely SE~te indiv[du~b;, who h d weak. mOIl1'Orlles [or oli"mr 1'Jia!".1 and! others ,.",110 i~ad SOl]d memories, Fill nhermore, where there are lWO Ilad!ill'h "I'.'hich alV q~:ite sound as far as the chain or Ilsl'Il'a1ors giO'. upon WhiU basis is prefere!~.~c given 10 one over the ether, The on I}! basis. \~rhh:h us~a:~ly g,overns lhea:ceep,taJi1,ce ,~r 01U!'

r-ladl1rhoYer afliO'['helo• is rhe opunoo of a certain sel::lollar., \ ho has deemed the less preferred I-Iadith as suspect 1.0 arrother iruerpretaticn, R,'-'!i}'ing upon th~ Ie'xpefit opinion efa soh,olar to 1111IUlk,e their 0\>\111 judgements lie:ga!'ding Ah,adith. ironically, ~s aHowed ill this Ci!"cl1l1'it:s'ta1nfCe. The Huth j,":; lhat fo II Q,wi,ng the ,opi n [on 0 f e~.pe~'l s is part and parce lor levery day lore. If we wereto condemn this very normal and mundane activity, Hfe wn~lld be become ilRn:pos~rible.

The foUor\~v~lng ~:"I ad i til re:poli1'efli from • Ad i I bn ~I ~ti m is also used to refute lhe argumems tbr Taqleed .

• A ~ i Ibn H aHm 0 said that he. came to the Prophet " wearing a: geld crossareund !.lis neck. The Pr,~phel» said;

'V 'Adi! Th'rru1' a1ll\GlfY this ldol.fmm Jil,wr.Yf!((. ,. 'Then the Pruphet ,-I"(Jtiled the ,,'{n'~Y1':

~j'fl.Ye, to,o/t tifeh' SaJl,'m(jltS QJ1{/ 9QIli!!I asl.orrls besi{les A Itah" II'

He .\',Cl{,d:

"W WU.~' 11<}'! thai they ~1'(}rshippetJ fh(!'sjff1l!Q'P~e. 'iJr.:t:i ,r:tlIOO'I" II'hufewl" tH'(!y Juade prtl'mis;vible .fO,F them, they i:u!liev,(Jcl it .10 be /J€wmi, .... iMrt ,w~,,1 M"hulf!llftt' t,~l(ty.fm-btld(], Ih&)1 Dr!U(!~,(;!d

L l:/" I .. 1.0 "It, t)

W fir! UM, ah' iL t· U"mtg~I',r

As emp,lnlsi'Sied pEt'viol;ls~,y~ this Hadih]l~ ~,ilI~S no reladon to tire ms,ue 'of foUo\l'iling an hnam. The: diffel-e·nces are exactly alS hi~ligl:l[,ed (.'l'I·!\lviOUis1y. T11,e P,eop~e of the Book regarded lJ1ilei!1" prtesU and monks as ilatwmakers. They hold the pope' as! legiisl,alota!ll'lid. cl2lii,l'n him 'to be 11iil:f"aInIbJe. This is cQllilfil"1i1led by the lE'IIlcyc,lol,edi~ Brita1llnica.:

"'1hlls, !i,~,nce :tthc P,op\'! holds. the hi,gil1lesl!. au~hol'i[,y in bel~efs, arnd docU'ines. hi.s alflhotirty i:s s;uprem.e ,elnd hoe,

h~rn$"~1f tS infallible. Th~S' $lalus {ofin'faHibi lir.YI is held by the an:h,diocesc$, colhectiveily. The pope has the same 'power to i!egis[a!oo and '1:.0 judge. as do 'th~ ,coll'~oCub.(e archdioceses. Thus" the pope reserves therighl to h:~,gidate··!~7

Those who follow th,e lmams and MlJjtahids iu'lv,B' never associated th~s kind of aUlhof'irt.-y. leglslative power and inful!ibility ro' their scholars. Thus. there is absQluteJy no. comperison between the aulhor~tjl priests. wielded over their perishieaers and thai \- .. ,hich Musiim scholars wield in disputed issues of'Islamie law,

TI'l!! followii1g stal1emlill'll of AbduU.ah ibn Mas"ood > is utilised asen obj,eotio:lf! a;gainsu Taqleed:

"No one should fellow the religion of anether scUch tI1~t if be be]i,~C$:, he believe.s and i r he dlsbelieves, he d'isbeil ieves,'

The qUesUOfi is who actually condones. this. sort of Taqleet1? Thetext concieI;Jrlf1lS Taqleed in beliefs and arlicies of faith. Ne s'ChQI!:If supports Taqleed in beliefs, and 'articles of faith, as ehi(c~dfa:~ed 'earlier. As f~r as foJl,ow'ing the predecessors in Iegal issues. Abdullah ibn Mas'ood ~ has

said; .

·~Whoev,er w~shes to follow should follow the fao,tsteps of tlho,Se who havepilJl-ssed, aw;t'l/y. Th is is beeause living people ~U"f; not immune frtJm conupti'QIJ1 [and change f0J1' the· worse]. They [those who, are worthy of foHc)wing] are the Companiollls ohhe Pr..ophet li. They were [he best of

th~s ,eo,mmunily .• .So ack,n.Qwb:~d~e their merit: follow r,heir foetsteps 'and hold fast ~ as much as possible ~ '~t1" ["hl:llr guidance and eharaeter mbflh,ey were UpOIl guid,allce:·I:!:o.

Comentlens that the hn~mslhcms:e'lves have prohibhe~ rhe foHowi'l'llg of their OP~l1iOfIS until Lhey 1,'i:JL\>'e discevered thc proofs and than if tl1eir opinions eenflict with any Hadirh, they should g,mire El'leir opinions against" the wall Sind practice the Hadlth, are of'coerse L1rUe .• However to do jus,t:lce UJ such statemeots, O,iIlie wou.ld IUlV~ to conclude that t'iFIe;y tare not 8Idd!'essed lQ people who do norpossess lhe- facu~(y of I}luhad. Ri'lrher. they were appeaUl'igto ihese sehelars who were cjl~aJb~e oJ Ijtihad. Shah WaliyylJ;l~J,ah (If Delhi has sumnmds.'Ild such staiements thus:

'Thes~ statemen:ts 'C,3n be .assessed agaiil'lsl those who have SOme ability to exercise IJti.l1ad - albeh in one single lssue; or agaillst those who have conclusively de[ermii"ed lha~ the Prophet 'loi ordered this and pn)hib.i,~ed that [tl:nd the issue is I1O't abl'Qgiililed~. This ItHly be Oich~eved by researching [he corpus of the l-tadilh, the statements of

" .

these scholars \'Vha opposed ami sllipport:cd [the vi,eVli' in

qUe'stiOl1] or this nna.)' be acqu:ked br l'tal,iSin.g that many expert !.ic:holars h'av'G opposed the view in questien which ill itself can only be SY,Ppo:r1Jed hy analogj or deduct~OA ... If such is the case. then there ~s. nereason to ;go :againsl lhe Hadith of the Prophet 4; ." ~2~

Tnls me:8i.ll~,ng is clear, The Muj~M In'iL$:ms did. 'L'Iot claim that Taqteed ·was not valid. Their own rives were

filled wil~:1I incidents ,an,d ceeaslens wl;u~r-e I,ay peopte came m' them wi/til h·~I11.dreds, c}f qur.;:.stt~.ons to which fll1Iey af:1,:;:''''~r,~d ,vhholrll~ volunteering liny proofs, Taqleeds pernlis.ibilil} w~s never questioned during 'the: era or the Mujtahids. If such a Pf:lC'tice were held to be invalid the Imams would riev·el" htlive .aUo"""'ed then:a:selves to' become its: teols, Se.vcl(ll sUllements from the lmamscategorleally state Taqleed to ~ necessary fer 'th,e nQn-Mlutahid. The foli1m;!"iru! area I~'V.'

~xamples: - ~

'''When the MwfUis. such thli.t he is: a MuJtah]d. then Ule laY]person must follow him, even if llu~ Mullij has erred iJl'l his j!!Jdg~menL This is I}II:)"\\' Hasen 'nas narrated from Imam Abu Han. 'ita.; Ibn Rusmm frlQm Muhammed and Bashir'ibl'JI Wflleed. from Abu YusIlII"BII

Imam Abu Ylll~u.lf'c>ontinue~:

"The hiY persos must follow ~J::ue juri:s'ts since lie is 110L capoo~e of undorstan.d:i t1G the Had ith i ndepCfldently. I"n

Ilbn Taymiyah reponed that lmam Ahmed Ilrm Hanba I used [0:

''''ilnstrtlot thee lay p.ewoon h) ilIsk lshaaq, AJ\'i~: Ol9aJ~d.

