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• To impart the knowledge about the behavior
of materials and their applications
• This course will enable the students to know
more about
– Elastic, plastic and fracture behavior of materials.
– Phase diagram and heat treatment.
– Modern metallic and non metallic materials




Unit Title Details






UMASEKAR. and – polymers. 2/27/2016 V.Materials classification • Solid materials have been conveniently grouped into three basic classifications – metals. – ceramics. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 5 .G.

Metals • Metallic materials are combinations of metallic elements. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 6 . • They have large numbers of nonlocalized electrons • Metals are extremely good conductors of electricity and heat. • Metals are quite strong. A polished metal surface has a lustrous appearance. 2/27/2016 V.G.UMASEKAR. • They are not transparent to visible light.

• They are more resistant to high temperatures and harsh environments than metals and polymers.Ceramics • Ceramics are compounds between metallic and nonmetallic elements • They are insulative to the passage of electricity and heat. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 7 . and carbides. • ceramics are hard but very brittle.UMASEKAR. nitrides. • Example : oxides. 2/27/2016 V.G.

and other nonmetallic elements • It includes the familiar plastic and rubber materials. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 8 .G.Polymer • Polymers are organic compounds that are chemically based on carbon. hydrogen.UMASEKAR. • They have very large molecular structures. • They have low densities and may be extremely flexible 2/27/2016 V.

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 9 . Cu. gold. many ceramic materials. Cr 2/27/2016 V. and certain polymers form crystalline structures under normal solidification conditions. • Some of the properties of crystalline solids depend on the crystal structure of the material • Example: Al.UMASEKAR. Cd. • All metals.G.Crystalline material • A crystalline material is one in which the atoms are situated in a repeating or periodic array over large atomic distances.

• Sometimes such materials are also called amorphous or supercooled liquids • Example : Fused silica. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 10 .G.UMASEKAR. 2/27/2016 V.Non-Crystalline material • Non-crystalline solids lack a systematic and regular arrangement of atoms over relatively large atomic distances.

UMASEKAR.G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 11 .Crystalline Vs Non-crystalline Structure 2/27/2016 V.

but they may also be produced artificially. • All unit cells interlock in the same way and have the same orientation. 2/27/2016 V.Single crystal material • For a crystalline solid. • single crystals of silicon and other semiconductors are used in electronic micro circuit. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 12 . when the periodic and repeated arrangement of atoms is perfect the result is a single crystal. • Single crystals exist in nature.G.UMASEKAR.

• The region where two grains meet is called a grain boundary.G. • the crystallographic orientation varies from grain to grain.Poly Crystalline material • Most crystalline solids are composed of a collection of many small crystals or grains • Such materials are termed polycrystalline. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 13 . 2/27/2016 V. • some atomic mismatch exists in the grain boundary.UMASEKAR.

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 14 .G.UMASEKAR.Polycrystalline material 2/27/2016 V.

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 15 . – Point defect – One dimensional defect or linear defect – Two dimensional defect – Bulk or volume defect 2/27/2016 V.G.Crystalline defects • A lattice irregularity having one or more of its dimensions on the order of an atomic diameter is called crystalline defect.UMASEKAR.

Self interstitial 2/27/2016 Two dimensional representation of vacancy and self V.Vacancy 2.UMASEKAR.Point Defect 1.G. DPEARTMENT OF interstitial MECHANICAL ENGG 16 .

UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 17 .G.Linear or one-dimensional defect 2/27/2016 V.

Linear defect – Dislocation • A dislocation is a one dimensional defect around which atoms are misaligned.UMASEKAR.G. • Types of dislocation – Edge dislocation – Screw dislocation 2/27/2016 V. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 18 .

Edge Dislocation • An extra portion of a plane of atoms. • This extra half plane of atom defines the dislocation line. localized lattice distortion exists along the end of an extra halfplane of atoms. This is termed an edge dislocation • In an edge dislocation. 2/27/2016 V. or halfplane.UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 19 . the edge of which terminates within the crystal.G.

G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 20 . • σ = εE ------------à eqn 1 • The constant of proportionality is called as Modulus of Elasticity or young's modulus (E).UMASEKAR. • As per Hook’s law within the elastic limit the stress is proportional to the strain. 2/27/2016 V.Elasticity in metals • Elastic deformation: Deformation in which the stress and strain is proportional is called elastic deformation.

G.Elasticity in metals 2/27/2016 Stress strain curve that show the linear elastic deformation V. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 21 .UMASEKAR.

