You are on page 1of 19






JUNE 17-20, 1985


Oberto SERRA, Pierre DELFINER and Jean Claude LEVERT
(Etudes et Productions Schlumberger, Montrouge, France)


A procedure combining log measurements with a lithofacies database for automatic lithofacies determination has been field tested for about two years in very
diverse types of formations. The paper. reports the results obtained and discusses
problems encountered in relation to bad hole, caving, mud conditions, gas effect,
missing logs, incomplete data base, overlapping electrofacies and thin beds.
A preprocessing logic has been developed to eliminate or reduce possible electro-

facies conflicts and improve the consistency and reliability of the answers. It segments the studied interval into reservoir and non-reservoir zones, identifies the fluidsj
and corrects for the effect of light hydrocarbons. This analysis makes use of all
available logging data, including those not introduced in the lithofacies database
(caliper, Ap, spontaneous potential, resistivity logs). Also, it reasons on the well
as a whole rather than level by level, applying rules of expertise and geological
Several examples covering various environments and lithofacies are presented
along with core descriptions when available. This confirms the reliability of the
Applications of this analysis to quantitative interpretation are also discussed.


JUNE 17-20. and made available at the well site on the CSU”. Fluid content. mud eifect. The wireline measurements currently introduced in the database are natural gamma ray. resistivities. incomplete logging suite. independently of lithology. memory of the previous intervals and geological knowledge. gas or light hydrocarbon effect. thorium. incomplete database. some amount of vertical analysis is introduced to reason on the studied interval as a whole rather than level by level. and photoelectric index (Pe) coming from the LDT tool. applying rules of expertise. This procedure has been field tested extensively and the results compared with core descriptions when available. It has been implemented in a program named LITHO*. By design. overlap of lithofacies volumes. This is to allow for variations due to both geology and data acquisition. The dimensions of each volume reflect the amplitude of all these variations. Also. The basic idea is to apply some crude and fast preprocessing logics before turning to the database for more precise answers. Data acquisition introduces variations of its own. by definition. Despite this success. A rock type. Figure 1 is an example of lithological description in a complex shale-radioactive sand series with the corresponding core description alongside. The purpose of this paper is to report our ongoing effort to overcome these problems. has mineral proportions that vzwy between specific limits. through pad contact. In the database. and bed shoulder influence. can also cause important variations in log responses for the same lithology. apparent hydrogen index provided by the CNL* tool. borehole rugosity. uranium and potassium contents obtained with the N(2T* tool (natural gamma ray spectrometry). ●: mark of Schlumberger -2- . invasion profile. or thin bed situations. density as measured by the FDC* or LDT” tool.SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM. These logics make use of the information carried by other open-hole logs such as caliper. the lithofacies database assumes water filled pores. sonic transit time. spontaneous potential. problems were encountered mostly in relation with bad hole or mud conditions. each petrographic rock type is represented as a volume in the n-dimensional space of logs. density correction (Ap). The agreement is generally good. which were not introduced in the database because they are not really Iithological tools. 1985 1 INTRODUCTION An automatic procedure combining wireline measurements with a lithofacies database has been developed [1] and field tested for about two years in very diverse types of formations. This procedure classifies a set of n log readings at a given depth level by reference to a prespecified lithofacies database.