Abw TI18ur and Abu Mus'ab. However. he U~0d, l,o,P:rhhibil his own Con1.p8lni.(~lI'S like Abu D'3WOOCI:. U'tl1m.an Hm, Sill ' eed, Ibrahim al-Hsrb! Aibu Batkr al-Athrum. Abu Zrai afu) Abu IHaHm s~:ld Mu:sUm. (~mong others) 1.O foUow .a:n,yone. hie weuldsay to them:

" Ycu niI'liJ:!lt foUow the ,5;{DJ)fCeS, of'tbe Ql!.!r"'afl and SUIl'l1f!1h,'" •• 1' n

I~" K{f'I)IUh:' I.l1eC'o.ml1lernta'ry 011 H:ida,a.h nil the chopn:rcfFasfi:ng. 111 1\11:)0 V u.s uf cited prelt' f:i)1JI5 I)' from I.Irduyoh .. vol. 11. f!.agc 2Z6

96

This SUl.rem~n~ b:, lbn l"a/ymiJ~h nlaJ~es. h very ~te1tr 'that Ta!~l~eed was I.iIIl'SuUI~bl,e 'OI'1!'~}'f:brr those sch.Qhti";E;lswdem~ wh,o thllJ,~mtelve:s ~''''{;~:1-e jurists and h-ad the petennal ~,Q become U.ke '~hiei,r teachers in m~k.h"l§, deG~:!ll,iorlS directl:y fvcml'l d1le Qur 'an and! Sunneh. As. for those '~!;r&uo did l~'Ot pOSS~S5 (he requisite qua I i'flcal io:ns. they <'Ire .:ih"O:!Jlgly i~::np!l:oreQ b) f'QUa:w 11, MLUmhi(d a~M:I pr,1).clirC~ rIJqleed" in. fa~t. T,~tq]~~d for t!he !10~'H:l.f.::hollflr ''iJ..f;QS 50 @'\1erwh:~1n1Jl~.gl}' a.tc~p~e:d 1JJmQn,~t l'lu~: 5£hohml tha~ ~nly the MIl.I·l~za,illl, disilg~,'ee(d wilt&! ~he idea. Shoykh Sainlddnl1.A~ll1Qd:i wm.tc:

"The lay perso WI and tne s:clwblr who does not possess theabl ~i'lY ro e~e;rClISI!: ijtih~d ~ ,~,I,thougb they m,a;y pQssJess some !,'eJiab~e skills '~rn certain ~ss~e~ .. mustloUow tnt oJj;lU'L'Iil(:ln of a Mujtah~,d: ,a~Qrdi.ng to experts '~n_ principles and founderions {tJ!)ot~I). Some Mu'tazilah of Ba)ghdad. have differed on this issue and have prlJhibliteli! Taqleed

,;' I!.. - -- 'j. 1.133.

eve'll l!!ir ti iese pefrp.le.

'l]t has be"e~ ntifii'ated from eertaln Mu'taz:lIs.h that i,[ is no~ pe.rmissible fe:r a I~y person to foHow the Icrp,inion ef'a scholar lUltHhe knows [he r~so~"i],'!g behind his opinion, This ts wrong b,~a.l,ll~e the lay pJ!rsQ,n hasao 'feCOlU96 to underSlariJding: d'lle reasoning ul:1dl he has :smdied f'G:r several years;; has ac£uall)l p~rt.1Cip8Iood in the drSUl~iions, \~ith j[lris[sand ether s~holars;Il;~s de~e:~QP:ed ',an U!iliJ:l~ntalilding f~r <1lU'1liQgy and realised whai.isll;loifrect 3111'l1d what ISIflOt. For a lay persen ~o igQ through aJI this is :subjeGlirtg him to c~rry

I].l UP.ka01.P!tliAllka,n. by Aamo<cli: wI, >t, :palgll' i 9'1 al~o ,~~ Mu~ta¥oo.f AI.Ollamj;i: !,i~L 2, PElge L24

;1'!: iburo«:r'l, 'which is heypnd his c[},p'aljiliti~s <lind tha~isl ~1iPt

; -- Ib.".- •• , ""'0"" 11"-', :,nfl

!VII:: m'VIILI"'~ I,t .. I", ,I'" '~[I",

"fhe~e has been a difference of opinion - ~mol'!:g the MlIjiahids - ~$lO VIr hether e! prb'rSQI' who ls cspable of ljtihad can f"OBC!w aJIH)thtel"'s oplnien. Khatih ~( !Baghdad ha~ mlnf1~OO Abu Sufyall R~~ a yiing '[hal ind~~:d he may elo So ~~,d lmam Muhammed as SB!ii~'l:g [hal hie may follow the QplniCll10f semeone who is more ~nowl'edg¢a'bI~Hh£II1' he. I liS Sh~j'kh [bn l"a;ymi:xa.h IltfiS also n:amu~d this opinion Fmm ]mmT! Muh!l;lJlmed.lm<!n1 Sh<l.i"fe.e and lmam AJ:lIn~di ~I\'lth say thai this I:],Qlt allowed .al 0llI11.1~" M.il1Jlian~ Abdul Hal ef Lueknow has recorded: {\vh~ lie irnI'Qduci'!~lg S.hM1S.U~ A emllh [-l~J,awa:~r) ]mam lmem Abu Harnl [ill's opinion:

'~I't has been narrated from lmsm Abu Hanifa thal it is I',enrl"!lSsibte :~(l,L" <'I M.ujtah~.d [0 f9111Z1w 'PlneOIr:l.e whoismore kl'lJowl~N]_gt~bl€~han hii'it'1sel{,·ujI

The detalls of dds dCbl<'l:trs cam: be found. inlJnt bocks ·of Islamic principles of jurl.spt'l.!!del1JCe such as gJJ-M:lJis:wsfa of AJ~G'ha,za.~i ad F~lvatihl1f RabamlJt. ~n bd~:f, ather ~~I1 a handful or Mu~tazUah s'C'ltioiars" 110 (me has dis~greed 'that a ~a)' person sheuld :I"'~at:lice Taqleed,

'HOl¥ tI,oes a lay pen,o]l I'f(ogn lse a M:mj tahid

The essence O'fTaqIeed is tha,t a person who doesn't have the c.apabi.lit.y ~~ reacha d~,isio:rl b.aseet on Ute Qut~n

.a;_nd SUlnmtth 's~Qu~d 3idh~'re,' to an expert s.c:I'lo~:ilIr and lIeiy UJpOfi his jLldgem.ent A questlon may arise fro'm Uli:s lla'xpfal:!!afi.o:l'll. That is, if the person 'foi'lowing has IIilO acad~m]c m~r,il, ho-w 'is he to determine the expertise of the

he i k' rd &': II ·_,,.,..I3K I ;,r.

sch,olarwhom' e a's as ~',1iIg ann to OWln5' n response t"O

[his qw!slion. we \\fiU s:u.ffice with an excerpt fr,om Imam Ghamli:

"lf i,t is asked, ,2 la~ person may base his ehclee 011 ~~sYmpdol1s and hence. hema,y be decei,'"I~d b) .,p,pean:m,ces:. Thi _ mary learl him to glve prrefere:!:'u:e to a lessee trnam over one: who, is. more suited. S.O if he us aHowed. to exercise his jlJdgeme:i1t (in choo,s,ing an Imsrn) and acts upon his assultllplions. wihy can't he then act IlIPQIi'i !!lis assumptions in the iss;ue under discussion? Understanding the various degrees Qf sch'o!arship is very intricate and a lay person cannot be the best judge tor that This c]uestio!1l ls -valle!. Our answer is thal. if a I1QI1Iphy;siciaifil., whose: ehild 'has become sick, decide. to :admi:l.lisrer medicine as he sees fil wi.ti be held re:spon:s.i'blc and will be guilty o,r u1msgl'essi09L If he consults <l IJbysicia;l1. he will 1101 be lie.s.ponsible and wi'll not be tra 1'1 5 gl"C,Ss,j ng. 1 f there are: two ph ys icians "0 (own and (hey ~differ over the preseriptton, then if the fath~r of the son decides 10 mke the prescriptio·1i'T ohhe !,es\'lIe]' over t!hat lofthe 'b~u.e'!" phy&iC]slIl, he wHI be held accoulI:1itable, He Uhe father) '\loui~,d 'know of the better physi,c]M, by merely llstening to theeplnlens formed bypMicntsj b)' the lesser phys,icioo 5 ret'e,1I':I"al to d1e' better pllyskhm and by overwhelming signs wl,~c:h will eonvlnee him (the father) tM' rhis ph:ysician is better than the other. The same, is 'the case for choosing the best scholar 'frorril several, There is ~H1 need to· look into, the is.slIJcitt!elf GUSi! a'S it 18 not necessary

99 to IQGtk lmo the prescrlptien or medicine], This I1'IMieh. [he lay person is CJ'U~l"e ul'p:lilble {I,r dcrill:l; alild dettrrl1"1riil'llil1lg. [~ ~s not proper tOg!OI against lJ1,e oven~'hehningassum,(io:Ji'i merely lJec:~U1s~ 'of likes t=ltild dislikes. This is rl,,€: most GI ·rL'ecl opinlen - in eur view - arirB the mOISt S~li.t3:t')le for 1.'egu~liIrting peopie in GOd",tollst::i.ellslf1Iess {TacW .1)1 aJ~d Iicc~;uluab i I :ity:· Il\,l