• The greater the modulus. • Modulus of elasticity is also referred as stiffness • Stiffness is a materials resistance to elastic deformation.UMASEKAR. • The slope of this linear segment corresponds to the modulus of elasticity E. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 22 .G. 2/27/2016 V. the material is stiffer.Elasticity in metals • The plot of stress and strain with in the elastic limit yield a linear relationship.

• when the load is removed the material returns to its original shape. the elastic deformation occurred because of small change in the inter atomic spacing and the stretching of inter atomic bonds.Elasticity in metals • Elastic deformation is temporary or nonpermanent. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 23 .G. 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR. • In the atomic level.

G. • This elasticity is proportional to the slope of the inter-atomic force-separation curve. 2/27/2016 V. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 24 .UMASEKAR.Elasticity in metals • The magnitude of the modulus of elasticity is a measure of the resistance to separation of adjacent atoms.

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 25 .UMASEKAR.Elasticity in metals 2/27/2016 V.G.

2/27/2016 V. Refer the graph for 3 metals.G.UMASEKAR.Elasticity in metals • When the temperature increases. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 26 . the modulus of elasticity of the metal reduces.

Elasticity in metals




Plastic Deformation
• When the material is deformed beyond the
elastic point, the stress is no longer proportional
to strain and plastic deformation occurs.
• Upon removal of the stress they do not return
to their original position.
• This permanent deformation for metals is
accomplished by means of a process called slip.



Plastic Deformation




plastic deformation corresponds to the net movement of large numbers of atoms in response to an applied stress.G. inter-atomic bonds must be ruptured and then reformed • On a microscopic scale. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 30 . 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR.Plastic Deformation • Slip involves the motion of dislocations • During this process.

Mechanism of Plastic deformation • Two mechanisms that cause the plastic deformation are Ø Slip Ø Twinning • Plastic deformation .Motion of large numbers of dislocations in a crystal 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 31 .G.

Plastic Deformation by Slip • Slip is a plastic deformation mechanism in which one part of the crystal moves or glides over another part along slip planes. • An edge dislocation moves in response to a shear stress applied in a direction perpendicular to its line (dislocation line). 2/27/2016 V.G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 32 .UMASEKAR.

G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 33 .Mechanics of Dislocation Motion Source: calister materials science and engineering book 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR.

UMASEKAR.G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 34 .Mechanics of Dislocation Motion 2/27/2016 V.

Formation of a step on the surface of a crystal by the motion of an edge dislocation Source: calister materials science and engineering book 2/27/2016 V.G.UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 35 .

and in that plane there are specific directions along which dislocation motion occurs.G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 36 .UMASEKAR. • This combination of the slip plane and the slip direction is termed the slip system 2/27/2016 V. It is called slip direction. • In that slip plane the dislocation travel in a particular direction. • The crystallographic plane along which the dislocation line traverses is the slip plane.Slip System • There is a preferred plane.

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 37 .UMASEKAR. having few active slip systems. • Conversely.Slip System • Metals with FCC or BCC crystal structures have a relatively large number of slip systems (at least 12) • These metals are quite ductile because extensive plastic deformation is normally possible along the various systems. HCP metals. are normally quite brittle. 2/27/2016 V.G.

that is most closely packed with atoms. that is.UMASEKAR. that is.G. in this plane.Slip System • The slip system depends on the crystal structure of the metal. the slip plane is that plane having the most dense atomic packing. has the highest linear density 2/27/2016 V. has the greatest planar density. • The slip direction corresponds to the direction. • For a particular crystal structure. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 38 .

G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 39 .Plastic Deformation by Slip • In slip the crystal lattice move by multiple of unit spacing between the atoms.UMASEKAR. • Slip results in visible step on the surface of the crystal. 2/27/2016 V.

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 40 .Slip System for FCC unit cell Source: calister materials science and engineering book 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR.G.

• 10-3 mm/mm3 are typically found in carefully solidified metal crystals.Dislocation • The number of dislocations.UMASEKAR.G. is expressed as the total dislocation length per unit volume. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 41 . • The units of dislocation density are millimeters of dislocation per cubic millimeter. 2/27/2016 V. or dislocation density in a material.

G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 42 .Dislocation • All metals and alloys contain some dislocations that were introduced during – Solidification – Plastic deformation and – as a consequence of thermal stresses that result from rapid cooling 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR.

G.Twin Boundary • A twin boundary is a special type of grain boundary across which there is a specific mirror lattice symmetry.UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 43 . • Atoms on one side of the boundary are located in mirror image positions of the atoms on the other side 2/27/2016 V.

