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EVITEMENT DES OBSTACLES PAR UN OBJET MOBILE : APPROCHE GEOMETRIQUE

Said M C H A A L IA , Jalel E Z Z IN E
L ab oratoire A nalyse et C om m ande S ystèm e
E cole N ationale d 'in g én ieu rs de Tunis
B.P. 37 C am pus U niversitaire T unis, T unisie
F ax (0 1 )8 7 2 729

Résumé
Dans cet article nous proposons une
formulation géométrique sur l’évitement des obstacles
par un objet mobile. Pour ce travail, on va considérer le
plan du travail comme étant un plan géométrique à
deux dimensions défini par un repère fixe Ro (O X Y),
les obstacles comme étant des polytopes définis par les
matrices et les vecteurs de contraintes Ai et bi et l'objet
mobile comme étant un point géométrique défini par
ses coordonnées (x, y) dans le repère Ro. D'abord, on va
formuler le problème de distance entre un point et un
polytope en utilisant une formulation quadratique qui
nous permet de calculer la distance entre un polytope
donné et l'objet mobile à un instant donné. Ensuite, on
va essayer de généraliser cette formulation en
formulant la distance entre deux polytopes. Pour
simuler ces deux formulations, on va utiliser la
fonction QP de Matlab. La deuxième étape du travail
présenté consiste à permettre à l'objet mobile de savoir
se déplacer d'un point du départ Md (x^.y^/R^ vers un
point d’arrivée Maix^yJ/R . Pour ce travail, on va
développer deux approches géométriques; la première
permet à l'objet mobile à se déplacer en suivant un
trajectoire rectiligne contournante les obstacles, la
deuxième consiste à introduire le principe de la logique
floue pour permettre à l'objet mobile de savoir décider
le chemin à suivre.
Les approches ainsi développées nécessite la
connaissance de formes des obstacles traités. Pour ce
fait, on va essayer de développer un algorithme
permettant la connaissance de formes des obstacles
ainsi définis à partir des matrices et de vecteurs de
contraintes. Pour cette raison, on va mettre en oeuvre
un algorithme qui résoudre le système d'équations
A.X=b.. pour un polytop i donné, mettre dans l'ordre ces
sommets pour réaliser la forme exacte du polytope.
Mots clefs: Evitement d’obstacles, logique floue, objet
mobile, polytope, sommets, matrices et vecteurs de
contraintes.
1/ Introduction :
Le déplacement des objets mobiles nécessite la
connaissance des guides des chemins pour éviter
certains obstacles. Le problème qui se pose est
comment permet à un objet mobile d'éviter un obstacle.
Ce problème est un domaine de recherche actuel. Les
travaux de recherche autour de ce sujet ont été lancés
attentivement dés l'année 1984 avec Freund et Hoyer
qui ont mis en place la formulation du problème de
collision pour les robots industriels. En 1985, Reif et

Sharir ont essayé de résoudre ce problème. Ils ont
développé un algorithme dans le but de chercher une
solution au problème ainsi défini mais ils ont découvert
que leur algorithme ne traite que des formes
particuliers des objets et leur travail n' a pas été
implanté. Les recherches pour résoudre ce problème
ont été suivis avec Fujimura et Samet (1990) et Shih et
son groupe (1990 ) . D'une autre coté, on trouve Kant
et Zucker (1984, 1986, 1988) qui ont traité le problème
de décomposition du plan de mouvement. Leur
proposition est basée sur le fait que le problème
d'évitement des obstacles mobiles peut se résoudre
géométriquement en utilisant l'ajustement des vitesses.
Dans ce même axe, Griswold et Eem (1990) ainsi que
Kyriakopoulos et Saridis (1990, 1991, 1992) ont suivi
leur
recherche
(1,2),
Shokri
Z.
Selm
et
H.A.Almohamad (5) et M.D.S Aliyu et K.S.Al-Sultan
(4) . Le problème d'évitement des obstacles par les
objets mobiles est un problème très vaste qui peut se
traiter de différentes manières. Actuellement les
recherches autour de ce sujet sont orientés vers les
recherches autour de commandes et du contrôle des
mouvements des objets mobiles. Ces travaux ont été
commencés avec Muir et Neuman (1987) dont l'idée
principale est basée sur la détermination d'un modèle
cinématique pour chaque roue et à travers ces modèles,
on peut donc choisir le type de commande et du
contrôle des actionneurs des différents roues. Dans le
même point de vue, Alexander et Maddocks ( 1989)
ont traité différentes approches permettants la
déterminations des modèles convenables. Une autre
étape dans la même orientation bien qu'elle introduit la
dynamique de l'objet mobile ainsi que les obstacles a
été mise oeuvre en 1989 par Saha et Angeles . Autres
chercheurs tels que Grattinger et Krogh (1989) ont
utilisé le cinématique et la dynamique pour déterminer
les différents modèles. Le concept général pour le
contrôle des objets mobile a été structuré par
Borenstein et Koren ( 1985) après les travaux de
Larcombe ( 1981), Julliere et al. (1983). Dans nos
jours, le contrôle des objets mobiles est basé sur le
régulateur PID dont les paramètres principaux sont les
erreurs de position et d'orientation ainsi que la
commande des roues. Dans cette voie de recherche,
Kanayama et al. (1990) a introduit la fonction de
Liapunov pour étudier la stabilité du système considéré
d'une part et déterminer la structure du régulateur en
basant sur une étude géométrique du mouvement (3)
d'autre part. Dans le même esprit de recherche, on
trouve les travaux de Hemami et al. (1990) qui ont
introduit la régulation non linéaire en conservant le

Evitement des obstacles par un objet mobile: Approche géométrique

Page 1

modèle dynamique pour un mouvement plane du
système (3). L'étape suivante de cette approche est
réalisé par Hemami, Mehrabi et Cheng (1992) dont
l'objectif est de chercher le contrôle optimal d'un robot
mobile possédant trois roues, deux arrières motrices et
un en avant directrice, effectuant un mouvement plane
(3). Les pas de cherche basant sur le principe de la
détermination de contrôle optimal du mouvement des
objets mobiles s'avancent pour permettre l'amélioration
des objectifs ainsi définis. Dans ce cadre, Markos
Papageorgiou et Alexander Steinkogler ont introduit la
notion de temps réel pour la recherche de régulation
optimale des mouvements des objets mobiles (6). Dans
le même esprit mais en introduisant la logique floue,
T.W.Vaneck (1996) a développé un contrôleur flou en
utilisant le langage C pour fournir à un bateau
prototype la possibilité de savoir se déplacer d'une
manière autonome (7). Sur le même point de vue, on
trouve les travaux de N.Achour et R.Toumi (1998) qui
consistent à réaliser un contrôleur flou pour un robot
mobile possédant trois roues (8) ainsi que ceux de
S.Berrabah, C.Kara Terki et N.Ghouali ( 1996) qui ont
étudiés la navigation d'un robot mobile ayant quatre
roues deux arrières et deux avants à l'aide d'un réseaux
de Neurone Formels et Logique Floue (9).
Dans notre cas et pour simplifier l’étude, on va faire
une étude géométrique plane en introduisant la notion
de reconnaissance des formes des obstacles ainsi qu'
une sélection off-line du chemin. Ces travaux sont
réalisés sur un point matériel. Pour ce fait, nous avons
développé trois approches.
La première approche consiste à considérer les
obstacles comme étant des polytopes et l'objet mobile
comme étant un point matériel se déplaçant dans un
plan contenant ces polytopes.
Pour cette raison, on est ramené à considérer les
projections des obstacles dans le plan du travail. Pour
faciliter la tâche, on va considérer ces projections
comme étant des polygones convexes.
Dans cet article on va essayer de développer trois
approches.
Nous commencerons par la description des
outils du travail tels que l'objet mobile considéré ainsi
que les obstacles, ensuite nous détaillerons la
formulation mathématique du problème ainsi que les
différents algorithmes proposés et les résultats obtenus
en simulation.
II/ Description d'environnement :
1/ Objet mobile: l'objet mobile faisant l'objet
de notre étude est considéré comme étant un point
géométrique pouvant se déplacer dans n'importe quelle
direction. Le déplacement de ce point se fait à l'aide de
connaissance de ses coordonnées à chaque instant.
La figure 1 représente cette description.

figure 1
2/ Obstacles : les obstacles considérés pour
cette étude sont des polygones convexes ( polytopes )
dont la forme est donnée par A X < b où A et b sont
la matrice et le vecteur de contraintes.
La connaissance de forme du polytope nécessite la
résolution du système d'inéquation défini ci-dessus.
Pour ce fait, nous avons développé un algorithme
permettant de tracer un polytope donné en résolvant le
système d'équations A X = b et triant les sommets.
Le détail de cet algorithme sera fait dans le paragraphe
suivant. La figure 2 représente une forme quelconque
d'un polytope donné

figure 2
II/ Formulation du problème :
1/ Distance entre un point et un polytope:
La formulation de ce problème consiste à utiliser la
formulation quadratique en basant sur la norme
euclidienne.
La distance entre un point M

du plan et un
\ y )

polytope P dont la position dans le plan décrit par (S) :
AX < b
est

d ( M , P ) = min M ,eS
avec

d ( M , M i ) = N 2( M

- A/,-)

(l )o ù

N,est la norme euclidienne.
La programmation quadratique consiste à définir la
distance sous la forme :
m i n x ( 1 / 2 X ft f X - C ' X ) sachant A X < ¿ 7 ( 2
) où X est un vecteur (n,l) à déterminer, C est un
vecteur (n,l) et H est une matrice symétrique.
A l’aide de cette formulation, on peut résoudre le
problème en utilisant la fonction prédéfinie de Matlab
QP dont la syntaxe est X = qp(H, C, A, b).