This provides statistical models for the distributions of the log responses expected for each lithofacies of the database. given the lithofacies Fi (which we don’t know). not simply extend the database to include those other logs? The reason is the so-called curse of dimensionality. In our problem the pi’s will be derived from external geological information (local knowledge). For example: is there caving or not. and from an analysis of logs not introduced in the database. deflection of the SP or not ? There is no need to translate these cutoff operations into ellipsoid regions. one might wonder. Of course the interesting quantity is rather the probability P( Fi IX) of the lithofacies given the log readings (which we know). called the posterior probability of Fi given X can be computed using the well-known 13ayes formula: P( Pi P(XI J’ilx) = ~j~j P(X1 F’i) ‘j) New elements come into play in this formula: the terms p~j called the prior probabilities of the lithofacies. 1985 2 PRINCIPLES OF THE CLASSIFICATION METHOD In the database each lithofacies volume (more precisely “electro-lithofacies” volume) is represented by an ellipsoid in n-dimensional space. which is interpreted as a 95 % probability region of a multivariate gaussian distribution. SP. These pi’s play an important role as they are the means to pass on to the classification algorithm the information already available on Iithology.SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM. Most of the time. local knowledge or preprocessing logics result in setting some of the pi’8 to zero. and a resistivity about doubles this number (55).that is. For example if there are only carbonates in the went pi may be set -3- Ww . adding three more logs.000 cross-plots! For the purpose of lithology determination it suffices to use some of the logs in a somewhat qualitative manner. Why. for example the gamma ray is used through its logarithm to account for greater dispersion towards high values. JUNE 17-20. They represent the prior information that may be available on the lithology before attempting the classification. say caliper. pi might represent the overall proportion of the i-th disease in the patients’ population . Thus at each level one can compute the probability P(XI F’i) of observing the set of log responses X. With eight logs there are (8x7)/2 = 28 crossplots to consider. Note that some logs may be suitably transformed before entering the database. The ellipsoids of the database are constructed from their two-dimensional projections. if the problem were one of diagnosing a disease. For example. before analyzing any symptom. Wth a database of about 180 rocks this involves about 10. mud cake or not. This probability.

Figure 2 shows a section of a well before and after the application of the bad hole logic. and by Ap exceeding a threshold value. the density curve is discarded and the choice within the database is restricted to a list of lithofacies which have been specified by the log analyst as likely to cause bad hole in the given area. A point falling outside of all 95 % ellipsoids is classified as “unidentified”. Before the logic two zones of radioactive sand are found on either side of the middle shale . sylvite. halites.8 g/cc: such low values would point to coal but the density is still too high for coal and At is too low (from 80 to 100 ps/~t). but unconsolidated sandstones. Caving is measured by the differential caliper (caliper minus bit size). 3 HOLE CONDITIONS 3. For example in caved intervals one might want to make the prior probability of shales double than that of unconsolidated sands. reads low (about 2 -2. This procedure (which can be shown to minimize the risk of misclassification) is applied successively to all levels of the studied interval. Note also the lwo unidentified zoues wl. affect the readings of pad tools. which in the lithofacies database concerns the density log.SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM. in combination with some special logics described in [1]. Occasionally it may be interesting to boost some lithofacies at the expense of’ others. 1985 to zero for all sandstones. shales are correctly identified. Rugosity is determined by averaging the derivative of the caliper curve over an interval equal to the pad length. and fractured rocks are also possibilities. In intervals where bad hole is identified. Weighting among these possibilities can be introduced by the log analyst to reflect their probability under the local conditions. -4- . or caving. This is achieved by setting the prior probalities of all other facies to zero. indicating that all lithofacies that are present are given an equal chance (pi = 1 or pi = l/lV is equivalent for Bayes formula).1 BAD HOLE This logic is activated when borehole rugosity.wu p~ dips (w 1. In general bad hole is due to shales. due to bad hole. The remaining pi’s are then generally set to one. tight carbonates. JUNE 17-20. The computed posterior probability provides an index of confidence in the result.this is because the density. The classification procedure itself consists in maximizing the posterior probability of the facies at each depth level. By ignoring the density readings in the bad hole zone.2 g/cc).