Taqleed was P["ev;,'de.J]'lt dwing til~e time of the ('(:lr:rlip<l!11ions of the Prophet :ill Companions who were not albl e 10 iPrarc[]c€: ljdhadl ~h!3mse'lves referre~d to those who were ~chohus. It hili: been argued b)' some quart:ers thlU TI~I~~ presumes aIack of knm\l]edg~ (Of ignor,ance) wludl, IS, oomrary to~he belief of tilt; Ahl.~e Sll;lll'lJnSl~~ that all COMpan~ons should be re1fefed. Assooi,ati.ng ~he COI~p~m~ns W[U1 Taqleed is Umtamount to d~ cl~ring ~nem a~ dde~lIve and hence unv,lorthy of ron~wil1g. A II lhe Comp()!!1I'OIliS ef the Propnc[ '< had knowledge and they were ~" j~l"i5t~ in t [h~ir ,own l·i.gb~.I..l() his crili'G[sm is 11u~rel.Y cmot!onaL No~ bell'iJg a ,_.fllll'ISl !I1Qr a Mujlahid is not a blc:r:msh. 011 ~l1e.s pe.1"S(1nall w , CQnvel'~efy, bell1! a jurrst and or a MUJtahld does ROI.guarantee merit in the .EyeS (l,r Al.lah, A lIan ~ys~ "·C,enainJy. the most. no:rl1le amongst you _ ~ith AlJlah • IS h~ 'who ts the most God-colJ1sCious (the one who has (n,e mes _T3q~l.'~ not the most kinow:Jedgeab]c. A persQnpoS'~~u'lg a,1 '! !:h'e e,leme:rorts of Ta:qwa" but ~dev@:'d ,of any ac:.ad~:mR~ me'!'1it is nor 'oo.Lls,i,dere~ :nawea fo'r lh,at reason. AU ac~no\,"'ledge tha.m [be Comp,a:nioliils were of the very highlesl l'aqwa ~ which ~s WI'!!' ultimate diisdnc'tion -h~

100

Islam. TheYl,ver,e as fIl co:rnnmni,l)" the bw;[ commU[rd'l. ;lifter the Prophl.:ts. But to ass-time that all [he Companions were jUD'isl1! is latan}' aga\1:tl'st the Qunm:

·~.s,o if a iWntin~.H1it from ,evell'}' exp~diti,on r.em,~in.ed be-.lind (and 11:01 ,p.31rtidplDi.ie· in .J.hl~d). So thil.t ithe'lr-t oiJ.ubJ del'GE1e' thl:l:iIiI!'loehres to u~Q!derst:nlldmg: rel.iginn dtlll:y cII;J,uLd admonisb ·tltleir peopl.e en lbl(dr return so 'that &t!.ey (tbloSIi!' nhm ... l1ing) lIDay gUfudi tL1.cDlseh"e3 aga.inst evil."

(- u r.ab ),,1- T'allJlba!h -: U3')1

This verse ,iinstructred the C:omp.anio'l1's that one group should study while the other is engag,ed in bl'linle, Ul!'ldoubtc-dl:~y. this ljI~sun'iJe~ thai 'heir W.IS one group """,11.0 wCluJdI kno~I-'mo:re dum the other. Thus. A llah hiTmilel f has diffe.fiYnda1ied between the Sci'll)l,lIrSi amongst the Cempanions and tbe· notl-scholar.s. This is AUah 5 law and oneshculd seek refu,ge fron'll associating: thls law \vitli'l detects. Likewise, the CJtpl.lInatiol'l of the verse: "So these whQ deduce among them ca." know (;lLnd come to some 00 nclus icn), .? has also been discussed, Here again, Allah himself nas diFterefn~at.ed be>tw:e-e:n those Cm1L'J.panions who could deduee and these who could not imllerly, there is the s·m~emen,l. of the Plt."op!l'lel Mu'hatn!i1llf!d ' :

1<11 ",fnRi~a. TIrmidhi, Abu Duwooa, /lm :UU)tJh. lJaromi froml Za3d i.bn mobil (MiJhkao.f; \l'O'i. I. p .. ~lS)

IQ I

This sfah:mcl1lwa,s a.ddres:~ed p:rijmadly to the Com!'l~njons. Two thmgs ID"'e clear from· -lhis HadiU~ .. The first is tlUH there Irlay be people who narrate H:adiitll but they" mny not b~ e)li.peru in its ullderstanding, The second is that. MHI unden;;ta:nding thto: lmplic..;"Iti.on pi the laciliL11 is not '3 I d,cfecl $ine~ 111, Prophet Jo'!i bJ.e.ssecl both groups \l,,!iUlI his dua' Lof liff;11• TI1I' truth is that there were many who profited fi"Om the magltiZl~c company of the Prophe[ . There '\'I.'!:'1:e gnau leaders !ike Abu Bakr and OnUf ..::: ' And then. there: ~1,.erl3 shnple HedolJims li~,e Aqra" bin .'~ahis. ~_I1d Salmah l bin .. akhrnh .:,.., The simple Bed·otJJl,rIi$ ~lmlbhshed their t honour alld virl!.IJr1~ by being Camparrions of he P.rophel . ( Their vlrnie is such tllaJ{ theussnds or gfeatd~Ci,lars. end II Mujtahids whc;) came after them} cannot equai their I excellence, but 'LO eount lhe~ Compal1[ons ln the same ~l s.'Cademic rat1iks as Abu :Bakl'. Omar, AU and! AbduUah ibn ~j M s'ocd is denying- the aibvi(Uls. Shaykh ibn Qayyim has I written than frem among rhe 124·,{)OO Companions of the Prophet :, oldy some' l 'J~) COIl'flp'-'L'I1iol1s actl]alJ'~ have j reeerded opinions W:ld Fahvas, l.j~ Agaun. 10 assume uha,l the j VCl_5'[ majority of the Companions felt. lnecmpetent Oli the basis of gaining knowledge from another Cempanieu is ~ r,r.eposto:rm,l's. These. were people who ne 'er had ~ imp~dim:~m:s to lear'l1iI1g. Vle: h~ve ~lready enumerated J sev('u·.al eX:illmples. D,n[ fact. we have evide1'1IC0 thal some of [I. the Ccrnpanions learned from (1"113 Companions of the j Crl'mp~ni(lI~s. 'Alqamah ibn.Qah; N~kha'ee Wi.1iiS a Tebi'een 'j (Gi comprullot~ ,o,f a Companion) and a snrdem of A.bdullah • iblll Mills'ood. Seve.ra.1 Companiens sought kl1~,wloole from

,j

102

~ A Iqamail.I';lll has been established <Irr!Qtlgil scholars for ::lome Lime that the C{Ulj,pfIJllIi:ons pracliced T~qllec-{f.I'IJ

TI~'e Taqleedl of alii ilildi'vidut!ll and fo •• owillig Olllit s IN"birus and filiudes

It has been discussed earlier Iha1 both. absolute Taqleed and Taq,leed of JlIiI individual i,s; permissible. However, when the Icve~ of mora I in[egr;'(y and ccrnpUam:::e With the spi:rH of the Qm"an aud Bunnsh deteriorated. scJtol.u~ issued a Fau\ia confinIng Taqleed '~O' all individua! OI1~)'. The aUitudoe, which the scholars hoped 'EJ:I curb with lnlls Falilwa. was ebuse of ambiguous issues in the name of Islam and Islamic legislation. Today. the whole Muslim \\ioi'~d ~s if! ,a Frenzy ef lh'itl kind of permissiveness ,me sot:Dlled modemisatien. [11 (he name ar Ijlihm,d and fro lhinki:ng the edifice of clessieal MI.I.:lim scho,larship is b~il1'lg dlsmsntlcd. Academic insrhutions have :t:reen erected to, bolster absurd inrerpretatlens !'egalisil'lB proi"r'1liscUil)'. profane photography. dancing, US LW}' and music. ArtIcles qUQli'llg the Our"In and SUI1!l1L11 to jllstify such positions have prollfsrated througheut ihe Muslim world.'-l5 D~noun,cii\g Taqleed has been higl~ Hgh'U~d as one of the

IU 1(ldhltifuwl UI!/fie., !:I} Dhillmbi ltd IIIf}'(JIIl/,III"(HI,u ~ AIm NU'oiiinl

I~~ Th f hi I' II'

t purp05e 0:, t is PIlS!>3gl." ~!; Uit~fil' 'i 10 hlg 1 uti1~ th:~llh~y WI!h:

~hola:;snlt(ll1on~scJilolars; mnong lhe Companions, Qadi 'ISM ibn Abbun ha~ s.Mlecli tblI~ if au Oll)i nion or II ('O!llPIII'I icm i:s seen ~s ng;l'i'u!ll tile' I,ega~ PF00e:ss ofalmlog)', ~h~liIll\~ Con~panitlil"S; {lpif1l~ol!l ~tmulcl be W!S4ilrded. This S!ta'll!lu~n't has b-eeo ... ·,ene-mendy di&D.3'rdei:ft by seaelers who &:3nt1e lIltler hi m" lh.!.: del nils of this m ax;im c:;umot be ~)llpln in,ed' i n lfj is ~ rt:alis~,

r~, PllImintlll wrikrs irllhiis calTllplIigp im:~udQ'~uh'lI'nm~d Aabduh and 11 rc~ Sllldent Rash it! R:tda

lO'3

many means '~itlla.chiev:e this. pl'lJlfalle gcal, lronically, In the effoirt 10 denounce the works ,of H'Ie cia sieal scholru'S, these reFormers have ill'!~dv~rt'eritly cOl'tfirmed the fgres.ighl of the very same schulers 'Ii'ho had issaed [he Fatwa cen<fl!.lri~s ego.

hey have, become the very proof or unbridled PUrlilll'L of one's cfllpri'ces and passions. As hung ,a::;, the TacOeed Qf a!n Dfildi\lidual 'I. as the norm ~I:I Muslim communltles .. these ideas v \fere nul given any due attention. Vu 1,1"1 eriilbi I il,' ~.O un fo,u Il1Idl~ ~;l"Opflgal~ da alla p~ udo-ime I h-;alk~!l.1 ela i m s d r scholarship lin [he contemporary era Ihas given rise to [tie acceptance rlHiJ Taqleed of an individual is forhidden in islam. The stal-e ef affaili'.~ todfliY is ll"li'll ;established principles of lslam and iS5'Uf?S which are cafl;c.lusively forbidden 0)' the Q'LIr"~n andunrtah have been targeted and tr~~ted with skepticism <:Inc even scorn ..