Evitement des obstacles par un objet mobile: Approche géométrique

Page 2

Le problème (1) sera donc traduit sous la forme
suivante :

(S):AX

<, b

c -0 )

-

X

(;)•
(3 )

Démonstration:
On a d(M,M.)2 = (x-x.)2+ (y-y;)2 = x2 + y2 + x.2
+ y.2 -2xx. -2yy.
Matriciellement on peut écrire :
2

V' - 2(x yÎ

OV

2 (xi y ^ 0 2

+ x2 + y2

V>W

\yu

Comme x + y est une constante, la fonction ainsi
minimiser sera celle définie en (3).
2/ Distance entre deux polytopes:
La
formulation de ce problème est inspirée de celle décrite
ci-dessus. La même démarche nous ramène à obtenir:
•*< '
yi

d ( P j , P ¡) = m in

!/W> *2

t

Xi '
H

yi

' Xj '
- c ‘

Cette formulation nous permet de calculer la distance
entre un polytope donné et la droite (MdMa) en
considérant cette dernière comme étant un polytope.
III/ Algorithmes du déplacement:
1/ Première approche:
Dans cette approche, on essaie de résoudre le problème
d’une manière simple. Entre autres, l’objet mobile
cherche à se déplacer vers les obstacles. En effet, les
étapes à suivre dans ce cas sont :
- calcul de distances entre le point du départ
et les différents polytopes. Ce calcul a pour objet de
sélectionner le premier polytope à traiter.
- la deuxième étape consiste à déplacer le
point du départ vers le point le plus proche du premier
polytope à traiter.
- la troisième étape consiste à chercher les
sommets restant du polytope les plus proche du point
d’arrivée et les trier selon leurs distances de ce dernier.
- la quatrième étape consiste à faire déplacer
le point du départ vers l’un des sommets ainsi cherchés
sachant qu’en se déplaçant vers ce sommet, le point du
départ n’aura pas de collision avec le polytope en cours
d’exécution. Et ainsi de suite jusqu’à arriver au premier
sommet le plus proche du point d’arrivée.
- une fois l’exécution du polytope considéré
est terminée, on passe au polytope suivant.
Schématiquement on peut résumer la première
approche comme suit:

yt

xi

xi

xi

yj.

yj.

yj >

L e p o in t d 'a r r iv é e e s l le p o in t M a

L a tr a j e c to ir e c i l Ind iq u ée
p a r le . n t c k e i F 1 .F 2 . F J .
F4. FS. F i . F 7 et F I

( S , ) : A i X / £ bi

(Sj): A j X j < bj

Xj ■

Pou

1 0 -1 0 '
0 1 0 -1
-1 0 1 0
0 -1 0 1 .
t d u d é p a r t e s t le po

c =

r résoudre ce problème, on utilise la même procédure
que
précédemment
en
considérant

A

=

Al

(H

0

AJJ

e x p l i c a t i f d e la p r e m i è r e a p p r o c h e

fa'

et

b=

b:

V JJ

Explication de figure :
Les sommets de chaque polytope en
cours d'exécution sont triés suivant leurs éloignements
du point d'arrivée. En effet, le point le plus proche du
point d'arrivée est pris comme étant le premier.
Le déplacement de l'objet mobile est effectué de la
façon suivante :

- Première étape : l'objet mobile se déplace
du point du départ Md vers le point du polytope le plus
proche Mp.
- Deuxième étape : ¡’objet mobile " pense " à
se déplacer du point Mp vers le point du polytope le
plus proche du point d'arrivée ( dans ce cas le point
Mi l ) mais il trouve qu'il va traverser le polytope
considéré. Donc, il va chercher à se déplacer vers un

Evitement des obstacles par un objet mobile: Approche géométrique

Page 3

autre point aussi proche du point d'arrivée sans avoir
collision avec le polytope soit le point M14.
- Troisième étape : l'objet mobile considère le
point M14 comme étant le nouveau point du départ et
va procéder de la manière précédente. Autrement dit, il
va tester la possibilité de déplacement vers le point du
départ sans avoir collision avec le polytope . Si ce
déplacement et possible, on passe au polytope suivant.
Sinon, on cherche à ce déplacer vers un autre sommet
aussi proche du point du départ ( dans ce cas le point
M13).
- Arrivant au sommet M13, l'objet mobile
effectue le même test que précédemment. Dans le cas
de figure, l'objet mobile va considérer le sommet M13
comme étant le nouveau point du départ et il va faire la
même chose que précédemment.
- Le polytope P2 ne sera pas pris en compte
car l'objet mobile peut se déplacer du point M13 vers le
point d'arrivée sans traverser ce polytope. Le polytope
suivant qui sera traité, sera le polytope le plus proche
du nouveau point du départ et qui n'a pas d'intersection
avec la droite (Md Ma). Dans notre cas c'est le
polytope P3.
L'objet mobile suit le même raisonnement que
précédemment au cours du traitement du polytope P3.
Le chemin parcouru est indiqué par les flèches F l,
F2,....,F8. La flèche FF4 indique le chemin prévu dans
le cas d'absence d'autre polytope à traiter.

2/ Déplacement à l'aide d'un contrôle flou:
Introduction:
Cette partie traite l’idée de savoir
déplacer un point du plan d'un point du départ Md vers
un point d'arrivée Ma en évitant tout polytope
rencontré.
Pour ce fait, on va utiliser deux contrôleurs flous du
types SUGENO.
-Premier contrôleur "atteindre le point
d'arrivée'': qui a pour entrée la distance entre le point
du départ et le point d'arrivée et pour sortie la déviation
que le point du départ peut faire pour arriver au point
d'arrivée.

d (M d .M a)

Contrôleur 1 :
a t t e i n d r e le p o i n t d ' a r r i v é e

a- Résultats de simulation

b-Conclusion :
Pour conclure sur cette approche, on dit
qu’elle permet un déplacement de l'objet mobile d'un
point du départ Md vers un point d'arrivée Ma bien
qu'elle ne donne pas le chemin optimal d’une part et
demande plusieurs tests à faire ce qui nécessite un
hardware puissant d'autre part. Cette approche
néanmoins a des avantages ; d'abord elle nous permet
de localiser les défauts et d'autre part à trouver un
domaine d'application à ce type du déplacement d'objet
mobile. Ce qui concerne ce deuxième point, on peut
dire que ce type du déplacement peut intéresser les
robots soldats par exemple qui cherchent à se cacher
derrière les obstacles.
On associe à la variable d(Md,Ma) sept sous-ensembles
flous:TG (Très Grande), G (Grande), MG (Moyenne
Grande), M (Moyenne), MP (Moyenne Petite), P
(Petite) et TP(Très Petite).
La table d'inférence est donnée par la figure suivante
d
5,

TG
10

G
20

MG
60

M
90

MP
60

P
20

TP
10

A partir de cette table, on peut déduire la fonction
reliant la distance d et l'angle S ,.
-Deuxième contrôleur " éviter le polytope " :
qui a pour entrée la distance entre le point du départ et
le polytope et pour sortie la déviation que le point du
départ peut faire pour éviter le polytope.

5,
d (M d. P)

° 2

Contrôleur 2 :
E v i t e r le p o l y t o p e

Avec :
- Ma: le point d'arrivée à un instant t donné.
- Md: le point du départ à un instant t donné.
- d(Md,Ma): distance entre le points Md et
Ma.
M (1M a

Avec :
- P: le polytope en cours d'exécution.
- Md: le point du départ à un instant t donné.
- d(Md,P): distance entre le point du départ
Md et le polytope P.

M doM a o

angle entre la droite "variable" (MdMa) ainsi formée à
chaque instant et la droite "initiale" (MdoMao).

S2 =

Md Ma

M doM a o

angle entre la droite "variable" (MdMa) ainsi formée à
chaque instant et la droite "initiale" (MdoMao).

Evitement des obstacles par un objet mobile: Approche géométrique

Page 4

On associe à la variable d(Md,P) sept sous-ensembles
flous:TG (Très Grande), G (Grande), MG (Moyenne
Grande), M (Moyenne), MP (Moyenne Petite), P
(Petite) et TP(Très Petite).
La table d'inférence est donnée par la figure suivante
d
G
MG
M
MP
P
TG
TP
20
60
10
90
60
20
10
8,

1000 9 00 -

8 0 0 -*■*-<*

°0

A partir de cette table, on peut déduire la fonction
reliant la distance d et l'angle Sr
a-Résultats de simulation:

200

400

600

800

1000

b-Conclusion:
Cette approche permet d'avoir des
bonnes résultats. Il reste à tester le cas multi-polytopes
qui sera l'objetif d'un notre projet.
4/ Tri des sommets d'un polytope:
a- Problématique:

300 200 ■

100-

o--------- «--------- ---------- ■- ---- ■*---------0

200

400

600

800

1000

1 OOOr
9 00 ■

eoo •
700 ■
600 50 0 400 ■

200 -

10 0 -

0 *
0

*

200

---------- ----------1--- 400

600

1

800 1000

Dans cette figure, on a trois formes d’un même
polytope suivant les ordres des sommets. En effet, les
sommets du polytope sont M l( l,l) , M2(6,0),
M 3(10,l), M4(10,4), M5(8,8), M6(5,9) et M7(l,4),
pour pouvoir tracer la forme convenable du polytope
en Matlab, on doit indiquer l'ordre qui sera parcouru
lors du traçage. Entre autres, Matlab permet le traçage
d'une ligne fermée à l'aide de l'instruction plot en lui
identifiant le point du départ ainsi que les autres points
en respectant l'ordre du parcourt en fin en donnant le
point d'arrivée qui ne sera que celui de départ.

