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PROYECTO HIDROELECTRICO ALTO MAIPO

INGENIERIA BASICA

TUNNELLING AND ROCK SUPPORT
BASIC DESIGN

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19-12-08

PARA LICITACION

EMISION

FECHA

PROPOSITO DE LA EMISION

PREPARA

REVISO

COORDINADOR
GENERAL
APROBO

D. PROYECTO
/ D. ADJUNTO
APROBO

GERENTE DE
PROYECTO
APROBO

SUBGERENTE
DE INGENIERIA
APROBO

REVISION

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N°: 600-TU-CDD-001

600-TU-CDD-001
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INDEX
ITEM

CONTENTS

1.

Executive summary ..............................................................................................1

PÁG.

1.1

Introduction...........................................................................................................1

1.2

Las Lajas ..............................................................................................................1

1.2.1

Upstream portion to connection with Alfalfal II tailrace ..........................................1

1.2.2

From connection with Alfalfal II tailrace to Las Lajas powerhouse ........................1

1.2.3

Las Lajas Pressure shaft ......................................................................................1

1.2.4

Las Lajas Powerhouse .........................................................................................2

1.2.5

Cable shaft and cable tunnel ................................................................................2

1.2.6

Las Lajas tailrace tunnel .......................................................................................3

1.3

Alfalfal II ...............................................................................................................4

1.3.1

Basic considerations decisive for layout ...............................................................4

1.3.2

From upstream end of the headrace tunnel (VA4) to top of the pressure shaft (A9)
.............................................................................................................................4

1.3.3

Alfalfal II Pressure Shaft .......................................................................................5

1.3.4

Alfalfal II Powerhouse ...........................................................................................5

1.3.5

Alfalfal II Tailrace tunnel .......................................................................................6

1.4

Tunnel Volcán ......................................................................................................7

2.

Las Lajas - Description of layout ..........................................................................8
2.1

Las Lajas Access tunnel .......................................................................................8

2.2

Las Lajas Powerhouse Area .................................................................................8

2.3

Las Lajas Headrace tunnel .................................................................................10

2.4

Surge system .....................................................................................................10

2.5

Pressure shaft ....................................................................................................11

2.6

Transition zone and valve chamber ....................................................................11

2.7

Las Lajas Tailrace tunnel....................................................................................11

2.7.1

General ..............................................................................................................11

2.7.2

Tunnel outlet.......................................................................................................12

2.7.3

Alternative with use of TBM for part of the Las Lajas Tailrace Tunnel.................12

2.8

Las Lajas Cable tunnel (Bio Bio).........................................................................12

2.8.1

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Tunnel dimension ...............................................................................................12

2.8.2

Cable tunnel (Bío Bío) entrance..........................................................................13

3.

Alfalfal II – description of layout ..........................................................................13
3.1

Basis for alignment of tunnels.............................................................................13

3.2

Alfalfal Access tunnel..........................................................................................14

3.3

Alfalfal Powerhouse area....................................................................................14

3.4

Tailrace tunnel....................................................................................................16

3.5

Pressure shaft ....................................................................................................16

3.6

Transition zone and valve chamber ....................................................................17

3.7

Surge shaft and surge chamber..........................................................................17

3.8

Headrace Tunnel Alfalfal II. ................................................................................17

3.8.1

General ..............................................................................................................17

3.8.2

Tunnel portion excavated by TBM ......................................................................18

3.8.3

Tunnel portion excavated from the upstream end ...............................................18

4.

Tunnel EL Volcán ...............................................................................................18
4.1

Basis for alignment .............................................................................................19

4.2

Tunnel portion excavated by TBM ......................................................................19

4.3

Tunnel portion excavated by D&B.......................................................................19

5.

Electrical equipment ...........................................................................................20
5.1

Background ........................................................................................................20

5.2

Evacuation..........................................................................................................20

5.3

Separate transformer hall ...................................................................................20

5.4

Generator breaker ..............................................................................................21

5.5

Generator and transformer .................................................................................21

5.6

Outdoor breakers................................................................................................22

5.7

230 kV Cable......................................................................................................22

5.8

Auxiliary supply...................................................................................................22

5.9

Control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System ...........23

5.10

Protection ...........................................................................................................24

6.

Mechanical equipment........................................................................................24
6.1

General ..............................................................................................................24

6.2

Alfalfal II .............................................................................................................24

6.2.1

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Turbines .............................................................................................................24

6.2.2

Spherical valves .................................................................................................25

6.2.3

Cooling water system .........................................................................................25

6.2.4

Machine hall crane .............................................................................................26

6.2.5

Penstock steel lining...........................................................................................27

6.3

Las Lajas ............................................................................................................27

6.3.1

Turbines .............................................................................................................27

6.3.2

Spherical valves .................................................................................................27

6.3.3

Cooling water system .........................................................................................28

6.3.4

Machine hall crane .............................................................................................29

6.3.5

Penstock steel lining...........................................................................................29

7.

Engineering geology in basic design...................................................................30
7.1

General layout ....................................................................................................30

7.2

Geological information ........................................................................................30

7.3

Design of underground openings........................................................................30

7.3.1

General ..............................................................................................................30

7.3.2

Rock Mass Classification....................................................................................31

7.3.3

Plastic deformation .............................................................................................32

7.3.4

Water Leakage (WL) ..........................................................................................33

7.3.5

Rock support as function of classification ...........................................................33

7.3.6

Design of pressurized waterways .......................................................................35

7.3.7

Rock mass permeability......................................................................................35

7.4

Tunnelling conditions for selected alignments.....................................................36

7.4.1

General ..............................................................................................................36

7.4.2

Las Lajas project ................................................................................................36

7.4.3

Alfalfal II project ..................................................................................................37

7.4.4

Volcán tunnel......................................................................................................39

7.4.5

Rock support methods........................................................................................40

8.

Tunnel and shaft excavation methods ................................................................40
8.1

General ..............................................................................................................40

8.2

Drill and blast tunnelling......................................................................................42

8.3

TBM tunnelling....................................................................................................43

8.3.1

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General on Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) for hard rock.....................................43

8.3.2

Open TBM ..........................................................................................................44

8.3.3

Double Shield TBM (DS TBM) ............................................................................44

8.3.4

Assembly of TBM and Backup System ...............................................................45

8.4

Shaft excavation .................................................................................................45

8.4.1

Raise Boring Machines (RBM)............................................................................45

8.4.2

Raise drill and slash ...........................................................................................46

8.4.3

Inclined TBM shaft excavation ............................................................................46

9.

Evaluation of use of TBM for tunnel excavation at the Alto Maipo project ...........47
9.1

General ..............................................................................................................47

9.2

Evaluation of TBM concept .................................................................................47

9.2.1

Open hard rock TBM (gripper type) ....................................................................48

9.2.2

Double shield machine .......................................................................................48

9.3

Selection of TBM for the various tunnels at the Alto Maipo project .....................49

9.3.1

Las Lajas tailrace tunnel .....................................................................................49

9.3.2

The Alfalfal II headrace tunnel - downstream portion ..........................................50

9.3.3

TBM for Tunnel Volcán .......................................................................................50

9.4

Summary of TBM requirements/ configuration....................................................51

9.4.1

Machine requirements ........................................................................................51

9.4.2

Backup special requirements..............................................................................51

9.4.3

Site operation requirements................................................................................51

LIST OF TABLES
Table 1-1:

Main technical data - Las Lajas ............................................................................3

Table 1-2:

Main technical data - Alfalfal II and Tunnel Volcán................................................6

7 m has been assumed.2 1. will be conducted under moderate pressure through a concrete culvert that will enter the upper end of Las Lajas headrace tunnel approximately 2 km downstream of the Alfalfal tailrace outlet. Reference is made to the Drawings 600-TU-PLA-001.2.7 km. 610-TU-PLA-003. and to Drawings 620-TU-PLA-004 and 630-TU-PLA-004 showing proposed layout and arrangement of the powerhouses. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 1. Precise values are given in pertinent documents (drawings and general and particular specifications). 1.1 Introduction This report presents the Basic Design of the Alto Maipo Hydroelectric Project underground works. some 1.600-TU-CDD-001 1 1. The tunnel continues for 5. All dimensions and quantities given in this text are intended for general reference only.8 km downstream of the upper end of the tunnel (VL8). and a design flow of 65 m3/s. Steel lining with diameter 3. The flow from Cámara de Carga.1 Las Lajas Upstream portion to connection with Alfalfal II tailrace The flow from the existing Alfalfal power plant will be directed into a Cámara de Carga.2 From connection with Alfalfal II tailrace to Las Lajas powerhouse The tunnel from the connection with Alfalfal II tailrace at point L10 to point L9 at top of the pressure shaft will have a length of 3. where the Alfalfal II tailrace tunnel joins the Las Lajas headrace tunnel.2. including also the existing flow at Maitenes intake.2. that will be located 500 m downstream of the Alfalfal tailrace outlet. The culvert and tunnel will be dimensioned for a maximum flow of 38 m3/s. at point VL8. .8 km to point L10.3 Las Lajas Pressure shaft A vertical pressure shaft of some 160 m length leads to the Las Lajas powerhouse. A construction adit of length 230 m will be located at VL7 (adit el Trescientos). 620-TUPLA-003 and 630-TU-PLA-003 where the alignments are shown in plan and longitudinal profile. 1. 1.

The access tunnel will start at point VL4.4 m diameter and approximate length of 210 m. No spherical valve will be installed at top of the pressure shaft. The cable shaft will have 3. . Two three-phase transformers will be installed. Drainage from the steel cone area at top of the pressure shaft will be conducted via the cable shaft to the end of the transformer hall. and connected to the latter with two busbar tunnels. (Point LPS). from the switchyard area (VL5) will connect to an inclined cable shaft.4 Las Lajas Powerhouse Refer Drawings 630-TU-PLA-004 and 630-TU-PLA-005 The Las Lajas powerhouse is located south west of Estero Aucayes. The Las Lajas powerhouse will have gross head of 483 m and an installation of 2 x 135 MW. They will be located in niches in a separate cavern running parallel with the main cavern. on the south side of río Colorado.2. This tunnel leads to point VL5 close to the new Alto Maipo Substation. in two 6 jet Pelton turbines with a speed of 300 rpm. but preparations will be made to allow for such installation later. and further to the tailrace tunnel via holes drilled for this purpose. and have a length of some 2050 m at slope of 9%.600-TU-CDD-001 2 The access tunnel to the top of the pressure shaft. joining the access tunnel to the top of the pressure shaft. 1.5 Cable shaft and cable tunnel A short horizontal tunnel will connect the transformer hall with the foot of an inclined cable shaft. and serve as cable tunnel in the operational phase. if experience from operation deems it necessary. 1. The final evaluation of whether extent of steel lining could be reduced or must be increased will be made when results from in situ investigations of the underground rock conditions are available.2.