barite in the drilling mud has a strong effect on the readings of the Pe curve. being radioactive. affects the potassium readings of the NGT tool. the pad contact can remain good even in case of substantial caving duetothe geometry of thetool anditsweight. due to tilting of the tool as it leaves the cave.SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM. The interpretation of this is a loss of pad contact. The presence of. In such a case a postprocessing logic is applied that patches the unidentified interval with the same Iithology as was found below the cave boundary. its concentration can be assumed constant. As KC1 is soluble in mud. as expected. JUNE 17-20.5 m.3 MUD CONDITIC)NS Some common drilliug LLIUd addi~ives adversely a~ect some log measurements.5 m with a differential caliper of about 2 inches. On the basis of density. However. and the increase in neutron allows increasing the prior probability of shales within this interval. 3. a segregation of barite particles builds up with time after circulation and as a result the effect on Pe is not constant. Since barite is not soluble in mud. Figure 3 shows a section of a turbiditic sand-shale series on the scale of 1/40. the decrease of resistivity. An amount of about 1% of barite in the mud gives a Pe of about 10. 1985 Caving is different from bad hole because it does not necessarily affect the density. An unidentified zone appears at the top of the interval. combined with the absence of deflection on the SP. Indeed. unconsolidated sand. calcareous shale plots inside the shaly sand region. as shown in Figure 4. and consequently to diagnose calcareous shale. The presence of caving. Caving occurs between 1270 and 1263. it is due to a reduction in the density which becomes too low for a shale. Potassium chloride (KC]) in the mud. -5- . It is often very difficult to correct for these effects and usually the best procedure is to ignore the affected logs either completely or over selected intervals. neutron. In this case the density log is kept but the presence of the cave is combined with tests on the SP and gamma ray curves to determine the main lithology of the interval: is it shale. Thus it is preferable to ignore the Pe curve completely over the whole well. sonic. especially in deviated wells. or fractures ? Prior probabilities are set accordingly and consultation of the database permits refining the identification of the rock. and gamma ray alone it would be impossible within this interval to differentiate a shaly sand from a calcareous shale. the correct ion is still difficult as it involves precise knowledge of: (a) the concwtration of KCl in the mud} (b) the dspth of i~wasjon. Indeed. This effect extends over a length of about 1.

This approach increases considerably the size of the database. For example oil base mud precludes reasoning on the SP (there is no SP) and on mud cake (there is very little of it). One is to create light hydrocarbon or gas bearing lithofacies for each reservoir rock. the saturation is computed using Archie’s -6- . it is preferable in such circumstances to ignore the potassium reading. To avoid such problems two different techniques can be used. 1985 (c) the depth of investigation of the NGT tool.SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM. in the case of salt formations. 4. Before making any correction of logs affected by hydrocarbon. Also.1 RESERVOIR DETECTION Intervals that correspond to shales or to compact rocks are distinguished from the reservoir rocks by analysis of the SP curve (positive or negative deflection from the SP shale baseline). This second technique has been adopted. When an interval has been recognized as a reservoir. These non-reservoir zones are analyzed separately by consulting lithofacies databases restricted to the expected shales or compact rocks. rules to diagnose invasion based on multiple resistivity measurements generally do not apply since there is usually only an induction log. or even fall in an unidentified portion of the space. caliper curve (presence of mm-l cake).‘I’hen. and gamma ray responses. a crude estimate of the porosity is obtained by cross-plot techniques or empirical relationships such as 4 = (i?#Iv+ I’#~)/9 [2]. Again. and resistivity responses (separation between resistivity curves coming from different tools.knowing&. The other technique consists in detecting the hydrocarbon effect and correcting for it before any attempt to determine lithology. 4 INFLUENCE OF LIGHT HYDROCARBONS It is well known that light hydrocarbon or gas affects log responses in such a way that representative points of hydrocarbon bearing reservoirs are displaced in the n-dimensional space. the salinity of the mud has an impact on the conclusions drawn from caving: fresh mud dissolves salt but salt saturated mud does not. indicating invasion profile and consequently porous and permeable formation). they can be erroneously assigned to another lithofacies of the database. As a consequence. The mud type is also a factor to take into account in the preprocessing logics. JUNE 17-20. at least in front of invaded zones. the first step is the detection of reservoir zones and the recognition of the nature of their fluid content.