Pour permettre au robot la connaissance des
formes des différents obstacles, on va considérer leurs
projections dans le plan du travail ( polytopes ). Ces
polytopes sont déterminés par la donnée des matrices
A. et des vecteurs de contraintes b.. Le traçage de ces
polytopes nécessite la connaissance de leurs sommets.
Ainsi, pour déterminer les sommets, on doit résoudre
les équations A.x = br Une fois on a résolu ces
équations, on a besoin de trier les sommets associés à
chaque polytope. En effet, la résolution de l'équation
Ax=b ne permet que la détermination des différents
sommets du polytope considéré. Or, comme le
polytope est une forme géométrique convexe, on doit,
donc, pour bien respecter la forme du polytope,
parcourir les différents points dans un sens bien précis.
Ce qui nécessite le tri des sommets résolus avant leur
traçage.
Schématiquement on résume le problème de la façon
suivante :

b- Solution développée:
Les étapes à suivre pour résoudre le problème sont:
résolution du système d'équations AX = B où A et
B sont la matrice et le vecteur des contraintes. La
résolution de ce système nous donne les coordonnées
de sommets du polytope considéré. En effet le vecteur
solution a la forme suivante :

Evitement des obstacles par un objet mobile: Approche géométrique

Page 5

X

1

IV/ Conclusion:

>' I
x 2

y 2

y n y
- considérer le point dont l'ordonnée le plus
grand comme étant le premier sommet du polytop
considéré.
- considérer le point le plus proche du point
défini ci-dessus comme étant le deuxième sommet.
- trier les points restant suivant leurs
éloignements de ce dernier point. Le point le plus
proche est pris comme étant le premier et ainsi de suite.
- stocker ces points dans vecteur Tri
- définir le sens du parcours à partir des
signes de l'abscisse du premier sommet moins l'abscisse
du deuxième sommet et de l'ordonné du premier
sommet moins l'ordonné du deuxième sommet.
- tester le sens du passage du deuxième
sommet au premier élément du vecteur Tri. Si ce sens
est le même que celui défini précédemment alors cet
élément est pris comme troisième sommet. Sinon, on
cherche dans le vecteur Tri un élément vérifiant ce
sens. Si aucun élément trouvé ne vérifie le sens défini.
On prend le troisième sommet l'élément du vecteur Tri
dont l'abscisse est le plus proche de celui de deuxième
sommet et le signe de l'ordonné du deuxième sommet
moins l'ordonné de cet élément est le même que celui
de l'ordonné du premier sommet moins l'ordonné du
deuxième sommet. Si cet élément n'existe pas, on
considère élément le plus proche comme étant le
troisième sommet et on définit un autre sens du passage
d'un sommet à un autre basant sur des signes de
l'abscisse du deuxième sommet moins l'abscisse du
troisième sommet et de l'ordonné du deuxième sommet
moins l'ordonné du troisième sommet.
- après l'exécution de 4 sommets, on teste la
distance entre les droites (M M W) et (MMMj+3). Si cette
distance est non nulle alors le chemin parcouru est
correct. Sinon, on permute les sommets Mw et Mk r.

Le travail ainsi présenté ne représente pas un ajout pour
la recherche d'évitement des obstacles par les objets
mobiles. Cependant son intérêt est d'implanter une
méthode simple par laquelle on a essyè de transformer
les règles de contrôle et commandes les plus complexes
en des règles géométriques.
Références:
[1] Kyriakopoulos K. J. et Saridis G. N., " An
integrated Collision Prediction
an Avoidance
Schemefor Mobile
Robots
in
Non-stationary
Environments", Automatica, Vol 29, N° 2 pp309-322,
1993.
[2] Kyriakopoulos K. J. et Saridis G. N., " Distance
Estimation and Collision Prediction for On-line
Robotic Motion Planning", Automatica, Vol 28, N° 2
pp389-394, 1992.
[3] Hemami K., Mehrabi M.G. et Cheng R. M. H..
Synthesis of an Optimal Contrôle Law for Path
Tracking in Mobile Robots", Automatica, Vol 28, N° 2
pp383-387, 1992.
[4] Aliyu M. D. S. et Al-Sultan K. S., " Collision
Detection Algorithms: A Survey", 1994.
[5] Selmi Shokri Z. et Almohamad H. A., "Collision
Compution of Moving Bodies", 1994.
[6] Papageorgiou Markos et Steinkogler Alexander,
"Real-time Optimal Contrôle of Moving Vehicles in
changing Environments ", IEEE TRANSCTIONS ON
CONTRÔLE SYSTEMSTECHNOLOGY, Vol 2, N° 4,
pp447-454, 1994.
[7] Vaneck T. W. " Fuzzy Guidance Controller for an
Autonomous Boat", IEEE CONTRÔLE SYSTEM, pp
43-51, Avril 1997.
[8] Achour N. et Toumi R., " A Fuzzy Controller for
an Robot's Path Planning", JTEA Tunisie, pp 212217, Novembre 1996.
[9] Berrabah S., Terki Kara C. et Ghouali N., "
Réseaux de Neurones Formels et Logique Fou pour la
navigation d'un Robot Mobile", JTEA Tunisie, pp 195203, Novembre 1996.

a- Résultats de simulation:

b-Conclusion
L'algorithme ainsi développé n'est pas
valable dans tous les cas. Il donne des bons résultats
pour l’ordre 4. Cet algorithme donne plusieurs tests à
effectuer pour cette raison il nous faut un matériel assez
puissant pour aboutir à des bons résultats.

Evitement des obstacles par un objet mobile: Approche géométrique

Page 6

6',mr Colloque Maghrébin sur les Modèles Numériques de l ’i ngénieur (C2MNI6), 24-26 Novembre 1998, Tunis

Bond Graph Modelling and System Supervision Developing of Battery Sheet
Formation System
M C H A A L IA S. < \ F IL A L I M. M. " and K SO U R I M .(’’
' L ab oratoire d 'A nalyse et de C om m ande des S ystèm es
1 1L ab oratoire de R echerche en A utom atique
E cole N ationale d 'in gén ieu rs de Tunis
B.P. 37 le B elvédère 1002 T unis, T unisie
F ax (2 1 6 -1 )8 7 2 729

ABSTRACT
D eveloping autom atic control is the basic aim o f
autom atic research. T he choice o f autom atic control
can also be determ ined by adequate m odelling o f
studied system s.
In this paper, w e propose a solution for finding
battery sheet form ation autom atic control.
T o achieve this object, tw o steps have been
developed: the first one is to determ ine the best
system m odel by using bond graph, w hereas the
second one is to create th e supervision system
through sim ulation results.
K eyw ords:
autom atic
control,
battery
form ation, bond graph, system supervision.

sheet

T he purpose o f this article is to d em o n strate the
successful application o f best ch o o sin g softw are and
hardw are and efficien t system m odel to a pratical
control application.
In the first section, w e p resen t th e studied system .
Section tw o illustrates system m odelling and
sim ulation results. N ex t w e describe the hardw are
and the softw are platform s.
In the end, we discus system im planting possibility.
2. SY ST E M P R E S E N T A T IO N
T he battery sheet form ation is a set o f "bacs", that
are plastic containers in w hich w e p u t th e sheets, and
current converters, w hich are ch arg in g cu rren t
source.

1. IN T R O D U C T IO N
F inding autom atic control has been dealt with in
recent papers. T hanks for recent advances in
com puting pow er, the design and sim ulation o f
com plex control algorithm s has becom e relatively
easy. H ow ever, the application o f these algorithm s
as robust, real-tim e control system s is nontrivial
exercise in com puter system s engineering, requiring
careful choice o f hardw are and softw are platform s.
O n the industrial p lant th e com puting pow er is not
the only priority. A lm ost o f greater concern is the
reliability o f the control system hardw are.
H aving an industrial standard hardw are platform
w ithout robust and reliable softw are w ould be
ineffectual.
H ow ever the system supervision is the relevant
autom atic control, the choice o f an efficient plant
m odel is m ore im portant. U sually to identify a
process m odel, w e need to know the process
d escriptive param eters. Bond graph is em ployed to
perm it process m odelling w ithout needing to know
the process descriptive param eters [2]. At present
bond graph technique is a huge dom ain [2] for
m odelling unknow n physic system s.

72 serie container loads

Figure 1: Battery sheet form ation system
T he existing co n v erter control is indicated by a
p erforic program m ing card, fig u re 2

carte viergs

carte programmée

Figure 2: perforic program m ing card.
C harging program is obtained into the entailm ent
pistes in every sector. W e find 16 sectors that are:
- 5A , 10A, 10A, 25A , 50A , 100A and 100A: sectors
1,2,3,4,5,6 and 7
- pause tim e: sector 9
- 30 second and 30 m inute during program : sectors
13 and 14
- polarity inversion: sector 10
- program defilem ent: sector 11
- stop program : sector 16
T he charging program application is specified into
card optical learning w ith the card learner.
T his type o f system control provides m uch dam age.
T o operate the hum an and m aterial security and
battery quality, w e w ill study the sheet form ation
control autom ation.
T herefore, w e propose to realise a system
supervision to control the sheet form ation and
m inim ise the dam age that can happen in case o f
defaults.
T he m ain idea is to determ ine the sheet form ation
m odel using bond graph technique in order to create
system
supervision
perm itting
the
on
line
supervision.

Time (second)

Figure 3: Voltage variation

250
200
150

KA) 100

Time (second)

Figure 4: Current variation

2. M O D E L L IN G A N D C H O O SIN G
A U T O M A T IC C O N T R O L SY ST E M
Time (second)

T he autom atic control system has been determ ined
into the bond graph system m odel.
M any reasons m ake us choose the bond graph to
determ ine the system model:
the present system is m ixture o f different type
system s (chem ical system , electrical system ,
m echanical system ).
physical system unknow ledge.
F igure 11 presents a bond graph system m odel.
In this m odel, w e can study the controllability and
o bservability and sim ulate th e on line control
system .