The Tl!lq:l,eed or ,3Jn :indivtdu:al and new i~lIIl~ ,

Arguments have been advanced 'thlu Taqleed Qf an ill'ldividual impedes soluuens 1:0 modern dev'eiopm\!nhl" he IlJISl'o!IM [0 such n eonternlcn is lbal modern issul1's. whleh t:IenHll1d Ijtihad~ should be ci,elegaloo 10 ~Ii expen schelar w, ",'nose aqleedl is very ~incrcnll from that of the I~"y PI,'UStJlf'I, Such an expen scholar would be abl,~ lo sHl the principles of ~iI'l'l ier Ml!.lljmhids and resolve new problems billSed on the same', This, ~Yp'e of !jLihad has been prevalent in an ages eV~'11 \l~litl'n the concept and practice of the Taqleed of ani if'tdivi,~lual. Mor~{I'I,IiI':D". scholars of one S(;11 011) 1 may unite upon solmions to new problems, \ hieh arise. Whe~ Iher-e is ,8. severe need WO'f an imm~dia,j.e na~aonal or social problem. scholars are given le-e\'~v.ay and hence. ~hley can resort '~Q the Fatwa from another 5<:1'100,," This is t~e reason why,. in Lllle, Htm,afl schoel. scholars have resorted to tc,lIowing ihe ,opin~ol'l or Imam Ma~ik ln Issues ,~ik~ ac~'e'pl,i!l1lg wages and saiaries for lea.e<hing the Qur",an.

Itl.J

making legal IlI'IOVISli"In:;; for divorce l'or a wife whose husband is 110&\ or \\,:hose hu::.bBI~d is, impotent This has been elaberated by Malilantl Ashmi' Ali Thanvl in his work .. 1/-flflYCltul' Na_j~ah Iii Hi(i't1tr~1 'Ajl;a. If there is a sodal need fo'r Muslims to find latitude in Q certain issue. an expert s:c:holur may go to any or .he rour Madha,l'is to find ,il sO!utiOl:'l. U11der I~O COli tHti ens is the pra,C:l,rce o,f "Talf~t1'q" permissible, whieh is tlCl use lhe F~lwa offered by one Im .. m and foUoW'ilng another lrnsrn in the same unit of i ballidah. lndlvidusls axe advj'sed to seek the advtee of expert sehoiars fhrough a euuncil, Taql~ed of ~U11 individl~u~1. in reality. 11al5 never rendered the ccmrnunity insapable of resolving new lSS'l.,l~S:~ rather it has ~lJns.'ullnl'y been ill a state of nllX BInd development address'jng !'Ie",,, issues l"or more than QI milllcnnilllm"J~(i it is inl~re:Sling 10 nowlh.at some comemperary orfficn:tillilists have made [he SI[I1H~ anegat;m1.,·rl'

The Hanan School: or Thought ~lJlId Ahildlth

The co't'1Ire:nliolJ'l l11M. the Hanaf $(;,11001, of lholl:g!u bases its, F.auwas u.pOI'il weill;: Al1adith narrations i:s sheer ign(mmce" R.eflection u:FlO!~ (he books or Hanan Fiq,h im!parda~ Iy would leave no room t'm such an assenien. The fo.uowing collections of proo,fs fair the Hansf Flqh ! 1'll.Isrr:ilt,e- the deep ,and profound level of HacHth s.cho]atship current amongst the foUo;",'e'!~ arlit!! Hanaf checl of juri sprudence:

N 111e deoolb of'nhe nUlihoos to errlve aL Ihi!:>.C solutiO'llJl c:::m be IiJtfnd in IIlilabor;:tIC wo,rks Ilk~ thllt of Jibn ,.\bi Deen and lihe: \'~lork or Maill:lJl:l Ashrnf Ali iihmtion,l;ldi abQvc

1.,17 ~Fe~ to MMlglllcllne:ry \\lalL '~s~mmh; 1),olllit.>3J 1'holl~ltl •• dhn.l:;urgb Ulltiv.ci'S.h}' Pn:1iS and N C()!Ii~!P'O!:l. A Hisll:lfj' ofbillro]ii; Law. Eclinb'lll"g.h Unl\',er;:ilt}' Press.

1t)5

,,)hti,rf1IH(I 'tmi 'fl-ilath~".. by lmam T hawi J. ~lllud Q'ade,e"" hy .~h(1J 'kh !f:mHllmmn j\'C1!rhul Rart/it br Sl1aykh lalu ',"of

I·.!uwhurul .. ln-:Vtl'li, Sh,~\'kh MOl'r#nl Umd~;wl ~ri. b.l·Shtlykl~' 'Aiui

li(~{Jmi ,MuiMm. h,l' Slmykh SI1'UhM,' .-jhmed Ullllmmi fJudhlul Majhoot}. n,l' Shaykh Khulil .. ihm~d .~·Clh'U'r.Jp~1I'1 ,II" 't:lf(li'~1 Summ. n') 0 ..... :frc'.pkh 8i1mlwi

"uhhd Buri. hy,'i;hlf;l'kh Shah, lnwor Kht1,~!/lIjljd

Then! are some rundaancntal poims which d~m3Jld dlllril"icatinn. Sound ! hl.dhh are not exclusive to l1lfkh,wi a1~:d MWilim. there are many books or l-laduh ct'I'nul'il'ling thousands of sDund I-iac:lrth. The b:llsis ror <t sound I fadilh is lis jJJhl:1l'1"1 or Il(iUTs'tltnS (lsuad) and texl (,ll12i!ll'1l). C mpik.:rs of Had1'ith ether than Bukhari tmd Musl:im have esta,bl ished sensnds (,pl:U:1'1.!11 of isnad) ~1S. :ilu'Ollg as the ones present in their respective collectiens. Ahadith nOl .found in tn,t! collections of Bt~1t."ill'; 01' tlus/I,,.,, are' nol deemed wefllk b~ ~'inlJe of 1]01 being included in tlhe u,'\IO collccuons, this wmuld reduce the science 01' Hadith to total conjecune, Ah3.dith narrated by rransmiuers lllil'~r than /Juklwri and JfuI;/im are present ,in certain book at' Ah,adilh \'Ilhi,ch are inf.ac( snonger in their isnad lilan even the two most so,und compilations of Hadil,h. For instance, l~fI Muj.r1/1. \vhh;:h is the s;i~,>;tJh ohhte ca:rH:l.l'ltc3] books of Hadith - has Lnll1SI'I'l,iued Ah'!l,dith., \,vhicf11 in some reg3rds ~i'e superior to these of his predecessors. The sl,:mdardl, 'then~fol'e of measurjng the aWlhel'lticily of ~ny f-),adiEI, is not wn,C'lht:f it is present [n Bykkari or ~"'Jlislim, bun rather the suanclards crt'tpllo)"ed by these 1~'O' ~,reart seholars 01' H!lIdidl themselves, If a eerlailrl' Hadrrh meets tbe same criteria as Bukhar,i m Muslim and is not neces arily fmll1d in the tw'O l.:ulleClions. this Uadiuh nO!1e~:hd,ess \v<ll.lld be .. e~~tr"dd as sound. Um:Jel'S~andin.;

this princi'rh~ ,of Hadilh would diss:~p3:lIe: the SOllle"l\'11'H misdirecrcd criticism agalnst the l lanaf fiqh inrmediately.