G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 44 .UMASEKAR.Twin Boundary Source: calister materials science and engineering book 2/27/2016 V.

such that the extent of the movement of each plane is proportional to its distance from the twinning plane.UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 45 .Plastic Deformation by Twinning • Twinning is a plastic deformation mechanism. 2/27/2016 V.G. a definite distance. each plane of atoms moves in the same direction. • In twinning.

G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 46 .UMASEKAR.Plastic Deformation by Twinning 2/27/2016 V.

G. • After twinning it appears as if two parts of a crystal having same orientation are joined by a twin band of the crystal having a markedly different orientation.Plastic Deformation by Twinning • The movement of the planes alters the direction of the lattice and thus a twinned region forms. 2/27/2016 V. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 47 .UMASEKAR.

UMASEKAR. 2/27/2016 V. • Twinning may be caused by – impact – thermal treatment – plastic deformation. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 48 .G. tin and iron deform by twinning. • Zinc. both of which depend on the crystal structure.Plastic Deformation by Twinning • Twinning occurs on a definite crystallographic plane and in a specific direction.

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 49 .Comparison of slip & twinning in single crystal 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR.G.

NO SLIP TWINNING 1 All atoms in one block move the same distance Atoms in each successive plane within a block move different distance 2 Slip appears as thin lines Twinning appears as broad lines or bands 3 There is very little change in lattice orientation. of slipped region There is a markedly different lattice orientation in the twinned region.G.UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 50 .Comparison of slip & twinning in single crystal S. 4 Requires less shear stress Requires higher shear stress 2/27/2016 V.

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 51 .G.UMASEKAR. 2/27/2016 V.Strengthening Mechanisms • All strengthening techniques rely on this simple principle • Restricting or hindering dislocation motion makes a material harder and stronger.

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 52 .UMASEKAR.Strengthening Mechanisms • Different types of strengthening Mechanisms are v v v v v v 2/27/2016 Grain boundary strengthening Solid-solution strengthening Work hardening Dispersion strengthening Particle strengthening Fiber strengthening V.G.


• During plastic deformation.Grain Boundary Strengthening • The size of the grains. in a polycrystalline metal influences the mechanical properties.G. from grain A to grain B. 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR. • Adjacent grains have different crystallographic orientations and. dislocation motion must take place across this common boundary. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 54 . a common grain boundary. say.

The atomic disorder within a grain boundary region will result in a discontinuity of slip planes from one grain into the other.Grain Boundary Strengthening • The grain boundary acts as a barrier to dislocation motion for two reasons: 1. 2. Since the two grains are of different orientations. this becomes more difficult as the crystallographic misorientation increases. a dislocation passing into grain B will have to change its direction of motion.G.UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 55 . 2/27/2016 V.

G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 56 .UMASEKAR. 2/27/2016 V. • The reason is the fine grain material has a greater total grain boundary area to impede dislocation motion.Grain Boundary Strengthening • A fine-grained material is harder and stronger than one that is coarse grained.

UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 57 .G.Grain Boundary Strengthening 2/27/2016 V.

but also the toughness of many alloys.G. • grain size reduction improves not only strength.Grain Boundary Strengthening • Grain size may be regulated by – the rate of solidification from the liquid phase. and also – by plastic deformation followed by an appropriate heat treatment.UMASEKAR. 2/27/2016 V. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 58 .

Hall-Petch Equation • For many materials. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 59 .G.UMASEKAR. the yield strength σy varies with grain size according to • Above equation is called as Hall-petch equation • d is the average grain diameter • σ0 and ky are constants for a particular material 2/27/2016 V.

Grain Boundary Strengthening 2/27/2016 V.G.UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 60 .

At what grain diameter will the lower yield point be 205 Mpa? (d = 1. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 61 . At a grain diameter of 8 x 10-3 mm.G.48x10-2 mm) 2/27/2016 V.Problem based on Hall-Petch Equation • The lower yield point for an iron that has an average grain diameter of 5 x10-2 mm is 135 MPa.UMASEKAR. the yield point increases to 260MPa.

¡ These atoms substitute the base metal atoms or go and occupy the interstitial space between them.Solid-Solution Strengthening In Solid-solution strengthening.UMASEKAR.G. ¡ 2/27/2016 V. impurity atoms added to the pure metal. ¡ Pure metals generally soft and weak in nature than alloys. ¡ When impurity atoms is added with pure metal. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 62 . they go inside the solid solution and induce lattice strains on the surrounding host atoms.