Alternatively. 1.0 300 000 m m 1 160 9 480 Drill & Blast m2 masl m m m m 21/31 1000 160 4.5 134 300 840 468.Las Lajas Las Lajas power plant. the adit Las Puertas can be omitted. each Transmission voltage 1 323. one part for 65 m3/s ) Elevation at top of pressure shaft Vertical. Cross-section 36 m2 Surge shaft diameter (vertical) Surge chamber diameter Underground powerhouse Length x Width Number of units (Pelton) Design flow per unit Rated capacity per unit Speed Elevation of runner Max gross head Generators Capacity.5 2 144 0. the downstream portion of the tailrace tunnel. drilled steel lined pressure shaft Drilled diameter Internal diameter of steel penstock Tailrace tunnel. Main data Intake Cámara de Carga Highest operation level. some 9000 m. free flow.600-TU-CDD-001 3 1.2 2 32.0 1 318. Tunnel excavation method Tunnel cross section (varies . adit Las Puertas at VL2. 1030 masl. Cámara de Carga masl Exceptional high level at Cámara de Carga masl Live volume of Cámara de Carga m3 Power conduit system Pressure concrete culvert from Cámara Carga to headrace tunnel. total length to top pressure shaft.7 12950 m m m no m3/s MW rpm masl m no MVA no MVA kV 5.7 3.6x18.6 Las Lajas tailrace tunnel The Las Lajas tailrace tunnel is a free flow tunnel of mild slope. each Power Factor Transformers. Table 1-1: Main technical data .one part designed for 38 m3/s.2.0 10 62. 13 km long. designed for 37 m3/s Headrace tunnel.1 m per km. In this case. Cámara de Carga masl Lowest operation level. The entire tunnel can be excavated by D&B by constructing an intermediate adit to the tailrace tunnel.92 2 158 110 . 3-phase Capacity. It will cross under río Colorado some 200 m below the riverbed which is at elevation approx. can be excavated by TBM.0 1 324.

connected to the headrace tunnel via a shaft/tunnel. from top of shaft 1. for an estimated length of 6250 m. i.1 Basic considerations decisive for layout Alfalfal II will have a maximum gross head of 1156 m and a headrace tunnel 14. to point A10’. to point A10’. which still is very high. and more than 1000 m at places. for pressures above 550 m. Conventional excavation by drill and blast (D&B) will be used for excavation from the upstream end in the downstream direction.Access tunnel. and thereby several other key elements of the layout. 1. For the present layout it has been assumed that steel lining will be needed in the pressure shaft below elevation 1950 masl.3.e.8 km long. It has been an aim to reduce the magnitude of the overburden. for location and data for the key points of the tunnel system).3. length Cable shaft. such as powerhouse location and location of adits/access tunnels in the powerhouse/pressure shaft area. The tailrace of Alfalfal II will empty into the headrace tunnel for Las Lajas Power plant at L10. Table 1-2.2 From upstream end of the headrace tunnel (VA4) to top of the pressure shaft (A9) (Reference is made to the drawings and to the list of coordinates. A surge chamber will be located in the Aucayes Valley.3 m m m 600-TU-CDD-001 4 1930 213 580 Alfalfal II 1. for an estimated length of 8500 m. No intermediate adit will be available for the Alfalfal II headrace tunnel. Location of the headrace tunnel alignment and the powerhouse at an area somewhat to the west of Estero Aucayes has been selected taking into account the geological conditions and their impact on tunnelling and rock support measures. and the following method has been selected for excavation in Basic Design: A Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) will be used for excavation from the downstream end (A9) in the upstream direction. inclined Cable tunnel . . This assumption determines the location of the top of the pressure shaft.

Two generating units with Pelton type turbines of 500 rpm with 4 jets will be installed.3. on the south side of río Colorado. but it is for the Contractor to decide wether the TBM can alternatively be withdrawn at the Aucayes pond. The TBM is the same that will excavate the pressure shaft for Alfalfal II. Two three-phase transformers will be installed. (Point APS). if experience from operation deems it necessary. steel lined pressure shaft has been selected for Alfalfal II. Relative to a vertical shaft this solution will reduce the length of the access tunnel by 600 m. For Basic design it has been assumed that the TBM will be transported back through the surge tunnel/shaft to the headrace tunnel and further through the tunnel A9-VA2. connected to the main cavern via busbar tunnels. The length of this access. connecting to the tunnel some 250 m upstream of the pressure shaft. 1. 1. The system will comprise: An inclined shaft that will be excavated by TBM from the headrace tunnel to elevation 2400 masl. . A tunnel on milder slope from elevation 2430 masl to the surge chamber. located in niches in a tunnel parallel to the main cavern. 620-TU-PLA-004 and 620-TU-PLA-005 Alfalfal II powerhouse is located south west of Estero Aucayes.4 Alfalfal II Powerhouse Refer Drawings 620-TU-PLA-003. will also be excavated by the TBM. for a maximum capacity of 2 x 132 MW. giving a reduction in critical construction time for the project.5 km road would have to be constructed to access the Aucayes pond. but preparations will be made to allow for such installation later. south west of Estero Aucayes.600-TU-CDD-001 5 The downstream access to the headrace tunnel by the TBM will be located at point VA2. It has been assumed that this access tunnel also will be excavated by TBM for its entire length. from VA2 to A9. where a 7. The final evaluation of whether extent of steel lining could be reduced or must be increased will be made when results from in situ investigations of the underground rock conditions are available.3.3 Alfalfal II Pressure Shaft An inclined. will be 2000 m. A surge system will be located near the downstream end of the headrace tunnel. No spherical valve will be installed at top of the pressure shaft.

The topography and overburden in the powerhouse area is such that a separate cable tunnel. and will end in the Las Lajas headrace tunnel. experiencing water surface fluctuations before the surface stabilizes at a higher level. 1. estimated minimum Tunnel cross section for D&B m 14105 m 7000 m masl masl m3/s m m2 7105 2494. The Alfalfal II tailrace will be ventilated via a shaft excavated to surface (A1A) located 1420 m downstream of the foot pressure shaft (FPS). when the Alfalfal II flow is directed to the Cámara de Carga of Las Lajas.3. As result of hydraulic analysis of the system. on ascending slope 7% Estimated length of tunnel by TBM Minimum area of D&B tunnel from upstream m m m2 4. and have a length of some 2500 m at slope of 8%. Tunnel Volcán. Table 1-2: Main technical data . Tunnel Inlet elevation Tunnel outlet elevation Design flow.600-TU-CDD-001 6 The access tunnel will start at point VA1. Main data. and for the elevation of the Pelton runners at Alfalfal II. Decisive for design and dimensioning of the tailrace tunnel.Alfalfal II and Tunnel Volcán Alfalfal II power plant. Estimated minimum length intermediate adits. Estimated maximum length by TBM Excavation by D&B from the upstream end (V1) towards downstream. The Alfalfal tailrace system will then be a part of the Las Lajas surge system. or a combination of cable shaft and cable tunnel. length from VA4 – A9 Additional length from A9 to inlet cone of steel lining m m 14789 100 TBM diameter ( wheel bound). is not feasible. the elevation of the Pelton runner at Alfalfal II has been set to 1341 masl. tunnel Volcán TBM diameter. Cables will be conveyed out via the access tunnel.1 2 480 12 4.5 Alfalfal II Tailrace tunnel The Alfalfal II tailrace tunnel will be 3. Tunnel Volcán Total length.1 km long.1 14 Power tunnel system Alfalfal II Headrace tunnel.5 8540 13 . ( No intermediate adits) Excavation by TBM from the downstream end (V6). is the situation when Las Lajas power plant stops operating while Alfalfal II continues.

the excavation will continue with D&B. with corresponding high risk of spalling and squeezing.4 2 13.5 860 3. . Part free flow.92 220 2 161 180/10 35 2456 Tunnel Volcán Tunnel Volcán will conduct the flow collected from the río Volcán catchment and transfer it to entrance of the El Yeso siphon system (Pozo de Toma) that will take the Yeso/Volcán flow into the Alfalfal II headrace tunnel. with no intermediate adits. The tunnel will be 14. each Power Factor Transmission voltage Transformers.4 912 57. excavated by TBM Drilled diameter Internal diameter of steel penstock Tailrace tunnel. Design flow for Tunnel Volcán will be 12 m3/s and the size will be determined from construction requirements. estimated Access tunnel. For Basic design it has been assumed that tunnel Volcán will be excavated by TBM from the downstream end.7 km upstream of V6. to Las Lajas headrace tunnel. part pressure tunnel Cross section of major part of tailrace tunnel Diameter of inclined surge shaft.5 x 16. to reservoir Underground powerhouse Length x Width of theoretical contour line at machine floor level Number of units (Pelton) Design flow per unit Rated capacity per unit Speed Runner diameter Elevation of runner Max gross head Generators Capacity.72 1 341 1 159 2 144 0. Available information on geology in the area indicates that at some distance along the tunnel. by TBM Length of inclined surge shaft.600-TU-CDD-001 7 Estimated length of tunnel by D&B.4 3055 21 3. each Machine hall crane capacity. cross section Access tunnel. 3-phase Capacity. After removal of the TBM. on variable descending slope Elevation at top of pressure shaft Shaft for penstock 45° slope. length 1.4 m masl m m m m m2 m m m no m3/s MW rpm m masl m no MVA kV no MVA t m2 m 6245 1950.4 2. conditions could cease to be suitable for excavation by TBM due to the high magnitude of rock overburden.1 km long.5 132 500 2. at Point V6. some 5 . in the upstream direction for an estimated maximum of 7 km.

and the cables from the transformers will not be led out of the access tunnel. 2.7 m dia penstock. The elevation of the Pelton runners is 840 masl. Length of the access tunnel will have some 2050 m. Final orientation of the powerhouse. LAS LAJAS .5%. the bifurcation must be transported in parts and assembled inside. 2. If this size is not sufficient for transport of the bifurcation for the 3.600-TU-CDD-001 8 The upstream portion of the tunnel will be excavated by D&B from point V1. The Las Lajas powerhouse will have a gross head of 469 m and an installation of 2 x 132 MW. 2. It has been decided to supply ventilation air via the access tunnel. 630-TU-PLA-002. with slope 8. Las Lajas will have a separate cable shaft/cable tunnel. and hence the final arrangement of the tunnel system in the powerhouse area will be determined when sufficient information on the in situ rock conditions has been obtained. and evacuate air via the tailrace tunnel and a shaft drilled to the surface at point L5A. 630-TU-PLA003.DESCRIPTION OF LAYOUT Reference is made to drawings 630-TU-PLA-001. The direction of the longitudinal axis of the powerhouse cavern has been preliminarily determined from what appears the optimum with respect to the geological conditions. This size has been selected with basis in the estimated space needed for transport of the transformer. at elevation 1000 masl. . The access tunnel has been designed with an excavated cross section of 35 m2.2 Las Lajas Powerhouse Area Location of the powerhouse inside the rock massif east of Estero El Sauce is determined by the location of the top of pressure shaft. based on information from geological mapping available at the time of basic design. in two Pelton type turbines with speed of 300 rpm and 6 jets. 630-TU-PLA-004.1 Las Lajas Access tunnel The entrance for the access tunnel will be at point VL4 near the Colorado river and the main road along the valley. 630-TU-PLA-005 and 630-ME-PLA-006. point L9. at elevation 1025 masl.

The height of the station is determined by the height of the generator rotor with shaft. A transport tunnel to the area at the foot of the pressure shaft branches off from the main access near the powerhouse cavern.2 m. which could imply minor adjustment of powerhouse dimensions. The cables will be conveyed out via a separate cable shaft. and the need to be able to lift it above the machine hall floor. and inner dimensions of the generator room are 10 x 10 m. The dimensions of the equipment actually supplied may deviate from this design basis. via one ore two holes drilled from the transformer tunnel to the tailrace. Adding 0. The height from turbine centre level to crane rail level is approximately 21 m. Two three-phase transformers will be located in niches in a tunnel parallel to the main cavern.600-TU-CDD-001 9 Elevation of the main machine hall floor will be at 852 masl. Leakage from the cable tunnel and from downstream of the steel cone area will be conducted via the cable shaft to the tailrace tunnel.3 m wall thickness and 1. The dimensions of the powerhouse have been determined with basis in the dimensions of the turbines and generators selected.2 m.2 m between wall and rock on each side it gives a total cavern width of 18. The generator will have a diameter of approx. The width between the upstream and downstream walls of the power station is 15. The dimension of the powerhouse is determined chiefly by the dimensions of the turbines and generators selected. If necessary due to space . and for necessary space in the area at the foot of the pressure shaft. at elevation 1080 masl. and the lower penstock area with bifurcation.2 m. continuing in a cable tunnel of 685m length to the point VL5. inclined 45°. where the cables will be connected to the GIS plant. from there it will be laid in cable trays up to new Alto Maipo substation. will be the space needed for transport and assembly of the downstream portion of the penstock steel lining with bifurcation. connected to the cavern via busbar tunnels. Dimensioning for the size. The cable tunnel continues from top of the cable shaft to top of the pressure shaft.2 m. 8. Cooling water tanks and tanks for fire water are located in a tunnel excavated as extension of the cavern top heading. 210 m long. The distance between units is estimated to 21. alignment and curve radius for this tunnel.