One of the main reascns why [here are so man}' differences or opinion amongst MlIjtahic.ls in particular details of tile 13\'\1 is that the method of allalysc5, r~8Sril1ing and deduction, \dU) , IF there is an a9pafC!'I[' ccmradlction between l\\U II<1dilh.o'lf1u~ Mujtahid may base his. cpinion on [he stronger or the two Hadilh - even though beth Ina) be sound in 11:f),muion. Another Mujlfihid. hewever, I'l'l:ay base hls opinion on the rule lhm IIU'I Ibdi~~l should be d]san-cled even though iL ma:~ be \\,eak in narratlun, Hence, 11iI,1: laUier M uj lO'h icll "ill anem pl to reconc i 1 e both Had ith by ilfllerprctililg one as the basis and the other as it" 5 centlngent, regardlc s of 110 .... sound or weak any of [he hl,', Hadith m<l.y be. While yet another ~ ... 'I ujUlbild m~y base his opinion or the Hadlth upon the. practice of U~~ Cempaniens and their followers. Thus. eVi,,::r) MUJi1)hid wi]] 1ld<lpt his pari iCM I.rr mel hod eud noUlC call ccns m-e th e ot herr-a I" aoond'tmj~~g Hadkh, Imam Abu l-ifulitaaUempled to reconcile ~~(,l1nU'adiclory Hadiih .and hence endeavored [0 apply ever)' Hadith as long us il \H'IS not fabricated. Weak H;ntlith have also been utilised \. hen 11\0 othee Hadith w.a.s n,und to C l'i'I:rliLdiel it. !;l\ en rhOlJ,gh i~ rna) be agnilFl l~gal reasoning and analogy, for example, the issues nof wudu breaking i one laug'11s ill salaat and Zak.aa~ anhonoy 'I~e has lavcured even lh,~uSh their s~.m,I"CC' Hadlth is weak, Rul ing Oi,'er the authemleity of Hilditl, is in tt:i~~r ;iI. process (If Ijlihad, This is why '[his issue: has always been disputed mmg.ngSl. tl1.c seho lars who allullys\! \ hI: n21'il'atlOrs '0 f Had tth . The l;i'('fY Hadirh. which is regarded as sOlJ'ml ,md good b) one hnam of lfadirh. Ina~ be regardedas weak by another. There are occasions \\ here lmarn Abu l-Illllifa regarded one Hadirh ;!IS wC).J'thy of applicatioa and (.nre' same I-'Jadiln \,113::1, r~Bardied as unreliable 'byanolhcr Mujmhid. lmam Abu

un ",I:-I.u, if a was ,0 Mujlahid himsel f '~,hci\lZ·ihre he is net bO!.llfll,~1 f", the rulings or Ql.rn~r MlDjtahids. Occasuumdl> <l 1~~fJclillh. 'which W,iiI'S trans:miUe:d to lrnam Abu Hani rlil! \\, itJ!l fJl seund nQrrl.'Idon. b~c.:mR~: ,w,eak after it passed him in the chain r narrators. In other w.prds. 'the chain or narraters upto Imam Abu J hll1i fa is; Sti'OI'1Q. hl.H the chain from Imam Ab.u r, Ianifa to othljf scholars became weak hi.'C(lu e of a \'II'Ca:k R3nlllOl· entering lhe i~nl.:ld. This sequence of events did Plot alter lmem Abu Hanifa's r~~t,,('Ini~lg_ ernetlmes tt Hrndilh mal bIZ: narrated wi~h ilIIv .. -e~k ,thall'll nr narrators b) one l'I'L~i:li'n~ however Ilhe: sal'l'1:e h1ad,~h CM be traced baek witl, a. rs-nului chaul~ 0)' ilJI:1Olhcr Imam, For j:mU0I1Cl'. the HadiLh. whieh says 'lh,~t "Whee v er has an !mam 011 sa,lalin), the Im:nu's recnation is enough'· has been narrated wilh a we~l chain. Then. we find IlulI in IIm1l11 laha\,\j's and Ahmed ibn M'Llll'ljie,e's narrations. this J laditl: ts , en sound. Occ~suomdl~' a I Jadilh nruy I 1,;' weak In hs chain. 11m since there ,8J1c' several dl j'l'f:rcm chains nerrared the ~ ladith, sclll001a~ wil ~ accept the Iladhh as valid. TI1,iS' eflltt!~or~ of liad~(h ts knovvJ']1 as "Gornl because or nlhees", Th is type or Hadith is nOL 11 \I.!!;;:ak If.:tdilh and ltH~rl.!rOI:e valid Ihr ,appncal i 0 11 w it h i n a:r"lt8S 0 r F iqh ,

There I': no doubt several Hedlurs \\ hich are ill foacl weak. Tile weakness ofthe l ladith is (lclC'j'tni'l~c(1 b~ a \\~ak uarrater present in the s,aml(lllm\~vcr. it is nlot neccssar, Ihal, evel1'" weak nal1J11JlOI" J1~1,1'f::HC'd n weak i I .. dith cllt'l1lin~c he 11l:,~rmH.:d, III, t~c cireumsrance or coliaborating and supporting evidence W stft:llglh'en 11 'v'n:lIll [adi'll). j [ l,\ il ~ be !;Ic'ce.r~H;)d and applied. Fo'r exumpic. jrlhcrt!' is a \\e:l,k nar:tll'luOIl in Ii book on l:adhh ~Iron \,hicl, the ("OIl1pil!lion~ and their SlltC;QS50,I'S 11i!1 C "'(ll.·d. lhL!nl til i:> ,ill'tlclkc demonstrates that [he \\ !.:aj.; nilrra(,O,r has indeed narrated correctly. This is wloy the I ~"dIl11 "11 ere is nn will i!.11' li1(!' heirs (who have pre-assigned ~Ji'I'~resi'n inherimncc]" have

N:Cf1i aceepted by ,al i the M ujtah ~d:s - even the ugh the Haditl1 is regarded weak il, its lIlalf('3tion. ~D1 fact this precess can give preference 'lO a weak [ ladith over a SlfOIH!

, ~

(.I1iI.~, For L!'--."ampie. the Prophef'S to daughtiCr . .laina.b"" was married to Abu Aas wfl.o did not accept islam lmrnediarely. but did so I,aler on. Tile question amongst schol,arn; is that. did the Prophet t. renew his l'B,arria:g,.e contract, or did he allow them to live as husband and wif-e wlthout doing so. The n~rrfllio:n from. Abdullah ibn Omar ..... says dUll the COIUmct was renewed with ;JL new ,rnahl."; while the narratien from Abdullah ibn Abbas 'v< says ciherwlse, The naJl:'t"3tion ti'om ~bn OI'1,ar is weak whereas the one nem Ibn Abbas.". is sound. lmam Tirmidhi, who ~v,u a !1"IaSl:el' of I-iadith. gave legal PI',,,, rerel'lCC'lO the \\ eak Hadith over the sound one because orthe ~'ractiC'e of the Compan.~Ori:s{...I"S

The objection agains; the Hanan point (If view Is seldom clue to scholarly s~udy father doe to a lack of understand i fl'g en di,l] eena i n i ns,tances: even a w~nl. of attempting to understand the Hanafl pOil~,l of view. Certain scholars have rallen into [his tl'ld,iITt!l'ence. For instance. Maulo.na :Sam iu~s crhidzed ]malim Abu Hal1lira~'s stand on the issue' of otTel"il1g salaat with due: diligence and proper C0H1p05U1'e:

';A man was fold by the Prophet "if to repeal 11~J:s salaa:t three times aRtr he had fai'lcdto co[nplete with proper fl:lnil1.qu1Jiry and eomposure, The PrrQphet's 'l words 'll .. 'ere: "Pray for you have 110t prayed,"

I~ ri~ JdlNr tif ntmlrdh~, Th(! ~1Ibo;ve I.'i ~iA:d1 e:o;;am.ple is am ~y ali II,; :;;~nl'~iC' of the rule illcn\iol1(lt!, Oliterwisc, the' HBnall opinion 011 II, is issue i~ ve.r~· di ffercnt.

Hi9

Tlris means that the s:alaat hag no legal value \\'hrich is the O'pilf'iion of tli1le Sha,' fees 311llti the scile,ll'Ir_ ef 113d~lh. The Sh~Hee sctuoiars say lh:u once tlie legal delinili{l11 of mku'llild sajdah is known, we cannot accept the imerpretalion of the Hadirh. nor Ca!11 we commcra mill whefncr the salaat has been accepted or nOl:,I.j.q

The Hallaflis,. of eoerse make 1'10 such elaim, I ]anal1s m~ewi:s.e daim that sala"t sheuld be r~peared if ll'3nquililJ a:rl'd con'ipos,~lre ls notestabllshed i11, ruku '~nd saJd~h. as impl.ied by Ih~ Hadith, The' problem IS that the respectable critic has, failed to undersrsnd "he Hanalls posuion .. Imam Abu Hanifa d_i,fferentiates between whal. is, F~l'd (obrig.rtory and an essential 'cQmponem or an act) and Wajib 0,1" \l'\fi'ial is mandatory 'but. "~n !l!'1, essential component of the act. Other Mujluhids- do not aeeeptthls divlsion. lmam Abu Hani fa's ruling, is lhaJI, those cOnlpO>rlenls \Nhich are Fard have to be OOnCh.l!5,~V'e[)' estabnslb.ed' from ihe QLlr's't:l and SIlH11'1.a.h whe,rea_s, those which are' Wajib are established by the scund Hadillh even 'with ~ singl.e n~lIjt'ation (a had Aha.dith), If serneene misses eithel' a Fard {for lnstenee recitailon of the QlIir'an) or 111~:Sse~ a Wajib (like nor Q1ffering s¢tl~al with uRnQu~lity) sal,o.t will sbll have to be repeated. Wha'l ere the legal ramlflcations of this grea~ ha.:il"'"'SpHttlng nuance? The distinction ]s that one who misses a. Fard will be regarded as someone who luts fill iss'C,d &lis entire salaat. All the harsh Hiles ofaper31on who, misses salaat-« in a Muslim sta!le:- will be levied against him. This is because he has 'l'lol ~rfcrmed saJaat [e~~lly and for this, person it is nat 8. questl on of re;pei;'lt'ing the ital aat, but rather a questi on of offer,i:ng it. The one who misses III W.aj]b wiU net be' 'regarded as someone 'who has. missed his salaat s'jnce l.egaUy he has offered his salaat- but incomplelely and