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 63 .UMASEKAR. • the impurity atoms are randomly and uniformly dispersed within the solid.Solid Solution • A solid solution forms when. and no new structures are formed. as the solute atoms are added to the host material.G. the crystal structure is maintained. 2/27/2016 V.

Solid Solution . It is an alloy of copper and zinc. – Pure copper is a soft &ductile metal. – Example – Brass. – Here zinc is the solute atoms and copper is the solvent atoms. 2/27/2016 V. When zinc is added to copper.Types • Substitutional solid solution – In substitutional solid solution.UMASEKAR. its strength increases.G. solute atoms substitute for the solvent atoms. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 64 .

G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 65 .UMASEKAR.Substitutional solid solution Solvent atoms Solute atom 2/27/2016 V.

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 66 .Substitutional solid solution Solvent atoms Solute atom 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR.G.

Types • The increase in strength of an alloy depends upon the following factors.UMASEKAR.Solid Solution .G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 67 . – Amount of solute atoms (solute concentration) – Atomic size difference ( difference in size between the solute and solvent) 2/27/2016 V.

Solid Solution .UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 68 . 2/27/2016 V.G.Types • Interstitial solid solution – In interstitial solid solution. solute atoms fill the interstices among the solvent atoms – Carbon forms an interstitial solid solution when added to iron.




dislocation travel inside the solid solution. • These interaction restrict the free movement of the dislocation and in turn raises the strength needed to deform the metal.UMASEKAR.G. 2/27/2016 V. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 72 . • Lattice strain field of moving dislocation interact with the strain field induced by the impurity atoms.Solid-Solution Strengthening • During plastic deformation.

UMASEKAR. 2/27/2016 V. a larger substitutional atom imposes compressive strains in its vicinity.G. • Conversely. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 73 .Solid-Solution Strengthening • An impurity atom that is smaller than a host atom for which it substitutes exerts tensile strains on the surrounding crystal lattice.

G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 74 .Solid-Solution Strengthening 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR.

UMASEKAR.Solid-Solution Strengthening 2/27/2016 V.G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 75 .

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 76 .Solid-Solution Strengthening 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR.G.

2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR.G.Strain Hardening or Work Hardening • Strain hardening is the phenomenon whereby a ductile metal becomes harder and stronger as it is plastically deformed. • Strain hardening can be explain with the help of stress strain curve. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 77 .

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 78 .G. the metal with yield strength y0 is plastically deformed to point D. 2/27/2016 V. • The metal has thus become stronger during the process because yi is greater than y0 .Strain Hardening or Work Hardening • Initially. yi .UMASEKAR. then reapplied with a resultant new yield strength. • The stress is released.

UMASEKAR.Strain Hardening or Work Hardening 2/27/2016 V.G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 79 .

G. dislocation–dislocation strain interactions are repulsive. due to the formation of new dislocations. 2/27/2016 V. • Consequently. the average distance of separation between dislocations decreases. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 80 . • On the average.Strain Hardening – Based on dislocation concept • The dislocation density in a metal increases with deformation .UMASEKAR. The dislocations are positioned closer together.

2/27/2016 V. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 81 . the imposed stress necessary to deform a metal increases with increasing cold work. • As the dislocation density increases.Strain Hardening – Based on dislocation concept • The net result is that the motion of a dislocation is hindered by the presence of other dislocations. this resistance to dislocation motion by other dislocations becomes more pronounced. • Thus.UMASEKAR.G.

Strain Hardening – Based on dislocation concept • Strain hardening is utilized to enhance the mechanical properties of metals during fabrication procedures. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 82 .G. 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR. • The effects of strain hardening may be removed by an annealing heat treatment.

hard and inert particles in the matrix metal. • These particles act as an obstacle for moving dislocations.UMASEKAR.G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 83 .Dispersion Strengthening • The strength of metal can be increased by finely dispersing small. 2/27/2016 V.

• The dispersed hard insoluble particles are called as despersoid. finely divided hard insoluble particles (10-7 cm diameter) are added into the soft metal matrix. 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR. oxides & nitrides or intermetallic compounds. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 84 .Dispersion Strengthening • In this method. • The hard particles are carbides.G.



UMASEKAR.Dispersion Strengthening • These hard particles provide obstruction to the moving dislocation. • Also the interaction of the stress field of dislocation and stress field around particles offer resistance.G. 2/27/2016 V. • These resistance to dislocation raises the stress needed for the dislocation movement. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 87 .