L15 . It is estimated that the heaviest pieces of the drilling equipment will have a weight of 6-8 tons.L10 to the top of the pressure shaft at L9. The resulting layout and dimension of the transport tunnel and associated area. starts at point VL7. exceeding the capacity of a helicopter. maximum 37 m3/s. The minimum tunnel cross section from VL8 to L10 is 21 m2. the same diameter as the pressure shaft. as well as need for additional transport tunnels and space in the powerhouse area. 27 m3/s. The tunnel invert will have concrete pavement. The tunnel invert will have concrete pavement. near the top of the pressure shaft. An adit to the headrace tunnel. A tunnel cross section of 36 m2 has been assumed for basic design. will be determined by the contractor. A transport tunnel connects the access tunnel with the tailrace tunnel. The diameter is enlarged to 10 m by slashing. between elevations 1275 masl and 1335 masl. has been selected. is introduced at L10.L14-L13. Los Trescientos. . the bifurcation must be transported in parts and assembled inside.4 Surge system The surge system comprises a vertical shaft excavated from the surface by raise boring down to the headrace tunnel close to point L9. The minimum cross section at this stretch is 30 m2.3 Las Lajas Headrace tunnel Flow from Alfalfal and río Colorado. 2. A shaft drilled from the surface will connect canal Aucayes with the headrace tunnel. From L10 to L9 the total maximum design flow is 65 m3/s. by means of a concrete culvert from Cámara de Carga. some 2 km downstream of the Alfalfal I tailrace outlet. A shaft diameter of 5 m. The tunnel will be used for excavation of part of the tailrace tunnel and to ensure air supply to the free flow tailrace tunnel.L12-L11. Flow from Alfalfal II.600-TU-CDD-001 10 limitation in the access tunnel. is conveyed into the headrace tunnel at point VL8. Suitable access to the surface of the shaft is needed for transport of these elements. 2. The tunnel alignment follows the points VL8 .

1 Las Lajas Tailrace tunnel General Total length of the Las Lajas tailrace tunnel measured from the outlet at río Maipo to the point where the tunnel meets the tailrace branches from each unit is 13.7 m will be embedded in concrete. near point L9. 320 m.7. including hydraulic fracturing tests. with sand trap. and will be excavated by drilling a pilot hole from the top and reaming to the desired diameter of 4.6 Transition zone and valve chamber The transition between the headrace tunnel and the steel lined pressure shaft will comprise: • An expanded section of the tunnel.5 Pressure shaft A vertical pressure shaft has been selected for Las Lajas. This gives the criterion for the proposed location of the steel cone shortly upstream of the pressure shaft. 2. Elevation of the tunnel invert at the outlet is governed by the criterion that sufficient free space must be provided between the tunnel roof and the water surface when the power plant is operating at maximum design flood level in río Maipo. No valve will be installed at the time of construction. The dimensions of the chamber will be designed with this in mind. • The steel cone followed by a 25 m long section of steel tube embedded in concrete. i. 2. Any concrete structures necessary for valve assembly will be constructed later when and if needed. for a length of approx.011% slope for the free flow tailrace tunnel. This criterion. has been used when . future valve chamber.7 2. The final decision on location of the steel cone will be made when results are available from in situ observations and tests. Steel lining has been assumed up to elevation 1000 masl. The steel lining with diameter 3. The dimension of a valve will be such that it would be necessary to produce the valve in parts and assemble it in the valve chamber. • A horizontal section through a potential.0 km.e. 160 m long.7 m. The vertical shaft is approx.600-TU-CDD-001 11 2. combined with the selected slope of 0. 90 m. for pressures exceeding approx.

One cannot exclude the possibility that the Maipo river previously had its course in this area. will be located approximately 1950 m downstream of Estero El Manzano. He will also be responsible for all necessary permits.8 Las Lajas Cable tunnel (Bio Bio) 2. contact with road authorities. the adit Las Puertas could be omitted.600-TU-CDD-001 12 optimizing the tunnel size and determining the elevation of the Pelton runner in Las Lajas powerhouse. If a TBM is selected. Rock topography is unknown in the area under the public road.1 Tunnel dimension The tunnel from point VL5 at the switchyard will serve several purposes: • Construction adit for excavation of the headrace tunnel . 2.8.7. implying that soil could be encountered at tunnel level. the initial 1. the invert will be concreted along its entire length and a 5 cm layer of sprayed concrete will be applied on all parts of the tunnel wall where concrete lining or sprayed concrete has not already been applied for reasons of rock support. The tunnel will pass under the public road into the rock massif. for a length of approx. 9 km.3 Alternative with use of TBM for part of the Las Lajas Tailrace Tunnel An alternative for excavation of the Las Lajas tailrace tunnel would be by TBM from the downstream end. 2. In order to reduce friction. The elevation of the invert floor at the tunnel outlet has been selected to release the flow to the Maipo River at the natural flow elevation of the River itself.2 Tunnel outlet The Las Lajas tailrace tunnel outlet at río Maipo.7.5 km of the downstream end of the tailrace tunnel could be excavated by D&B during the lead time for the TBM. point VL1. In this case. Minimum tunnel cross section for a D&B tunnel has been set to 36 m2. arrangements to ensure that traffic on the road can be maintained according to authorities requirements etc.1 m. 2. with a theoretical width of 6. Crossing of this area with the tailrace tunnel and establishing a tunnel cut in rock will be at the Contractor’s design.

will be expanded to a cross section of minimum 26.1 m dia steel tube transferring flow from the Volcán/Yeso system to the headrace tunnel and passage of vehicles for future inspection of the tunnel. has been basis for the selection of the tunnel alignment.7 m diameter penstock • Cable tunnel. permits etc is the responsibility of the contractor.5 m has been assumed. There will be excavation in a certain amount of soil before reaching tunnel cut in rock.2 m2 in order to give room for the 3. A9.7 m diameter penstock elements.1 m and height minimum 6. at an ascending slope of 7%. from point VA4 in direction of A11 with a minimum tunnel cross section of 13 m2. a stretch of 200 m. The cross section of this tunnel will be dictated from constructive reasons. for approx 8 km to point A10’.600-TU-CDD-001 13 • Transport tunnel for the elements of the 3.1 Basis for alignment of tunnels Evaluation of the geology in the area for the Alfalfal II headrace tunnel. In order to complete the 14. with rail bound equipment. a concrete plug with a . on descending slope for 6250 m to point A10’. Dimensioning for tunnel size has been the 3. from its upstream end to the powerhouse area. Design of this part of the tunnel/cut and arrangements for maintaining traffic on the road according to requirements. A tunnel with minimum width 5. alternatives with TBMs and combining TBM with D&B have been analysed. It has been decided not to include an intermediate adit for the tunnel. Measurements refer to the theoretical contour line. has been selected for the Cable tunnel. • Excavation by D&B. 3. including contact with authorities.0 m2.2 Cable tunnel (Bío Bío) entrance The location of VL5 near the plateau for the switchyard has been selected considering needs for the road down to the plateau and switchyard requirements. The tunnel from VA4 to A11. At the transition between steel tube and tunnel. cross section 28.8 km long Alfalfal II headrace tunnel within a reasonable time. The road is exposed to traffic by heavy trucks. ALFALFAL II – DESCRIPTION OF LAYOUT 3. and a minimum TBM diameter of 4. The following method has been selected for Basic Design: • Excavation by a TBM from the downstream end.1 m2.8. 2. The tunnel will cross under the public road.

600-TU-CDD-001 14 steel bulkhead will be located. A particular investigation and laboratory test program regarding rock characteristics has been done in order to determine specifications for the TBM. The cables from the transformers will be located on cable trays fixed to the tunnel walls out to the entrance from where they will be installed in a cable trench to the small switchgear just outside the portal. An aeration arrangement will be connected to the steel tube at the high point. 3. Location of the powerhouse inside the rock massif south-west of Estero Aucayes is determined by the location of top the pressure shaft.3 Alfalfal Powerhouse area Ref. and the decision on constructing a 45° inclined pressure shaft. Dimensions of the gate will be W x H = 2. to permit passage of vehicles for inspection of the tunnel. 2500 m. Drawings 620-TU-PLA-003. The length is subject to adjustment following decision on exact location and orientation of the powerhouse. Three niches for phase revolvement of the cables shall be provided along the access tunnel. and has been estimated to 35 m2. at elevation 1507 masl. The Yeso/Volcan steel tube will have a high point at the entrance to the headrace tunnel.7 x 2. The direction of the longitudinal axis of the powerhouse cavern has been preliminarily determined from what appears the optimum with respect to the geological conditions. point TPS. The length of the tunnel will be approx. Final orientation of the powerhouse. 600-GEINF-005) 3. (Ref. and hence the final arrangement of the tunnel system in the .2 Alfalfal Access tunnel The access tunnel portal has been selected at point VA1 where the tunnel for the access road along Estero Aucayes starts. 620-TU-PLA-004 and 620-TU-PLA-005 for arrangements and main dimensions of the powerhouse. at VA4.7 m. The minimum cross section of the tunnel has been determined from the space needed for transport of the transformer. based on information from geological mapping available at the time of basic design. Ventilation air will be supplied from the access tunnel and evacuated via a vertical shaft to the surface from the tailrace tunnel.

The dimensions of the equipment actually supplied may deviate from this design basis. and for necessary space in the area at the foot of the pressure shaft.9 m x 8.4 m. . A transport tunnel to the area at the foot of the pressure shaft branches off from the main access tunnel some distance from the powerhouse cavern. which could imply adjustment of powerhouse dimensions.4 m. at the upper end of the Las Lajas headrace tunnel.600-TU-CDD-001 15 powerhouse area will be determined when sufficient information on the in situ rock conditions has been obtained. Adding 0. Dimensioning for the size. The dimensions of the powerhouse have been determined with basis in the dimensions of the turbines and generators selected. The inner dimensions of the generator room have been set to 8.3 m wall thickness and 1. Additional cooling water volume for emergency cases will be provided by excavating the inner part of the tailrace tunnels/turbine pits to a lower level.2 m between wall and rock on each side it gives a total cavern width of 16. The distance between units is estimated at 19. The width between the upstream and downstream walls of the station is 13.9 m in Basic Design. Cooling water tanks are located in a tunnel excavated as extension of the cavern top heading. The height of the station is determined by the height of the generator rotor with shaft. The elevation of the Pelton runners has been set at elevation 1341 masl. Transformers will be located in niches in a tunnel parallel to the powerhouse cavern and connected to the cavern by busbar tunnels. will be: • The space needed for transport and assembling of the TBM to be used for excavation of the pressure shaft. The criterion for determining the elevation of the Pelton runners at Alfalfal II is that they shall be located sufficiently high above the tailrace water surface also in the situation that Las Lajas closes and the Alfalfal II flow is conducted to Cámara de Carga. alignment and curve radius for this tunnel.6 m. The height from turbine centre level to crane rail level is approximately 22 m. and the need to be able to lift it above the machine hall floor. and the lower penstock area with bifurcation.

i. After reaching the top of the pressure shaft. The shaft will be steel lined. some 950 m upstream of A1. The resulting layout and dimension of the transport tunnel and associated area.4 m. 550 m. A construction tunnel connects the tailrace tunnel with the access tunnel a short distance downstream of the powerhouse. From interpretation of the available data. connecting to L10. and also with reference to the experience from Alfalfal.600-TU-CDD-001 16 • The space needed for transport and assembly of the downstream portion of the penstock steel lining with bifurcation. The upstream part of the tailrace tunnel will be a free flow tunnel at mild slope. 3. The steel lining will be embedded in concrete. The shaft will be excavated by a TBM with diameter 3. as well as need for additional transport tunnels in the powerhouse area. the TBM will be partly dismantled and moved a distance upstream in the headrace tunnel where it will be reassembled and used for excavation of the surge shaft and tunnel. with an internal liner diameter of 2. as this will shorten the length of the access tunnel and tailrace tunnel by 600 m and thereby reduce critical construction time for the powerhouse complex. as determined from hydraulic needs. will be determined by the contractor. 3055 m and its cross section 21 m2.e. while the lower part. The tunnel cross section will be expanded in the transition zone between mild and steep slope of the tunnel. A ventilation shaft will be drilled from the surface to connect with the free flow section of the access tunnel.5 Pressure shaft The maximum gross head for Alfalfal II will be 1160 m.e. with theoretical space 0. The tunnel length is approx.5 m between the steel lining and rock. i. The pressure shaft could be vertical or inclined. will have a slope of 10%. 3. for pressures higher than approx.4 Tailrace tunnel The tailrace tunnel from Alfalfal II connects to point L10 of the Las Lajas headrace tunnel at elevation 1250 masl. .4 m. it has been assumed that steel lining would be needed up to elevation 1950 masl. An inclined shaft has been selected by the Gener.