I U'

hence he iF.It:lt'd:!i ttl, rep~at it. This m~anil'1lg; is actually fmmd in the Hadilh itself Imam Tinnidl,l i narrated lha~ ",.hen the Pl'upln!t - told this person to repeat I~is salaar, the (ompaflions fo,und ihts 10 be di fflcuh that someone ~ 110 u lfers his salallil U 1'1 til i 5 ca sm .. ~ marme!l: we uld 1:1<: n:g2lI'de:d as one 'l;I,''ho leaves salaat, WIl!;.!'I'i the Prophet .. emphasised 111,1; intp0rlanC'c of lraiiliqlll~ lil)'. after which ure perso:n repL:a:l~ his !ia.:lm~l. the Pm'p!iel . said:

··'When .\IOU have dione this. then you have completed ymll' salem, If J0I,II reduce anything from this, )leu \, ill ha e reduced 1;'011'1 your salaai,"

Rifarah. the narrarer 0 this Iladlth remarked:

"This 5U'1itemem of the Prophet ~ was far easier [fbJ!' l!'le Cernpsnions to tolernrel than the previous one [where he said Unn 1'113 hOld not offered his salaet], In (his statement there is the impression llial 1'101 ~H of llle salaat lUIS been annulled. ~.I~U

Th~ Hanafl ul.ama have appi'ied the r-:ladhh ln irs cmirel~. The first pari by st1l'l.ing that omiuin~ a Farad win render the Salaat int::oanp'lete limd tiqh demal"lds that. ~i1e Siillalilil be repeated, and the second part is applied rOll" missing a Waj,ib, and therefore will n01 be r!!gm'ded. ILeah n i Cit ~ I),. as m isslng safaflll com pi l!Eefy. SUG:h exam pies illustrate the deep level of schoiarship required 1:.0 understand eaeh Fatwa of the Hanafl r~ClJh, Ehlbor,ati'eon upon subtle points c.lca!rly uncovers tile ~lpallhyb~ certain q'!I:U:'1fi'etS to understand the roM:~ming fen l~Te 1P00sitiolls of rhe H.<!UIl~I1, Ilqh, Hence.ahe comment: "We C1IDnot accept the inu';:l'preta,tion of tile l ladlth, ner can we eemmem am whether the salaat has been accepted or not" is a great

I J I di~~iOrli:on of the v.ic-wpuinl of Ihe 1~[u:mt1 sehnel of thou!.!ln. UflfOnumllely. jumping to eonelusions concernilll~ "'lhe [-la:I~If1 poit:lll ef vie\"" \I~ illUliut doing due d'iii.gence ~n the Issue in question has untrhrtunatc:b b~'eom~s the norm, To undiel'stflln:d [he h,:galllsiamic reasoning. the rrincip~s which have been outJ,ined: abcv .... have to be sludi,ed: lo avoId blanket SiEal!;!t11c!US pertainin~ to the I mnafi legal i nterpretat ions end n'om i 11COI'fCC'lly assu In i n~ dnu un d U1C preference is centerrcd to m,alugy .0 er l-Ia:dill~. Both (:()f!1cIUsitll1i1O ,are 3 (l'tlJneml(l~s iniustlce, There have been ma.ny '101l-HaIil31i scholars inthe past who has defended the r hmafi ;a:prpi1);i!IIlCh to ~Ill!w., She~kh Abdul Wathhab :lj= ',ha·l',aani. whe alEhcmgJh a fullow~:r of the Shai'fec school Iii'" Lha'ugl1t. dedicated a few chapters exclusively Ito

reprimand jhe detracrers or lmam lmam Abu Ha~':lLir.a's opi n lo ns:

""YOI,ll should know, dear brother, [hat in these ch~p1ers. I will n01 he ddcl1ding Imam Abu r-Ianim ml!l"ely OlUt of seutlmern or !;;':cmfcrring the benefit of the doubt. but rather ~ ,have ~ngaged jl~ this endeavour aile; vi90fC)llS r,e5~l:l'I'(;h aad ,i11 estigatlon into leg:H proofs and reascnlnu, His: schoo,1 of thougbt was line lirst to be documented al~ ergauised, and. as predicted by some :s,avanls. i! witl be the last to d:issipale. In my book "The Proofs of the legal SchoobC. I have discussed his opinions llnd lhe epinlons of his students and I havefe'llll1d thaL their views are based en a verse, a Hadith, ,a quotation from III Compani,on or somelhi.li1g Sii'l1ilaJr to it or a correct an~,Jog)' wlh,ich lrself had a preeedem, So whaevcr wishes to know more ;aoout those proofs should refer 10 [hal beok ormin.c,:d)l

1'1 :11.,' ~i.;(flfJJlul Klfhl'a(~ h~ Abdul ","'aMmb Sb:u '1"'''~11 r~ vol, page 63/64 P,rln!ed IIIlIEgY:P1 by Ml!lstilla .nl-Ilab,j

Funher. he rl!fUl,C_ 'the idea fhal lmam Abu Bani fa prdcrre.d ana ~(jID til Had it h :

"IKno'f\' lhal this aneg!l,llorn i$, baged on preiudlce. . >sponsi'hlv asc'l'ibinf.! bhl!',Kcl sta1Dement,s. Th_c QlI:I"":ll:IIl_

Ir~ - ,,," hi ~'." I~"'U b

savs: ··Certainly. hearing, seeing and t 1n'I"-Il'ig II WI _ e

q~ esti,oned ."

Then. he proceeds to l"elale an inci~,ent iln \Ivh~c;h Sut\laan Thaurl, MaclaJlil. Ibn Hayyan. Hammad Ibn

,aJ~m:ah and hn3111 Ja'f:!bJ' As,adi,q_ (all \,\,110' '1MeL~. ~-e8l scholars Gf their ume) came to hn:lI'i~ Abu I-h.l.~1 fa .10 SUbSt8§1ti2lte diroctiy \'\ihedu~r or r1O'the a-c:waUy did gl.ve ,_ reference t,9 armd,ogy over lrIadid~, Imam Abu j-:lamr~ ~espomde-d that !tot only did he rt'g:nd the Qur-an and Hadhh stronger then aJl"l~logy. but 81:5.0 he: gave p r ef~,renc~~o

I ,-'" of tl-'e C"I'l'p"'nl',on'" 0" ver .ana~ogv, He then

lle Opl'llUOnS ~ ',e ... il" ~ .• "', • .... __ .

proceed:oo to p,~"(I\>'ealild Substa:I'IUa1Je. hls P?smon for a r.~w. hOUIS. The five great scholars departed Ii I~h rhe f-o~lowmg

apology: . _ _ "

"You are file leader of scholars! Ple{lse forgive us

For forrmlng. assumpt~ons wi,[hom due ve'lI"inc<1Jtiori and O'lil (If

ignorance:

Sheikh Abdl!.l'IIWtlhhab al,-Sha.'rsani proceeds. to f"fute the position that lmam Abu HamfQ~s .proofs are weak and finally comes: to-the "Categorical, ,co:m::fusmn that

~'LITa,v,e, w:u~11 all 'praise dI.H:' W AII,ah~ c-ombe~,his school of lhQughL with B nne bmsh a.nd ~ have fQu:n~ t~al his school is: extremely eautic1JJs:llfd even {)'Sl,enta:lIO'IJ.'!dy

'1,.';111.101..15,"

113

The-se c()mi'llilen'ls from lmern Sh,a'!:aB'!'ID a~ m,~flely [(I illustrate fimdamentally ,th.u lh~ Hanafi school is based on the Ql.!lr~ai'i and Sunnah. i!i~

The' fallac[ous eontemion t11:~l Imam Ab~ I-Ianifa, eifher didl not have access ~o many Hedith 0[1" thfllt, he was wea'k in tke; science of Hadilh is based IOn prejll:dke :~I'I'Id ignorenee, The: truth is that evel' non- . hlnafi sthohns ~nd SCb,ollfS of Hadith hiil!'If'¢: testified to his acumen and expertise in 'the :~ne,ld. This short treatise does not ,permm~ the possibl.lity of e'laborat.ion" blJt a selected number of q-lIot:a~ions from a few scholsrs of Hildijd'1l will suffiee,

lmsm tbn Jural] 'I. as; a !'eno,wned scholar of Hadith. ln factI Imam Shai' f1ee.s s(;i1cQl'o,f tJioll,g'bt. is derived !llOStly f(\\)11I11 his collecticns. lbn Ha:Uill' has Dlilrmted that 'when Ibn J~ra'ij heard of Imam Abu HaJ1iJifa's ,death he exclaimed 'in sn anguished voice:

"Whilit 'knG:r,;Yledge has gone!·,1:S3

Makld Ibn lbrahirn, teacher of hnam Bukhari and aJilY Hadith which lmam B,ukhari. has 1118llnliEed with 'a'flJy three IlM,ratOri j, 1 it's chain are mostly throug;h. Ibn Ibrahim. Makki Ibn [brahi'm wasmlsQ' the sb~d'e.nt of [mam Abu llIanifl. he sooted

"Imam Abu Hanifa, was the most knowledgeable person ofhi'S time.~,[5>~

114

m't sl1011ld be no,red thal the word for ki"tGwledy,e {'Um) in the i~nguage'lJfthe: c!l<rJy schol.1li~ Nfe~ ~'O the science of H.adUh exchl,sively. Shu"ba Ibn :Ir.lajJ5ij \' as kr~OWI'\ as the "CommQinder of the faithfl.lF' ,llf'i the: Sc1eI'ilC~ of Hadilh and be"\i a-s al :0 the 'fim sch Iar wno ~pech~Ii7,:cd in the e\lah.l,;'[u[on of narrators (Jarh wa TIlI'doell·peaking

of Imam Abu Hanifa:

"He 'WlSi by A.llah, ,Eli pltr.on .. ~ nh g.0od undeuumd rnrgan.d 0l1.cellent memory-"

And when Shu'ba heard the ne'l S"C Imam Abu .Hanifat's dlliath, he said:

"The I,jght 'of kl!1lo'l le.dge has been extinguished in Kufa, The)" ,:the people.of KlUlfal rna)' never ree'the like of

I!..,' ,.1 50S

111m.