• Dispersion strengthened alloys are produced by powder metallurgy technique(mechanical alloying). DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 88 .G.Dispersion Strengthening • These particles neither dissolve at high temperature nor grow in size.UMASEKAR. • Hence dispersion strengthened materials maintain their strength even at high temperatures. 2/27/2016 V.

G.UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 89 .Dispersion Strengthening – Dislocation movement against the Particles 2/27/2016 V.

2. 2/27/2016 The amount of particles The size of the particles The shape of the particles The distribution of the particles in the metal matrix V.Dispersion Strengthening • In this method. 4.G.UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 90 . 3. the increase in strength of the material depends on 1.

the particles need to be – Hard – Small – Round and – numerous 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 91 .Dispersion Strengthening • To obtain most effective dispersion strengthening.G.

• Thoria dispersed nickel is strengthened by ThO2 2% in nickel and can withstand 1000°C 2/27/2016 V.Example • Sintered Aluminium Powder (SAP) is strengthened by Al2O3 particles by 6-14%.Dispersion Strengthening by Hard Insoluble Particles . DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 92 . • Its strength is 5 times greater than the Aluminium and withstand temperature of upto 400°C without loss of strength.UMASEKAR.G.

• Fiber strengthened materials are called as composite materials.Fiber Strengthening • Materials are strengthened by adding fine fibers into a ductile matrix material. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 93 .G. 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR. • Example: Glass-fiber reinforced polymer.

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG P 94 .Fiber Strengthening .UMASEKAR.Carry all of the tensile load 2/27/2016 V.Fiber • Fibers are fine filaments. P • Properties of fiber – High strength – High elastic modulus • Function of fiber .G. wires or whiskers which have diameters ranging from 1µm to 250 µm.

Fiber Strengthening – Fiber Materials • Metallic fiber – Tungsten – Stainless steel • Non metallic fiber – – – – – – 2/27/2016 Boron Boron nitride Graphite Glass Silicon carbide Kevlar V. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 95 .G.UMASEKAR.

• Different matrix materials are – Metals – Polymer – Ceramics 2/27/2016 V.UMASEKAR.G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 96 .Fiber Strengthening – Matrix Material • Matrix material is a material that binds the fibers together and also transfer the stress to them.

DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 97 .Fiber Strengthening – Matrix Material • Functions of the matrix material – Transmit the load to the fibers – Protect the fibers from surface damage – Separate the individual fibers – Blunt the crack which arises from fiber damage.G.UMASEKAR. 2/27/2016 V.

G.Fiber Strengthening 2/27/2016 V. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 98 .UMASEKAR.

UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 99 .Ductility • Ductility is a mechanical property.G. • Ductility is a measure of the degree of plastic deformation that has been sustained at fracture 2/27/2016 V.

UMASEKAR. • lf is the length of the specimen at fracture.G. • The percent elongation %EL is the percentage of plastic strain at fracture. • Lo is the original gauge length of the specimen.Percentage Elongation • Ductility may be expressed quantitatively as either percent elongation. 2/27/2016 V. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 100 .


• It is denoted by the symbol έ 2/27/2016 V.Strain Rate • Strain rate is the rate of change in strain of a material with respect to time.UMASEKAR.G. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 102 . • In physics the strain rate is generally defined as the derivative of the strain with respect to time. • Strain rate is measured in reciprocal of seconds (s−1).

Strain Rate

L(t) – length of the specimen at time t.
L0 is the original length of the specimen.
v is the velocity with which the two ends of the specimen moves




Strain Rate Sensitivity Index
• A power relationship can be used to express
the true stress σ at a given strain ϵ, in terms
of the strain rate έ

σ = A (έ)m
• A is a constant and m is the index of strain rate
• If m=0, the stress is independent of the strain
rate and the stress-strain curve would be the
same for all strain rates.



Stress – Strain curve




4 – 0.9 the material may exhibit super plastic behaviour.UMASEKAR. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 106 .Strain Rate Sensitivity Index • m = 0.G. 2/27/2016 V.2 for common metals. • If m=0. that is deform by several hundred percent of strain without necking.

Effect of Temperature on Plastic Behaviour • When the temperature of the material increases. • The ductility of the material increases when the temperature rises. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 107 . • The graph shows how the stress-strain behavior of iron varies with temperature. 2/27/2016 V. its modulus of elasticity.G. yield strength and tensile strength decreases.UMASEKAR.

G.UMASEKAR.Effect of Temperature on Plastic Behaviour 2/27/2016 V. DPEARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGG 108 .