Access to point A9 will .1 General The length of the headrace tunnel. For Basic design it has been assumed that the TBM will be dismantled and withdrawn back through the surge tunnel/shaft to the headrace tunnel and further through the tunnel A9-VA2 and the spoils from the excavation of the surge chamber. future valve chamber. Any concrete structures necessary for valve assembly will be constructed later when and if needed. It is for the Contractor to decide wether the TBM can alternatively be withdrawn through the surface at the Aucayes pond. 7. 685 m long. The surge system for Alfalfal II comprises a 45° inclined shaft. some 50 000 m3. 3. with sand trap. • The steel cone followed by a 30 m long section of steel tube embedded in concrete.8. • A horizontal section through a potential.4 m dia TBM used for the headrace tunnel. 3. 620-TU-PLA-002 and 620-TU- PLA-003 3. 250 m length. approx. No valve will be installed at the time of construction.6 Transition zone and valve chamber The transition between the headrace tunnel and the steel lined pressure shaft will comprise: • An expanded section of the tunnel. where approx. Reference is made to Drawings 620-TU-PLA-001. The surge chamber will be excavated in rock as an open pit in the Aucayes valley. ending in an upper surge chamber on the surface.600-TU-CDD-001 17 3. The dimensions of the chamber will be designed with this in mind. 90 m.7 Surge shaft and surge chamber. The dimension of such a valve will be such that it could be necessary to produce the valve in parts and assemble it in the valve chamber.8 Headrace Tunnel Alfalfal II. from point A9 shortly upstream of the top of the pressure shaft via A10 to VA4 at the upstream end will be 14. will also have to be transported out via this tunnel system. followed by a tunnel on minimum slope of approx. also excavated by the TBM. excavated by 3.8 km.5 km of road would have to be constructed in order to access the Aucayes pond. for a length of approx.

The contractor will be permitted to suggest larger cross section. Point A10’ has been assumed as meeting point. 610-TU-PLA-002 and 610- TU-PLA-003.8. 3. excavating 2 km at approx.600-TU-CDD-001 18 be via a 2000 m long tunnel excavated from point VA2. 6. 2 4. The minimum diameter of the TBM has been set to 4. The bend at A10 is recommended in order to reduce the rock cover above the tunnel to an acceptable level. Due to the slope requirements. in Basic Design. and will be by D&B at ascending slope. It has been assumed for Basic Design that the tunnel will be excavated by TBM from the downstream end and by D&B from the upstream end. .3 m in order to accommodate the 3.7 x 2. initially 1.5%. 3.7 m to allow entrance of vehicles for tunnel inspection.5 m.1 m diameter steel tube transferring the Volcán-Yeso flow into the Alfalfal II headrace tunnel and passage of vehicles for future tunnel inspections.2 Tunnel portion excavated by TBM The TBM will start at point VA2. The cross section will be minimum 13 m2.3 Tunnel portion excavated from the upstream end The upstream portion of the headrace tunnel will start at VA4.6% slope towards A10 and further in the direction of A11 until it meets the D&B excavation from the upstream end.7% slope before reaching the headrace tunnel at point A9. A concrete plug with a gated steel bulkhead will be installed at the transition between the steel tube and the headrace tunnel. the secondary transport system must be on wheels. TUNNEL EL VOLCÁN Reference is made to the Drawings 610-TU-PLA-001. Gate opening will be W x H = 2. From this point. and rail mounted excavation equipment is anticipated.15% until meeting the TBM excavating from the downstream end. the TBM will continue at approx 5. Basis for the selected alignment A9A10-A11 is evaluation of the topography and indications for tunnelling conditions in the area to be traversed. The cross section of the initial 200 m of the tunnel from VA4 will be expanded to 26.8. then 0.

The TBM will excavate on ascending slope 0. which is the ending point of the upstream flow collecting system. The design flow for Tunnel El Volcan is 12. This must be considered by the contractor when selecting type of TBM and when estimating the length of tunnel that can be expected to be excavated by the TBM. For Basic Design it has been assumed that a TBM will be used for excavation in the upstream direction from V6.1%. Total tunnel length is approximately 14.1 Basis for alignment Basis for the design is that the tunnel will start at point V1. and to utilize the volume of tunnel Volcán for reservoir purposes. due to the high overburden. .1 km. The tunnel elevation and slope is determined from the aim to obtain a pressurized tunnel system from the upstream end of Tunnel El Volcán.600-TU-CDD-001 19 4. 4. and that excavation continues in the upstream direction with D&B. The minimum cross section of the tunnel will be determined from constructional needs. until meeting the TBM excavating from downstream. The tunnel starting in the upstream end near V1 will excavate on descending slope of 0. and point V6.8 m3/s.1 m has been assumed for basic design.3 Tunnel portion excavated by D&B For Basic Design it has been assumed that the TBM will have to be withdrawn after 7 km.1%. D&B will be used from the upstream end. becomes very high at 5-7 km upstream of point V6. A minimum cross section of 14 m2 has been assumed for the D&B tunnel in Basic Design. A TBM diameter of 4.2 Tunnel portion excavated by TBM The geological conditions described in Chapter 7 indicate that the risk of encountering spalling and squeezing rock. This implies that the tunnel will be excavated on mild slope of 0. The alignment has been selected based on the geological information as described in Chapter 7.1%. 4. at starting point for the conduit crossing río Yeso with the Yeso/Volcán flow.

3 Separate transformer hall Each of the two power stations in the Alto Maipo project will have units in the range of 150 MVA which is quite sizable. are located far underground with only one fully functional evacuation route. The detailed engineering shall be based on Chilean and international accepted standards (in particular IEC standards) and well proven solutions adapted to local conditions. • Proposed arrangement drawings for Alfalfal II and Las Lajas Power Station. The overruling design basis is that the stations should be designed for reliable unmanned operation. ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT 5. 5.600-TU-CDD-001 20 5. designed with a centrally located safe room with air storage. . storage of smoke diver equipment. • Proposed project specific data. • Proposed topological diagram for the control of the Alto Maipo Complex. Special attention is given to the matter of safety for personnel and equipment.2 Evacuation The powerhouses. Special attention will be paid to the seismic requirements in the region. the station is. and Alfalfal II in particular. This section supplements the documents mentioned above and addresses some basic design considerations not immediately evident in the design documents. Should this route be blocked by smoke. first aid equipment and direct voice communication to the outside. In line with modern health and safety practice. therefore. 5. long lifetime as well as low and easy maintenance. The rated current will be in the range of 7 kA and the sub-transient short circuit current in the range of 100 kA. • Proposed general technical specifications.1 Background The basic design for the electrical works in the two new power stations is defined in the following documents: • Proposed single line diagrams for Alfalfal II and Las Lajas Power Station. • Proposed general specifications. escape would be difficult even with smoke diving equipment.

The waterways are relatively stable and no extra moment of inertia above the natural design values are considered necessary.m. The generator will be designed to run at full MVA rating at power factor 1. A generator meeting the pertaining runaway requirements could most likely be designed by more reputable manufacturers but will be relatively costly. has been chosen. The design is based on “erection in the pit”. If a fault occurs. a power factor of 0.9 has been selected.m turbine alternative was discarded due to the high runaway speed given by a Pelton turbine. An arrangement with transformers in niches in a separate cavern has been assumed. Such location also offers advantages for operation as the transformer is more accessible for inspection and maintenance.600-TU-CDD-001 21 This means that the amount of energy stored in the system is large. A generator breaker will remove the energy supply from a transformer or cable fault within milliseconds. based on considerations of cost. risks and insurance policy. The Gener will make the decision on whether to include this item. recent trends have been to erect the transformers in a separate cavern which can be sealed off from the main machine hall. Bidders could be invited to present costs for 600 r. A fire in the transformer normally results in development of heavy smoke that can damage nearby equipment and be quite hazardous for personnel. . Without a generator breaker it will take seconds before the fault current stops flowing. For Alfalfal II.5 Generator and transformer The rating of the generator is governed by the rating of the turbine. A generator breaker is indicated as an option on the drawings.0. thus reducing the consequences of a fault.p. Considering that a certain degree of reactive power capacity gives some room for overproduction and some temperature margins.m as a separate option. Extra room for “floor erection” or for unloading will be considered in the detailed design. A more conservative approach with 500 r. smoke will not penetrate to the rest of the station. Hence. the destruction can therefore be considerable provided the fault is not confined to a limited space and time.p. Transformer faults are very rare but the consequences are often dramatic. personnel will be able to evacuate to smoke-free locations and possible oil mist explosions will be relieved into empty space. A fire may then be extinguished faster due to lack of oxygen. No references have been found for generators with this combination of speed and power. 5. 5.4 Generator breaker The rotational energy stored in large generator units will continue to be pumped into a fault until the generator is disconnected or de-energised. the 600 r.p.

600-TU-CDD-001 22 The transformer rating follows the generator rating. In the inclined part of this tunnel the supplier will be requested to present a reinforcement. In Las Lajas a separate cable tunnel is proposed. If this supply is unavailable. Such disconnection point could easily be arranged by using the modern combined circuit breakers/isolators/ earth switches. If no generator breaker is installed this can take seconds. If no breaker is accommodated between the cable and the overhead line the trip signal has to be transmitted up to the nearest substation which is a substantial distance for conveying trip signals. This is in order to have a backup in the event of faults and to have a safe isolation point for work on the line. 5. It is possible to have a simplified substation just outside the portal. the emergency generator in the portal building will start. If that line is down. Approximate transport weight of one transformer is 120 tons. 5. It is therefore proposed to have a simplified possibility to disconnect the line from the cable. the supply is taken from the outside 12 kV line.8 Auxiliary supply The auxiliary supply is proposed to be based on the unit transformer system where each running unit is supplied by its own auxiliary transformer.6 Outdoor breakers The portal of the Las Lajas cable tunnel is located close to the new Alto Maipo Substation and the cables will be terminated in the proposed GIS switchgear here. This means that the chances for short circuits (temporary and permanent) are not to be neglected. This means that each of the Las Lajas power transformers will have a normal HV transformer breaker. Anyhow. Care must be taken in coordinating the protection and control as Las Lajas and Alto Maipo belong to separate contracts. If both auxiliary transformers are unavailable. . the supply will be switched to the other unit. as the transport roads can reportedly can be prepared for such loads. fault currents will be fed from the generator and stress the cable and transformer until the generator breaker trips or the generator is de-energized. In Alfalfal II the cables are proposed to be installed in cable trays in the access tunnel. Three phase transformers are selected. For Alfalfal II the nearest substation is far away and the connection has to be on a double overhead line passing rather difficult terrain. 5. fastening and monitoring system assuring that no creep will develop over the lifetime of the cable.7 230 kV Cable The main 230 kV cable will be of solid PEX design.

Provisionally. The object computer must be autonomous. most likely with fibre optic cables. Local data will be stored and dealt with as close to the process as possible. The cable must be designed for emergency operation (fire proof) and disconnection of non priority loads will be done by contactor operation in the motor control centres. such will work through the object computer. A separate backup should be considered (Power Line Carrier or microwave or similar). Each independent system (Unit 1. 5. Unit 2. Communication to the grid company’s dispatch centre is foreseen to be performed from this main control centre and is outside the scope for this contract but necessary data will be available in the SCADA system. The main connection with the power stations will be on a fibre optic earth wire on the transmission line (OPGW). If the Gener would wish a conventional back up control cubicle for each unit. will have an independent control computer (object computer). Las Lajas and Alto Maipo Substations) will work independently with full control functionality from the respective control rooms. The basic intention should be to interact and control the equipment as close to the process as possible. For normal operation these control rooms will be unmanned and all three stations together with the existing Alfallfal will be controlled from a SCADA system in the central control room located in the Alfalfal administrative building. Low voltage switchgear can be built for up to 50 kA short circuit current but a more modest requirement of 32 kA gives a smaller and less expensive board. assuring safe operation of the unit if communication with overlaying system fails or the control system for another system fails. Auxiliary Systems. It is therefore proposed to combine the cable from the outside 12 kV connection and for the emergency generator by a switch over arrangement in the portal building.9 Control and Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) System The local control system will be based on distributed control with intelligent input/output units close to the main components. a ring cannot be closed. . Internal communication will be by bus communication. As OPGW is lacking on the old transmission lines. a short circuit limiting reactor is planned but the final short circuit calculations will determine whether such reactor will be necessary.600-TU-CDD-001 23 The distance from the portal building to the machine hall is so long that the transmission must be based on medium voltage level. Water Management etc. The principle of the system is shown in the topological control diagram. The three stations (Alfalfal II.