Figure 5: Capacity variation
F igures 3, 4 and 5 illustrate the sim ulation results.
In these sim ulation results, w e are dev elo p in g a
system supervision. T o fulfil this object, tw o
interfaces have been developed: U ser-PC interface
through an object-oriented p rogram and PC -M aterial
interface through hardw are that w e have developed.
PC -M A T E R IA L IN T E R F A C E D E S C R IP T IO N
T he basic idea is to find a PC -M aterial interface
described by figure 6.

C hoosing the m odel techniques involves a g rea t deal
o f research. U sing bond graph tech n iq u e to m odel
unknow n physic system s is an efficien t so lu tio n for
som e application.
T he developing system supervision is co n v en ien t in
this application. H ow ever, to ch an g e the system
control structure by creating a co n v erter co n tro l card
is an efficien t solution.
T h e plant condition does not perm it a dev elo p ed
system im planting. T herefore the sim ulation results
present the advance o f such created system .
4. R E F E R E N C E S
T he principal dev elo p ed card are: A ddress decoding
card, Input-output card, A nalog-D igital conversion
card and m ultiplying card.
P C -U SE R IN T E R F A C E D E S C R IP T IO N
T his interface is obtained into an object-oriented
program such has been m ade in (under) w indow s
environm ent by using B o rla n d C " language.
To identify system control, w e have developed the
control algorithm d escribed by figure 7.

[1]

[2]

[3]

[4]

A usderau A., "Fonctionnem ent, d escrip tio n et
traitem ent des accum ulateur électriques",
4èm e édition, Peseaux, F rance, D ec, 1958.
B orne
P.
and
al./'M o d é lisa tio n
et
identification des processus ", T o m e 2,
E d itio n T echnip, P aris,France, 1992.
M chaalia S., "M odélisation et C o m m an d e on
L igne de Systèm es de F orm ation des P laques
et de C harge de B atteries ", PFE, E N IT .
T unis, T unisia, July, 1997.
R oberi L „ Sm ith J., "C ontrol batteries, p o w er
system
life
savers",
IEE E ,
Industry
A pplication M agazine, pp 18-25, N o v/D ec,
1995.
5. A P PE N D IX

iS™

F

---------- ---- —-------

j .' J n e d l o t m a l l o n
■le tu p »

'C l

Figure 9: Parameter Stock item
Figure 7. Control system algorithm
Based on this algorithm , w e can identify the control
o f considered system .

F T A T D U PARAMFTnF T H A IT F

___________
r.

''

3. C O N C L U SIO N
This paper presents a m ethod to solve industrial
problem s w ith a m inim al cost.

Figure 10: Parameter State Item

C:C,

Sel ;Vphl

T
H °“

C:C2

T

Se2-Vph2 —jj g -

%

C:C3

Se3-^ph3

j.

Figure 11: System bond graph model.

Ilmenau Technical University
Technische Universität Ilmenau

Microwave Department
Microwellentechnik

MCHAALIA Said
Electrical Engineer
ENIT, Tunis, Tunisia

MEASURMENTS WITH AN
11 GHz NOISE RADAR

T raining period: 20 O ctober .. 20 D ecem ber 1998

This training is realised in the Microwave Department in the Technical University of
Ilmenau (TechnischeUniversität Ilmenau, Institut fü r Kommunikations und Meßtechnik,
Mikrowellentechnik und Informationtechnik ), Germany, under the direction of misters:
Doctor Ralf Stephan, and Professor Heinrich Loele.

I thank Professor Loele very much for my acceptance in his
department and his permanent maintain.
I want to thank Doctor Stephan very much for his help and his
consideration and the suitable relation.
I would like to thank the IASETE Committee very much who
offered me this training and the best staying in Ilmenau, and
partically Katrin Berthold.
In the end, I want to thank the Staff of the Technical University of
Ilmenau, and the German People very very much for their good
welcome.

- {(c/aa/ia {Paid

Ilmenau, D e ce m be r 1998

Said M chaalia

Measurements with an 11 GHz Noise RADAR
1/ Introduction:
Several researchers are Interested In the transm lssion-reflection-absorbation phenom a
investigation. The main subject of this field is to valid the transm ission signal theory and to
putout the getting received signal behaviour for each used transm ission-reflection type in order
to study the delay tim e effect. This field presents many applications: moving o bject detections,
the high frenquency signal transm ission, mobile telecom m unication, ...
In this pratical training we are interested to develop a m easurem ent system o f a noise radar
based on the use of a PC and a telecommunication system s (receiver, transm itter, RF
G enerator, am plifiers, m ultiplier, mixers, data delay line device, wave guide system s, signal
dividers, ...). So, w e consider two channels; a m easurm ent channel, which m a in ly contains;
tra nsm itte r (antenna), receiver (antenna), amplifiers, and mixiers, and a reference channel,
which principaly contains; delay tim e system (delay line device, frequency s h ifte r and switched
line system s), am plifiers and m ixiers. However, for the m easurm ent channel, w e are interested
to transm it and receive a signal based on the antennas, for the second one, the m ain idea is to
vary a delay tim e device and to com pare both channels.
The main object of this training is to study the correlation between the reference channel signal
and the m easurm ent channel signal function of each introduced delay tim e type. This correlation
is determ ined by a correlation function corresponding to the output signal. P racticaly, the
correlation function is caracterised by the output m ultiplier which m ultiplies the reference channel
output signal and the m easurem ent channel one.
For each introduced delay tim e type, the first step consists to move the reflector position in order
to determ ine the position getting the maximum amplitude signal in the output. T he next step
consists to vary the reflector position In an interval centering in the founded position to study the
output variation. After, we put the reflector at the founded position and look fo r the o utput signal
fo r a delay tim e variatiom from the smallest value to the greatest one. The object o f the delay
tim e variation is to determ ine the equation: reflector position= function(delay tim e variation) in
order to study the new position getting the maximum am plitude signal and to deal with the
change of the m axim um am plitude signal value. Then we diccuss the obtained results.
H ow ever the first exprim ent looks for the founded position for each chosen line w hen any delay
tim e is not considered (only the produced delay lines), the second one treats the sw eeping delay
tim e elim ination by an introduction of a data delay line device. For this one, we in vestigate the
output signal when we vary the delay time between 3ns and 4ns. This variation is based upon
a control voltage variation between 10V downto 1.3V. The third exprim ent in vestigates the use
of som e others delay tim e devices: RFT ('Posaner1) which permits a manual delay tim e variation
between 0 to 0.85ns throughout its length variation, hp8743 (RTTU: R eflexlon-Transm ission Test
Unit) which gets a m anual delay tim e variation between 0 to 1ns into an inserted electrical length
between its input and its output, and 2 delaies IC sytem which gets an electrical delay tim e
variation between 0 to 1.4ns based on a control voltage variation. The next e xp rim e n t consists
to valid the obtained results. Then to give an explication for each output graph behaviour. In the
first step, this exprim ent considers the mechanical delay system and investiges the getting
output curves fo r each position of this instrument. In the second step, it changes the m echanical
delay line device by an electrical delay line device, which is the two delaies IC in o rd e r to look
fo r the difference between the electrical insered delay tim e and the m echanical one.
The next exprim ent consists in an advanced studies of the hp8743 and the sw itches positions:
inside the frequency schifter system , all outside, and each inside and the oth e r outside. In this
exprim ent, w e are interested to getout the difference between the different o btained output
behaviour and to give an explication for these results. In the other hand, we are interested to
study the shift frequency system effect, exactly the mixer effects. For this exprim ent, w e consider

1

only the m echanical delay time system . In one case, we present the diffrence between the
electrical delay tim e system and the mechanical one through a com paraision between the
obtained curves.In an other case, we investage the difference between the m oving reflector
position results and the other results when we fix the reflector position in the founded position
getting the m axim um signal am plitude and we vary the delay time. An oth e r step of this
exprim ent gets the difference used switched line numbers. Thereby, it treats the difference
betw een getting results using 4 switched lines and the results when we conside r 8 sw itched
lines. In the next step it investages the difference between getting results when w e start with the
short line ( L, ) and when we start with the longer one( L8 ). This step consists to getout the
output singal behaviour function of the chosen delay time direction.
In the conclusion of this training, we wil putout the difference between the differented used delay
devices, discuss the obtained resulats and present the perspectives of such work.
2/ C on sidered system description:
In this paragraph, we present the considered system.
Meßstrecke

PC

Figure 1: Block diagram of an 11 GHz Noise RADAR
Figure 1 presents the used system . W e distinguish:
¡/- a noise generator: is a broad band generator. It generates a noise signal with an used band
width betw een 10.7 and 12 GHz.

i

f

ii/- a signal divider: this sytstem divides the output of the noise gen e ra to r on tw o distinguished
outputs by m aintaining their phases. The first output has the sam e am plitude as the generator
output (transm itted signal), the second one has a 20 dB lower signal level (reference channel).
ill/- a transm itter: the first signal divider output is an antenna input which is used as transm itter.
So, the antenna send the signal to the reflector which is a metalic plate.
iv/- a receiver: is an other hory antenna used to receive the reflected signal. The receiver input
signal is equal to the transm itter output adding a delay time caracterising the m easured scerery.
v/- am plifiers: four am plifiers are used. The first one Is placed after the receiver device. Its object
is to am plify the receiver output. The second one is placed in the other line: i.e its input is the
reference channel output. The others are placed after the m ultiplier: one in the m eaurm ent
channel and the o th e r in the reference channel. The all amplifiers have the sam e gain value (
30dB).