assuming a standard composition. The pb vs -i’- . JUNE 17-20.O. This conclusion is reinforced when Sw is lower than say. and resistivity in such a way that the zone would no longer be recognized as a reservoir.5 default value). 11 I.SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM. as measured by N greater than 0. This is done either from pressure and temperature charts for gas. Here. Correction for gas or light hydrocarbon effects on the sonic being quite difficult it is generally preferable to simply ignore the sonic log in these intervals. the reservoir is considered as oil bearing. For W~(~ma)a Covqed (J example. This correction is made using S. tests are done on several parameters depending on the data available. Likewise. it must be estimated. From the interpretation of these logs. The upper interval. The application of these logics and corrections is now illustrated by two field examples. and the upper zone (from 2402 to 2378 m) is gas bearing.2 HYDROCARBON CORRECTION When a gas or light hydrocarbon bearing reservoir has been recognized. Figure 5 shows a set of open-hole logs in a sand-shale series. either the density of the hydrocarbon is known or. To identify the hydrocarbon (oil or gas ). is a strong indication of the presence of gas. These tests check certain (4N)m/ –h). 4. say. if not.68. the middle interval (from 2412 to 2402 m) is oil bearing.uusl be emphasized that corrections of lhe log readiugs mxxl UO1 be very precise because the size of the lithofacies ellipsoids is such that it allows for moderate errors in the corrections.15. Further. 1985 formula and compared with a threshold value to detect the presence of hydrocarbon (Sw <0. or calculated from SWif no microdevice is available. a high separation between p~ and $$N. a correction for shale is not required because a high shale content would affect SP.7. is unident ifkd. The LITHO program correctly identifies the lithology in the two lower zones. by assuming both have the same lithology.0 obtained by Archie’s formula from R. the shale effect would mask the gas effect. however._ ~~f to ~e Or (Uma)a. gamma ray. parameters such as N (= P. the lower reservoir can be divided into three zones: the lower zone (from 2456 to 2412 m) is water bearing. This is due to the influence of gas on the density measurement and the neutron response. a correction is applied by substituting water for hydrocarbon in the response of the density and the neutron. and (~ma)= is lower than the expected value suggested by Pe or (Uma)a. or if a water bearing interval exists directly below. If N is less than 0. It means that the oil does not affect the log responses too much and consequently no correction is needed. 0.

-8- . Consequently. from limestone to sandstone. to ensure good coverage in the space of logs. corrections for light hydrocarbon influence must be applied. by itself. the diagnosis of heavy minerals is switched off if the bulk density reading is absent or dubious (bad hole). in the hydrocarbon bearing reservoir.SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM. The lithology description given by the LITHO program before applying the reservoir and hydrocarbon detection logic is displayed in the central track. the points fall back into the same ellipses and are now recognized as clean quartz sand. volumes which are well separated in n-dimensional space may appear similar in a lower dimensional space (missing logs). JUNE 17-20. and after that the LITHO program gives the correct answer. As can be seenj there is an apparent complete change of lithology.2 g/cm3). on a pb vs #N cross-plot from the e]iipses corresponding to limestone to the ones corresponding to sandstone. Figure 7 shows a set of open-hole logs recorded in a carbonate-evaporite series. This is due to the influence of the light hydrocarbon present in the reservoir (ph = 0. For example if the database contains different shale lithofacies which differ by their clay types. Likewise. but the points corresponding to the gas bearing interval are completely out in the North-West part of the plot.1 MISSING LOGS A given set of logs may not allow. The absence of Pe values given by the LDT tool precludes recognition that the lithology remains the same. the multi-dimensional volumes have been designed with some overlap. Thus clay typing is attempted only if gamma ray spectroscopy data are available. After applying the detection logics and the corrections. 1985 #N cross-plots for each zone @igure 6) ShOW that the representative points for the water and oil bearing intervals fall into the ellipses corresponding to clean quartz sand. differentiation between two or even several lithofacies. 5 CONFLICTS Conflicts between lithofacies occur due to the fact that. The technique used is to deactivate certain lithofacies automatically (by setting their prior probabilities to zero) if the logs required to identify them are missing. 5. The Pe value shows that the lithology should be the same. which moves the points. Also. it will not be possible to distinguish them in the absence of thorium and potassium measurements from the NGT tool.