The detailed protection scheme will be worked out as part of the technical specifications. The development of international standards (in particular the IEC 60817 standards and newer IEC standards) has solved this problem and use of such protocols should therefore be demanded.2 6. 6.600-TU-CDD-001 24 An emergency stop system acting directly on the units will be included.2. Such system is strongly recommended in this case.1 Alfalfal II Turbines Two vertical Pelton turbines will be installed. The basis will be to have selectivity avoiding total blackout. Communication to the critical intake reservoirs (Las Lajas intake and Alfalfal II reservoir) should be given special attention in the detailed design phase. The measurements are simple and communication capacity requirements small but the importance of the measurements is high. MECHANICAL EQUIPMENT 6. Selective protection of short lines has up to now been difficult. The following is supplementary information on basis for the decisions made. New technology has expanded the differential protection technology by using the fibre optic cable for communication of the differential currents.10 Protection Protection is achieved with multi-functional numeric protection units. . Company proprietary communication protocols have up to recent years been a great hindrance for mixing of makes within a system. 5.1 General Data for the main mechanical equipment and the steel penstock are described below. with the following main data. allowing emergency stop and disconnection from the mains by activating centrally located pushbuttons in the machine hall and the portal building. and will be further detailed in the general and particular specifications to be elaborated. and safety in the form of at least two independent systems for detection of short circuit and earth fault. 6.

but the combination of output and speed is problematic for the generator due to the high runaway speed. Alternatively.2. therefore been discarded for basic design. but a counterweight solution will eliminate problems related to the quality of the water. pumping it up to a cooling water tank. Closing by counterweight is proposed. Pumps will take water from a cooling water sump in the tailrace.2. and has been analyzed. This alternative has. this method is increasingly used also for large spherical valves. 6. closing by water pressure (as for Alfalfal I) is possible. It has the advantage of giving a smaller and less expensive turbine. Used originally mostly for smaller units. Although such a generator could be technically feasible. generators with this combination of output and speed have not yet been constructed. 6. Opening will be by oil pressure.2 Spherical valves Each turbine will be equipped with a spherical valve. A recent reference is the 200 MW Pelton turbines with 1 100 m head at Tyin power station in Norway.72 m An alternative with 5 jets and a speed of 600 rpm is possible from the point of view of the turbine.600-TU-CDD-001 25 Item Gross head Net head Nominal capacity Number of jets Speed Runner diameter Data 1156 m 1118 132 MW 4 500 2. The cooling water is then distributed to the different consumers: • Generator air coolers • Turbine and Generator bearings • Bearing coolers and governor cooler • Turbine Governor • Transformer coolers .3 Cooling water system An open circuit cooling system has been selected.

The inlet tube to the valve has an angle of 60° relative to the longitudinal axis of the powerhouse.70 l/s Total volume of tank: 300 m3 One pump is spare. Start and stop of the pumps will be by level switches between defined levels in the tank. A common outlet pipe from the units will be routed to the outlet channel of the unit on the downstream side of the station. One spare plus two pumps on duty is an option.600-TU-CDD-001 26 The pumps will be either long shafted units with the motor located at the turbine cellar level. . The spherical valve will be installed through hatches in the machine hall floor and the generator floor. Preliminary data for the cooling water system: Total cooling water consumption (units and transformers 210 l/s Number and capacity of pumps: 4 pumps . Estimated weight of the rotor is 180 ton. The crane will also have an auxiliary hoist with a capacity in the range of 20 ton. or submersible pumps. The latter solution is increasingly used. located in the pump room. The tank is double to permit cleaning of one section while the other is in operation. and reduces the frequency of start and stop of the pumps. The turbine runner will be installed and removed by means of a platform with rails to a position below hatches on the downstream side of the station.2.4 Machine hall crane One machine hall crane will be installed. Automatic back-flushing strainers will be provided. 3 pumps are normally on duty. but a total of 4 pumps is preferred as it reduces the size and power of the units. and lifted by the machine hall crane. Cooling water piping to the units will be routed in the space between the upstream wall and the rock. with sufficient capacity to lift the generator rotor. thus reducing the width requirement of the powerhouse on the upstream side. from where it will be distributed to the respective units. This arrangement allows bringing the valve farther in. 6.

A . Closing by counterweight is proposed. 6. The natural choice of speed for a five jet turbine would be 250 rpm.3. The main conclusion is that the influence of these two aspects will be marginal and will not justify the significant increase in total equipment cost that would result from reducing the speed to 250 rpm. The figure 460 is the yield strength in MPa for smaller thicknesses. Calculation of thickness with empty pipe submitted to outer pressure has been performed according to Amstutz. with the following main data. Design of the penstocks has been based on a maximum velocity of 6.3.91 m Opinions vary between suppliers concerning the question of whether a six jet turbine would be more sensitive to sand erosion than a five jet turbine. 6.0 m/s.5 Penstock steel lining A steel quality with denomination “460” (Steel grade: P460NL1 acc. Used originally mostly for smaller units.1 Las Lajas Turbines Two vertical Pelton turbines will be installed. to EN 10 028-3) is now frequently used for this kind of application. Opening will be by oil pressure.2. assuming generally accepted material and load factors. 440 MPa yield strength has been assumed for all the elements of the lining. and has been assumed for basic design. For thickness above 40 mm. this method is increasingly used for large spherical valves. Item Data Gross head 483 m Net head 468 m Nominal capacity Number of jets Speed Runner diameter 134 mw 6 300 rpm 2. The yield strength is slightly reduced as the thickness increases. For simplicity at the present stage.2 Spherical valves Each turbine will be equipped with a spherical valve.600-TU-CDD-001 27 6. the yield strength is 440 MPa.3 6. and whether there is a reduction of the efficiency at full load.

Automatic backflushing strainers will be provided. Start and stop of the pumps will be by level switches between defined levels in the tank. The latter solution is increasingly used. closing by water pressure (as for Alfalfal) is possible. but a total of 4 pumps is preferred as it reduces the size and power of the units.3 Cooling water system An open circuit cooling system has been selected. Pumps will take water from a cooling water sump in the tailrace. Alternatively. located in the pump room. The cooling water is then distributed to the different consumers: • Generator air coolers. Preliminary data for the cooling water system: Total cooling water consumption (units and 210 l/s transformers Number and capacity of pumps: 4 pumps . 6. and reduces the frequency of start and stop of the pumps. One spare plus two pumps on duty is an option.3. • Turbine Governor • Transformer coolers. • Turbine and Generator bearings • Bearing coolers and governor cooler.70 l/s Total volume of tank: 300 m3 One pump is spare. The tank is double to permit cleaning of one section while the other is in operation.600-TU-CDD-001 28 recent reference is the 200 MW Pelton turbines with 1 100 m head at Tyin power station in Norway. The pumps will be either long shafted units with the motor located at the turbine cellar level. or submersible pumps. but a counterweight solution will eliminate any problems related to the quality of the water. . pumping it up to a cooling water tank. 3 pumps are normally on duty.

5 Penstock steel lining A steel quality with denomination “460” is now frequently used for this kind of application. Economic optimisation of the penstock results in velocities that are considered unfavourably high in practice.4 Machine hall crane One machine hall crane will be installed. The turbine runner will be installed and removed by means of a platform with rails to a position below hatches on the downstream side of the station. assuming generally accepted material and load factors. with sufficient capacity to lift the generator rotor. the yield strength is 440 MPa.600-TU-CDD-001 29 6. Calculation of thickness with empty pipe submitted to outer pressure has been performed according to Amstutz. Design of the penstocks has been based on a maximum velocity of 6. Estimated weight of the rotor is 200 tons. 6. The spherical valve will be installed through hatches in the machine hall floor and the generator floor. This arrangement allows bringing the valve farther in. and has been assumed for preliminary dimensioning and cost estimates. 440 MPa yield strength has been assumed for all the elements of the lining. The inlet tube to the valve has an angle of 60° relative to the longitudinal axis of the powerhouse. A common outlet pipe from the units will be routed to the outlet channel of the unit on the downstream side of the station. The figure 460 is the yield strength in MPa for smaller thicknesses.3. thus reducing the width requirement of the powerhouse on the upstream side.3.0 m/s. . For thickness above 40 mm. For simplicity at the present stage. The crane will also have an auxiliary hoist with a capacity in the range of 20 tons. The yield strength is slightly reduced as the thickness increases. and lifted by the machine hall crane. from where it will be distributed to the respective units. Cooling water piping to the units will be routed in the space between the upstream wall and the rock.

3 7. feasibility study and the geological mapping done for the basic design. the requirement to global stability is that the minimum principal stress in the rock mass shall exceed the internal pressure. For pressurized waterways permeability is also a case to consider. The remaining 530 m of head is accommodated in an unlined pressure tunnel. For pressurized waterways without impermeable lining. For the Alfalfal II power station the ca 14 km long Volcán transfer tunnel combines with flow from the Yeso reservoir into the ca 15 km long headrace tunnel to the top of the pressure shaft. The layout outlined above is a result of a process where technical requirements from the hydropower engineering have been mated with geological constraints and construction aspects.600-TU-CDD-001 30 7. The interpretation of this information is documented in the reports N° 601-GE-INF001. ENGINEERING GEOLOGY IN BASIC DESIGN 7. From Alfalfal II the ca 3 km long tailrace tunnel meets the ca 6 km long tunnel taking the flow from Alfalfal and the combined flow is taken by a ca 3 km long pressure tunnel to the top of the vertical. is planned as steel lined shaft. From the Las Lajas power station. 620-GE-INF-001 y 630-GE-INF-001. 7. 160 m long pressure shaft of the Las Lajas power station. The consequence of deficiency is hydraulic jacking and uncontrollable leakage from the system. with geological maps and profiles.1 General layout Drawing 600-TU-PLA-001 shows the general arrangement of the Alto Maipo Hydroelectric Project. 610-GE-INF-001. limited to the design life expectancy of the opening. The significance of this is that areas . 7.3.2 Geological information Available geological information for the basic design has been the investigations performed for the concept studies. Acceptable leakage from the waterways during operation is negligible.1 Design of underground openings General Design criteria for underground openings are linked to functionality. 860 m long. The remaining about 280 m of head is accommodated in the pressure tunnel. The inclined pressure shaft. One basic requirement is that the design shall ensure the integrity of the opening during the construction phase and during the operational phase. a ca 13 km free flow tailrace tunnel leads to the outlet in río Maipo downstream of El Manzano. The integrity of the opening relates to the rock mass quality and thereby the amount of rock support required in order to provide this integrity.

Tight joints. q3 Fair Moderate to high joint frequency. q2 Good Low to moderate joint frequency.600-TU-CDD-001 31 with unacceptable permeability must be identified and appropriate rectifying measures undertaken.3. Jv < 5/m3. faults. Jv > 20. 5< Jv < 10. and to medium to low strength rock subjected to low to medium stresses causing plastic deformations. rock stress and groundwater and leakage are considered in the process of assigning a quality class to the rock mass. Several projects in the Andes Region in South America form part of this practical experience.2 Rock Mass Classification The classification system used for this project is an empirical system based on practical experience from underground construction during the last 25 years. Also applies to q1 and q2 class with moderate to high intensity stress slabbing. The classification system divides rock mass quality into 5 classes. hydrothermal alteration. 10< Jv < 20. swelling clays) in moderately strong rock. Also applies to moderately weathered strong rock and to high to very high intensity stress slabbing in q1 and q2 class rock mass. discontinuities. A description of the geological conditions related to each class is given below. Moderately strong to strong rock generally with coated joints and with some seams and some minor weakness zones. . The rock mass may be slightly weathered. 7. and to medium to low strength rock subjected to swelling and/or medium to high stresses causing plastic deformation. Factors as lithology. q1 Very Good Massive to low joint frequency. Seismicity is not directly included as a factor in the classification because general experience is that only surface structures as portals are at risk during earthquakes. clay seams (fault zones. unaltered strong rock and insignificant stress slabbing. A possible exemption from this would be active faults or reactivation of secondary faults. Low to moderate intensity stress slabbing. q4 Poor High joint frequency. Strong rock with no or insignificant alteration and some joints with coating.