2

vi/- a m ono-frequency generator: this generator is the local oscillator fo r the frequency
converters of a m onochrom e signal with a fixed frequency value 9.75 GHz. This gen e ra to r
o utput is a m ixer input for the frequency conversion in both channels.
v ii/ two m ixers: one is placed in the m easurm ent channel and the other in the reference
channel.
viii/ a delay 1C: this device is installed in the reference channel and shifts the signal to 0.95 ..
2.25G H z in order to study delay time effect. It is a set of delay data lines. In the first step, it is
form ed by two sw itchs ( waveline inc., S 18073, S/N0001 ) connected by variable length lines
(L,:20cm , 1-2:40 cm, L3:60cm, ...). Switching between the lines is done by a control PC by an
interface card. The signals path this system with a frequency between 0.95 and 2.25 GHz.

Choosing line via PC

8 switch lines present diffirent distances

Figure 2: S w itched line
system
Figure 2 show s the first used delay tim e system.
In the second step, we have introduced an other delay tim e system connected in series with
the first one. This system is composed of:
a- delay data line device (QDB1005, 7K): works with frequencies between 0 and 300 MHz. A
control voltage is variable between 1.3 and 10V in case to obtain the minimum delay tim e value
(which is 3.3ns) fo r 10V and the maximum one (which is 4ns) for 1.3V. The control voltage
variation is generated by a software into a PC. The communication between the PC and the
others instrum ents is through an interface card (M eilhaus.300) which permits sw itching lines into
a choosen digital data output (using DIO ports), control voltage value into D/A co nve rte r
channels, and store output variation using A/D converter channels. And based on o u r program ,
we can generate all these functions and display output data graphically.
b- two m ixers(M D C -123): one is placed before the delay data line device which m ixtures the
refrence channel am plifier output and a signal divider output, and the other after this instrum ent.
It m ixtures the delay data line device output and the second signal divider output. The output of
this am plifier is the switch lines input.

i

c- signal divider(M ini-circuits, 15542, ZESC-2-4): this system has one input which is the RF
generator output ( noise signal with a frequency of 2 GHz) and two equal outputs.
d- Two filter-am plifiers (0.5 ... 2.5 GHz, wb=15dbm ): however the first one is used to filte r and
am plify the RF gen e ra to r output, the second one is used to filter and am plify the switch lines
input.
3

Choosing line via PC

g.

Mixer

Mixer
2

1. . 2GHZ

! o—

1.5.. 2 GHz

IF

) IF

1

Amplifier

Mechanical delay time system: hp8743B

Vo ut
12 GHz

12 GHz

8 switch lines present diffirent distances

Signal Divider

2 GHz

2 GHz

Amplifier

O

I

GHz

From Network Analyzer

Figure 3: Time delay sytsem presentation
Figure 3 presents the time delay system.
ix/ an output multiplier: this one is used to m ultiply the m easured channel output and the
reference channel one and to give us the m easured output signal.
x / a low frequency filter: capacitor-inductor ( C=1pF and L=38pH ) filte r with a frequency f=25
KHz. This filte r is used to eleminate the noise that can be produced by the high frequency and
perm its us to measure an DC output signal without noise. It m eans that filte r seperates
DCsignal.

L = 38>aH
From ihe output correlator O —

_Q

To the inter face card: ME-300

TK X J-

Figure 4: Used filter presentation
Figure 4 describes the developed filter.
xi/ a PC: generates the measurments throughout an interface card (m eilhaus. 300) and a Pascal
language program which permits choosing lines, control voltage variation, and displaying data
output.
Interface card: M eilhaus.300 (ME-300): It is an interface card for IBM -AT and com patible
(with ISA-16 bit stuck capacity) with A/D, D/A converters and 24 TTL input/outputs. W e can
m ake softw are generating this card using a Pascal or C languages in Dos or W indows
environm ents.
It contains mainly:

4

a- A/D converter (ADC: MAX176): generates 12 bit word througthout 16 channels (A/D channel
0 to A/D channel 15) or 8 diffirential input channels and a multiplixer. Its frequency is variable
until 200KHz. The m anipulation of the converter elements (bloc, input type: single o r m ultiple,
timer, trigger and interrupt mods, choosen channel number, unipolar(positiv values)
or
bipolar(positiv and negativ values), gain) is into the software. Two types of program m ig converter
are distinguished: PGA 203 for which the gain is one of {1,2,,4,8} and the u nip o la r voltage value
is one of {0 .. 10V, 0 .. 5V, 0 .. 2 .5 V, 0 .. 1.25V}, and PGA 202 for which the gain is included in
{1,10,100,1000} and the unipolar voltage value is in {0 .. 10V, 0 .. 1V, 0 .. 0.1V, 0 .. 0.01V}. The
choice of one of these types is through the software. The converter receives its input via a SubD connecter (50 pins). This converter is coupled to AT-Bus via a galvanic isolation (opto­
electronics coupling). This converter is alim entated by 3 W DC/DC converter.
b- D/A converter (DAW : AD664): generates a 12 bit word through four D/A channels (channel A,
channel D). It is connected directly to the 16 bit data bus and the 8 bit adress of the PC. It is
isolated by 1W DC/DC converter which makes the D/A converter alim entation and its galvanic
isolation. To secure the converter, each channel is connected to the grow nd of the converted
AG ND DAW) by a resistor and capacitor which the system gain is 3dB fo r the frequency
(Eckfrequenz).
c- Digital I/O system (BCT543): generates an input or output word of 8 bits throughtout a
choosen DIO port ( DIO Port A0, .., DIO Port A7, or DIO Port B0,
DIO Port B7, or DIO Port
CO, .., DIO Port C7).
Only one of these ports is choosed for a digital input or output. This is done with a sofltw are.
d/ Registers: we distinguish two types of registers: a 8 bit register which is used fo r the control
of channels, timer, ports, ..., and a 16 bit register which is used fo r the instantinous storage of
data.

e/ T im er (71054): is a synchrone with the 8253 compatible. It has three 16 bit tim er. H ow ever
the first one and the second are cascaded, the third one is independent. The second one
generates a frequency of 1.5MHz. The third one generates a frequency of 3M Hz. The output of
the first one activates the channels. The activation channel time is controlled via the scan-tim e
input of the first one which perm its the control of activation of a channel.

Figure 5: Used interface card.
Figure 5 presents the used interface card (m eilhaus.300)
Software description: as m entioned the interface card is program ed using Pascal o r C
languages and the w ork environm ent (Dos or W indows). We think to use the Pscal language
5

and the Dos environm ent because that presents an easier task.
The main object is to develop a program generating choice line, control voltage variation in order
to vary the delay time, storage of the data system output in a data file and displaying stored data
graphically.

O ther the main developed program , we have realised others needed programs:
. program looking for the PC as an oscilloscope to perm it us to localise the m axim um
output variation better than the use of an other instrum ent bacause we can vary the output
visualisation in the PC fastly as we want.
. program loop m easurm ents for three lines. This program makes n cycles of m easurm ents
for three lines (L,, L,, and L3), when n is identified by the user.

.program identifys necessary delay time for each line in the first time, then fo r three lines.
Thereby, w e have considered a set of delay times {228m s, 20ms, 10ms, 0m s} in ode r to identify
the needed delay perm itting transm ission-reception signal without attenuation as fast as
possible.
The storage received output in a data file perm it us to load this file in Matlab environm ent when
we need it and make som e calculations ( graphics, max-min determ ination, ..).
The program execution velocity is function of considered delay tim e for data transm ission and
reception.

Figure 6: The main developed algorithm
Figure 6 presents the main algorithm for control voltage variation, transm ission data to the
hardware, reception data from the hardware and graphics displaying.
3/ First exprim ent:
In this exprim ent we look for the maximum position determ ination. W e'distinguish two types
of position m easurm ents. One, when we consider a fixed delay tim e in the reference channel
and the other when we introduce the variable delay line system

6

!

.¡/ M easured positions getting maximum output am plitude without introduction of a delay line
system :
In the first experim ent, we have to look for m axim um positions at which we m easure the
greatest correlation of the received and reference signal for each choosen line and when we do
not co nside r the data delay line device. Therefor, only one time delay is considered: the tim e
delay produced by switching through lines. For a choosen line, we m easure the distance
between the antenna and the reflector when we look fo r a m axim um output am plitude
visualisation. The results are presented in the table 1.
W e should note that a delay time is introduced by each choosen line. So, for the first line, we
get a delay tim e of 0.66ns. However, For the second line, we get a delay tim e of 1,33ns, we get,
fo r the third line, a delay time of 2ns.
Distances

Lines
L, (20 cm )

91.4 cm

L, (40 cm )

109 cm

l_ 3 (60 cm)

121.6 cm
Table 1

Table 1 show s a three measured position fo r lines 1, 2 and 3.
W e note thtat the distance is function of considered line. On the oth e r hand, It is function of
choosen delay time. Although for a m inim um delay tim e (0.66) we obtain a small m easured
distance between the antenna and the reflector, we obtain the great one for the maximum delay
tim e (2ns). This provides the signal processing theory that when we get larger in the tim e
interval, w e get sm aller in the frequency band and the reverse.
Using PC as an oscilloscope

100

Figure 7-a: Finding maximum position.