In such cams the set of log responses can belong to a lithofacies which will give a rough idea of the mixture but not of the manner in which it is distributed. which can have the same log responses as some radioactive evaporates or evaporitic mixtures. For example. JUNE 17-20. This will eliminate possible conflict between lithofacies. To have a correct idea of the structure of the interval. of course.3 GEOLOGICAL RULES Some logical and simple geological rules are also introduced to reduce the database to the lithofacies which have the highest probability of being present. and. especially if the logging set is incomplete. halite cemented sands are activated only if halite beds have been found in the well (this is because halite cement comes from dissolution of halite beds by water and reprecipitation in the pore space). log readings are not representative of each bed individually. will not be representative of each individual bed. This may involve renaming of some lithofacies or addition of special rocks (e. glauconitic or phosphatic facies). 6 THIN BEDS When beds are too thin compared to the vertical resolution of the tools.2 REGIONAL GEOLOGICAL ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM. It reflects the internal organization of the interval. it will also make processing faster. Radioactive igneous plutonic rocks.SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH 5. In the same manner. 1985 KNOWLEDGE Often the main Iithofacies present in the well are known because a lot of wells have been drilled in the area. and allows -9- . In such cases it is recommended to construct a restricted database including only the expected lithofacies. radioactive evaporates are deactivated if no anhydrite or halite beds have been encountered lower in the well (this is because in a sequence of evaporates halite or anhydrite are deposited before potassic evapcrites). Regional databases may also be adapted to reflect local conditions. information brought by dipmeter is necessary. As a side benefit.g. are limited to basement zones. but of the mixture which itself depends on the parameters of each bed and their volumetric percentage in the interval investigated by each tool. 5.

JUNE 17-20.5 and 1269. -1o- of Lithology ( 1972): The essen tiah of log interpretation .DELFINER P. and of course their well log parameters) for quantitative interpretation.massivej heterogeneous or laminated -.SFRVICES TECHMQUES SCHLUMBERGER practice.. this interval is a laminated sand-shale series. Medium resistive levels correspond to sand beds. Indeed. The interest in this lithofacies definition is not purely academic.SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM. Aitken for their helpful advice and their contribution to this work. and very resistive peaks to calcite cemented sandstones. Bronnec and D.9 m. SERRA 0. All combined this leads to more reliable and accurate answers. 7 CONCLUSION The preprocewiug logics introduced allow a more precise delermiuatiou of the lithofacies crossed by a well. type of clay distribution. 1985 . In the example of Figure 3. Houston. and of course the related saturation equation). confirmed by core analysis (Figure 8 ). It will allow log analysts to correctly select the mineralogical model (main minerals present in the rocks. As reflected by the dipmeter result display. It will help geologists to select the intervals where they request sidewall coring or fluid sampling. Tech. paper SPE 13290. 2. Further. low resistive beds to shale. their concentration range. SPE of AWIE. the lithology resulting from the processing of the interval with the LITHO program is shaly sand between 1273. including dipmeter information provides geological basis for selecting the textural model (type of pore distribution and geometry. and consequently the m value).. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The authors are particularly thankful to R. PEYRET O. and the structural model (internal organization of the beds . 1. (1984): Automatic Determination from WeJl Logs 59th Ann. Thanks are also extended to the oil companies for granting permission to publish the examples.-% a more detailed description of the formation by analysis of the resistivity curves of the dipmeter. Conf. the approach used in the LITHO program is a powerful extension to multidimentional space of the traditional cross-plot analysis used to pick interpretation parameters.