Occurrence of secondary minerals in the rock mass will further reduce strength. The conclusion that may be drawn is that plastic deformation will occur in the tunnels on the project where the weaker rock types are encountered at depth. The rock mass will respond elastically up to a stress level where new fractures start to form. There are failure criteria that based on assumptions regarding strength and joint frequency for rock mass makes it possible to calculate critical stress at failure. but rock stress is not considered in the RMR system. thus creating a loop. plastic deformation is expected to be a significant factor in design. Not surprisingly. indicate in a qualitative way the onset of failure. massive failure will take place at 500 m overburden.600-TU-CDD-001 32 q5 Extremely Poor Completely crushed rock containing a significant amount of secondary clay minerals as in major fault zones. On the Volcan tunnel where effective overburden may reach as much as 2000 m. This means that the strength of a jointed rock will be less than for a massive rock given identical matrix strength. The strength of the rock mass depends on the strength of the matrix and joint frequency. however. In the Q-system the ratio of tangential stress over compressive strength of rock mass is used as indicator.3 Plastic deformation Plastic deformation of the rock mass around an opening is a function of strength of the material and the stress. One such criterion is the Hoek-Brown criterion. The criterion will. A Lauffer diagram for prediction of stand up time is used in the RMR classification system. 7. A medium strong rock (25 – 50 MPa) with a volumetric joint number of 10 will have Rmi (rock mass index) rating of about 5 MPa. Overburden of 1000 m results in a theoretical vertical stress of about 25 MPa and tangential stress at least twice this figure. Smectite clays may lead to significant swelling and squeezing. The criterion gives no clue to time scale. the criterion indicates that strong matrix and moderate joint frequency will result in failure at opening surface for overburden in the 500 – 1000 m range. more than 5 to heavy squeezing.3. . The problem is that failure will affect material strength that in turn will affect stress distribution. but that moderate support pressure will contain the problem. For weak rock. Also applies to highly weathered rock and to low strength rock mass subjected to swelling and/or high stresses causing plastic deformation. Ratio in the 1 – 5 range is supposed to result in “mild” plastic deformation (squeezing).

Below are listed two classes of leakage that will require grouting and sealing. It is. however. encountered in medium strong to strong rock. The basic support resources (RS) used for each rock mass category (q) are listed as follows: q1 => RS 1: Scaling and spot bolts. construction time and construction costs.5 Rock support as function of classification The required rock support for an opening is a function of the rock mass quality and the size of the opening. Spot bolting for smaller cross-sections.600-TU-CDD-001 33 7. Applies also to medium to high water flow in medium to low strength rock and to low water flow in poor to extremely poor rock masses. the rock mass quality is combined with the appropriate rock support for the relevant category and opening size. 7. Pattern bolting and spot applied fibre reinforced sprayed concrete for larger crosssections. and to relatively dry (drips and seeps) but poor to extremely poor rock masses. TBM: Scaling and spot bolts. It is recognized that neither the presence of erodible materials nor the full effects of high pressures are covered by the above classes.3. WL 1 Moderate Water leakage of less than 2000 l/min. WL 2 Major Water leakage larger than 2000 l/min.4 Water Leakage (WL) Water leakage is treated separately from rock mass quality classification. at moderate pressure occurring in medium strong to strong rock. In order to calculate support quantities. recognized that the application of sprayed concrete is hampered by wet conditions.3. It is presupposed that minor seeps or drips will have no practical significance on rock mass quality. Applies also to low water flow in medium to low strength rock. . at moderate to high pressure. but they do still form an acceptable basis for scheduling and costing. q2 => RS 2: Scaling. TBM: Scaling and spot bolts.

Pattern bolting and minimum one layer of fibre reinforced sprayed concrete in crown and walls for smaller cross-section. segmental lining may come into use. q4 => RS 4: Pattern bolting and a minimum of two layers of fibre reinforced sprayed concrete in crown and walls for smaller cross-section.30 m length ahead of the face.4 holes of 12 .20% of the length) reinforced ribs of lattice girders and sprayed concrete or concrete lining.e. Additional fibre reinforced sprayed concrete or concrete lining is applied behind the face. TBM: Scaling. Number/length of bolts and thickness of sprayed concrete depend on the cross-section. Minimum overlap between exploratory drilling is three blast . Occasionally concreting of the invert at face. segmental lining may come into use. 3 .30 m length ahead of the face. Also applies to systematic short rounds for small cross-sections and subdivided rounds or multiple drifts for larger cross-sections.6 drillholes for control of the grouting result.20 m length ahead of the face. Also applies to 3 . Concreting of the invert at face. on 10 . Also applies to short blasting rounds and subdivision of rounds depending on cross-section. The basic treatment of rock mass with water ingress by exploration drilling and grouting (EG) for each water leakage category (WL) is listed as follows: WL1 => EG 1: Exploratory drilling. When stand up time is short reinforced ribs of lattice girders and sprayed concrete is applied at the face. Number/length of bolts and the thickness of sprayed concrete as well as the distance between the lattice girders depend on the cross-section. TBM: No use of concrete lining at the face.q3 => RS 3: 600-TU-CDD-001 34 Scaling. q5 => RS 5: Pattern bolting and spiling bolts. WL2 => EG 2: Exploratory drilling. TBM: No use of concrete lining at the face. spot bolts and use of fibre reinforced sprayed concrete. 2 .6 holes of 12 . Also applies to grouting. Number/length of bolts and thickness of sprayed concrete depend on the crosssection. Occasionally (i. 5 . Reinforced ribs may be deleted if concrete lining is cast at the face.10 fan shaped drillholes of 12 . Minimum overlap between exploratory drilling is two blast rounds.

600-TU-CDD-001 35 rounds. and include both support installed at the excavation front and later in the construction process. A filled tunnel will act as sink if the internal pressure is less than the groundwater pressure in the formation. is assumed to be performed from the tunnels during excavation. 10 . A recharging of the rock mass takes place when the tunnel system is filled with water. For the Alfalfal II power station the most likely adjustment. is considered to be extension of horizontal parts of the steel lined tunnels. 7. Standard design charts have been used for preliminary design. The rock support described in the RS categories above is the total support installed. however. inconclusive.3. if required. 7. if any. Further testing is planned at a later stage as described in Chapter 11 in order to confirm or adjust design. Further verification of stresses in the rock mass and fine-tuning of design. During construction the underground opening will drain the rock mass. A filled tunnel will function as a source if internal pressure is higher than the natural groundwater pressure. Design life requirement for all materials used for rock support is presupposed to be a minimum of 50 years. The charts are based on theoretical calculation of stress in the rock mass by means of numerical plain strain analysis.15 drillholes for control of the grouting result.7 Rock mass permeability Empty underground openings will act as sinks regardless of position relative to phreatic level.3. Also applies to 5 . These jacking tests were. the practical experience obtained during construction of the unlined tunnels at the Alfalfal I project has been considered.6 Design of pressurized waterways Global stability of unlined waterways is dependent on a minimum principal stress in the rock mass that is higher than the internal water pressure. In addition to this.25 m length ahead of the face. For the Las Lajas power station steel lining of the vertical shaft has been assumed for basic design. This means that all types of support materials used must meet the requirements to quality. If the filled tunnel is a sink. Also applies to extensive grouting. Considering the comparatively low hydraulic head for this power station it may be an option to omit shaft lining pending conclusive results from testing of stress and permeability.30 fan shaped drillholes of 12 . Verification of stress assumption for the power station areas was planned for by means of hydraulic jacking in drill holes in the vicinity of the planned pressure shafts. as will probably be the case for transfer tunnels and headrace tunnels that .

1 Tunnelling conditions for selected alignments General This chapter gives an overview of the geological conditions along the recommended tunnel alignment. If the tunnel acts a source. the volume of water required for establishing a new phreatic level will be significant and the time required before a steady state leakage is established. The headrace tunnel. Also mentioned are some general aspects of rock support and additional investigations required for optimisation and geological risk reduction. k < 1•10exp –7 m/s may be acceptable for a rock mass subjected to pressure comparable to the pressure tunnel in Alfalfal II. anticipated water problems and high overburden are discussed. In potentially critical areas it has been assumed that pre-grouting will be done from the tunnel front during excavation. A permeability coefficient. the process may take a relatively short time and the volume of water involved is comparatively small.2 Las Lajas project The whole tunnel including the power station will be situated in the Formación Abanico Occidental (Tia) with a possible exception for the younger caldera El Manzano. Further testing is planned at later design phases and during the construction phase. low strength rock types.600-TU-CDD-001 36 operate on low heads.4. Flow in rock mass is directly proportional with permeability.4 7. often massive. The source scenario is relevant for the parts of the pressure tunnels with the highest pressure and especially the tunnel from the top of the pressure shaft at Alfalfal II. The strata form a gentle anticline meaning that the units will appear sub- . The units crossed in Tia A consist of benches. major faults. Evaluation of tunnelling conditions for the present projects is based on information mentioned above coupled with information from the excavation and support used in comparable formations on the Alfalfal I project. At present only a few permeability measurements from relevant formations are available. showing low to moderate permeability. The design basis for the alignment has been to ensure a vertical cover equal to static head and a side cover of minimum 3 times static head or more if geological structures are especially unfavourable. the Tia A. the power station complex and the upper about 2 km of the tailrace tunnel will cross units of the oldest part of the formation. of volcanoclastic breccia in addition to volcanoclastic sandstones and tuff. The geological maps 630-GE-PLA-001 and -002 and section shown on 630-GE-PLA-003 present the interpretation of available information.4. This permeability may be found in fresh rock with moderate to high joint frequency. 7. Factors influencing the tunnelling like alteration of the host rock near to intrusions. The rock types in the formations crossed by the tunnels are treated in a general form based on the available geological information. 7. may be long.

4. The dominant rock types are volcanoclastic consisting of breccia and ignimbrite. however. all of volcanoclastic origin.3 Alfalfal II project The tunnel system. and it is not clear which type will dominate at tunnel level. Effective overburden may be marginally higher on part of the tailrace tunnel. from tailrace tunnel through the power station to upstream end is located in the Abanico formation (Tia). present the interpretation of available information. It should be noted that verification of photogeological interpretation and information from other sources has been partly difficult. The transition between breccia and ignimbrite appears gradual in exposures. The geological map 620-GE-PLA-001 and section on 620-GE-PLA-002. The vertical overburden on the Las Lajas tunnels typically varies between a few hundred and up to 800 metres. For the present stage of design. The first hole drilled in the area indicates a low to moderate permeability. . be negative for tunnel stability and permeability due to low horizontal stress (σ3). steel lining of the pressure shaft as been assumed as basis. A normal faulting regime may. The last part of the tailrace tunnel and the section near the outlet in río Maipo will be located in massive and strong andesite. The units consist of tuff. The aforementioned normal faulting regime may have a negative effect on permeability. but serious problems with stress spalling and large-scale plastic deformation are not anticipated on the Las Lajas project. 7. indicating that the planned headrace tunnel also will be unaffected. partly impossible due to snow cover at higher altitudes. The escarpment to the east of the Rìo Colorado is formed by normal faulting. The tailrace tunnel will pass through about 3 km of Tia B units starting from about 2 km downstream of the power station. This should be further verified in later design phases and during construction. About 6 km of the tailrace tunnel will be located in the caldera El Manzano. The old tunnel to the Maitenes power plant is not directly affected by the faults. sandstones and breccias. A granodiorite intrusion outcrops a short distance to the north of the tunnel in the caldera. This affects the headrace tunnel and surge shaft area. Some intrusive dikes and possible effects caused by the larger granodiorite body may be expected.600-TU-CDD-001 37 horizontal in the tunnels. Some minor intrusive sills are exposed at the surface and similar intrusions will probably be encountered in the tunnels. The units will appear mostly sub-horizontal in the tunnel.