Abu Dawood said thal Imam Abu Han,ira was lin Imam,ISf.lYahya 1:1:;:1'1 M!icen. ~Il expert in Jarh Wi! Ta dcel

sUlted:

- - "l,mam Ab'l.l Ht1Il1i fa, was eX,lremdy reliable in Had:ith

as he' never narrated any Hadith which he ,Rad Flol

memoliz~d.

Both Yahya ibn Mu:een 8Rd Ibn "a'~e~ .Qanrr, d~'ared lhal lbe)' had apphed rnany of Ills Oplfllons.

ISoI Narrated by Ha€IlZ.MI.i~i in the footnotes ofradhihul TaM,hooh abo",e (page' 451 )

I.S'} JM(hayrauiul Hi6~'m by I,hlll Majar ~f1akk5h. 'Pa.~~ 12 md 71. Al~. fwm Inj(J(JQt Waian. page S <lnd 17

I .... HJuJrkiraJul J-Ilfifa;. \by DhaDaiii': VQJ. I past HiO

115 Someone 'once asked Yahya ibn Mu'een if' lmam Abu Hm.ifa was rerEabl\! in Had\ith to which he rer-orted: "Yes, very I\eliab~e, very reliabJe:·1511

These quotadons are merely fl1r elueidauen, needless 10 say imam Abu Hanifl1 had \.,>,dtlen his b ck:

Kirabul Aatha€l" al a 'lime \1_ hen even thr;:; e:DirJiesl~f canonical beeks of H~.clilhi such M MuwcJtUl Imam Ma~nk. the J{_lfUSQllIw! of AbdLlf R.ai7-21q and Ibn Abu Shaibah had as of yet J,tO'L been .complled .. Imam Zarnnjari confirmed th~t Imam Abu Hardfa WI"Ole h~s book (on the quotati,ons. or the Companions) from 3. eollecuon of 40,000 narmtiofls. j~ There have many s.c~DI;'.lirs cfHadith who nav,e c.ompHed 70 books on the narrAlICIf)S of lmam Abu' -alilifa (knQwn as Mn!itlu.d) which are 110 less vo~uminous than ~he comp.ilations of Jmam Shai·fe~. Ibn 'Adi ~ a critic of Hadith, vet)' much antagonistic t.o imam Abl\.ll Hantt:a inhiaUy: He re£J.ilised his laj9sl! in judgement only laW,I'._3S ,Il cx.pres.s'ion of remorse he compiled a Musf1ad of Imam Abu

U '-'f" .. 160 -

naml S narraUon s. Thegfi~t experl on Hadlth lawab

s'idd.iqui Hasan Khan wrote:

m Ilbid.: \'OJ. UJ .• pilige. 450

~,~ Tile Vr~ues of~e_Gf~llt lin-am ("Ram Abu Hanifil). by M!U~~mq: vol. 1, p~ 192 (pr!flLed Ul Hydcrobitd ill U21 H

U? .Ibid. ; vol I. page 9'5196

oJLlmaITI Abu Hla.n~fa w~s a. g.~Gd s;c'bolaJ,;a pr.i\otlcing and p~alJl!l s~rvail1lt who was v'e:I}' devout ~o his worship end nurnble ~I'III fr10llt of Allah."

H~oonti!],ued JQ quote m.a.ny met'itsand

ach~e\fiements.of Jm:am Abu Haa:aifaSind then he 'Nrore~

"His merits !U~ !tIJ:My. KhaU~b of 8:aghdad. has m{:ri~i:CJned quite a ~w ~n h; S ulreeqh rlri]slO!,)!]. B~t! the KThThatib fDUowed ~h i s with a remaek, wh·ic.h wa~ lo(aJ! y iml~pr~pri,~te. The lmarn was not doubted ro:r his f.\e!.ign:ousnJes:s Of h~s academic skins. Howt:l;ver. he was sometimes, aooused ef heing d.eflcierlil in [he Arabic l:IIng!Jage:"~~!

]1 Sh@flJld be noted tha,t eve n though Na.w,ab has !:I'uoted, ~he 1tomme~Lregard:~H!'Ig ~mam Abu H:!1Jnif~t$ acume,n in t:l9.e Arabic lang:uage. objecfiorIJs re:g~rdil!lg ,,"wakne:s:ll In Hooith were not ,e.onsidered. worthy Qf mt:nUon. In tlli1,~ lntrodt!lcl;O~ to A.l~T,tflrl Mukt!lUai, Nalll,'ab Sidd.~qui Has~U'I K han has !SrM~d tha~ he li;:V~ i I d1SC!J 5S the sell olars ef 1-1iJadid~,. aCK~ow~edging lrnam Abffi HMifa·'s posi~.i(lln ~n Hladith. As foX' Imam Abl,l~ Hanif.als expertise ~1iI the Arabic la,nguflIgej 1t seems d~~t Nawab Siddiqui Hasan Khan has nal['rf):Jled tbls from Qad~ Ibn Kh~~ikhJn S~lnce me Qadi has used 'exa&;tly the same werds. However, the Na\''II;;w did not nawr3;~e the Qad.i's stareJrnellit whIch foUo,we!l the commera whieh wall lei have re moved aflL:Y d~ulblS .iIlbo~L~mam Abu Han i f~'s

abUity in ,Amb~o.

This COn"llliililen·t is b~d on :3, f2:mous.inc1deru. The famous grawaarian. Abu AmI" ~bn A la ~n~ to lm am A bl.l,

l~' AI.'1'Qjll,l M'ukollaJ,i'ly N.a\~1b Siiddiq,liIi: p~g~ 1J:36-DS f~m '!h.~ a ~mG311' ~oSi~I!.iQI1I PQge I III)! (~r:~il~e~ U-I! 3)

rl7 Hanifa and asked him aboy:t a ki,m[1Jg, 1I'II'I~i.ch msem:b!flcl murder, [miam Abu Hanifa ru]e[ himt'll!l there were no g)rounds for iega_I'retaHalIon (Qisasl Abu Atnr as~ed him lf th It was the C1W eVCi:11 thaugh he ki ned: i"limwitffi:! a. ca:t~pu It. The lin am replied in A ra!:! it:

'~~Ij. J$.1 J ~ .d ~l:f\ ~~J ~~I! ~!j

La.Kl:r, people objected tOI lmitlffl .~bu HaJllifa's reply and ch~iil:'Ji'lied: t'IHl:l the 00 rrect ~p.iy shoul.d haY,!! bee;n::

The truth is, du:u, in certain clhl tc~C&. the :phrase: was spoke:n d ~ f'ferenUy. Q.wd ~ ibn Jl;:;.haiit.harrlf has narrated t hat the d i alect G f ~m am Aby 1-1 an i fa was ~:hll (If Ku lilI, whie:lI UI,e pee pie of Ku fa accep(~d wU~.aU'l bes~ultlon. Hence, ehe eemmem en lmarn Abu Hanifil's acumen in Ar~b~c 'or ~he leek Q', is IlntQ'I!uldeo.

Ext!re;mtsts exist within adherents of Taqleed find its {l!ntagcnj:s·~s; bo[i\1. oom:lcl'ilhllning [be practice of Taqleed is reproa&::h3ib~e as is re:m~tn~n.g rigld iln Taql.eed. For .elltample beUerving that th~ Imams and MIiJj'taJlids were inf.a!:m"I,e',and (:i1aJtli1ey ~e:~d a posit lonas legislators" Di:sc:arding a sound liadwU, Imer.eJy C;n[fn'e basls l,hat one '5 I m.~lin has ".Qt ,ru led Qcrncemill'lg (hat issl:l:l!:.in this 1I'~~rd.raisiVlg tlWt~fing.er of f.esti ooor;ruy wlm.i le s~itti ng. down iI~ ll1ruc sooond and fourtlli11 ,rak;'at of ,any stlihl:!H. dur.ing thtll:l\eeitluicrti of Ta5~ahlniud hIDJ been

prevsn by $e¥,eraJ~i :OCII.md H:a:di tho Th i s W~S th e Sl~I::IH<ili1 o~ [he ProiPh~ ill. R,ejecti rl'S this S~.nf!ah by elai rnrns: that .11l'lam Abu Hanlfa did net rule in mfer·enc.c to t,1n,~s is :ah,;g fanalica~ adhererH:~ 110 ones M.acU'Iab. Til e QILH" jn and Sunn a h condemn this [ype of lethaJrg~'C' Taql,~d. Likewise ~erji~ifm~l'iIg seademle gymnastics in order to reecnctle a Had,i;th wit~: 'theposi~~Oirl of the' lmam to the extem lha~. the maIl1lUest!:miCIers:t.a:nding of (he [I ad ith IS distorted is simU<1IiFly condemnoo, I-]G~vecver. this n~ay he subjective more tl1aD1obj:eGtiv~ tOl'1 (j<:cCQs~ons \!;'h~re lh~ schoiar in qlllJ:es'liolil may fee] sa1;,sried whlleothers mai)' nOL h is Sill~~la:rl,)I bhtIT!(:won1iry, ti'mr. an ex~rl ~ch()~ar discovering a :~liJind H~'u.ili~h~ whlch is not contradicted b)l :anothciI"equaUy SQund Hadi~t~J,. CQ~1iti!l'l~IH;'S ~o foUow lJ,l.e In~<1IO~'s o'pin UO!1. As.suming rih:tl o:l:ilily one' Imam's opinion ls-eerreet and :ilI1:1 c,tnel's'" e:p'inioru; 3.re fal~r: ~nl:l inv'ahd. ig; ei~pl\1eouS. The 'l..ruth ls ti:il:~n all uh}~ Mujla:liids fulrmed thcwnd!th:ms For ~jlihad and e"J€ofc[l$el:! rhetll' skjlls 10, r.ea.€lTh cenelusive i~dgem.ents. In t:fule ,ev,en~ that ,eert~im opi niGI1I S a~'~ wrong, the MllJtaHniids will be J't~:\!;tardedl for their' e;.;;enio'n'l asstated