200
300
400
500
Value nb referring to any delay time

600

Figure 7-b: O utput varition visualisation

Figure 7-a and b present the measured output when any delay is consedered and the first line
is choosen. T he first one shows the maximum position founding, yet the second one presents
the output variation visualisation when we consider a small variation of the reflector position in
an interval centrated in the maximum position.
.ii/M easured position for different delay values (distance versus control voltage o f delay IC):
In the second exprim ent, we introduce the delay tim e line system ( delay IC) and do the

7

sam e thing as the first exprim ent. Yet, in this step, we consider three delay values in order to
test the param eters of the considered instrument.
The delay 1C contains a loaded transm ission line with variable load capacitors. The control
voltage changes the capacitance of C-diodes. The delay variation interval is defined by the
control vo ltag e variation.
To dete rm ine the distances, we are thinking about the use of the PC like an oscilloscop.
Thereby, based on a m anual variation of the reflector and the visualisation of the correspondent
voltage (m easured output) using the PC, we have identified the position giving the m axim um um
am plitude at the m ultiplier output. Then, we measure the distance between associated position
of the re fle cto r and the antenna fo r the choosen values of the control voltage. Three values 2,
5 and 10 V are considered.
Distance

Voltage: 2 V
L, (20 cm )

169 cm

Lg (40 cm)

181 cm

l_ 3 (60 cm )

198 cm
Voltage: 5 V

L, (20 cm )

163 cm

l_ 2 (40 cm)

178 cm

l_ 3 (60 cm)

193 cm
Voltage: 10V

L, (20 cm)

159 cm

L_ 2 (40 cm )

172 cm

l_ 3 (60 cm)

188 cm

Table 2: Position measured for a diffirent delay value
Table 2 presents three different m easured positions of the reflector fo r three control voltage
values: 2, 5, and 10V.
We verify the influence of the used data delay line device. Thereby, we note that fo r the
m inim um vo ltag e value, we obtain the larger distance between the antenna and the reflector and
for the m axim um one, we obtain the sm aller distance. So, we verify the IC system param eters.
The difference in the delay tim e is about 0,7 ns (corresponding to 10 .. 11 cm shift in the
reflector position). It m eans that for a reflector position variation from the m inim um position to
the m axim um one, we get a delay tim e of almost 0.7ns. So, we can consider three delay time
types:
- the first one is relatively to control voltage variation: when we vary the voltage form the
m inim um value to the m axim um value, we produce a delay time of alm ost 0.7ns. This is verified
by the m axim um position founging operation: For example, for the first line, w e have found the
m axim um position at 169cm when we have considered 2 V. But we have detected the maximum
position at 159cm, when w e have considered 10V. So, we obtain a m axim um founded position
variation of 10cm corresponding to 0.66ns of delay time.
- the second one is relatively to the reflector position variation: when we m ove the reflector from
a position to an other one, we get a delay tim e ( for each 30cm, we have a delay tim e of 1ns).
- the third one is relatively to the chosen line: each line has a defined length different than the
other. So, for each choosen line, we introduce a delay time of ( length(chosen line)(cm ) / 30 )ns.

8

finding maximum position for Uc=5v

finding maximum position for Uc=2v

100
200
300
400
500
Value nb referring to moving reflector position

100
200
300
400
500
Value nb referring to moving reflector position

600

600

Figure 8-b: founding m axim um position
for line 1 and Uc = 5V

Figure 8-a: founding m axim um position
for lin e l and Uc = 2V

finding maximum position for Uc=10v

100
200
300
400
500
Value nb referring to moving reflector position

600

Figure 8-c: founding maximum position
fo r line 1 and Uc = 10 V
Figures 8-a, b and c show the m axim um position variation for three control voltage values(2, 5,
and 10V) and when the first line is choosen. The x-axe presents m easurm ent num bers referring
to the m oving position of the reflector. W e note that 200 points present a 1m reflector position
variation from the right to the left ( it m eans that the initial position is the nearest one to the
antenna). Every 200 points, we get the reflector in its initial position and m ove it in the sam e
direction as the first step.
3/ Second exprim ent:
In this paragraph, w e present the main object of our second w ork then we describe the
exprim ent results when w e consider only three switched lines. In the end we diccuss the
obtained results.
W e can consider that the delay tim e is a function of control voltage. The m inim um delay value
(which is 3.3ns ) is fo r 10 V of the voltage, yet the maximum one ( which is 4ns) is for 1.3 V of
the voltage.The system m aintains a fixed delay time between its input and its output for
frequencies between 0Hz and 300M Hz.
Here, the main idea is to vary the delay by means of the analog control voltage variation
9

betw een 1,3V and 10V, and to look for the output graphs for each line. But, the choice of a new
fixed line m akes an oth e r delay for considered system .So, when we conside r all m easured delay
tim e with only fixed three lines, we obtain a delay tim e Interval l=[-1ns 2ns].
T he m ain problem fo r this exprim ent is that we can not determ ine the needed tim e to send and
receive the signal. H ow ever we have not any idea about the delay IC tim e constant, we have
co n sid e r a delay of 228 ms for each transm ission of a choosen control voltage value.
B esides, we can not determ ine the num ber of m easurm ents which we can obtain when we vary
control voltage between two successiv values. So, the main idea is to conside r a set of delay
values { 0, 1, 20m s} and to look for the system output. This presents an o th e r step that we have
treated in this exprim ent in order to investigate the system output for each chosen transm issionreception delay tim e in the program.

fig ure 9-a: W ith a delay time of 20 ms.
of 1 ms.

figure 9-b: W ith a delay time

figure 9-c: W ithout any delay time.
Figures 9-a, b and c present the output visualisation fo r three values of the delay tim e choosing
in the program in order to identify the system response and the necessary tim e for the
transm ission and reception. W e note that without any delay time ( it m eans tha t w e consider a
transm ission-reception delay time of 0 ms), we can obtain an output graph corresponding to the
right form but presents a noise which we can elim inate when we consider a delay tim e of 1ms.
So, w e conclude that the m inim um transm ission-reception delay tim e is about 1ms.
T heoriticaly, w e have a small output frequency variation (a little frequency band because we
10

have reduced it based on the delay 1C system which has a frequency band of 0.3G Hz) in the
interval [-1ns 2ns]. That equal to say, we obtain a small variation of the maximum position in
this interval J= [ 159cm... 198cm], when 159cm is the first line position for the m inim um delay
tim e value ( 2ns: 10V ) and 198cm is the third line position fo r the maximum delay tim e value
(1ns: 2 V). N orm aly, we get the m axim um position in 0 ns point in the interval I which is equql to
the m id d le b e tw e e n the la rg e r third lin e p oistion and the s m a lle r firs t lin e p o s itio n
(159+198)/2=178.5cm ).
But, exprem ently, when we are using a three switched lines, we note that the reflector position
variation in the interval J gives a diffirent graph forms not sim iliar to theoritical results. On the
hand, we note that only at 195.5cm point, we can get a graph giving three m axim um positions.
We can explain this by: the obtained graph presents a fast variation in the interval I. So, the
output variation is function of the reflector position and the delay time. At each reflector position
in the interval J, we have one m axim um position relatively to the delay tim e varition based upon
the control vaolta g e variation. This provides the theoritical results. For, example, if we consider
10-a and if w e join the pics, we obtain a graph presented the output variation for a delay tim e of
4.7ns. To refer to this delay tim e value, we have considered m easurm ent num bers (525 value
num bers referring to 4.7ns of delay time). If, we gte the reflector in the maximum position and
we switch the three lines we obtain a graph sim iliar to the theoritical output varition in the
interval [-1ns 2ns]. And, we can say that w e look for the m axim um am plitude at the m iddle of
the interval I if we associate 525 to 2ns and 0 to -1ns. But, when, we change the reflector
position in the interval J, that can reflect the sgnal periodicity in the interval J, we obtain the
m axim um am plitude at an other point of this interval (show figures 10-a, b, c and e).
On the o th e r hand, a small varition of the reflector position in the interval J do not produce a
change of the m axim um am plitude position in the this interval ( show figures 10-c, d, and e).
The difference between the minimum signal amplitud and the miximum of is equal to 120mV. It
is not equal to the theoritical value which is 200mV. This can be the result of the attenuation
introduced by the delay IC system and the RF generator. H owever RF generator has a
frequency band of 2GHz, the delay IC has a freqency band of 0.3GHz. Although before the
reference channel output, we m ixture the RF generator signal (2GHz) and the delay IC signal
(0.3G Hz), to obtain the reference channel output, we filter the mixtured signal with a frequency
band of 2G H z based upon the filter-am plifier which has a variable frequency between 0.5 and
2GHz. T hen, this introduces some attenuation on the output signal.
So, the o btained results let us think about the signal periodicity in the intervall J. Have the output
signal really a periodicity in the interval J which provides the maximum am plitude position
change? Or, are these false results? And, we must look fo r the mistake.
To answ er o u r quetions, we consider the next exprim ent which looks for others types of used
delay tim e system .

11

1 .0 2

3.08 ns

3 .0 0 n s

1 .5 4
2 .0 7
D e la y tim e in n s

Sweeping of 0.30 as.

Delay tim e (ns)

. For SI: sweeping is from 0.7 to Ins
. ForS2: sweeping is from 1.7 to 2ns

Sweeping of 0.30 ns.
. F or SI: sweeping is from 0.7 to Ins
. For S2: sweeping is from 1.7 to 2ns

Figure 10-b: At 187 cm

Figure 10-a: At 195.5 cm

3 08

3 08

D e la y t im e in n s
_

D e la y tim e in n s

Sweeping of 0.30 os.

m

Sweeping of 0.30 □*.

. For SI: sweeping is from 0.7 to Ins
. For S2: sweeping is from 1.7 to 2ns

. For SI: sweeping is from 0.7 to Ins
. For S2: sweeping is from 1.7 to 2ns

Figure 10-c: At 181 cm

.«.