The remaining 2 – 3 km stretch of headrace tunnel is expected to be situated in the upper part of unit Tia B. The overburden in this area is from 500 to 1000 m and no direct observation of geology is possible. The lower part of the surge shaft will also be situated in this unit.5 a number of granodioritic dikes and prominent faults are visible at the surface. This assumption presupposes that effect of normal faulting on the stress situation does not affect the . Data on mineralogy and mechanical parameters are mandatory for a realistic calculation of a TBM bid. From about km 4. and the probability of leakage to the surface small. The horizontal distance from tunnel to surface is in excess of 1 km. but significant effective overburden in the power station area is expected to have a negative impact on tunnelling conditions and requirement for rock support. The general tunnelling condition in this formation is expected to be fair. Tunnelling conditions in the Tia B formation is expected to be fair on the average. This alternative interpretation has been the basis for classification and calculation of support and rate of excavation. The general conditions for tunnel and shaft excavation are anticipated to be fair on the average. consisting of volcanoclastic breccias.600-TU-CDD-001 38 The headrace tunnel is expected to be located in unit Tia C from the intake and for about 12 km downstream. The probability of this effect has been incorporated in the classification. an extensive mapping and sampling programme is required. An alternative interpretation of the geology is that an intrusive batholite or extensive sills may exist at depth in this area. but a systematic high pressure grouting of the tunnel in this area is incorporated in the design. andesite and sandstones. The rock types found in the unit are pyroclastic breccias. andesitic breccias. Sub-horizontal strata in the lower part of the pressurized part of the headrace tunnel may give rise to pervious layers draining to the surface of the escarpment. In order to assess the conditions for TBM tunnelling. The pressure shaft and the power station are located in unit Tia B. The unit forms a gentle syncline and the different benches will appear sub-horizontal in the tunnel. The syncline forms a saucer-like structure above the tunnel. the lower part of which also includes some pyroclastic breccias. From a hydrogeological point of view this is unfavourable because vertical permeable structures intersecting the tunnel and the “saucer” above may result in drainage into the tunnel. the upper part of the shaft in unit Tia C described under the first part of the headrace tunnel. The alternative interpretation also considers possible squeezing in poor ground on this section of the headrace tunnel.5 to km 7. Several groundwater seeps are visible at the surface in this area. sandstone and tuff. Stress measurements by hydraulic jacking and permeability measurements are needed in this area for an improved detailed design.

The remaining about 9 km of the tunnel is located in the Abanico Oriental formation. A granodiorite SW of the planned power station may also have affected rock mass quality in the area. a ca 4 km long and fairly heterogeneous mixture of volcanic and sedimentary rocks. squeezing (plastic deformation) will take place. From the intake Volcan the tunnel will traverse about 600 m in the río Damas formation. but more than 1000 m effective overburden will probably affect most of the tunnel. The dip and strike relative to the tunnel are quite similar to the río Damas formation. Some doleritic and andesitic dikes have intruded the formation. sandstones and siltstones. Colimapu and the youngest one. The bedding in the formation is fairly flat with gentle folds.4. . costing and scheduling. Abanico Oriental. More than 2000 m effective overburden is anticipated over a distance of about 1 km. It is also probable that where overburden is high relative to the strength of the rock mass. The dominant rock types in this formation are conglomerates. Stress spalling in the underground openings has been considered in the classification and calculation of support. andesitic breccia and tuff. The significance of this is that stress induced spalling will be an important factor for classification of rock mass quality. Next the tunnel will cross about 600 m in the Lo Valdes formation dominated by limestone. Lo Valdes.4 Volcán tunnel From the intake río Volcan the tunnel will cross the Formations río Damas. but members of limestone. claystone and carbonaceous sediments. The benches are close to vertical and intersect the tunnel axis at an obtuse angle.600-TU-CDD-001 39 power station area. red sandstone. This formation is mainly made up of andesite and andesitic breccias while sandstone and tuff are subordinate units. red claystone are important and so are lenses of gypsum and anhydrite. Some steeply dipping faults with strikes NE – SW are indicated on the geological map. Effective overburden along the tunnel is generally high. In the power station area the dip is towards the East. The interpretation of available geological information is presented on the map 610-GE-PLA-001 and in section on 610-GEPLA-002. The largest part consists of andesite. The tunnel then enters the Colimapu formation. When conclusive results from hydraulic jacking have been obtained. verification can be obtained on the assumptions made regarding the in situ stress. 7. The red claystone is expected to be fissile and mechanically weak. which is favourable for stability for the pressure shaft and the surge shaft.

the stretches with weak fissile claystone and the occurrence of gypsum and anhydrite all contribute to an estimated high percentage of poor and very poor rock mass quality for this tunnel.4. but may be more costly than concrete lining. Installation of conventional rock support in the poorer rock mass qualities is cumbersome and slow in TBM tunnels.1 General The two tunnelling excavation methods available for use on this project are the conventional drill and blast method and the use of a Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM). The latter option is faster. 8. concrete lining at the face or the use of lattice girders in combination with thick. the trend has been to use steel fibre reinforced concrete instead of the formerly used mesh reinforced sprayed concrete. These concrete segments may form part of the final tunnel. TUNNEL AND SHAFT EXCAVATION METHODS 8. In TBM tunnels it may be practical to use prefabricated concrete segments on the invert as basis for rails or for rubber wheel transport. Regarding sprayed concrete. • For shaft excavation the alternatives are : • raise climber (ALIMAK) • reaming from a pilot hole • use of TBM • shaft sinking by drill and blast.600-TU-CDD-001 40 The high overburden in general. 7. . allowing very thick layers of sprayed concrete to be built up in one operation has also contributed to limiting use of cast lining at the face. Support in bored tunnels and shafts are in principle similar to drill and blast tunnels. The main advantage of this is the increased production rate achieved. In a TBM tunnel it may be more convenient to use welded mesh in combination with steel sets or lattice girders in order to relegate concrete spraying to the work platform further back from the cutter head. sprayed concrete. The fact that accelerators.5 Rock support methods The rock support and ground treatment methods used are in principle similar to what was used on the Alfalfal project and are considered well known. In extremely poor ground there are 2 alternative support methods available.

but have been selected as the minimum size that can be reasonably and efficiently excavated by the relevant excavation method. transport and ventilation aspects. but is a less versatile type if tunnelling conditions become difficult. cross sections are not governed by the minimum hydraulic requirements. Tunnel boring machines for hard rock (TBM) are either of the open type or the shielded type. For the Alfalfal II headrace and tunnel Volcán. but also the most expensive to buy and operate. if such will be deemed necessary. based on their own experiences with normal or special equipment and methods. All support has to be done from the top. and any cable. It is also necessary to be aware of the fact that a pilot hole is an unlined pressure shaft and that hydraulic jacking due to stress deficiency means loss of drilling fluid and termination of drilling. This means that the stability or “stand up time” of the shaft must be long enough for safe installation of support after drilling is terminated. ventilating or emergency shaft. Slow progress in bad ground may then be compensated by high excavation rate in fair and good ground. a fact that must be considered for access and transport. the rock support installation is largely similar to methods used in drill and blast tunnelling. stability and permeability is handled by cement grouting and re-drilling. A double shield TBM is the most versatile type. In a tunnel excavated by an open machine. The method is considered well known. A shielded machine propels itself forward by pushing on an installed (segmental) lining. All shafts are within the range of experience and available equipment. An open machine is the most economical. a cutter head mounted on the string and pulled back up the pilot hole. An open machine may be the best choice if the percentage of very poor rock mass quality is small. but shifting is costly and time consuming. The drill and blast method for tunnels has advantages in flexibility and adaptability also in adverse rock mass qualities. Access to the shaft during reaming is limited. An open machine would also be preferable in heavily squeezing ground due to the short length of the cutter head. . and loss off drilling fluid means clogging of hole. A double shield machine can operate both as an open machine and as a shielded machine. reaming from a pilot hole by use of a Raise Boring Machine (RBM) is proposed for vertical pressure shafts and surge shafts. Mechanical excavation by rotating cutter head is used in tunnelling and in shaft excavation. In shaft excavation a pilot hole is drilled. but components are heavy. Permeability is important because drill chips are removed by flushing. taking into consideration tunnel length. In these cases it is recommended to allow contractors to propose larger tunnel sections.600-TU-CDD-001 41 For the Alto Maipo project. The main shafts proposed on the Alto Maipo project are long and of relatively large diameters. since the ground may not deform fast enough to settle on the machine. During the pilot hole drilling. working downwards for reason of safety.

These aspects should be considered in a bidding process where it may be difficult to distinguish the consistently good performer from the average one.2 Drill and blast tunnelling The drill and blast method is flexible. The head loss may be compensated by application of concrete lining. geological conditions and available equipment being equal. Moderately jointed and moderately strong rock (R3 – R4) with little or no content of abrasive minerals result in the most economical production.600-TU-CDD-001 42 A TBM works best in fair rock mass quality. This makes drill and blast tunnelling the most versatile tunnelling method and the method best suitable for tunnelling through extremely poor rock mass as in the q5 category. The availability of rail-bound equipment may be less favourable. Numerous examples prove that a well-organised contractor with a skilled crew will produce more than the double of an «average» performer. The availability of trackless equipment is good and the set up time at site is short. In a water tunnel this translates to head loss. This governs the need for construction adits necessary to meet the schedule and as a consequence imposes constraints on both the vertical and horizontal alignment of the tunnel. The methods are sensitive to the skill of the contractor. at least when new rigs suitable for high speed tunnelling is considered. The consequence of this is that in order to have a realistic bid on a TBM alternative it is necessary to have reliable and fairly detailed geological information. The rate of tunnelling that may be achieved will limit the length of tunnel that may be constructed within a set construction schedule. The level of information required for TBM tunnelling is higher than for traditional drill and blast tunnelling. This includes both the organisation at site and the crew. short rounds and subdivision of cross section are required. but this will be a trade off between the concrete cost and the excavation cost. mineralogy and mechanical parameters should be available for all relevant units crossing the tunnel alignment. The drill and blast excavation produces a rough tunnel surface. Normally . The set up time at site is also longer for rail-bound than for trackless equipment. Each of the proposed methods listed have advantages and disadvantages as discussed below. 8. massive and abrasive rock and very poor rock (for an open machine) is detrimental for progress and cost. For both types of equipment the unit sizes are small enough to allow fairly unrestricted road transport. As a minimum. Trackless equipment is also readily adaptable for slopes up to 1: 5 on incline and 1:7 on decline. With the same equipment it is possible to excavate a variety of cross sections. The flexibility makes it possible to excavate also under adverse rock conditions when support at the face. Strong.

the need for rock bolting and sprayed fibre reinforced concrete will be the same as for a drill and blast tunnel. The higher rate allows for long tunnels without intermediate construction adits. but not so important when support is needed to ensure the integrity of the opening as is the case under adverse conditions. 8. This effect is significant in fair or better rock mass quality. In a drill and blast tunnel cracks and fissures from the blasting will penetrate the periphery to a depth of at least 0. The support reduction in a TBM tunnel is found in the rock mass quality classes Q1 to Q3. . for example. An exception to the above general rule is when the TBM tunnel is subjected to stress induced spalling (popping rock). conventional tunnelling and preparation of a launching chamber must be done. Because no blast induced cracks and fissures reduce the elastic modulus of the rock at the periphery. In conditions favourable for TBM.1 TBM tunnelling General on Tunnel Boring Machine (TBM) for hard rock The main advantage of a TBM is its high excavation rate relative to D&B. which means that a larger tunnel will be selected.3 8. reserve jumbo. loader and trucks will be available at short notice. a direct saving compared to drill and blast tunnelling.600-TU-CDD-001 43 the marginal cost of excavation is less than the cost of concrete. The high cost of a TBM and the back up rig and the long lead-time on procurement are important disadvantages. In poor and extremely poor rock there is little or no difference between a drill and blast tunnel and a TBM tunnel. used machine and some 12-15 months for a new machine. about 10-12 months may pass for a refurbished. A TBM is one complete machine.3. The smooth TBM excavation reduces the need for rock support compared to a drill and blast tunnel. The rock support classes RS1 and RS2 require scaling and some spot bolting only. or from very good to fair rock. Pattern bolting in an open system and partial use of sprayed concrete will be the typical support in class RS3. From the time a decision is made to use a TBM until it is at the site.5 m and invariably lead to scaling and rock support. Excavation by blasting will necessarily lead to a certain fracture development in the rock around the tunnel. the main bearing. In a drill and blast tunnel. excavation rates of about the double of traditional drill and blast tunnelling may be expected. During this period. This means that a breakdown in one of the main components. will halt progress during the time taken by repairs. This means that a certain part of the rock support needed for safe working conditions is a consequence of the excavation method.