- .

ln the f~_mou~ Had~[h, The cni'i'-ec~. approach 'is to assume

that tile' ~mam's'Q'piniO:l1 jis CO:rIW~l with !,\ possibUil:y cf'crrer ~!I1Id ~,e oplnlens of 'oii,her scholars may be incorrect. with a possibility 'of being correct. Prnen~~.I],g [be diffu;relllx:.JeS of (h,e 1111Ii~nlS ifl a !lu i,se tlull ! t !.mg.~;l:'Ide rS ftic!ttt1n and ,om~otkDIfI witbin 'lh,e Muslim oom:ml!ni'[yis reprraheli1$,ible. Many of ·rh~ di'fJ~reru;\es l!lo~lWc.MI'tl the '~ma:nns <lIre Itllclfeily OO$fl:G: tan willil~ch is [he mere prof~rred .sellon. Very few ,~Ufferences'3rlse over the clusil1c2/rlG!I'I:S 'ri.Ietl!\leen h~a'am 'and hal,li FOr ~he simple reaoo:n dla:t. sueh lssues are net usua Uy subject, Wlijr(ihaff. rOlf inst'ill!i:!lr:, the i&sl,J~s of ra,ig,ing :ha!nds w:h~n goJng. i!'ltor:uku'; reifting A.meem ~ioul'd ~l':I;d wh.ether ~~ phllce' the ~:aJids on the nave] or th~ l\ikesi".l1!ir~ all issues au~m~)[in,g lO estaib,lisll the acti:'on W1t'li'C1'l bi, of mere virtue and what i~ tm1 a]1 are :!l.Q,l'tied: lh:~1J t!\1,e ab'o·v(l'. ,\,u'!-tio1n:s are

H9

perm,is\\!ible' endthe nQnperformlln,~~ of the' ,above aC.tkllns wOI;II,ld notimn4ida:te Salsat. To p.re!;em these diffe-rell1icesin a rnenner which leads t.t:l ~i:Sti.g.ajling bttter se'mhil1ie~l;s is certai n 1)1 hararrr, I::lifferen cas cQ~oernllng \l\,'na;t is hahd ~nd 'lllI;'ha[ is hasam are issues for ooholarly eireles o:tCIly.epc;u'!i!1g s'u;i:,h issues '~o llte POpu,lflce. wh,e:re there ~l\tiSt5 'ti,ite allxi:eLy or friction Md ~QrmtlotJ(m. is; not ~ht iritenl :of the MujM.l.hids who dlif:fCired with e:u;:h other. Tltls i:sa despleable act whi~lrIliiais been, h·lg:hligh~:ed by Imam S~a:libi in his maS'terp,i,ece I1I'-Muw.qjiq.tltjt .. 16:2.

I.:m

121

THE F'JNAL WORD

E: en then. [ don"t regard themas being misgu,ided. nor do. I ecnslder th5il sali!ia{ is invalid Oelli!1d then:rl" I do no1 ,oons]de:r' them M! non -be I i eyers :

Polemical debaw was not the Intent of '[his expositi,o,l'l. Rather it was an aUell:npt to elaei ry t'he practice ef'millions of Muslims 31roUind the globe. An auempt JhaJS been m,alc:il,em ofoo'!revidence justifying 'l.he actnons of [he MlIqalUds so that people who often criticise the' practice ,af TllCij'leed would be more cautious lill'l their conclusions. Jf, ~nrad\"errently.1 any \\rord er phrase offellded {lny ,one person ,CHI' group. I 'WIo'!..lldlike to ,Qffer my sincere apoiogies. tor whatever reason. the antagonlses of Taqleed .may feel that their po<si,~ion does not deserve re-eva:lllIa:l:iOrl that is their prerogative. However, tOI engage in ciassii)ti:l!lJg the gr,eal sehelars ,and lmaras as legisl;atuJes or lnnovarors; or condemllmng those wi'lo, follow the Imaatlis as po'I,~hei:sb "ltd ill'llnOVil!itors, needs: to be renounced, The famous sc:ho~ar o:f Haditb S,h!rykh Nawab S~dldiq Hasan from his work Ilqaa us:

S;~lnnaJml b1 UqaaU M lhan states:

"One ·oftilhe f1jJ,vours whleh AII,ah has bestowed upon me is that [ regard ev,erybody within the Aide Sunnah wal Jamrum as 'be:i:!lI!g saved and pr-otected from Hell, This I hold regardJess of wh:ether a person ;ls. I'l Ha!'lafii. 81. Sha:i' fee a Mal mki. a Han bali, a person foHo",~ng t1i:le I iteral Had lth o:r semeene who fQ]lo~s sul:Ulk [Stfnsm]. TMs I :rmtd even though I kno,.\' that some of the ophl~,onsof 'these scholars are against. the p:roofs and ,e:viderH:i'eS offered for some pos~ti'Qns, are very w'eik in ~he~i r r,eamning. This r,l!.din,g is for the ,great, m~jo.rity o,r their opiniol1s and not against the few eX"ce!ptio:ns. explaJnat:iolls oOfloce:l!'ning; the' exc~ptiOlIlIS C8\1l be fuunG in the book ,of Jalbaf /rtanla '0'11,; Accusing, the p:rede&eSSlCm; of going a.eainm ~he SurmaI'! ~s ,shedda.liIlg the 'blood of justice. Yes. those who rouow libelr lmem's opinions even a,fter they t'i'i'id out that dlJey have s~rayed away from the Hadith are guil1Y ofbewng inert and l,eti1argi,c.

He (:iondnu~s:

"Ha\'~ng a dlifferelrlca of o:pJloiOri in issll.!Ies of the ri1,uals of worship, soda! eemracis and other areas of" law does not j.ostify denouncing people who differ. ~~) be nenMuslims. The most tlfliat could be said is thatthere has been an error il'1 jud.gemen'l ilIIl1Id disclieliol1 (Ijtihad}. which is reoogn,nsed b:)l sehelaes. [ believe that if someoae ,1Gled OlU of rh~serroll'. then Allah will .forgive him If he was s!i1C'e're and unbiased in ~1i1S approach to [he issue, However, if prejud'ke and inertla were ilntloendn.g elements in that person's dedsijon, then I am afraid there may be grave eonsequenees as t!his '!.~'01Jld lead ~o hypo(;dsy and severiflg ties with AJlaih and His Mes5.e.l::lgl:l:l'. However. it is difficult tQ 'believe that a Muslim \' oll,l:d resort to such an atrooity. We can 0:1'11' judge by [he apparent and Alleh knews t>J~a:t wh leh i:s hidden.'" Uil .

I'n ~bis precerious .age where Muslims are inflicted wDth p!lIoblems and dUell:l::mas acress the glQoo, there can be !1otihilng nsere dettill1l]enlaJ] for 'the U:m!11ah lharn bickering ever these :part lc u lar Bind 's,ubsj,dia ry de,ta i ~ s of ,iaw. Whau cen be more sacrilegious than condemli'111l'lg each other as nOfll-Musllims and polly theists because of non .. essentiel differences and ,inno:Ci!:110US details .. 1.1 wouM indeed be a grea:t tr,agedy II11,a1 w~H'ie differing upon thesubsidiaries of the' Deen [:ihe enemies or ~s.lamex-pl()lil ~JiJJese \le~y differences to dismantle the fundametltals: UIlOI!'iI which the' great edi'fijce ,of lstam I'CSUi. \!I.'hiciji:l has witbstood external!

I~t Ex:lm.ctcd friOnl Ftmm Monthly (Mia), 1(63) !by pl!nni:ssiono,fMalilir

.~I·Qaillilry. tln~ eailor QfFa:r,al1. '

or mer th rnl fou rteen h u ndre ~ U1C' Ith,ilt ~ t '" S ~nll the "nem)~ ". [usjim - Olmn ri I wh desr "\t d ~ - riun an

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[ -,~( he pellFi 0 i· I

t~lef:i . rat i on .a9 d e dm' isi

u~ _rs ~ n~Ho

m b nd ttl ~

e

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