Figure 10-d: At 182 cm

Sweeping of 0.30 ns.
. For SI: sweeping b from 0.7 to Ins
. For S2: sweeping is from 1.7 to 2ns

figure 10-e: A t 183 cm
Figures 10-a, b, c, d and e present the output variation function of the moving reflector position.
W e note that in the interval J, the output has m any form s. But we obtain the a p p ro xim a te form
at 195.5cm.
4/ Third exprim ent:

12

In this section we deal with the delay effect on the the output. First, w e treat the delay
variation w hen we consider the trom bone system ( which permits a transm ission in one direction
and a m axim um variation of its length of 2*12.75 cm = 0.0255 m, which is equal to 0.85 ns of
delay tim e, then we consider an other delay time system which is the hp8743B ( R eflectionT ransm ission Test Unit). This one perm it an inserted electrical length between its input and its
output o f 304m m , which gives a delay tim e almost of 1ns. Afeter, we co nside r the elctrical
sw itching of the delay time. In the end of this section we discuss the obtained results.
a- Use of the trom bone:
In this exprim ent the delay line system is trombone system m anufactured by RFT. The RFT
system is a w ave guide had a variable length. The maxumum length variation is equal to
0.0255m . This perm it us to obtain a delay time of 0.85 ns when we get the m axim um length
variation.
In this step, we consider a frequency band large of 1 GHz ( frequency variation is from 1GHz
to 2G H z)
We note that we get one m xim um signal amplitude in the delay tim e variation interval ([0
2ns]).
In the first step of this exprim ent, we found the reflector position getting the m axim um output
am plitude (which is 168.2cm), then we varied the reflector position in an interval centerated in
this position ([157 188]) in order to observ the output variation, a fter we studied the delay tim e
variation.
The incoviennent of this method consists in the the varition discontinuity (it is ve ry difficalt to
consider a RTF length variation continously) and the use of two large cables to get the
connection ( one has a length of 90cm and the other has a 1m of length) which m akes an other
delay tim e (alm ost about 6ns). So, we must add the all delay tim es to calculate the exact used
delay ( 6+0.85=6.85ns). An other conviennent of this system is its lim it to get a delay tim e of one
ns.H ow ever this m ethod presents som e comveinnents, its main avantage co nsist in the none
variation of the signal am plitude: when we consider the transimission frequency band, we do not
m ake any attenuation on the considered signal, so we obtain the real am plitude of the output.
-a
B

1
I
§

„ „ tt

£

‘ - ‘ S®

I

£

L e n g th v ariatio n

r - >(--------

L ength v ariation

J

.................

|C D .

RFT: Posaner

1.5 ..2 G H z
T o output multiplier

Figure 11: The RFT system
Figure 11 describes the used RFT system . This system has a variable length getting, in a its
m axim um variation, a delay tim e of 0.85 ns.
Vtejarrum pc&tcn bunding lor RFT

13

Figure 12: Founding the reflector position getting
the maximum am plitude for RTF use.
Figure 12 presents the output variation in the interval l=[157 188cm], The position getting the
m axum um am plitude is equal to 168.2 cm. So, the reflector position variation in the interval I
gets a delay tim e of 1ns. Then, we associate 300 value num bers to this delay tim e (1ns). Based
on this association, we investigate the output variation function of the delay tim e variation.

Figure 13: O utput variation based upon
the delay time variation using RFT
Figure 13 show s the output variation function of the delay tim e variation using the RFT
instrum ent. W e should note that for this signal we have a variation between the m inim um signal
position and the m axim um signal position of 560 mV relatively higher than the other values
getted in the others exprim ents. On the other hand, for this exprim ent we consider a maximum
delay tim e variation of 0.85ns. Graphiclly, we associate150 value num bers to the delay time
(0.85ns). W e observ that the maximum signal am plitude is obtained for the m inim um delay time
value (0ns). On the other hand, this graph presents two pics in considered interval. This is
sim ilia r than the theoritical results.
b- Use of hp8743B (RTTU) and the 2GHz frequency band injection:
In this exprim ent the delay line system is equal to a hp8743B system . So, w e are interested
to inject a 2G H z frequency band using the RF generator. But, we filter the obtained mixtured
signal on the output based on the am plifier-filter (0.5 to 2.5 GHz).
i
I In the first step of this expriment, we found the reflector position getting the m axim um output
am plitude (which is 2.755 m), then we varied the reflector position in an interval centerated in
this position ([ 2.90 2.50m ]) in order to observ the output variation, a fter we studied the delay
tim e variation.
The main rule of the hp8743B ( RTTU: Reflection-Transm ission Test Unit) is to get a variation
between its input and its output of 304 mm maximumly. This can present a delay tim e of 1ns.
But to connect this instrum ent to considered system, we used the sam e cables as the first
exprim ent. So, we have an other delay time introduced by the use of these cables. This delay
tim e is alm ost equal to 6ns. Then, we obtain, in the maximum variation of the hp8743B, a delay
tim e of 6+1=7ns. The main advantage of this system is the 1ns delay tim e getting. With a
m axim um variation of the hp8743, we can obtain a delay tim e of 1ns (304m m ). So, we can
observ the band freqency elargism ent and a pratical output graph sim ilia r to the theoritical
results.

14

Figure 14: The hp8743B system
Figure 14 presents the used hp8743B system.
The maximum position founding
-2.25------------ ■
------------ ■
-------------■
------------ ■-----------

,2 5 5 ---------------------- l --------------------- ,---------------------------------------------- ----------------------- ,----------------------

0

0.45

0.9

1.35

1.8

2.25

2.7 ns

Delay time (ns)

Figure 15: Founding the refloctor position
getting the m axim um am plitude
Figure 15 presents the output variation in the interval l=[2.50 2.90m], The reflector position
getting the m axim um am plitude is for 2.755m ( distance between the antenna and the reflector).
The reflector position moving produce a delay tim e of 1.33ns.
W e should note that the delay time is not a linear function of the value num bers because is
depended of the reflector moving velocity which is done manual.

Figure 16: O utput visualisation function of
the delay time variation using a hp8743B
15

Figure 16 presents the output variation w hen we get the reflector in the position giving the
m axim um am plitude and vary the delay tim e using the hp8743B instrument.
However for the last exprim ent the varition betw een the minimum signal value and its m axim um
value is is equal to 560m V > 200m V ( theoritical value), for this exprim ent w e obtain a value
more less than the last one( only 100mV). W e can explain this by: for the last exprim ent, we
only considered the noise generator fre qu e ncy band which is equal to 1 G Hz ( variation from
1GHz to 2GHz) and we did not add any o th e r frequency band. So, we have m easured the
output signal w ithout any attenuation. But fo r this expriment, we have intoduced a 2 GHz
freqency band and, we have filtered the fre qu e ncy m ixture in frequency band between 0.5 and
2.5 GHz. This provids the obtained signal attenuation.
c- Electrical delay tim e switching:
In this section we consider the electrical sw itching of the delay time. Threreby, we connect
two delaies IC serialy and we remove the sw itched line system.
Ucontr (1.3.. 10V)

U sa n ti (1.3.. 10V)

o

O ’
0 .. 500 MHz

0.. 500 MHz
RF

0 —
From reference channel mixer

) IF

At

Amplifier

Mixer

Mixer
1.. 2 GHz

At

IF

RF

1.5 ..2 GHz

— O
To output multiplier

Data Delay Line Device

Data Delay Line Device

Signal Divider

Ò

2 GHz

From Network Analyzer

Figure 17: E lectrical delay time switching
Figure 17 presents the associated system .
W e switch from a delay tim e value to an o th e r using the control voltage. The two delaies IC are
connected together to the control voltage. W hen, we vary the control voltage value, the delay
time value changes. So, we get a new d elay tim e value for each control voltage variation. The
higher control voltage value, which is 10 V, gets the lower delay time value, wich is 0ns, yet the
sm aller control voltage value (1.3V) gets the higher delay time value ( 2ns).
The position getting the maximum am plitude is 2.18 m ( distance between the antenna and the
reflector).
For this delay time system , we observ an elargism ent of the frequency band. This result is
justified by the m inim isation of used frequency band. Thereby, when, we consider a sm all
frequency band ( for this delay time system : the band is equal to 0.3G Hz), we obtain a sm all
variation in the time dom aine. So, for a tim e interval of 0.7 ns ( [0 0 .7 n s ]), we observ only one
pic which correspondents to the higher signal pic.

16

Figure 18: Founding of the reflector position
getting the maximum am plitude.
Figure 18 presents the output visualisation for a moving reflector position in order to find the
position getting the m axim um am plitude. This one is found fo r a distance betw een the reflector
position and the transm itter antenna of 2.18m. Figure 18 get the output variation when we
consider an interval centred in the founded position ( [2.08 2.28m ]). W e do not observ the
founded position in the m iddle because this is dependent of the m oving reflector position velocity
which is done m anual. On the other hand, this figure presents the output variation function of a
delay tim e.