he was transfered to Singapore as manager of Interpretation Development in Geology.S. JEAN-CLAUDE LEVER’C joined Etudes et Productions Schlumberger.- ABOUT THE AUTHORS OBERTO SERRA graduated from Paris University with a B. including GLOBAL. In 1981. in Paris. In 1978 he joined Schlumlxrger in in 1969. In 1966. AAPG. specializing in geology. He is a member of SPE of AIME. AFTP and UFG. in Montrouge. where he. In this capacity he was involved in most of the log interpretation programs developed at Clamart. in Clamart. spent three years with the marketing group. degree in geology. France. PIERRE DELFINER is program manager for Geology at Schlumberger EPS Interpretation Engineering. Jean ClaudeL-rt in computer science from the Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers in Paris. Since 1982 he is a software engineer within the Geology group holdsa degree of Interpretation Engineering. degree and from Besan~on University with a M. -11- Ww . Until 1982 he worked within the Computing Center to ensure general program maintenance and provide technical assistance to users. JUNE 17-20.SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM. he holds a doctorate degree from the University of Nancy (1971) and a PhD in statistics from Princeton University (1977). Before joining Schlumberger in 1980 he worked on oil industry research projects in Prof. he joined the Well Logging Department of ELF. Prior to that he was in charge of Reservoir Description software development at EPS in Clamart. then graduated as an engineer. 1985 . In 1973. Since October 1983 he works with the Interpretation Engineering group in Etudes et Productions Schlumberger in Montrouge. France. He his a member of SPWLA. he won the Marcel Roubault prize awarded by the Union Fran~aise des G4010gues. He started his career in 1958 with the ELF group on field and well site supervision missions in the Sahara. from the Ecole Nationale Sup6rieure du P6trole et des Moteurs (IFP). Matheron’s Center for Geostatistics at the Ecole des Mines de Paris where he became Maitre de Recherches in 1978.S. in Montrouge. in 1969. becoming its He. A graduate from the Ecole des Mines (1968).

.E 1-1 m COMPACTSHALE 0 Example of results produced bv the compared with the core description..:$:. 1985 _ OPEN-HOLE LOGS STRUCTURE Oberto Pierre Jean-Claude Serra Delfiner Levert LEGEND Fig. JUNE 17-20. SHALE SHALYSAND LITHO program .SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM. 1 12 - 0 s”.

._. 1:111I Ill +..- .--+. II \ I I \ I I * j --------- ...— —— —E > Y“ &_...— — —.. .. —.4 -..__ ——.—— —.— —— . .-. ----------.--.—— .. -----. .. - .= -.-. —.t 1 L-.. .. .2----. .-L.: .. - --- .-.--------- --- - b-. .. . 2- RADIOACTIVE SANDSTONE Before correction ~ SHALY SANDSTONE -[ COMPACT SHALE for bad hole shale intervals -13- -4- n SILTY SHALE m ARKOSE are erroneously assigned -1 UNIDENTIFIED to sandstones.-.\ r-i . —-_ ——— -.---.... -....<. . -------------. ---------.-. .-..=. r < 4 . ----. JUNE 17-20. .-.. —— :-== .. .-.4-------.+ .—.—— —. ..: s J-. . ...... =-: :.~. . . -. . ..— __ 1 <..>=.. --J. . .. . -.— ----—————. .. . -.-. . —L--- I IMH . ..----- [ - .—— ..- I — . .-------....+ .---. ---------------------.+-.-.+-------------. . 1985 I LITHO FACIES ‘=’------’F-------”iw -+---7 - hr.-4->----.-.. ---. .. LEGEND n Fig.-. ~ -s? . .- .-.. -.. 5 . ------------------------.~-~. . .-..-.— . :~_—_ -.-. — 1 - — +—_ .. . .:..-. __ -.--..SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH DEPTH .-. ---------..-. -------. L. .-------..– f-- : ~“> 4 :. .. ..’ (ft ) ANNUAL I OPEN-HOLE LOGS LOGGING SYMPOSIUM.?-L2-.T--.— ... II 7100 1’ i PM l>\ 4: I I 1 HI 1 I I !:+-4[1 HI L-L-Pi .—— -. .—— —.::+:+:-~. –— -r -c ‘ “-” ---- ‘: -“” “-‘ =-k: -~... ------------. .—— . . . . . .-._— ——— —— -.