The machine consists of four main structural assemblies. This machine type is also capable of handling rock support for high rock stress with rock burst problems. In poor ground. this probability may be significantly reduced. the mode of operation is changed to that of a shielded machine. It will be the Contractor who choose the type of the TBM to use. 8. a double shielded machine works as an open face machine. the cutter head. • the shielded type • the hybrid. . double shield type. no lining is placed. an open TBM has been selected for the Alto Maipo Project in basic design. the rear shield with the gripper and thrust assembly and the conveyor assembly.3. the minimum section length of lining is in the order of 1000 m. For hard rock tunnelling there are three main types of machines: • the open type.3. 8. By selecting a versatile machine provided with equipment for probe drilling and grouting ahead of the face. combined with careful observation of the rock mass quality at hand. In good quality rock masses. The open machine is described in more detail in Chapter 9.600-TU-CDD-001 44 The probability of the TBM getting stuck in extremely poor rock mass cannot be excluded. the front shield with the cutter head support.2 Open TBM Due to the geological setting on the Alto Maipo Project. to rock masses requiring immediate installation of a segmental lining. Grippers are used for propulsion and apart from a prefabricated invert segment. For reasons of logistics and rate of tunnel production. The rock mass may vary from competent rock not requiring any support. Access to the tunnel surface behind the head is limited compared to an open machine and support has to be placed behind the tail of the shield.3 Double Shield TBM (DS TBM) General description The double shield Tunnel Boring Machine is of a telescopic shield design and is intended for work in hard to soft rock formations that may vary along the tunnel route.

segments and materials. For large capacity rigs. The choice depends on the slope of the tunnel. It is the part of the machine that is actually powered and moved forward during a boring stroke.4 8. There is also adequate space for mounting of various equipment and sub-systems to support the TBM and the other works.4 Assembly of TBM and Backup System The TBMs for the Alfalfal II and Volcán tunnels would be assembled outside of the tunnel. respectively. 8. Water flushing is used for spoil removal in the flatter shafts. The number of reaming passes is determined by the capacity of the rig and the final size of the shaft. For a long shaft in the 3 to 5 m diameter range.600-TU-CDD-001 45 The remaining part of the machine is the working or moving section. Muck Haulage It is proposed to use continuous conveyor systems for haulage of the muck all the way from the TBM headings to the dumpsite at surface near the tunnel portal. thus enlarging the pilot hole. 1 pass might suffice. VA2 and V6 for the Alfalfal II tunnel and the Volcán tunnel.4. It consists of one module with a driver cabin at each end of the vehicle and a loading platform. All angles from subhorizontal to vertical may be drilled. reaming is done by pulling a rotating cutter head back up by the drill string. In addition. Backup System The backup system should be designed with a continuous conveyor mucking system. 2 passes are normal.3. the backup consists of a series of rolling platforms with either a single rail track for trains or arrangement for rubber tired vehicles for transport of personnel. beginning excavation from a start block at the tunnel entrance.1 Shaft excavation Raise Boring Machines (RBM) After drilling a pilot hole. Longer shafts will need an intermediate construction adit. The maximum vertical shaft length for reaming could for planning purposes be set to 600 m. The pilot hole will deviate . 8. Service vehicles Continuous invert segments are recommended in on which the service vehicles will be running for transport of personnel. Several units can be connected to constitute a wheel-bound train. Vehicles on rubber tires are developed for such use. segments and materials to the heading.

In other aspects the reamed shaft is quite similar to a TBM tunnel with regards to support requirements and smoothness. Advantages and disadvantages are to some extent the same. and for bringing the TBM into position. . the use of TBM is considered a robust shaft excavation method. limited project experience with use of TBMs for inclined shafts. the lack of flexibility will severely impair production in Q5 class rock mass.600-TU-CDD-001 46 from the theoretical line. a certain flexibility in the tunnel alignment in the receiving end must be planned for. however. 8. The TBM for the inclined pressure shaft at Alfalfal II must be transported in parts and assembled inside. The necessary additional excavation needed for such assembly. Slashing of the shafts would take place from the top and downward by using a sinking plant comprising the necessary hoist and stage winches and a sinking head frame equipped with rock drills for vertical drilling and equipment for performing necessary rock support measures. The only practical way to stabilise the opening is by pressure grouting in the pilot hole. Some modifications as installation of an extra pair of grippers and adapting operator and work platform to work at a steep incline must be made. There is. 11 ¼ inch and 12 7/8 inch diameter drill pipes are used for boring of 3. This means that the opening must have a stand up time equal to or longer than the total reaming period. Spoil removal is by gravity. must be designed by the contractor. This means that active guided drilling must be used or. As for a tunnel machine. reaming and subsequent slashing are recommended for the larger sections of the surge shaft at Las Lajas. Minimum practical shaft diameter is about 3 m as spoil handling systems are simpler than on a tunnel machine.5 m and 5. shaft excavation by use of TBM is similar to tunnel excavation by TBM.2 Raise drill and slash For shafts of larger diameters. as an alternative. 8. Drilling. technically feasible also for the Alto Maipo project. drilling and reaming followed by slashing is recommended as the safest and most economical method.4.3 Inclined TBM shaft excavation In principle. It is recommended that RBM’s with sufficient reaming thrust and torque and with min.0 m diameter raises respectively. Access to the shaft during drilling and reaming is not possible. supplemented with water flushing when required. Shafts longer than 1 kilometre have been bored and this is clearly no limitation on possible shaft length.4. Even so.

2. 3. Inclined pressure shaft/surge shaft for Alfalfal II 4.1 General The Alto Maipo project is characterized by: 1. Length approx. Headrace tunnel of Alfalfal II.2 1. EVALUATION OF USE OF TBM FOR TUNNEL EXCAVATION AT THE ALTO MAIPO PROJECT 9. 9000 m. Evaluation of TBM concept Based upon available geological information at the present stage of planning. Tailrace tunnel of Las Lajas.600-TU-CDD-001 47 9. tunnel sections with high overburden 4. open hard rock TBM (gripper type) 2. while the latter may in more extreme cases favour drill and blast method as the most suitable excavation method. Transfer tunnel of El Volcan. the choice would be between two types of TBM concepts: 1. 10. excavated from the downstream end. limited possibilities of intermediate access tunnels 3. excavated from the downstream side.543 m. tunnel sections with heavily fractured and/or soft rock formations The two first aspects are in favour of applying TBM. An overall evaluation of tunnel alignments and the available geological information indicates that the following tunnel sections are deemed feasible for TBM application as an alternative to conventional drill and blast methods: 9. long tunnel fronts 2. double shield machine The two concepts are presented in the following chapters. excavated from (VA2) the top of the penstock. Length approx. . 5000 – 7000 m depending on the encountered ground conditions. Length approx.

• Allows for installation of segmental (final) lining while boring.1 Open hard rock TBM (gripper type) Advantages. has to be done after boring is completed. Disadvantages • Limited access behind the cutter head for exploration. if needed. • Fairly easy to install rock support such as rock bolts.2 Double shield machine Advantages • High performance in relatively soft and fractured rock. The organization Deutscher Ausschuß für unterirdisches Bauen (DAUB). • Risk of getting trapped in heavily unstable ground. 9. wire mesh and spiling bolts.2. • Generally a more expensive tunnelling method than the open hard rock TBM. grouting and conventional rock support works. • Fairly good access for probe drilling and grouting works ahead of tunnel face. • Less risk of getting trapped in squeezing ground. • High risk of getting trapped in squeezing ground. • Easy to observe actual rock condition. has prepared the following table in order to indicate basic recommendations on selecting TBM concept depending on rock mass characteristics. • Concrete lining. steel sets. • High performance in stable ground formations. Table: “Recommendations for selecting and evaluating tunnel boring machines” Value Open TBM Shielded TBM . Disadvantages • Low progress rate in unstable ground. • Easy operation.2.600-TU-CDD-001 48 9.

05 25 – 5 RQD (%) 100 – 50 50 – 10 50 – 10 100 – 50 Fissure spacing >2. steel sets and sprayed concrete. depending on the actual progress obtained.6 – 0. Upon arrival of TBM at site. and partly through the bored tunnel.3.5 km.5 5 . the boring capacity would be expected to be relatively high over long portions of the tunnels. 9. Muck transportation out of the tunnel can be either by rail bound equipment or by a continuous conveyor belt system. some 1-1. The TBM is assembled on temporary dollies and pulled to the starting chamber or alternatively on walking beams. The backup is assembled in sections and transported into the tunnel on a low bedded truck. The mobilisation area is assumed to be located near the downstream portal. The size of this chamber will depend on the TBM diameter and length (width x height x length = 12m x 10m x 40m).6 – 0.3 9. After break-through the machine can be disassembled and transported partly through the upstream drill and blast section and out via the access tunnel to the Las Lajas powerhouse.06 0. However. The length of excavation by TBM should be kept flexible. could be excavated by the conventional drill and blast method.600-TU-CDD-001 49 Recommended Possible Recommended Possible 300 – 50 50 – 5 50 – 5 300 – 50 25 – 5 5 – 0. A starting chamber for the TBM could then be excavated at a predetermined chainage.0 – 0. the assembly could take place outside the portal. The major geological risk is assessed to be the risk of getting trapped in squeezing ground.06 >2. When applying a machine configuration as described further below. the downstream portion of the tailrace tunnel.6 Compressive strength (MN/m2) Tensile strength (MN/m2) The recommendation is to select an open hard rock type machine. the risk of getting trapped could be reduced.1 Selection of TBM for the various tunnels at the Alto Maipo project Las Lajas tailrace tunnel The Las Lajas tailrace tunnel could be excavated by TBM from its downstream end. While the TBM and the backup system are under fabrication and transport. .6 0..0 – 0. by using this type of machine in combination with overcutting and heavy rock support consisting of rock bolts.

3. with conventional excavation from upstream. It is assumed for basic design that the TBM would start excavation at VA2. and rail bound transport will not be possible. possibly in combination with reloading onto trucks near A9 in order to maintain more flexibility for other transport. After boring is stopped. 9. the TBM and the backup will have to be disassembled and transported back to the downstream portal.600-TU-CDD-001 50 The minimum size of a TBM for a free flow tailrace tunnel at Las Lajas has been estimated to 6. will have to be done by means of rubber tired vehicles designed for such purpose. The TBM will be assembled outside and begin excavation from a start block immediately inside the tunnel. 8.5 m. From a practical point of view. the first portion of the tunnel could be excavated by conventional means while waiting for the TBM.3 TBM for Tunnel Volcán A TBM for tunnel Volcán would start at the downstream end.2 The Alfalfal II headrace tunnel . etc. The Alfalfal II headrace tunnel from A9 will be bored on an ascending slope of approximately 7%. As the overburden increases. The first stretch of approx. From a technical and practical point of view the required diameter of TBM for this tunnel is assessed to be Ø=4. 9. Assembly of the TBM could be performed in front of the portal and pushed into the launching chamber on temporary dollies. and a starting chamber could be established inside the tunnel. The length of excavation that will be feasible with a TBM is difficult to predict. This has been set as the minimum diameter for the tunnel. .5 km. Transport of materials. 5 km would be anticipated feasible for TBM. due to possibility of squeezing ground. The mucking out system will be on a continuous conveyor belt system. crew. This total length is assumed to be 7 km.9 m2. the TBM would excavate an estimated length of approx. the required diameter of TBM from the downstream end is assessed to be Ø=4. Mucking out from the tunnel can be either on a rail bound or on a continuous conveyor belt system.1m. For this alternative.downstream portion The access to the headrace tunnel will be through a 2 km long tunnel from point VA2 to A9. the risk for squeezing and adverse spalling may become critical for the TBM operation and at some chainage it is assumed that the boring would have to stop. Alternatively. in addition to the 2 km of access tunnel to the headrace.3.

For Ø 4. • Possibility for boring and installing up to 8 m long spiling bolts from the cutterhead support area.4. This will also reduce the risk for getting stuck in rock masses with slightly plastic behaviour. • Drilling machines for installation of radial rock bolts (one on each side of the main beam of TBM). up to a thickness of 300 mm. see above. Grouting pressure capacity up to 120 bars.1 Machine requirements The technical requirements for the open TBM machines are recommended and described as follows.1-4.4 Summary of TBM requirements/ configuration 9.6 m => 3000 kW. • Possibility for overcutting. min. 24 hours per day. 100 mm. • Variable frequency drive. • Ring beam erector behind head of TBM. 9. Site operation requirements The TBM machines should be manned 7 days a week. • Mixers and pumps for grouting ahead of the tunnel face to be installed at back up rig.5 m => 2200 kW and for Ø7. • Rock drills for drilling ahead of the TBM for exploratory drilling and for drilling for grouting works.4. • High cutterhead power (torque). • Electronic device for continuous measuring of ground conditions ahead of the TBM.600-TU-CDD-001 51 9. .2 9.3 Backup special requirements • The backup should be designed for passing through the tunnel in case of temporary rock support installed in front of back up system.1Ø6. • Sprayed concrete manipulator (robot-equipment) between TBM and back up with collector buckets for rebound material.4. and should be the same for all alternatives: • 19“ back loading cutters with up to 30 tonnes thrust/cutter.