Figure 18-a
figure 18-b
Figure 18: O utput function of the delay time variation using electrical sw itching
Figure 18 presents the output variation function of an electrical sw itching delay tim e. However
figure 18-a presents one m easurem ent cycle, figure 18-b presem ts three m easurem ent cycles.
For this exprim ent, w e note that the difference between the signal m axim um value and the
signal m inim um value is more less than the last exprim ent ( 50m V). This can be explained by
the effect of the delay IC system s. Thereby, other the 2GHz insered frequency band, each delay
IC system has a frequency band of 0.3G Hz ( frequency is variable between 0 and 300M Hz). So,
in the first step, we have to m ixture 0.3G Hz freqency band and 2G H z frequency band, after, to
m ixture throughout the second m ixer the obtained frequency band and a 2G H z frequency band,
and in the output, we filter the obtained signal in a 2G H z frequency band using a filterm ultiplyer. So, this introduces an attenuation to the output signal.
In the conclusion of this section, we can say that the obtained results are sim iliar to the
17

theoritical results.
In the o th e r hand, this section put out the difference between the different used delay time
system s and determ ine the output variation function of the delay time. We should note that for
a larger frequency band, we obtain a fast varition in the time domain. And the reverse.
5 / Fourth exprim ent:
In this exprim ent, we are interested to valid the obtained results in the last exprim ents. So, in
the first step, we look for the m echanical delay line effect. The second step consists to study the
difference between the m echanical delay line and the electrical one. The main object of this
exprim ent is to putout the effect of each used delay line type and to explain the obtained results.
a/ M echanical delay line effect:
In this section we deal with the mechnical delay line device, which is the hp 8743B opt 018.
This device get a delay tim e of 1ns when we vary the distance between its output and its input
from 0 to 304m m .
In the first step we consider the delay time system described by figure 19.

t>
x
E
£

Mixer

Mixer

Ô

Amplifier

2 GHz

From Network Analyzer

Figure 19 : considered delay tim e system.

i

Figure 19 describes the used delay tim e system . The m echanical delay line system receives its
input from the reference channel am plifier. Its output is the frequency shifter input which its
output is the m ultiplier input. This m echanical delay system position permits us to get a signal
w ithout attenuation on the output.
The fre qu e ncy shifter get a noise signal of a 2 G Hz frequency band. Its object is to shift the
input generator frequency (11 GHz) to an output frequency of 2GHz. The delay time is shifted
m anually between 0 to 4ns when we consider four cases: 1- third line (L3 = 60 cm) insering, 2second line (L2 = 40 cm) insering, 3- first line (L, = 20 cm) insering, and 4- any line is
considered.
E ither the delay time introduction into the chosen lines, we vary the mechancal delay system
from the m inim um position to the m axim um position fo r each case.
Also, this perm its an Interval delay tim e variation of 4 ns ( from 0 to 4 ns).

18

Choosing line via PC

Mixer
J

1.. 2 G H z

8 0 -----

Amplifier
1.5.. 2 GHz

IF

IF
Vout

Mechanical delay time system: hp8743B
12 GHz

I switch lines present diffirent distances

Signal Divider

2 GHz

2 GHz

2 GHz

12 GHz

ô
Oscillator

Figure 23: M DS inside the mixers

i

in the first case we would to look for the getting results when we consider the delay time
descibed by the figures 23 and 24. In the first case, the m echanical delay tim e system is putted
before the frequency shifter system, yet in the second one, it is putted between the m ixers. This
perm it us to getout the difference between the m echanical delay tim e system in order to study
the frequency shift effect. Also, for this exprim ent we find one m axim um position, then we try to
change the m echanical delay system postion and looking for the results.
In the first step, we look for the position getting the maximum signal am plitude. This is done by
the m oving reflector position. In the second step we keep the reflector at the founded position,
then w e try to vary the mechanical delay tim e form the largest value (30.4cm ) to the shortest
one (0cm) fo r each switched line.
Wttvxrt attenuator

Figure 24: The M echanical Delay System Position Study.
Figure 24 presents the obtained results for each considered m echanical delay system position.
W e should note that w ithout using the frequency shift system, we can get som e pratical results
sim iliar thant the theoritical ones. In the other hand, we should note that for this case, we obtain
the m axim um variation of the signal, between the m inim um value and the m axim um one, is
450m V.
Yet, when w e introduce the shift frequency system , we get some attenuation fo r this variation
21

w hich becom es of 250 mV.
H ovew er there is some sim iliarity in the am plitude between the curves correspondent to the
m echanical delay system before the frequency shifter and between the mixers, w e should note
that for the first postion, we get an acceptable curve which presents som e sim lalirity with the
theoritical results. But for the second position, we get a curve which prensents two m ixim as at
the m axim um position neither than one as the last curves. This result let us think about the
effect of the mixers. One result can explain w hat we get for the last position that fo r this case,
the system generates a m ultifrequency but not a m onofrequency as the first position. Not only
this, but also, that is at this position we generate a high frequency and an e ither intoduced
phase.
T hese results let us look for the frequency shift effect proceessing.

Figure 25: introduced m ixer effect fo r the first position.

Figure 26: introduced m ixer effect fo r the second position.

In this exprim ent, we would to look for the m ixer effects. So, we consider an other m echanical
delay device which is the RFT device and we try to find introduce phase effect. This perm it us
to chek the additional phase. Thereby, we know that the phase phi is equal to 2*pi*f*t, where f
is the frequency (2GHz) and t is the time delay. Also, the delay tim e is function of the length
variation. So, the additional phase is function of the length variation. W e know that a length
variation of the RFT of 30cm gets a delay time of 1ns. Then, fo r each length variation, we have
a phase value.
For this exprim ent, we should note that we get a sym etry on the 90° for the two positions. But
for the first one, we note that there is no sw eeping when we consider the line getting the
m axim um signal amplitude. However, for the first position we get two m axim um s, for the second
one we get four ones. This result let us consider that the frequency shifter generates high
frequency.

22

Figure 27-a.

Figure 27-b

Figure 27-c
Figure 27 a,b,c : Phase variation effect.
W e note fo r the phase variation, we obtain different output behaviours. For a sm all variation, 15°
figure 27-a, the curves appear sem iliar. But with a great variation, 30° figure 27-b, w e get
different curves have som e sem etry. The 90° presents the sem etry point, figure 27-b. W e note
that when we consider a phase variation on the left, figure 27-a, and on the right, figure 27-c, of
this point w e have the same curves.
This result let us consider a low fre qu e ncy filter and treat the different m echanical delay and the
switched line system s: all outside, all inside and the mechanical delay system Inside but the
switchs outside.
v"

Figure 28: M DS inside and switchs outside.

23

Figure 29: MDS all Inside.
The main object of this exprim et is to localisate the high frequency.

Figure 30: O btained curves
j

W e should note that there is any great difference fo r the considered positions. On the other
hand, we can say that w e have a small sym etry. Yet, the high introduced frequency is not
function of the treated positions.
An other kind of m easurm ent of the higher frequency consist to the m easurm ent with an
absorber. This exprim ent treats the output variation when we put an absobder in order to
soustract the reflexion phenom a. W e note that we get an am plitude variation of 0.02m V. The
based object of these m easurm ent is investigate the higher sweep when we switch the lines.

Figure 31: M easurm ents with an absorber.
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W e should note that there som e little am plitude variations (0.050 mV). This can introduce an
effe ct on the output signal. This step gives an idea about the correlator effect. Also, theoritically,
w hen w e put an absorber front of the transm itter and/or the receiver, w e are sure that we obtain
a noise signal has no sense. But, the obtained curves for this step present some interprated
results. On the other hand, we should note that the curves do not start at the sam e point. Either,
the tw o curve s have not the sam e phase. This let us think that the mixers introduce an
additionnal phase to the considered signal. So, when we put the m echanical delay system
before and w hen w e put it between the mixers, we get two curves have alm ost the behaviour
but have not the sam e started point neither the sam e phase.
An oth e r step in this exprim ent consists to study the chosen started line. That m eans, we
com pare the results when we start with the shortest line and the others when we start with the
longest one.
W e note th a t w e have a sym etry. Also, when we start the longest line w e note that the m axim um
am plitude is on the right. Yet, when we start the shortest, the m axim um am plitude is on the left.

Figure 32: com paraision between the started lines.

l

W e should note that there a sym etry at the middle of the x-axe. But there is some difference in
the b eh a vio u r of the two curves: the m inim um signal am plitude of the first one is sm aller than
the m inim um of the second one. The sweeping is more im portant fo r the first one than the
second one.
N either the firs t one nie the second present a sym etry on the left and on the right of the their
m axim um signal.
In the end o f this exprim ent, we start to look of the difference between the delay time effect
introduced by the m oving of the reflector position and the sam e introduced by the m achanical
delay system .

Figure 33: Reflector position variation.

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Figure 33 presents the obtained curve when we consider the reflector position variation with a
30cm on the left and 30cm on the right of the founded position getting the m axim um am plitude
of the output. This variation presents a delay tim e of 4 ns. We note that we no sym etry. W e
have a greatest pic in the center and two other sm aller pics which have not the sam e
am plitudes. This phenom a presents an other w ay of the future research in this field.
C onclusion and perspectives:
In this trainning, we were interested to study the correlation between a m easurm ent channel
and a reference channel. The first channel characterise a real transm ission-reflection phenom a.
In which, m ainly we find: a noise signal generator (a noise m ultifrequency signals of 11 G Hz ), a
transm itter antenna, a variable position reflector, and a receiver antenna. The second channel
presents the theoritical transm ission-reflection phenom a description. In this channel, we w ere
interested to vary the delay tim e based upon different types of delay line devices. In the output,
we have geted a m ultiplier w hich realised the correlation function between these two channels.
The m easurm ent controls were generated by developed Pascal programs into an interface card
(m eilhaus.300) which m ainly contains A/D and D/A converters, analog channels, m u ltip lie r,
tim er, digital I/O, and registers.The object of the developed program s is to generate the
m easurm ents task (data transim ission-reception, switching lin e s ,..), to store the input data, and
to display the results graphically.
The object of this training is:
- first, to introduce the PC as a m easurm ent instrument,
- second, to valid the theoritical resulats fo r a moving antenna function of the introduced
delay time,
- third, to putout the diffrence between the used delay line devices,
- fourth, to investigate the introduced delay time effect function of the frequency,
- fifth, to valid the used delay line devices and to specify the characteristics of the needed
delay line devices which perm it the best presentation of the real transm ission-reflection
phenom a.
Several perspectives of this training are distinguished:
i- difference investigation between the output behaviour when we vary the antenna position and
the sam e one when we keep the reflector at the founded position, getting the m axim um signal
am plitude, and we consider the delay time variation using a delay line device,
li- difference study of the different considered delay time system position; outside and inside the
frequency shifter system ,
iii- the frequency shifter system effect,
iv- the considered system m odelling and the real application of such research.

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