. !. 1985 OPEN-HOLE LOGS (m) -90 SP (rev) ---. 15 ..- .-..-+. -6 !G4L (in) I Sw 00(% + -- Y GR (API) AFTER BEFORE CORRECTION CORRECTION I !11 1’ II _+ . . JUNE 17-20.SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LOGGING m SYMPOSIUM. t : / I .Poor pad contact ~~ - when leaving the cave results -14- I LITHO FACIES CALCAREOUS In a too low density n UNIDENTIFIED and unidentified Iithofacies. \ ) I 4. 1’ ~ 1265 . . ~-- -. . . - 4- 1275 II II I i -1- II LEGEND Fig.. [ \ .+ ~ .). ( \ . —. .- 1. r Y ! 3 \ .f .... . 1.) ..-... i—-—: -‘..’ 1270 /’ ~ . 3 .

0 !5. m m $ 30... ... 1985 . . .. . SHALE .“”’:’ .. 120. .. . O 45. .0 31 pb: . ‘AND .. .. .. .. ..” . CALCAREOUS SHALE .0 NPHI Fig.0 35.00 ~:oo ~:.0 ...0 10.. .. CAiCAREOUS .. . 1 .5.SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LOGGING SYMPOSIUM.00 5. .5. ‘AND*” SHALY CAiCAREOUS .0 30... .. :.00 0.0 100.. -.. .0 qO.0 60 0 80. .0 20..0 uO. 9. --- ... . 10.. . . . X ..0 35. SHALY m . -.... . .’. 4- Caving logic is required to separate -15- overlapping Iithofacies.. . .. . ‘.0 25. . . SHALE I :. SAND ....’ I .. .0 15.0 . (~ SHALY .. u I . ... .0 NPHI 25.0 At . $ m i “... L -40. . ...::&. . w.0 20.: ON JUNE 17-20.-.

3 --S . 1985 LOGS LITHO 5P -60 (rev) P..00017 (g/crn3) 60_ _d 1 } 2 . s. . .——- BEFORE GAS AFTER CORRECTION ?35( (::1) 150 15 GAS CORRECTION “i ——._=:~= -.. t 400 “i -7 /: >....-. —.. OPEN-HOLE (m) JUNE 17-20.A correction n m QUARTZ SAND = COMR4CTEDSHALE SHALE WITH HEEAVY MINERALS sHALE GRAYWACKE = :N:M = is applied to identify -16- Iithology in gas bearing zones. ““”’””’ ./~) . I (b. — . \ 1 LEGEND D UNIDENTIFIED M ~A:Y Fig. —.=. ---------.SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LOGGING ‘EPTI SYMPOSIUM.. 5. 00[”! ) GR (API) I CNL FACIES ( l. .. .. — } .. % )~ 1 (Win] 1.

LOGGING SYMPOSIUM.. I ~.z 9.2 2“2 EOHH h.2 o .-In ln m 0 ~ ‘5 co ‘5 .. 0..o..1 0. .z? SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH -17- ANNUAL .L . JUNE 17-20.A : . 1985 m .

I . . —.x (in) SEFOREGAS CORRECr~ I =-l AFTER GAS CORRECTION — .—.SPWLA TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL LOGGING m ft ) SYMPOSIUM. —. ---+ ---—-L— —- — LEGEND - ANHYDRITE m WL:S!’W: ~ TIGHT LIMESTONE cd f!wwruc m LIMESTONE ~ DOLOMITE m t&GE’k%%”s m .Before gas correction m %XI%”’T’C m UNIDENTIFIED limestones -18- are assigned to sandstones..—— .— —— 300 _—–:. — i i. JUNE 17-20.IC = SANDSTONE Fig 7. 1985 LITHO FACIES OPEN-HOLE LOGS -—_-Cly __ ..— i .:::.. —— 1400 . --—.. - — 200 ——— —— I —. —..

High Pe values indicate heavy minerals and hardground. “. !.. JUNE 17-20..“.. . . 1985 SYNDIP 1 I EMEX-CORIIECTED SHOT CURVES DIP ANGLE U DIRECTION . ..”r Fig.!” aw... . 8. .SPWLA PROGRAM I 111 EbEEidl PROGRAM LITHO r i TWENTY-SIXTH ANNUAL DLIALDIP LOGGING PROGRAM SYMPOSIUM.1.Higher At readings identifies limestone > ““”A --’. .. . Ww -19- .. m as chalk..